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GLOBAL WIND SOURCES

Part A
Module 1 Wind Energy
TRADE WINDS

"Map prevailing winds on earth" by KVDP - Own work.


FLUID MOTION
Fluid motion is driven by a pressure difference
SURFACE SOLAR HEATING
Sun heats the surface
Surface heats adjacent air
Density ~ 1
As air density decreases, it rises
Air heating also reduces the local
pressure
SURFACE SOLAR HEATING IS NOT UNIFORM
Solar energy received by a
surface depends on:
The season
Solar energy
Latitude incident on
Cloud cover surface

Surface properties
Net energy
Energy emitted received
Wind convection heat by surface
transfer
SOLAR SEASONAL VARIATION
Earths axis of rotation
tilted 23.5o to the
plane of its solar orbit
Results in seasonally
uneven heating of the
northern and southern
hemispheres
Seasons, by US National Weather
Service
CLOUD COVER REDUCES
INCIDENT SOLAR ENERGY
Cloud cover not uniformly
distributed
Amount of solar energy
reaching the earths surface
reduced by:
Reflection
Absorption
Scattering
INFLUENCE OF SURFACE CONDITIONS
Sun on grass Sun on water
NON-UNIFORM SOLAR
HEATING CREATES
PRESSURE DIFFERENCES
Surface in center receives
more energy than
surroundings
Heated air rises and creates
a low pressure zone
Rising air cools and spreads
Cooler, dense air sinks back
to surface creating high
pressure region
EQUATORIAL WIND (W/0 ROTATION)
H Sun shining on
equator
Neglect earths
L rotation for the
moment
Solar driven wind
currents Hadley
H
cell
High & low pressure by NOAA Ocean Service Education
CORIOLIS EFFECT
Earth rotates counterclockwise
underneath atmosphere
Red arrows represent wind
direction viewed from space
Blue arrows represent north-
south viewed from earth
Wind appears to move to right
viewed from earth (northern
hemisphere)
Effect is zero at equator and
increases with latitude Modified Globe blue lines
UPPER EQUATORIAL WIND WITH ROTATION
As a result of Coriolis effect,
solar-generated high level
north-south equatorial wind
moves right in northern
hemisphere (left in southern
hemisphere)
Cooling air sinks at about
30oN, 30oS
Coriolis effect by NOAA Ocean Service Education
TRADE WINDS
Hadley cell 3-D
circulation pattern in the
equatorial region
Sinking air at 30oN (Tropic
of Cancer), 30oS (Tropic of
Capricorn) becomes the
trade winds
Some air continues to
move north or south,
where it becomes part of
the westerlies Trade winds by NOAA Ocean Service education
TRADE WINDS

"Map prevailing winds on earth" by KVDP - Own work.


POLAR AND FERREL CELLS

Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP)

Two other sets of 3-D solar driven wind structures


Ferrel cells between 30oN and 60oN (30oS and 60oS)
Polar cells between 60oN and N Pole (60oS and S Pole)
Smaller cells towards poles reduced solar input
3-D VIEW OF GLOBAL CIRCULATION
Hadley cells (1) generate
trade winds
Ferrel cells (2) generate
westerlies
Polar cells (3) generate
polar easterlies

Global Circulation by US National Weather Service


ROSSBY WAVES
Rossby waves are a type
of inertia wave
Associated with pressure
systems and the jet stream
Causes polar and
subtropical jets to
meander

Jetstream 2 by US National Weather Service


GLOBAL WIND SOURCES SUMMARY
The sun is the ultimate source of energy for global winds
The three main global winds each result from a thermally
driven large scale circulation loop
Trade winds generated by the Hadley cell
Westerlies generated by the Ferrel cell
Polar easterlies generated by the polar cell
Boundaries of these winds show considerable variability
PHOTO CREDITS
"Map prevailing winds on earth" by KVDP - Own work. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons -
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_prevailing_winds_on_earth.png#mediaviewer/File:Map_prevailing_winds_on_earth.png
Seasons, by National weather service; JetSteam Online School for Weather,
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/images/seasons.jpg
High and low pressure, by NOAA Ocean Service Education,
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/media/high_n_low_pressure.gif
Globe blue lines, a public domain image, http://www.wpclipart.com/education/supplies/globes/globes_2/globe_blue_lines.png.html
Coriolis effect, by NOAA Ocean Service Education, http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/media/coriolis_effect.gif
Trade winds, by NOAA Ocean Service Education, http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/media/trade_winds.gif
All Cells, Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes CMMAP,
http://www.cmmap.org/images/learn/climate/allCells.jpg
Circulation, by National weather service; JetSteam Online School for Weather,
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/images/seasons.jpg
Jetstream 2, by National weather service; JetSteam Online School for Weather,
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/images/jetstream2.jpg