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CMA Analysis of

Compact Broadband Planar Antenna

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Introduction to Characteristic Modes

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Characteristic Mode Analysis (CMA)
CMA is modal analysis for radiating structures
Without excitation

Characteristic modes have special properties


compared to classical eigenmodes
The main benefit of CMA is better physical
understanding which allows to improve the antenna or
to develop new antenna concepts

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CMA Theory
Generalized Post Processing
Solutions
eigenvalue problem
Characteristic
Modes angle
Eigenvalues Modal
significance

Special properties:
Modes and eigenvalues are frequency-dependent
Modes do not change rapidly with frequency
Modes are orthogonal (wrt radiated power)
Eigenvalue is the ratio of reactive to radiated power
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Understanding CMA Results 1/3
Example: 6.532 dBi Polarization and
other radiation
Circularly polarized patch properties
are calculated
2421 MHz for each mode

6.519 dBi

2478 MHz

We can identify and corresponding


2 dominant modes radiation patterns
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Understanding CMA Results 2/3
Modal significance shows
relative significance of the
mode at each frequency

At resonance:

Remember, that
modal significance
is independent on
feeding position!

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Understanding CMA Results 3/3
Characteristic angle corresponds to
the phase of the mode in modal
superposition (next slide)

At resonance:

The steeper the


change, the more
narrowband is the
mode

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Modal vs Full-wave Results
Combination of ALL modes Modal superposition Excitation
can be found at each
frequency
Only few modes are
Full-wave current density
sufficient to describe small
to medium size radiating
structures
How the modes combine +
depends on the eigenvalue
and on the excitation
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CMA Usage
CMA Result Application Example

Resonant frequency Multimode antennas Broadband planar


antennas

Bandwidth potential Electrically small Multiband mobile


(Radiation Quality antennas phone antennas
Factor)

Modal surface current Antenna location, MIMO antennas


and radiation pattern antenna coupling
reduction

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Compact Broadband Planar Antenna

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Geometry and Estimated Performance
Estimated performance
2 GHz

2.6 GHz

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Full Wave Results
Surface current density and Directivity (2.1 GHz)

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CMA Results
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

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Explaining Antenna Operation by CMA

At 1.6 GHz, mode 1 is dominant,


however mode 2 and 3 can
contribute
At 2.1 GHz and especially 2.6
GHz: combination of 3 modes!
Modal Significance does not
account for the excitation,
actual contribution of the modes
will also depend on surface
current at port location

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Bandwidth Potential of Each Mode
Bandwidth Modal radiation quality factor

The steeper is the slope of change of


eigenvalue (or characteristic angle) the
more narrowband is the mode.

In this case mode 1 has smallest


bandwidth potential, but the 3rd
resonance is narrowest because all 3
modes are excited.

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Surface Current and Radiation Pattern
Full wave, Mode 1 Full wave, Mode 1
1.6 GHz, 1.6 GHz 1.6 GHz 1.6 GHz
phase = 0

Surface Current Density


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Tuning Antenna Resonances

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Surface Current TOP layer
Changes in the structure will influence the modes according to the surface
current density. Therefore changing the length of these strips will mostly
influence mode 3.

Mode 1 @ 1.6 GHz Mode 2 @ 2.1 GHz Mode 3 @ 2.6 GHz


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Surface Current BOTTOM layer
Changing the length of this strip will mostly influence mode 1 and 2.

Mode 1 @ 1.6 GHz Mode 2 @ 2.1 GHz Mode 3 @ 2.6 GHz


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Verification Tuning Mode 3

Parameter off2
influences
dominantly resonant
frequency of 3rd
mode

Note that at 2nd


resonance all 3
modes contribute,
but 2nd mode is
dominant

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Verification Sensitivities
off2 = 0

off2 = 1.5

off2 = 3.1

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Verification Tuning Mode 1 and 2
Resonant frequency of
mode 3 is least affected
by changing the
parameter off.

Note that the depth of


3rd resonance is
changing, because
modes 2 and 1 are also
significant (see the plot
of modal significance)

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Verification Sensitivities
off = 0

off = 1

off = 1.8

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Summary
Geometry CMA Understanding Improvement

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Conclusion
Characteristic Mode Analysis in CST STUDIO SUITE
provides physical understanding of antenna operation
CMA allows step-by-step improvement of the antenna
design rather than optimizing the whole radiating
structure
CMA provides results which are difficult to obtain by
full-wave techniques (radiation quality factor,
resonant frequencies and modal fields)
It is possible to suppress undesired modes or excite
desired modes by proper feeding
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