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# CMA Analysis of

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Introduction to Characteristic Modes

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Characteristic Mode Analysis (CMA)
CMA is modal analysis for radiating structures
Without excitation

## Characteristic modes have special properties

compared to classical eigenmodes
The main benefit of CMA is better physical
understanding which allows to improve the antenna or
to develop new antenna concepts

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CMA Theory
Generalized Post Processing
Solutions
eigenvalue problem
Characteristic
Modes angle
Eigenvalues Modal
significance

Special properties:
Modes and eigenvalues are frequency-dependent
Modes do not change rapidly with frequency
Modes are orthogonal (wrt radiated power)
Eigenvalue is the ratio of reactive to radiated power
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Understanding CMA Results 1/3
Example: 6.532 dBi Polarization and
Circularly polarized patch properties
are calculated
2421 MHz for each mode

6.519 dBi

2478 MHz

## We can identify and corresponding

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Understanding CMA Results 2/3
Modal significance shows
relative significance of the
mode at each frequency

At resonance:

Remember, that
modal significance
is independent on
feeding position!

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Understanding CMA Results 3/3
Characteristic angle corresponds to
the phase of the mode in modal
superposition (next slide)

At resonance:

## The steeper the

change, the more
narrowband is the
mode

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Modal vs Full-wave Results
Combination of ALL modes Modal superposition Excitation
can be found at each
frequency
Only few modes are
Full-wave current density
sufficient to describe small
structures
How the modes combine +
depends on the eigenvalue
and on the excitation
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CMA Usage
CMA Result Application Example

antennas

Factor)

reduction

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Geometry and Estimated Performance
Estimated performance
2 GHz

2.6 GHz

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Full Wave Results
Surface current density and Directivity (2.1 GHz)

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CMA Results
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

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Explaining Antenna Operation by CMA

## At 1.6 GHz, mode 1 is dominant,

however mode 2 and 3 can
contribute
At 2.1 GHz and especially 2.6
GHz: combination of 3 modes!
Modal Significance does not
account for the excitation,
actual contribution of the modes
will also depend on surface
current at port location

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Bandwidth Potential of Each Mode

## The steeper is the slope of change of

eigenvalue (or characteristic angle) the
more narrowband is the mode.

## In this case mode 1 has smallest

bandwidth potential, but the 3rd
resonance is narrowest because all 3
modes are excited.

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Full wave, Mode 1 Full wave, Mode 1
1.6 GHz, 1.6 GHz 1.6 GHz 1.6 GHz
phase = 0

## Surface Current Density

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Tuning Antenna Resonances

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Surface Current TOP layer
Changes in the structure will influence the modes according to the surface
current density. Therefore changing the length of these strips will mostly
influence mode 3.

## Mode 1 @ 1.6 GHz Mode 2 @ 2.1 GHz Mode 3 @ 2.6 GHz

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Surface Current BOTTOM layer
Changing the length of this strip will mostly influence mode 1 and 2.

## Mode 1 @ 1.6 GHz Mode 2 @ 2.1 GHz Mode 3 @ 2.6 GHz

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Verification Tuning Mode 3

Parameter off2
influences
dominantly resonant
frequency of 3rd
mode

## Note that at 2nd

resonance all 3
modes contribute,
but 2nd mode is
dominant

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Verification Sensitivities
off2 = 0

off2 = 1.5

off2 = 3.1

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Verification Tuning Mode 1 and 2
Resonant frequency of
mode 3 is least affected
by changing the
parameter off.

## Note that the depth of

3rd resonance is
changing, because
modes 2 and 1 are also
significant (see the plot
of modal significance)

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Verification Sensitivities
off = 0

off = 1

off = 1.8

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Summary
Geometry CMA Understanding Improvement

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Conclusion
Characteristic Mode Analysis in CST STUDIO SUITE
provides physical understanding of antenna operation
CMA allows step-by-step improvement of the antenna
design rather than optimizing the whole radiating
structure
CMA provides results which are difficult to obtain by