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PROBLEM 9.

111
KNOWN: Diameter and surface temperature of long tube housing heat dissipating electronic
components. Temperature of cooling water.
FIND: (a) Heat dissipation per unit length to quiescent water, (b) Percent enhancement for imposed
cross flow.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: Constant properties evaluated at Tf.


3 -6
PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Water (325K): = 987 kg/m , = 528 10 kg/sm, = / = 0.535
-6 2 -6 -1
10 m /s, k = 0.645 W/mK, Pr = 3.42, = 471 10 K .
ANALYSIS: (a) With
9.8m/s 2 471106 K 1 ( 50 K )( 0.1m ) 3.42
3
gTD3
Ra D = Pr = = 2.76 10 9
2
(0.535106 m2 / s)
2

use the Churchill and Chu correlation


2 2

Nu D


= 0.60 +
0.387Ra D1 / 6


= 0.60 +
0.387 2.76 (
10 9 1/6
)
= 191
8/27 8/27
1 + ( 0.559/Pr ) 9/16 1 + ( 0.559/3.42 ) 9/16

h = Nu D ( k / D) = 191( 0.645W/m K / 0 . 1 m ) = 1232W/m2 K.
Hence, q = Dh ( Ts T ) = ( 0.1m )1232W/m 2 K ( 350 300 ) K =19.4kW/m. <
(b) Using the Hilpert correlation (for which properties are evaluated at Tf), it follows that, for pure
forced convection,
VD 1 m / s 0.1m
Re D = = = 1.87 105.
6
0.535 10 m / s 2
Hence, using the Hilpert correlation,

Nu D,F = 0.027ReD
0.805 1/3
Pr (
= 0.027 1.87 10 )
5 0.805
( 3.42)1 / 3 = 713.

For mixed convection with n = 4,


n n n
Nu = Nu F + Nu N = ( 713) + (191) = 2.59 1011 Nu = 714
4 4

h = Nu ( k / D) = 714 ( 0.645W/m K/0.1m ) = 4605W/m K.


2

Hence, q = h D ( Ts T ) = 4605W/m 2 K ( 0.1m )( 350 300 ) K = 72.3kW/m. <


The cross flow enhances the heat rate by a factor of 72.3/19.4 = 3.7.
COMMENTS: (1) With V = 1 m/s, heat transfer is dominated by forced convection.