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People living in this world are divided by their cultures.

Language as the part of culture

holds an important role in people's lives because it enables people to express their ideas
either by talking or writing to others. In the earlier times, people did not seem to have
problems related to the communication since they only needed to communicate with
people in the same community who had good knowledge of the language they used.
However, along with the growth of the age marked by the advance of communication
devices and the needs of people to communicate to others outside their communities,
the problem of communication starts to occur since people have to communicate with
others having different languages in terms of its grammatical structures, its vocabularies,
and even its spellings. It causes difficulties for people who are not accustomed to those
In order to solve the problems between two different languages, people use translation.
Basically, translation is a tool to deliver meaning from source language (SL) to target
language (TL). To make sure the meaning is perfectly delivered, a translator must re-
construct the text by translating the words from SL to TL and arrange them based on the
structures of sentence in TL so the structures are suitable with TL and there will be no
loss of meaning. Knowing the importance to master translation skills, universities in
Indonesia open a subject studying translation, and one of them is Translation Skill
subject in English Department State University of Jakarta focusing on studying
translation between English and Indonesian languages.
In this Translation Skill subject, besides studying the theories related to translation such
as the process, the methods, and the strategies of translation, students also conduct the
activity of translating, that is to translate texts from English to Indonesian language and
vice versa. In order to become a professional translator, students do not only have to
master proper knowledge concerning translation theories but also they have to able to
translate different kinds of text from foreign languages, in this case, English to
Indonesian language in a proper form which means that the text can be read easily and
its meaning remains intact. However in the implementation, students may face problems
especially related to the different structures between English and Indonesian because
indeed, as Moentaha (2006:12) states, every language has its specific grammatical and
lexical systems.
Actually, there many strategies, procedures, and techniques provided by translation
experts to solve difficulties in translating as well as to prevent any distortions of meaning
and errors which may be conducted by a translator especially students of English
Department as novice translators, and one of them is translation shift. Catford (1965:73)
defines translation shift as the departures from formal correspondence in the process of
going from the SL to the TL. The shift can occur when a translator is translating a text
from SL to TL by concerning some adaptations namely structural adaptation which
causes the shift of form and semantic adaptation which causes the shift of meaning
(Nida and Taber, 1969:105). Shifts are categorized into two major types, namely level
shifts, the different level of equivalence between SL and TL items and category shifts,
the departure of formal correspondence which are divided into four categories namely
structure shifts, unit shifts, class shifts, and intra-system shifts (Catford, 1965:76).
Studying those shifts in translation raises the curiosity of the writer to find out the types of
shifts which occur in English Department students' translated texts as well as the
patterns of shift the students use to solve different structures between English and
Indonesian language.

Research Questions
The questions to be answered in this study are:
What type of shifts occurs in students' translated texts?
What shifts do dominantly occur in students' translated texts?
What pattern of shifts used by students to bridge the different grammatical structures
between English and Indonesian?
What pattern of shifts does dominantly occur in every type of shifts?

Purpose of the Study

The study aims at discovering the types of translation and classifying patterns of shifts
occurring when students translate a text from English to Indonesian. From those kinds of
translation shift and its patterns, the study also aims at figuring out the kinds of
translation shift which dominantly occur in the translated text and the patterns of shift
which are dominantly used by students to bridge the different grammatical structure
between English and Indonesian.

Limitation of the Study

The study will focus on analyzing translation shifts occurring in thirty-five translated texts
randomly taken from midterm test on Translation 2 subject conducted by students of
English Literature Study Program English Department State University of Jakarta. The
writer will use the theory of translation shifts provided by John Cunnison Catford in his
book A Linguistic Theory of Translation dividing shifts into five categories namely level
shifts, structure shifts, class shifts, unit shifts, and intra-system shifts.

Significance of the Study

Besides can enrich the field of translation in English Department State University of
Jakarta, this study is expected to enhance the ability of English Department students as
novice translators to translate texts from English to Indonesian as equivalent as possible
by concerning the shifts they can use to solve different structures between English and

This chapter consists of definition of translation, process of translation, method of
translation, definition of translation shifts, types of translation shifts, and the use of
midterm test on Translation 2 subject as the source of data.

2.1. Definition of Translation

Translation rises as an activity to translate message from source language containing
meaning and words, and to reproduce them in a target language which can be
understood by its readers. Although the elements of translation - source text, meaning or
information, and target text - are agreed by translation experts proven by the presence of
those elements in their definitions of translation, they have different ways to express the
definition of translation.
Catford (1978:20) defines translation as the replacement of textual material in one
language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). From the phrase
'equivalent textual material' above, it can be figured out that the main thing which should
be replaced is the information. In other words, a translator has to be capable of replacing
the information in source text with equivalent information in target text.
Another definition of translation is also presented by Nida (1969:12) stating that
translation consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural
equivalence of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in
terms of style. On that definition, Nida explains clearly that the main activity a translator
has to do is to convey the message from source language to target language as natural
as possible by regarding its meaning and style.
Besides meaning and style, there is another thing which should be considered by
translators if they want to create a good translation - the intention of the source text's
author. The concept is derived from Newmark (1988:5) who states that translation is
rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended
the text. Therefore, before translating a text, a translator has to read the whole text to
understand the intention of ST's author in making the text. In other words, a translator is
like a bridge connecting the intention of ST's author to the readers of target text.
A balance between forms of language and structures of meaning which creates a
complete package of a proper translation is delivered by Larson (1984:3) who states:
Translation is transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor
language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of a
second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred
and must be held constant.
On that definition, the first activity translators have to do is to transfer the meaning
constantly from SL to TL continued by delivering it in the appropriate form of TL to
prevent any loss or distortion of meaning.

2.2. Process of Translation

Before explaining the process of translation deeper, one thing to be considered is the
meaning of process. Oxford Advance Learner's Dictionary (2000:1050) provides three
definitions of process and the first one is appropriate with translation defining process as
a series of things that are done in order to achieve a particular result. Another definition
of process is also provided by Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2002:899) defining
process as rangkaian tindakan, pembuatan, atau pengolahan yang menghasilkan
produk. Two definitions of process above can be concluded that to achieve certain goals,
there are a series of actions should be conducted. The same matter also occurs in
translation when a translator has to undergo a series of processes to translate texts from
SL to TL as stated by translation experts below.
Larson (1988:3) provides three steps to produce a translation. First thing translators
need to do is to learn the lexicons, grammatical structures, communication
circumstances, and cultural contexts from source language continued by analyzing the
SL texts to find out its meaning. Finally, the meaning is re-expressed using the lexicons
and grammatical structures of target language and its cultural contexts as drawn on the
figure below:
Figure 1

Text to be translated
Discover the meaning
Re-express the meaning
In line with Larson, Nida and Taber (1982:33) also draws a figure to explain that
translation has to undergo three processes namely analysis, transfer, and restructuring
called Three Stages of Process as shown below:
A (Source)
B (Receptor)
Figure 2
On the first stage namely analysis stage, the message in language A is analyzed in
terms of its grammatical relationships as well as its meaning and combination of words in
the form of X. Secondly, on the transfer stage, those analyzed materials are transferred
in the mind of the translator from language A to language B in the form of Y. Finally, on
the restructuring stage, the transferred materials are restructured in order to make the
final message fully acceptable in the receptor language.
Moreover, Newmark (1988:19) divides the process of translation into four levels namely
the textual level, the referential level, the cohesive level, and the naturalness level. On
the textual level, translators have to find the equivalence of SL grammar in TL, translate
its lexical units, and put them in the appropriate form of TL sentences. However, there
are some words having more than one meaning including idioms and figurative
expressions in the source text and these are the task of translators in the referential
level, to define the real meaning behind those expressions and put those meaning in the
appropriate expressions in the target text. To link the textual and referential level,
translators should advance to the next level namely cohesive level. In this level,
translators use connective words which can unite the text such as conjunctions,
enumerations, reiterations, definite articles, general words, referential synonyms, and
punctuation marks (Newmark, 1988:23). In other words, to secure the meaning of the
text, translators have to secure its form first because if the sentences in the text are not
linked together, the readers will not get the meaning of the text. Finally, on the last level,
focusing on constructing translated texts, translators have to make sure that their
translated texts make sense and read naturally for a certain kind of situation because the
translated texts seem natural in one context, may not seem natural in other contexts.
Nothing translators can do other than to read their whole translated texts, underline some
unnatural expressions, and replace them with the more natural ones.

2.3. Method of Translation

In their attempt to distinguish between methods, strategies, and techniques, Molina and
Albir (2002:507) define methods of translation as the way of a particular translation
process that is carried out in terms of translator's objective, i.e., a global option that
affects the whole texts and their definition is strengthened by Newmark (1988:81) stating
that translation methods relate to whole texts, while translation procedures are used
sentences and the smaller units of language. It can be concluded that the result of
translated texts is determined by the methods of translation used by translators because
the aim and the intention of translators will affect the overall result of their translated
texts. Newmark (1988:45) draws the methods of translation in the form of a V diagram
dividing them into SL emphasis such as word-for-word translation, literal translation,
faithful translation, as well as semantic translation, and TL emphasis such as adaptation,
free translation, idiomatic translation, as well as communicative translation.

2.3.1 Word-for-Word Translation

This method is used on the pre-translation phase where the TL words are directly put
below the SL words as so called interlinear translation. Cultural words are translated
literally out of the context. Translators only need to find the equivalent words from SL to
TL but the position of those SL words remains intact in TL to understand the mechanism
of TL and as Catford states (1965:25) to illustrate in a crude way differences structure
between SL and TL for further studies.

2.3.2 Literal Translation

This method of translation is between word-for-word and free translation where the
words are still translated out of context as in word-for-word translation but then they are
placed based on the grammatical structure of TL.

2.3.3 Faithful Translation

In faithful translation, translators try to reproduce the contextual meaning of SL to TL and
place them based on the grammatical structure of TL. Cultural words are translated but
its grammatical and lexical abnormality still occurs. Faithful here means the translation
attempt to be completely faithful to the intentions and text-realisation of the SL writer.

2.3.4 Semantic Translation

This method of translation produces a more natural translation than the previous method
since in semantic translation, the aesthetic element is taken into consideration and
cultural words in SL are translated into its cultural equivalent in TL. Semantic translation
is more flexible than faithful translation which Newmark (1988:46) says as an
uncompromising and dogmatic method.

2.3.5 Adaptation
Adaptation as 'the freest form of translation' is commonly used in translating poetries and
script of plays where cultural conversions occur from SL to TL without changing the
themes, characters, or plot of SL. Therefore, if translators want to adapt a script of play,
for example, they have to maintain the characters and plot of the script while adapting
only its dialogues from SL to TL.

2.3.6 Free Translation

In this method, the content of source text takes more priority than its form so paraphrase
is commonly used to assure the message from source text can be clearly delivered to the
readers of target text.

2.3.7 Idiomatic Translation

When translators reach this method, their translations will not sound like translated texts
anymore since in this method, the message is reproduced in TL with more natural and
familiar expressions sometimes using colloquialisms and idioms which do not exist in SL.

2.3.8 Communicative Translation

This method prioritizes the elements of communication such as purpose of translation
and readership (Machali, 2000:55), so translators have to translate the contextual
meaning of SL both its language and its content to be acceptable and understandable for
readers of TL who expect no difficulties in reading translated texts.

2.4 Definition of Translation Shifts

As stated on the scope of study, the writer will use the theory of translation shifts
provided mainly by Catford added with some other explanations from Newmark as well
as Vinay and Darbelnet. Catford (1965:73) defines translation shifts as the departures
from formal correspondence in the process of going from SL to TL. Items which can be
shifted are grammar as Newmark (1988:55) states shift is translation procedure involving
a change in grammar from SL to TL, and word-class as Vinay and Darbelnet (1958:64)
state transposition is the replacement of one word-class by another without changing the
meaning of the message.
Newmark (1988:85) states at least four reasons behind the occurrence of shifts. The first
one is when SL and TL have different language systems so the shifts occur automatically
and translators have no options but to undergo those shifts as in the translation of
English plural words 'A pair of glasses' to Indonesian singular words 'Sepasang
kacamata' and the position of adjectives as in 'A beautiful woman' translated into 'Wanita
cantik' (Hartono, 2009:28). Another reason is when the grammatical structures of SL do
not exist in TL, for example the initial position of verb in Indonesian sentences which is
not familiar in English sentences except in imperative sentences. Therefore, it uses
common structures of sentence as in the translation of 'Telah disahkan penggunaannya'
to 'Its usage has been approved' (Hartono, 2009:29). Further, shifts also occur where
literal translation is grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the
TL so it is the matter of naturalness between SL and TL, for example the change of
word-class from noun to verb as in the translation of 'The pursuits of an intellectual life' to
'Mengejar kehidupan intelektual'. The last, shifts occur to replace virtual lexical gap by a
grammatical structure, for example the change from phrase to clause as in the
translation of 'The man with blue jacket is Mr. Green' to 'Lelaki yang memakai jaket biru
adalah Tuan Green' (Hartono, 2009:30).

2.5 Types of Translation Shifts

There are five types of shifts provided by Catford (1965:73) divided into two major types
namely level shifts, and category shifts consisting of structure shifts, class shifts, unit
shifts, and intra-system shifts.

2.5.1 Level Shifts

Level shift occurs when an item at one linguistic level in SL has its translation equivalent
at different level in TL (Catford, 1965:73). The only possible level shift in translation is the
shift from grammar to lexis and vice versa as in the translation between English 'This text
is intended for....' to French 'Le present Manuel s'adresse a....' From the example above,
level shift occurs when English 'this' as a term in grammatical system of deictic is
translated to French 'le present' as a modifier consisting an article + a lexical adjective.
Another example is from English 'He is eating a noodle soup' translated to Indonesian
'Dia sedang makan mie rebus' where a grammatical structure of English present
continuous tense (is + V-ing) is translated to Indonesian lexicon 'sedang'.

2.5.2 Category Shifts

Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary (2000:196) defines category as a group of people
or things with particular features in common. Catford (1965:76) states category shift
refers to some shifts which share a particular feature - departures from formal
correspondence in translation. Category shifts is divided into four types namely structure
shifts, class shifts, unit shifts, and intra-system shifts. Structure Shifts

Structure shifts grammatically occur at any ranks of language where words, phrase,
clauses, or sentences in SL has its translation equivalent with the same rank in TL so
only their structures are different. Catford (1965:77) gives an example of structure shifts
in clause rank from English clause 'The man is in the boat.' to Gaelic clause 'Tha an
duine anns a' bhata.' where their subjects are highlighted, their predicators are italicized
and their adjuncts are underlined. A shift of structure occurs since the subject and the
predicator of English clause exchange their position when the clause is translated to
Gaelic so the structure S-P-A in English is switched into P-S-A in Gaelic. Another
structure shift also occurs at phrase rank from 'A beautiful woman' with adjective + noun
in English to 'wanita yang cantik' with noun + adjective in Indonesian. Class Shifts
Class shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a SL item is a member of a different
class from the original item. An example given by Catford (1965:79) clearly shows a
change of class from English phrase 'A white house' to French phrase 'Une maison
blanche' where the English adjective 'white' as a modifier (M) has its equivalence in
French adjective 'blanche' as a qualifier (Q) although both of them are adjectives, they
possess different functions as a modifier in English and as a qualifier in French. A
change of class also occurs when an English clause 'They insist on higher wages' is
translated into an Indonesian clause 'Mereka menuntut kenaikan gaji'. The example
shows that the English adjective of comparative 'higher' changes to Indonesian noun
'kenaikan'. Unit Shifts

Unit shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at
different rank in the TL. An example comes from the translation of English clause 'My
father is very nice' to Indonesian clause 'Ayahku sangat baik' where a phrase in SL 'my
father' has a word 'ayahku' in TL as its equivalence. Intra-System Shifts

Intra-system shifts are departures from formal correspondence where (a term operating
in) one system in the SL has its translation equivalent (a term operating in) a different
non-corresponding system in the TL, the shifts occur internally within a system. Vinay
and Darbelnet in Catford (1965:80) give examples of the system related to the singular
and plural form of words between English and French. An English singular word 'advice'
has translation equivalent a French plural word 'des concils' and vice versa, a French
singular word 'le pantalon' has translation equivalent an English plural word 'trousers'.

2.6 Midterm Test on Translation 2 Subject as

the Source of Data
Translation Skill is one of the subjects provided by English Department State University
of Jakarta divided into two subjects taken continuously in different semesters namely
Translation 1 in the fourth semester and Translation 2 in the fifth semester. Both subjects
have four credits and are held twice a week. The purpose of this subject is to prepare
reliable translators who can translate various kinds of texts including legal and non-legal
text from English to Indonesian and vice versa. To reach its goal, students are not only
given theories of translation such as definition, process, and various strategies to
produce adequate translation, but they are also assigned to translate various kinds of
texts to train their translation skill and to apply the theories they are studying.
In the middle of the meetings, Translation 2 holds midterm test on November 2nd 2012
which consists of two parts. On the first part, students are given two texts and they have
to choose the types of those texts whether persuasive, descriptive, or expository as well
as to give their reasons regarding their choices. What will be analyzed by the writer is the
second part of the test where students have to translate two texts from English to
Indonesian titled The Meaning of "English Literature" and Enhancing the Role of Forests
in Adapting to Climate Change as clearly, naturally, and accurately as possible. Although
this is a midterm test, students are still allowed to open their dictionaries but it only helps
them to find the lexical meaning of words. They still have to pay more attention to find its
contextual meaning and to adjust their translations in the appropriate structures of
Indonesian language using the strategies they have learnt so far, and one of the
strategies may be translation shifts. Translated texts from midterm test are chosen as the
source of data because during midterm test, students are translating the texts more
carefully and more seriously to produce clear, natural, and accurate translations in order
to obtain proper score. It comes better possibility to produce better translation.