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17 Aufrufe31 Seitensteam consumption onboard the ship

Sep 19, 2017

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steam consumption onboard the ship

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17 Aufrufe

steam consumption onboard the ship

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The optimum design for a steam system will largely depend on whether the steam consumption

rate has been accurately established. This will enable pipe sizes to be calculated, while ancillaries

such as control valves and steam traps can be sized to give the best possible results.

The steam demand of the plant can be determined using a number of different

methods:

Calculation - By analyzing the heat output on an item of plant using heat transfer equations, it

may be possible to obtain an estimate for the steam consumption. Although heat transfer is not an

exact science and there may be many unknown variables, it is possible to utilise previous experimental

data from similar applications. The results acquired using this method are usually accurate enough for

most purposes.

Measurement - Steam consumption may be determined by direct measurement, using flow

metering equipment. This will provide relatively accurate data on the steam consumption for an

existing plant. However, for a plant which is still at the design stage, or is not up and running, this

method is of little use.

Thermal rating - The thermal rating (or design rating) is often displayed on the name-plate of

an individual item of plant, as provided by the manufacturers. These ratings usually express the

anticipated heat output in kW, but the steam consumption required in kg/h will depend on the

recommended steam pressure.

A change in any parameter which may alter the anticipated heat output, means that the

thermal (design) rating and the connected load (actual steam consumption) will not be the same. The

manufacturer's rating is an indication of the ideal capacity of an item and does not necessarily equate to

the connected load.

HOW TO CALCULATE STEAM REQUIREMENTS

mass and a single batch within the confines of a vessel.

Typical examples include hot water storage calorifiers, and oil storage

tanks, Calorifiers, fuel tanks, hot water storage tanks)

Flow type applications - where a heated fluid constantly flows over the

heat transfer surface.

Typical examples - shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat

exchangers,Fuel oil heater (where the fluid will continuously

flow)

CALCULATION

In most cases, the heat in steam is required to do two things:

To produce a change in temperature in the product, that is providing a

'heating up' component.

To maintain the product temperature as heat is lost by natural causes or by

design, that is providing a 'heat loss' component.

In any heating process, the 'heating up' component will decrease as the product temperature

rises, and the differential temperature between the heating coil and the product reduces.

However, the heat loss component will increase as the product temperature rises and more

heat is lost to the environment from the vessel or pipe work.

The total heat demand at any time is the sum of these two components.

Amount of heat required

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance can be developed

to apply to a range of heat transfer processes.

eq. (1)

Where:

Q = Quantity of energy (kJ)

m = Mass of the substance (kg)

cp = Specific heat capacity of the substance (kJ/kg C )

T = Temperature rise of the substance (C)

In original form : The above equation can be used to determine a total amount of heat energy

over the whole process.

However In current form : It does not take into account the rate of heat transfer.

To establish the rates of heat transfer, the various types of heat exchange application can be

divided into two broad categories: as discussed above

Non-flow type applications

Flow type applications

NON-FLOW TYPE APPLICATIONS

In non-flow type applications the process fluid is held as

a single batch within the confines of a vessel. A steam

coil situated in the vessel, or a steam jacket

around the vessel, may constitute the heating surface.

Typical examples include hot water storage

clarifiers and oil storage tanks where a large circular

steel tank is filled with a viscous oil requiring heat

before it can be pumped.

( Calorifier - An apparatus used for the transfer of heat to

water in a vessel by indirect means, the source of heat

being contained within a pipe or coil immersed in the

water.)

Some processes are concerned with heating

solids; typical examples are tyre presses, laundry

ironers. Hot water storage - a non-flow

In some non-flow type applications, the process heat application

up time is unimportant and ignored. However, in

others, like tanks, it may not only be important but

crucial to the overall process.

How a calorifier works

RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER FOR NON FLOW

APPLICATION

Consider two non-flow heating processes requiring the same amount of heat energy

but different lengths of time to heat up.

The heat transfer rates would differ while the amounts of total heat transferred would be the same.

The mean rate of heat transfer for such applications can be obtained by

modifying eq. (1)

eq. (2)

Where:

= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s)

m = Mass of the fluid (kg)

cp = Specific heat capacity of the fluid (kJ/kg C)

T = Increase in fluid temperature (C)

t = Time for the heating process (seconds)

Note:

The above equation eq. (2) can applied whether the substance being heated is a solid, a

liquid or a gas. However, it does not take into account the transfer of heat involved

when there is a change of phase.

EXAMPLE PROBLEM CALCULATING THE MEAN HEAT

TRANSFER RATE IN A NON-FLOW APPLICATION.

1Q. A quantity of oil is heated from a temperature of 35C to 120C over a period of 10 minutes (600 seconds).

The volume of the oil is 35 litres, its specific gravity is 0.9 and its specific heat capacity is 1.9 kJ/kg C over

that temperature range. Determine the rate of heat transfer required Solve the problem in litres

Sol. As the density of water at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) is 1 000 kg/m

Given Data : T1 = 35C , T2 = 120C , time = 10 minutes (600 seconds) ,

Volume of the oil = 35 litres = 35/1000 = 0.035 m3, specific gravity of oil = is 0.9,

Specific heat capacity cp = 1.9 kJ/kg C

rate of heat transfer required , Specific gravity of oil = density of oil/density of water

HEAT PROVIDED BY THE CONDENSING OF STEAM

eq. (3)

Where:

Q = Quantity of heat (kJ)

ms = Mass of steam (kg)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)

It therefore follows that the steam consumption can be determined from the heat

transfer rate and vice-versa. eq. (4)

Where:

= Mean heat transfer rate (kW or kJ/s)

s = Mean steam consumption (kg/s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)

HEAT BALANCE

Let us assume that the heat transfer is 100% efficient,

then the heat provided by the steam must be equal to the heat requirement of the fluid to be

heated.

heat provided by the steam = heat requirement of the fluid to be heated water

This can then be used to construct a heat balance, in which the heat energy supplied and

required are equated:

Primary side = = Secondary side

heat transfer rate = = mean rate of heat transfer

eq. (5)

Where:

s = Mean steam consumption rate (kg/s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)

= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s))

m = Mass of the secondary fluid (kg)

cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg C)

T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (C)

t = Time for the heating process

Example problem

2Q. A tank containing 400 kg of kerosene is to be heated from 10C to 40C in 20 minutes (1 200 seconds), using

4 bar g steam. The kerosene has a specific heat capacity of 2.0 kJ/kg C over that temperature range. hfg at 4.0 bar g

is 2 108.1 kJ/kg. The tank is well insulated and heat losses are negligible.

Determine the steam flow rate?

Specific heat capacity cp = 2.0 kJ/kg C ,(pressure at 4 bar) hfg = 2 108.1 kJ/kg

CONCLUSION

time of the batch process may not be critical, and a

longer heat up time may be acceptable.

This will reduce the instantaneous steam

consumption and the size of the required plant

equipment.

Flow type applications

Flow type applications - where a heated fluid constantly flows over the heat transfer surface.

Typical examples include shell and tube heat exchangers, see Figure (also referred to as non-storage

calorifiers) and plate heat exchangers, providing hot water to heating systems or industrial processes.

Another example would be an air heater battery where steam gives up its heat to the air that is

constantly passing through.

Non-storage calorifier

Typical temperature profile in a heat exchanger

The figure provides a typical temperature profile in a heat exchanger

with a constant secondary fluid flow rate. The condensing temperature

(T s) remains constant throughout the heat exchanger. The fluid is heated

from T 1 at the inlet valve to T 2 at the outlet of the heat exchanger.

proportional to the product temperature rise (T).

using the eq. (1)

As flow rate = mass flow per unit time (m/t), the Where:

secondary flow rate is depicted in eq. (1) as: = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)

This can be represented by where is the secondary = Mean secondary fluid flowrate (kg/s)

fluid flow rate in kg/s, can be substituted in the above cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid

equation which gives (kJ/kg K) or (kJ/kgC)

eq. (6) T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid

(K or C)

HEAT BALANCE

A heat balance equation can be constructed for flow type applications where there is a continuous flow of

fluid:

Primary side = = Secondary side

eq. (7)

Where:

s= Mean steam consumption rate (kg/s)

hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)

= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s))

= Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg/s)

cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg C)

T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (C)

Mean steam consumption

The mean steam consumption of a flow type application like a process heat exchanger or heating calorifier can

be determined from the above eq. (7)

eq. (8)

Contd.

Equally, the mean steam consumption can be determined from eq. (7) as shown in equation

below

eq. (9)

But as the mean heat transfer is, itself, calculated from the mass flow, the specific heat, and

the temperature rise, it is easier to use eq. (8)

Note :

In flow type applications, heat losses from the system tend to be considerably less than the heating

requirement, and are usually ignored. However, if heat losses are large, the mean heat loss (mainly

from distribution pipe work) should be included when calculating the heating surface area.

Link:

http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/steam-engineering-principles-

and-heat-transfer/methods-of-estimating-steam-consumption.asp

Example problem

3Q. Dry saturated steam at 3 bar g is used to heat water flowing at a constant rate of 1.5 l/s from 10C to

60C. hfg at 3 bar g is 2 133.4 kJ/kg, and the specific heat of water is 4.19 kJ/kg C.Determine the

steam flow rate?

Specific heat capacity cp = 4.19 kJ/kg C,(pressure at 3 bar) hfg = 2 133.4 kJ/kg

As 1 litre of water has a mass of 1 kg, the mass flow rate = 1.5 kg/s

Measurement of Steam Consumption

By a steam flow meter

By a condensate pump

By collecting the condensate

Thermal Rating

Some items of manufactured plant are supplied with information on thermal output. These design ratings can

be both helpful and misleading. Ratings will usually involve raising a stated amount of air, water or other fluid

through a given temperature rise, using steam at a specified pressure. They are generally published in good

faith with a reasonable allowance for fouling of the heat transfer surface.

Energy Consumption of Tanks

The heating of liquids in tanks is an important requirement in process industries such as the

dairy, metal treatment and textile industries. Water may need to be heated to provide a hot

water utility; alternatively, a liquid may need to be heated as part of the production process itself,

whether or not a chemical reaction is involved. Such processes may include boiler feedtanks,

wash tanks, evaporators, boiling pans, coppers, calandrias and reboilers.

Tanks are often used for heating processes, of which there are two major categories:

Totally enclosed tanks, such as those used for storing fuel oil, and where heat load calculations

are generally straightforward.

Open topped tanks, where heat load calculations may be complicated by the introduction of

articles and materials, or by evaporative losses.

Open and closed tanks are used for a large number of process applications:

HEAT REQUIREMENT OF THE TANK

When determining the heat requirement of a tank

The heat required to raise the process fluid temperature from cold to its operating temperature.

The heat required to raise the vessel material from cold to its operating temperature.

The heat lost from the solid surface of the vessel to the atmosphere.

The heat lost from the liquid surface exposed to the atmosphere.

The heat absorbed by any cold articles dipped into the process fluid.

However, in many applications only some of the above components will be significant.

For example, in the case of a totally enclosed well-insulated bulk oil storage tank, the total heat

requirement may be made up almost entirely of the heat required to raise the temperature of the fluid.

The energy required to raise the temperature of the liquid and the vessel material, and the heat

absorbed by any cold articles dipped into the process fluid, can be found by using the eq. (2) Generally,

data can be accurately defined, and hence the calculation of the heat requirement

eq. (2)

Heat loss calculations are much more complex, and usually empirical data, or tables based on several

assumptions have to be relied upon. It follows that heat loss calculations are less accurate.

FUEL HEATING REQUIREMENTS (Acc to SNAME )

Distillate fuels are normally used without heating, but heavy fuels must be heated in the tanks,

pipe lines, at the purifier and at the engine. As a rule, steam used for final heating of heavy fuel oils

will have to be at about 7 to 8 bar to ensure that the heaviest fuels can be sufficiently heated prior

to injection. Guideline temperatures at various points in a heavy fuel oil system for use in

preliminary estimates are

water temperature

Storage tanks - 400 C

Settling and day tanks - 40 to 600 C

Purifier heater - 980 C

To determine the mass flow rate of steam or thermal fluid required, the following relations apply:-

ms = Q / h = Q / Cp t

Ships boiler capacity

follows

2. Steam consumption required to raise the temperature of fuel oil in tanks

3. Steam required for other auxiliary equipments

STEAM CONSUMPTION REQUIRED TO COMPENSATE THE

HEAT LOSSES IN TANKS

Heat loss from tank bulkhead

Qb = U A (T2 T1)

Where

Qb = heat loss from bulkhead (W)

U = overall heat transfer co-efficient (W/m2 0C)

A = Area of tank bulkhead under consideration (m2)

T2 = Temperature of the tank to be maintained (0C)

T1 = Temperature of the adjacent medium of the bulkhead considered (0C)

Heat loss from tank Qt = sum of heat loss from all the six bulkheads of the tank

Q1 = sum of heat loss from all the the tanks

As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following

formula :

ms = Q1 / h

where

ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)

Q1 = calculated heat transfer (kW)

h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)

Steam consumption required to raise the temperature of

fuel oil in tanks

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of fuel oil tanks can be expressed as:

Q2 = m cp dT / t

Where

Q2 = mean heat transfer rate (kW)

m = mass of fuel oil in the tank (kg)

cp = specific heat capacity of the fuel oil (kJ/kg.oC)

dT = Change in temperature of the fuel oil (oC)

t = total time over which the heating process occurs (seconds)

As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following

formula :

ms = Q2 / h

where

ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)

Q2 = calculated heat required to raise the temperature (kW)

h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)

Steam required for other auxiliary equipments

The steam consumption for purifiers, booster module and other auxiliary equipment can be

obtained from the equipment catalogues.

As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following

formula :

ms = Q3 / h

where

ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)

Q3 = calculated heat required to raise the temperature (kW)

h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)

Boiler capacity:

Ships boiler capacity for auxiliary services can now be calculated as follows:

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

Values taken from old calculations

HFO Storage Tank(S) 48

HFO Settling Tank 8

HFO Service Tank 8

Bilge Holding Tank 12

HFO Drain tank 12

HFO Overflow Tank 12

M.E.L.O.Sump Tank 12

Waste Oil Tank 12

L.O. Drain Tank 12

Sludge Tank 12

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF BULKHEADS

(U w/m2 oC)

(2) HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF BULKHEADS (SORTED BY

ADJACENT CONDITION)

Sea water 2.75 w/m2 oC

C/D & D/B Empty tank 5.5 w/m2 oC

No heat transfer between oil tanks

TEMPERATURE OUTSIDE CONDITION

Engine room 30

Sea water 15

Void 20

Cargo area 20

HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS

Heat loss calculations are much more complex, and usually empirical data, or tables based on several

assumptions have to be relied upon.

It follows that heat loss calculations are less accurate.

Example

To calculate the steam consumption for HFO Settling Tank

S.NO TANK BOUNARY MEDIUM OUTSIDE AREA U (W/sq.M deg. C) T2 T1 Q=UA(T2-T1) (W)

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