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Learning to Live Together

in a Challenging World

ISSN 1599-4880
No.48 SUMMER 2017
No.48 Summer 2017


GCED & Youth:
04 SPECIAL COLUMN An Open Forum in Jeju
04 Education for Harmony,
08 We Must Educate Global The Power of Music:
Citizens to Sustain Peace 11 ACCESS TO EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION An Agent of Transformation
in the World


Shrinking Spaces: 42 Naadam
A Perspective from Iraq A Celebration of Culture
26 Free2Choose-Create 50 APCEIU IN ACTION
Learning in Lesotho RECOGNITION

SangSaeng () is published two times a year by the Asia-Pacific Centre of

Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) under the auspices of UNESCO.

SangSaeng (), a Korean word with Chinese roots,

120, Saemal-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 08289
is composed of two characters: Sang (), meaning
Tel: (+82-2) 774-3956 Fax: (+82-2) 774-3958 mutual(each other) and Saeng (), meaning life. Put
E-mail: together, they mean living together, helping each other,
which is our vision for the Asia-Pacific region. SangSaeng
() aims to be a forum for constructive discussion of
Publisher: Utak Chung Editor-in-Chief: Jong-Hun Kim issues, methods and experiences in the area of Education
Editorial staff: Wonjin Lim, Ins Kim for International Understanding. SangSaeng also seeks to
promote Global Citizenship Education, which is one of the
Copy Editor: Yoav Cerralbo
three priorities of Global Education First Initiative launched by
Designed by: Seoul Selection Printed by: Pyung Hwa Dang the United Nations in 2012.
Signed articles express the opinions of the authors and do
not necessarily represent the opinions of APCEIU. @apceiu
SangSaeng is printed on recycled paper. +UnescoAPCEIUorg2014

ISSN 1599-4880 Registration No: -00017


n order to guide ourselves in todays world, we constantly In this issue of SangSaeng, I would like to remind our readers
need to be reminded of the importance of justice, tolerance of the importance of learning to live together. As Prof. Reimers
and more importantly, learning to live together. This is and Dina Kiwan mentioned in their articles, educators need
why APCEIU cannot stop stressing the urgency of global to redouble their efforts to educate students for global citizen-
awareness and global citizenship, especially in the current social ship and address the needs of young people in a diverse and
and political environment. globalised world. Moreover, education does not need to take
Societies draw on nationalism to define the relations between place in the traditional setting of classroom with books. In this
the state, the citizen and the outside world. Unfortunately, the regard, Mr. Eduardo Mendezs interview gives us an insight into
love for ones nation sometimes has been replaced with an urge the elements of music and how music can mold children into
to look at the world with mistrust. It is this mistrust and fear global citizens. Dr. Gwang-Jo Kim mentioned the importance
that has created a wave of intolerance and disrespect. As Nelson of not only equip[ping] learners with the skills to survive and
Mandela once said, Education is the most powerful weapon thrive [] but promoting overall happiness and well-being.
which [we] can use to change the world. APCEIU believes Such empowerment of learners is essential as we strive for an
that the collective views and efforts of our youth, educators interconnected world.
and leaders are indispensable in fostering global education. We This issue of SangSaeng has compiled the insights of youth,
need education that supports the importance of learning to live scholars, educators and leaders from a diverse array of sectors
together. and countries. We have in particular created a new section espe-
We are currently witnessing fueled support for populist cially for the youth, so their voices are taken into consideration
perspectives that thwart the ideals of tolerance. These extreme in matters that concern their future. We hope that through the
views are rapidly gaining momentum, and they permeate the articles in this issue, we are once again reminded of our path to
different social, political, and cultural spheres of our lives. The mutual understanding and tolerance.
rise of nationalism emphasizes a form of education that runs
counter to global citizenship education. It undermines the ideals
of a global community and its efforts to promote the principles
of tolerance and learning to live together. These are imminent
issues that need to be tackled in order to foster a more tolerant, Utak Chung
inclusive and understanding world. Director

Summer 2017 03


Equipping Learners with Adequate Skills
for a Better World

By Gwang-Jo Kim
(Director of UNESCO Bangkok, the Asia-Pacific Regional Bureau of Education)

have been a firm believer in the trans- honour, over these past eight years, to be Education as the Blueprint for a
formative power of education even immersed in the tremendous diversity Better World
before I could understand such terms. that defines this region. I firmly believe that education holds
My education took place in a humble Asia-Pacific is one of the most the key to addressing our most pressing
schoolhouse set amid rice fields in 1960s dynamic regions on this planet and is challenges. However, seizing that potential
Korea our resources were limited but home to immense contrasts, spanning requires a long-term shift that reframes
our imaginations were not. I indulged in both advanced industrial powers and education as a central national priority and
a sense of wonder a dragonfly or some developing nations. The Asia-Pacific a transnational agenda. The 2030 Agenda
exotic insect would capture my imagi- region has tremendous cultural and for Sustainable Development, which was
nation and I would always be in a hurry linguistic diversity, both between and agreed to by the United Nations member
to learn more, to seek knowledge both within countries. The most striking thing states in 2015, provides us with the frame-
about my immediate surroundings as well during my time with UNESCO is how work to make this a reality.
as the wider world of which I had little much can be accomplished through The Sustainable Development Goals
understanding of. It was then I first came collaboration amongst these nations and (SDGs) were developed with the input of
to comprehend the power that education groups, not in spite of this diversity but all member states, spanning a broad range
has in connecting people with nature and because of it. of cultures, histories and levels of develop-
promoting peaceful coexistence amongst I am constantly reminded of the ment. As a result, they are universal and
all creatures. strength that can be found when we come adaptable to any context, a characteristic
The advances my country has made, together to both celebrate what makes that is crucial to their achievement in this
from the time of my youth to the present us unique as well as to move forward incredibly diverse region.
day, illustrates the power of education. My together, united by common values and a Education is the cornerstone of the
appreciation for education has deepened desire for a better, more peaceful and just entire 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Devel-
and taken on new dimensions in subse- world. opment and the Sustainable Develop-
quent years. This spirit of collaboration must drive ment Goal 4 (SDG4) offers a path to equip
Later this year, I will complete the us forward in the face of todays most young people with the skills, values and
term I first started in 2009 as director pressing challenges. Violent extremism mind-set to achieve the SDGs and carry on
of UNESCO Bangkok, the Asia-Pacific and climate change, for example, do not with the spirit of collaboration far beyond
Regional Bureau for Education. These past respect borders; they are transnational in the 2030 deadline. SDG4s vision of inclu-
eight years have reaffirmed and strength- nature and no nation can address these sive and equitable quality education and
ened my conviction that education has threats alone. They require our collective lifelong education for all, and the seven
the potential to transform not only indi- resolve to find solutions, regardless targets to achieve it, carry nothing less
viduals, but entire societies and relations of national, religious and cultural than a blueprint for a better world.
between nations. Indeed, it has been my differences.

04 SangSaeng
Education for Harmony, Peace and Happiness

UNESCO/Sirisak Chaiyasook
UNESCO/Sirisak Chaiyasook

Summer 2017 05

UNESCO/Sirisak Chaiyasook
We are bombarded daily with by addressing the conditions that fuel fundamental pillars of education identi-
reminders of how UNESCOs mission, it. Violent extremists are not born, but fied by the International Commission on
to build peace in the minds of women shaped by such deprivations as poor Education for the 21st Century in 1996,
and men, is more vital than ever. Our education, injustices, marginalisation and and the spirit of this is reflected in all
organisation was founded in the aftermath gender inequality. Education systems can of our organisations work. Our offices
of World War II, a time when the scars and must address these issues. UNESCO project on Promoting Intercultural
of vicious xenophobia and racism were is taking the lead in this regard, with Dialogue and a Culture of Peace in South-
all too fresh. UNESCOs Constitution guidelines for teachers and policymakers East Asia through Shared Histories, for
warns of the dangers of ignorance of each on education to prevent violent extremism example, recognises that history education
others ways and lives leading to suspi- and also dedicating educational resources can be used to vilify neighbours in the
cion and mistrust between the peoples of on Global Citizenship Education (GCED), name of nationalism. By creating shared
the world through which their differences which are available through the UNESCO history education materials that celebrate
have all too often broken into war. These Clearinghouse on GCED hosted by the commonalities and shared values
words resonate powerfully today at an APCEIU ( that unite Southeast Asian countries, the
uncertain time in our region, with acts of Indeed, Global Citizenship Education and Shared Histories initiative aims to lay
violent extremism on the rise. Education for Sustainable Development a foundation of peace and intercultural
We must seize upon the soft power are two cornerstones of UNESCOs work. understanding.
of education to address these challenges. Both aim to empower future generations
Indeed, as Mahatma Gandhi said, If we with the ability to navigate the challenges
are to teach real peace in this world, and if of todays world and build a more sustain- Education 2030: Advancing a Vital
we are to carry on a real war against war, able tomorrow. Agenda
we shall have to begin with the children. UNESCO Bangkok has also been a Todays learners find themselves in a
UNESCO answers the increasingly champion of the concept of Learning world that is vastly different from that
devastating challenge of violent extremism to Live Together, one of the four of my childhood. A spirit of exploration

06 SangSaeng
Education for Harmony, Peace and Happiness

UNESCO/Sirisak Chaiyasook
and the joy of learning have given way to To t hat end , we requ i re t he ac t ive
stresses that would have been unfathom- engagement of all countries that have
able years ago: increasing competition, commit ted to t he 2030 Agenda for
rising inequality between and within Sustainable Development, including
countries as well as rapid demographic all stakeholders, from governments to
changes and technological advances. international development agencies and
Learners happiness is too often lost in civil society organisations to the private The true worth of
the face of such pressures. sector and the general public. these initiatives
UNESCO is working to redress this As I prepare to leave this office, I am
imbalance, recognising that we need under no illusion about the immensity
and the potential of
to not only equip learners with the of the challenges that remain; however, the SDG4-Education
skills to survive and thrive in a world I am resolute in my belief that they can 2030 will depend on
where change is the only constant, but only be met if we work together. The
to promote their overall happiness and Great Learning or Da Xue () one
the actions taken to
wellbeing. I am proud of our offices of the Four Books in Confucianism ensure that noble
Happy S chool s i n it iat ive , wh ich offers timeless wisdom, Wishing to order principles become
seeks to advance these aims in schools well their states, they first regulated their
a nd educat ion systems t hroug hout
sustained practices.
families. Wishing to regulate their fami-
Asia-Pacific. lies, they first cultivated their persons.
Of course, the true worth of these Let us use the power of education to culti-
init iat ives a nd t he potent ia l of t he vate the world we all desire.
SDG4-Education 2030 will depend on
the actions taken to ensure that noble
principles become sustained practices.

Summer 2017 07

Fernando Reimers
Prof. Reimers and his Harvard Graduate School of Education students

A Renewed Emphasis on Global Citizenship

By Fernando M. Reimers
(Ford Foundation Professor of the Practice in International Education and Director of the Global
Education Innovation Initiative and International Education Policy Programme at Harvard University)

08 SangSaeng
We Must Educate Global Citizens to Sustain Peace in the World

n 1925, professor Isaac Kandel at
Columbia University gave a speech
to the association of secondary
school principals in which he made
a vigorous case for global citizenship
education. He argued that unless schools
in America prepared students for inter-
national understanding, the nation would
not be a force for peace but a force for
instability in the world (Isaac Kandel,
Essays in Comparative Education 1930).
Kandel gave his lecture a mere seven years
after the end of World War I, and fourteen
years before the next major global conflict.
Born in Romania and an immigrant to
the United States, Kandel knew the pain
and suffering caused by the violence of
war. He might have sensed, at the time he
gave his speech, the fragility of peace, how
conflict is never too far away, how peace
requires the cultivation of the dispositions
to make peace possible.
Other educators who lived through
the two wars drew similar insights on the
importance of education to sustain peace.
In her famous lecture on Peace and
Education in 1932, Maria Montessori, for
instance, made the case for a pedagogy
that would cause children to make choices,
and challenged authoritarian education
as preparing students to follow authori-

Fernando Reimers
tarian rulers. Her lecture was published
by UNESCOs International Bureau of
Education, of which Jean Piaget was the
director. Years later, Piaget himself would
write a biography of Jan Amos Comenius
in which he highlighted the role Come-
nius played in promoting education for
peace (UNESCO International Bureau of
Education). the 21st century Learning: The treasure inter-governmental institutions. Populists
The awareness of the devastation and within. But these values are increasingly challenge also the idea of universal human
suffering caused by World War II, led challenged by populist and nationalist rights. If nationalism is the new organ-
governments around the world to look movements, with strong xenophobic and ising force, the notion of in-group and
for ways to create conditions for sustain- intolerant undertones. out-group is defined by citizenship, not
able peace, reflected in the creation of by membership in humanity, a challenge
the United Nations, the adoption of the to the cosmopolitan aspiration of global
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Growing Challenges citizenship education. This challenge to
and the inclusion of education as a human An emerging populist ideology challenges universal human rights leads to under-
right in the declaration. Undergirding the the cosmopolitan aspirations of public mining the rights of cultural and ethnic
declaration were the values of freedom, education and of global citizenship educa- minorities, for instance the right to see
equality and global solidarity. This was tion in particular, as well as the work of themselves represented in the curriculum.
the cornerstone of much of the work of global institutions in advancing the values In the United States, for example,
governments and of the global institu- of freedom, equality and solidarity. there are individuals and groups lobbying
tions created after World War II. These Populists advocate for more power to in schools for changes in the curriculum
values are nowhere better reflected than local groups to define the goals of educa- which reduce the emphasis on global
in UNESCOs report on Education for tion, and less role for government and for topics and content. Conservative groups

Summer 2017 09

inclusion of this as one of the targets

in the Sustainable Development Goals
provides a helpful window of opportunity.
UNESCOs ongoing advocacy for Global
Citizenship Education (GCED) and
Education for Sustainable Development
(ESD) is helpful in demanding more
attention to this domain in policy and
curriculum frameworks. The OECDs
commitment to include the assessment of
global competency in the Programme for
International Student Assessment (PISA)
will bring much needed attention to this
domain of student competency, as have
the international comparative studies on
civic education conducted by the IEA
(International Association for the Evalua-
tion of Educational Achievement).
In an at t empt t o cont ribute to
these efforts, I have recently published
two curriculum resources, developed
Isaac Kandel with my graduate students, to support
global citizenship education. The book
Empowering Global Citizens argues
that education should be aligned to help
students understand human rights, and
to advance them, and offers an ambitious
and rigorous curriculum to support global
citizenship education from kindergarten
to high school. The other book, Empow-
ering Students to Improve the World in
Sixty Lessons explains why a renewed
emphasis on global citizenship is essential
in the face of rising populism and hatred.
The book offers protocols to help teachers
and school leaders develop school wide
strategies that support global citizen-
Jan Amos Comenius Maria Montessori ship education and global citizenship
curriculum aligned with the Sustainable
Development Goals, a complement to the
Human Rights Declaration in that it spells
have long engaged in battles over the teach about such global challenges. out our obligations to achieve a world that
curriculum and textbooks in schools, Along with nationalism and populism, is inclusive, in peace and sustainable.
these battles have augmented since the there is a rise of hate groups and expres- Almost a century after Kandel made
last presidential campaign as reported to sions of hatred in many parts around the case for promoting international
me by a number of teachers and school the world. In the United States, there understanding in American schools, to
leaders working in global citizenship are documented increases of intolerance educate global citizens who could be
education efforts. Similar challenges to expressed in and around schools and stewards for peace, the rising threats from
the cosmopolitans aspirations of public universities, in the form of more explicit populism and intolerance make this as
education are happening elsewhere. expressions of anti-Semitism, white necessary today as it was then. We must
Populism represents also a risk to our supremacy, Islamophobia and hatred renew our efforts in advancing human
ability to address global challenges. As towards people of colour and immigrants, rights education, peace education, educa-
populists renege on their commitment according to the Southern Poverty Law tion for sustainability and developing
to collective action in addressing global Center. global citizenship, even as this work
challenges, climate change, for instance, In this context, it is urgent that educa- becomes more difficult to do, and the
this will create a social context in which tors redouble their efforts to educate risks of doing it greater.
teachers will find it increasingly difficult to students for global citizenship. The

10 SangSaeng
Access to Equitable Quality Education

Vision, Challenges and Opportunities of
Global Citizenship Education

By Dina Kiwan
(Reader in Comparative Education at the University of Birmingham, UK)


Technical Consultation on Global Citizenship Education 2013

Summer 2017 11

hroughout the world, there has learners acquire knowledge, attitudes and
been increasing attention and skills to critically reflect and act on issues
deliberation about the kind of of inequality, including age, ethnicity,
education we need in the new gender, sexuality, religion and social class.
realities of fast-paced, globalising, and Responsible global citizenship is also
diverse educational and societal contexts. concerned with caring for the environ-
Whilst continuing to value the impor- ment, including respect for the animal
tance of the issue of access to education, kingdom. In terms of key learner attri-
there is now increased attention being butes, GCED aims to develop learners
paid to the importance of the quality and who are informed and critically literate,

UNESCO/Abdelhak Senna
relevance of education. Global citizenship socially connected and respectful of
education (GCED) is increasingly viewed diversity and ethically responsible and
as an area of education that is responsive engaged (UNESCO, 2015).
to these new realities.
Responding to the needs of member
states, UNESCO has made GCED a key Problems with School Attendance
objective for the next eight years, from There is a demographic challenge of about
2014 to 2021. Understanding the value of 1.8 billion young people ages 10 to 24, with
GCED in todays changing world has been this being particularly highly concentrated
a focus of the work of UNESCO since in developing parts of the world. For
2013. Included in its efforts are the Tech- example, in the Arab world, over 40 per
nical Consultation on Global Citizenship cent are under 18 years of age.
Education organised by UNESCO and With regards to school attendance, the
the Republic of Korea (i.e. the Ministries Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
of Foreign Affairs and of Education, and of achieving universal primary education
the Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for by 2015 has not been met, only reaching
International Understanding) in Seoul on 91 per cent. However, there are significant Global Citizenship
September 2013, followed by UNESCOs variations by region, with only 74 per cent Education is
international Forum on Global Citizen- attendance in West and Central Africa in
important in
ship Education in Bangkok, Thailand on 2013.
December 2013. Globally, there are still 59 million addressing the needs
The UNESCO document, Global children not attending schools. Further- of young people
C it i z e ns h ip E du c at i on : Pre p ar i ng more, 83 per cent of lower second-
in a diverse and
Learners for the Challenges of the Twen- ary-school-age children are attending
ty-first Century launched in May 2014, primary or secondary schools. In devel- globalised world.
paved the way for the UNESCO publi- oping countries, this drops to 70 per cent
cation of Global Citizenship Education: (UNICEF, 2016). Between 2000 and 2013,
Topics and Learning Objectives in May the number of secondary school children
2015, launched at the World Education not attending school dropped from 97
Forum in South Korea of which I, along million to 65 million. The greatest chal-
with professor Mark Evans from the lenge of secondary school attendance is
University of Toronto, were the lead in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
authors. In areas of conf lict, where popula- a significant strain on the educational
Throughout its intellectual history, tions are internally displaced or have inf rast r ucture a nd its resources to
conceptions of citizenship and global citi- become refugees as they cross national accommodate these children in schools
zenship have been contested, as are there- borders, school attendance is a serious of host countries in the region, such as
fore its forms of education and learning cha l lenge. For exa mple, t he Sy ria n Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey.
goals. In recognising the different refugee crisis has been characterised It is a lso important to ta ke into
contextual particularities and intellectual as the largest refugee crisis in modern account gender disparities with respect
traditions around the world, clearly there history, with over four million Syrians to school attendance. According to the
can be no single conception of GCED. seeking refuge in neighbouring countries UNESCO Institute of Statistics, there are
Some key characteristics can be (UNHCR, 2015a). 130 million girls globally not attending
highlighted, which include that GCED is In March 2015, there were approx- schools, with great regional variations
intended to be learner-centred, transfor- i mately 752 ,0 0 0 Sy r ia n school-age showing this to be a significant challenge
mative and active. It is concerned with children out of school, constituting 57 in sub-Saharan Africa.
issues of social justice, human rights per cent of the total number of children In terms of accessing education, girls
and learning to live together, whereby in the region (UNHCR, 2015a). There is are at risk of physical and sexual violence

12 SangSaeng
Access to Equitable Quality Education

Dina Kiwan
Leverhulme International Network Meeting in Toronto, May 2013

(World Bank, 2017). Poverty, living in Promoting the opportunity of young salaries are low, which can drive down
rural areas, having disabilities, or being peoples life through equitable access standards and contribute to further
from an ethnic or linguistic minority, all to quality education is also critically inequa lities, with practices such as
compound to this challenge. i mp or t a nt . E duc at ion hol i s t ic a l ly teachers withholding information in the
encompasses the development of respect classroom, to encouraging participation
for human rights and diversity, fostering in private tutoring.
Challenges Facing GCED critica l t hink ing, promoting media iii) Lack of resources for teachers:
The rise of extremism and right-wing and digital literacy, and developing L ow pr ior it isat ion for t he need to
populism globally provides both an the behavioural and socio-emotional t r a i n a nd cont i nu i ng profe s siona l
opportunity and a challenge to global skills that can contribute to peaceful development.
citizenship education. In January 2016, coexistence and tolerance (Ban-Ki iv) Didactic pedagogies: Outmoded
the United Nations secretary general Moons message to UNESCO MGIEP on pedagog y w it h a heav y emphasis
presented a Plan of Action to Prevent preventing violent extremism). Specifi- throughout secondary education on rote
Violent Extremism and highlighted the cally, there is reference to the importance memorisation, and a lack of focus on
importance of youth and education in the of global citizenship, critical thinking analytical and creative thinking which
proposed plan of action. and digital literacy and supporting the are essential to higher level thinking and
The importance of constructively capacity of teachers and educators in this learning.
engaging young people to participate agenda. In conclusion, there are a number
in their societies and find aspirations Finally, global citizenship education, of highlighted challenges facing global
for themselves and their communi- as with any new initiative, faces institu- citizenship education, ranging from
ties enhances decision-making and tional challenges: socio-political contexts and trends,
contributes to national and regional i) Negative school ethos: In different youth demographics, educational access,
policy-making. It highlights the efforts to pa r t s of t he world , ma ny st udent s quality issues and resources. Yet the case
engage with marginalised communities. report not feeling physically, socially or for global citizenship education is clearly
The importance of mainstreaming gender emotionally safe. important in addressing the needs of
equality is also elucidated in relation to ii) Low teacher salaries and status: young people in a diverse and globalised
combating violent extremism. In many parts of the world, teachers world in the 21st century.

Summer 2017 13


Helping Companies Successfully Navigate
Challenges, Seize New Opportunities

By Brian J. Grim
(President of the Religious Freedom & Business Foundation)

14 SangSaeng
How Business Helps People Learn to Live and Work Together

build bridges between people. Companies

can make positive contributions to peace
by mobilising advertising campaigns that
bring people of various faiths and back-
grounds together.
In 2013, based on suggestions from
employees, the Coca-Cola Company
launched a project to promote under-
standing and dialogue by installing two
small world machines in New Delhi,
India, and Lahore, Pakistan; areas where
religious tensions run high. Long sepa-
rated by a border that has seen a number
of wars, Indians and Pakistanis were able
to use the machines live video feeds and

large 3D touch screens to speak to and
even touch the person on the other side.
People on both sides of the border, who

had never met before, exchanged peace
usinesses bring people together one of the worlds poorest nations. Banking signs, touched hands and danced together.
for a common purpose that policies and civil war led to extreme W h i l e s o m e a r e s k e p t i c a l t h at
transcends cultural, ethnic and poverty across religious and cultural lines, Coca-Colas campaign will have any long-
religious identities and unites leaving many widowed mothers and term impact on relations between India
people in a common enterprise where over 1.6 million orphans throughout the and Pakistan, the company believes it is a
differences give way to a shared purpose. country. step in the right direction, and it appears
Indeed, businesses have the resources and Working with Muslims, Christians and to be selling more of its product.
incentive to bridge differences and bring others, Don Larson is helping to revive Second, businesses recognise and even
people together because business is at Mozambiques economy and reverse the reward others for promoting intercultural
the crossroads of culture, commerce and trend in broken families. Inspired by his understanding. Cross-cultural dialogue
creativity. faith and the belief that companies can and cooperation is an essential part of
Wells Fargo Bank recently identified have a profound impact, Don is working the daily operations for multinational
four important market transformations. with people of all faiths to transform companies such as BMW. In collaboration
The first three relate to global economic lives by helping to provide jobs for over with the UN Alliance of Civilizations,
recovery and technology. But the fourth 50,000 people and by donating 90 per the BMW Group offers an annual award
relates to how business will shift from cent of his profits to support orphans, for organisations that create innovative
primarily being about making money to empower farmers, and strengthen the local approaches to intercultural understanding,
being about doing good. infrastructure, helping to bring interfaith including interfaith understanding and
In September 2013, former United understanding, togetherness and peace. peace. Among organisations that have won
Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Recognising and drawing on the this award is a tour company in the Middle
set up the UN Global Compact Business religious identities and sensitivities of East, MEJDI Tours, which offers new
for Peace platform to harness the largely employees can help companies successfully ideas to build bridges and bring cultures
untapped potential of businesses to bring navigate challenges and seize new oppor- together through collaborative Muslim-
people together and build peace while they tunities. A study from the UN Global Jewish tourism in the Holy Lands.
grow their bottom lines. Compact Business for Peace platform Aziz Abu Sarah and Scott Cooper,
and the Religious Freedom & Business co-founders and co-CEOs of MEJDI Tours,
Foundation shows how businesses, often recognised that in many Middle Eastern
Thats the theory, but what about at the initiative of people of faith within countries, social and political tensions
the practice? companies, can promote interfaith under- have spurred violence and unrest along
Don Larson, a former vice president at the standing and peace. And it is happening religious and cultural lines. Each group
Hershey Company and founder and CEO in countries as diverse as Nigeria, Brazil, within this struggle has a different narra-
of the Sunshine Nut Company, motivated Israel, the Philippines and Indonesia, as tive and understanding of what has led to
by his faith, started Sunshine Nuts in well as in the tense border between India the current culture and conflict. Aziz and
Mozambique. and Pakistan. Cooper recognised that allowing people
While the Southeast African nation The study pointed to at least four to tell their story is a first step in fostering
used to be a worldwide leader in cashew distinct ways business brings people peace and cultural understanding. In
production, Mozambique has now become together. First, businesses use marketing to Israel, for example, their Dual Narrative

Summer 2017 15

Brian Grim

Brian Grim
Don Larson one-minute video: Jonathan Berezovsky and Migraflix:

Brian Grim

Brian Grim
Sir Alex Ferguson, former Manchester United manager, speaking to Coca-Cola small world machine video:
Empowerment Plus graduates

approach allows Israeli and Palestinian Brazilian social entrepreneur Jonathan web-based interactive, online resources,
tour guides to offer varying perspectives Berezovsky, through his company Migra- and interfaith action projects with prac-
on culture, religion, and politics at each flix, helps immigrants and refugees start tical, empowering interfaith tools.
location. enterprises that empower them and show Second, Find a Better Job is a prac-
Third, businesses often pay attention their value to the local community. tical tool participants use in their commu-
to boosting workforce diversity. When nities to intentionally bring together
businesses are sensitive to the religious people of different faiths to learn skills that
and cultural issues around them, they not What can we learn from the help them find a job or better employment.
only make reasonable accommodations for business community? Participants become a support group in
faith in the workplace, but they can also Drawing inspiration from these business their efforts to improve job search skills
address difficult unmet social needs. Busi- examples, the Religious Freedom & and find employment that puts them on
nesses in Indonesia did this by organising Business Foundation has developed and the path to meaningful self-reliance.
a mass wedding for interfaith couples who piloted a new social cohesion and enter- And third, as part of Launching
had lived without legal status and with no prise initiative called Empowerment-Plus. Leaders and Find a Better Job, My
ready means to become legitimately wed. The Empowerment-Plus Interfaith pilot Foundations provides interfaith spiritual
By obtaining legal status, thousands of was carried out in Manchester, United principles on topics including service,
interfaith couples can now access public Kingdom. finances and time management. Just as
health services, obtain education for their The class and community-based many people who are unemployed have
children, and have expanded opportunities Empowerment-Plus initiative has three said a prayer seeking help, this course
for employment. interconnected elements: helps participants explore how faith and
Fourth, businesses can provide support First, Launching Leaders helps univer- spirituality are supports in not only their
for social entrepreneurs. The business sity students apply universal principles to job search, but also in all aspects of life.
environment provides a neutral ground daily life, spirituality and interfaith action. These examples show that businesses
for religious differences in order to give Launching Leaders is an innovative univer- are not only helping people work and live
way to shared concerns of enterprise and sity-based initiative that includes facilitated together in peace, but an inspiration that
economic development. For example, classroom experiences, state-of-the-art NGOs, like mine, are learning from.

16 SangSaeng
Challenges in the Horn of Africa and Desire for Human Dignity

By Yonas Adaye Adeto
(Deputy Director and Regular MA Programme Coordinator at the Institute for Peace and
Security Studies, Addis Ababa University)

he Horn of Africa yearns for Forgiveness). One finds these contra- of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it
human dignity; yet it is filled dictions in terms and deeds in the same was the season of Light, it was the season of
w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . It i s region. Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was
endowed with abundant natural, But why is this happening? What are the winter of despair, we had everything
human, and socio-cultural resources; the values of peace, stability and inclu- before us, we had nothing before us ...
yet, it is known to the world as the place siveness in the Horn of Africa? What can
where human indignity is expressed in be done to transform it? I will not dwell The global socio-political context of
terms of poverty, violence, corruption, on the first question, but rather focus on the 21st century can be described in the
and drought. It is the origin of human four points to address the second and contradictions of expectations and real-
beings; yet, it is the place of human third questions. ities comparable to the time of Dickens.
suffering. It is the home of the Ubuntu On the one hand, we have aspirations
philosophy founded on the principle for global citizenship, equality, justice,
that my humanity is inextricably bound Values and Transformation inclusive development, human rights,
up in yours, i.e. a person is a person First, so as to assess the values of peace, democracy and rule of law. On the other,
through other persons. It is not I think, political stability and development in neo-nationalism, populism, xenophobia,
therefore, I am. It is rather I am human the Horn of Africa, one has to start by refugee crisis, violent extremism, youth
because I belong, I participate, I share. touching upon the structure of global unemploy ment, human traf f ick ing,
Yet, in the Horn of Africa, one human security. Our world today appears to be nepotism, corruption, sectarian violence
being is humiliated, killed, and tortured in disarray and filled with contradic- and lack of good governance on a grand
by another human being in the name of tions reminiscent of the time of Charles scale. All of these contradictions paint the
religion, tribe, politics, or ethnicity. Dickens. In A Tale of Two Cities, picture of the world today.
As Desmond Tutu depicts, a person Dickens wrote: Second, what does this mean to the
w it h U bu nt u is d i m i n ished when Horn of Africa? A cursory glance at
others are humiliated, when others are It was the best of times, it was the what is taking place in and around the
tortured or treated as if they were less worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it port of Djibouti might shed light on the
than who they are (No Future without was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch global picture. The military presence of

Summer 2017 17

Dr. Yonas Adaye Adeto at the Peace Education Workshop in Lesotho

the United States and China in the main, It is trying to nurture a culture of peace statistics issued by the central agency of
should send a signal of reflection of global within society by providing the primary a nation or international agencies such as
security on the sub-regional context. to the tertiary levels with a peace educa- the International Monetary Fund or the
The mighty powers of the Middle East, tion curriculum. World Bank. Hence, active listening is
particularly Saudi Arabia and the United Lastly, what is the way forward to required here.
Arab Emirates in Assab and Berbera transform the Horn? Personally, I feel The listening process should also be
ports, increase the complexity of security that individual countries can make a interactive discuss the issues with the
and peace issues in the Horn of Africa. difference by providing transformational people, not convince or indoctrinate
Sectarian violence in Yemen with spill- leadership from a smallest unit to the them. Address the real issues at stake,
over effects on the Horn, and terrorist highest level of leadership. I use the 3Ls help them to critically think and engage
groups like Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda are to describe my opinion: Listen, Learn in the issues of nation-building and
a cause for concern. and Lead. To build trust, to strengthen peacebuilding. Avoid the assumption of
Third, what is the implication of legitimacy and to address national issues, one-size fits all or my way is the super-
the global turmoil and sub-regional leaders must listen to the heart beats of highway approach. Interactive listening
instability to Ethiopia, the centre of the their people. lays the foundation for the building of
Horn of Africa? Amid this turbulence, trust between the state and its society.
Ethiopias role in peacekeeping is rather The listening process must be proac-
awe-inspiring. According to an August The Process of Listening tive as well, i.e. visionary leadership.
2016 United Nations report, Ethiopia Listening involves active, interactive Strategic thinking must give way to a fire-
tops the world in peacekeeping contri- and proactive processes at a minimum fighting approach. Proactive listening is
butions. The contributions Ethiopia le vel. S omet i mes t he f u nd a ment a l one of the fundamental characteristics of
has made so far in Burundi, Rwanda, concerns of the people may not be music visionary and transformational leader-
Liberia, Somalia, Darfur in Sudan and to their leaders ears. They might be ship. The people must be at the centre of
South Sudan, maintaining its legacy, bitter realities on the ground reflecting the policy formulation. Once the leaders
can possibly explain its positive role as the day-to-day life of ordinary citizens are committed and are granted confidence
a major actor in peacekeeping missions. in sharp contrast to economic growth and trusted by their people, sustainable

18 SangSaeng
Challenges in the Horn of Africa and Desire for Human Dignity

Once the leaders are
committed and are
granted confidence
and trusted by their
people, sustainable
peace is in the

peace is in the horizon. Peace is like a has not been successful as first expected. human dignity, bring about peace, polit-
cold; it can be caught rather than taught. My prayer is that there exists trust ical stability and sustainable development
Peaceful behaviour and attitude can amongst each other and not the need for in the Horn.
be contagious to neighbours as violent competition to appear more powerful and Finally, it must be underlined that the
behaviours are. So, in the final analysis, hegemonic over another. It is important Horn of Africa, or Africa in general, has
a s Ta n z a n ia showc a sed i n Uga nd a to ensure a brotherly spirit in order hardworking people and proud cultures,
du r i ng Id i A m i ns d ay, a nd a s t he to tack le common enemies: poverty, not to mention precious natural resources
Economic Community of West African manmade or natural calamities prevalent including a beautiful virgin land, the most
States (ECOWAS) has very recently done in the sub-regions, terrorism and violent expensive minerals, and abundant water
in the case of Yayha Jammeh of Gambia, extremism, emerging health hazards, resources. Africa also counts with global
peace can be achieved at the sub-regional managing refugee flows, creating jobs for and international peace loving partners
level when one country or few countries the young and unemployed, entrenching to work with, and to make our world a
start to make peace their culture. This rule of law and equitable development better place in order to realise the dignity
leads me to my last point. What should and inclusive politics, and nurturing a of humanity.
be done at the sub-regional level? culture of peace in the region.
The regional power in the Horn of These are very few points from
Africa has been trying to resolve conflict a whole host of factors that might
in Somalia as well as South Sudan, but it contribute in addressing the quest of

Summer 2017 19

A Ladakhi woman, part of the Tibetan ethnic group

Social Justice for Diverse Cultures

By Natividad Gutirrez Chong

(Professor at the Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico UNAM and founder of SICETNO, the digital archive
system that hosts updated information on indigenous political culture and ethnic conflict)

20 SangSaeng
Ethnic Identity in the Era of Minority Recognition

he 21st century promises the in the social interrelation. Ethnic identity
recognition of those population and national identity, while referring to
groups that are still silenced the authenticity of a social group, are not
because of their differences and in conditions of equality, because ethnic
the characters and features that distin- identity remains subordinated and it
guishes them. is permeated by asymmetric relations
We are facing a great historical and of domination that confer it a status of
global opportunity to keep in mind that inferiority.
identity, national and ethnic, are always The identity of a nation is endorsed
in constant evolution and vitality. Ethnic by the state, ethnic groups do not have
minorities are at a time of exceptional their own state, and so they are usually
recognition within nation states, the inter- persecuted, harassed, assimilated or exter-
national human rights system as well as minated. However, ethnic identity has
in the public opinion. There are, however, undergone a vigorous rebound as a result
unfortunate lags for women from ethnic of the public interest in knowing the other
minorities whose lives and futures are voices, the silenced and subaltern.
very weak, since they seem to be limited There is a vast universe of ideas,
by poverty, which is difficult to overcome wisdom and knowledge outside Western
due to the prevalence of racism and parameters of culture, laws, science, arts,
oppression of an authoritarian patriarchy. and philosophy. In todays world, all
To this must be added that indigenous voices are beginning to count, to take into
peoples have been historical targets of account people from below means to
various forms of violence, but such a tradi- consult, to bear in mind what others are
tional history of domination and colonial saying, and such includes ethnic minori-
servility is finally changing. Thus, in recent ties, racial minorities and within them,
years, they have been developing political women and young ethnic women.
activism with the aim of defending their These upsurges of silenced voices
natural resources and territories against that confer identity to a lower group also
UN/F Charton

neoliberal capitalist expansion. Our main experience political power. It is then that
idea is that the 21st century promises to identity becomes an effective weapon
recognize those populations that have to negotiate rights and recognition in
been silenced because they are different. international institutions and legislation,
But to understand why some popula- such as the United Nations Declaration on
tions enjoy more privileges than others, the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007),
it is necessary to look at the concept of which has urged governments to curb the
identity. extinction and exclusion of indigenous
and tribal peoples.
Identity, then, enters a phase of
Identifying Identity visibility because its use for instrumental
Identity is a complex information purposes is reinvented, like any other
system, a way of belonging, which is built cultural artefact. Within the century of
on multiple references that are found recognition, there will be a reinvention
in culture, social relations and links of indigenous identities from their own
with institutions. Identity is a constant perspective, respecting their interests and
dialogue, so it is not built in isolation. needs, generating the cultural and renewal
Who are we? Where are we going? These strength necessary to creatively build up
are two questions that appeal to identity. multicultural societies and interculturality.
These are the ideas of origin and destiny The latter being based on equality and
that nurture and strengthen the complex respect for cultures, and women taking
system of information showing its part in these dynamics.
dynamic change. Todays world is beginning to learn
It is true that there are many forms of about literature written in indigenous
identity: national, ethnic, sexual, religious, languages, films made by indigenous
or linguistic. That is, the accumulation of directors and scriptwriters showing the
referents and markers that are activated reduction of their historical lands to give

Summer 2017 21

Natividad Gutirrez Chong

Learning about local products in the market Villa de Leyva, Colombia

way to mineral exploitation or megapro- of young generations. But one thing is makes ethnic women very vulnerable
ject construction, to indigenous lawyers certain: people in the globe cannot allow when facing other types of violence: traf-
who make their way in the jurisprudence the wealth of one nation to be at the cost ficking of persons and obstetric violence.
to show that other forms of imparting of the poverty of another, or that a given I want to conclude by saying that
justice are possible, to mention some of country is first or superior, regardless of there are numerous ethnic conflicts in
these innovative tendencies of the artistic the ecological damage and global warming the world, insufficiently studied, and
and intellectual creation of our times. of the planet. should not be confused with secessionism.
Diversity, the main symbol of the era Indigenous conflict share the following
of recognition, cannot survive in isolated characteristics: a low tendency to rebel
Survival of Diversity pieces or as a collection of fragments, not against the state, a lack of use of violence
The world today is witnessing the only in the local sphere, but from a united by indigenous peoples in conflict, high use
confrontation between nationalisms, one whole, and the sustenance of all this will of violence and threats against indigenous
is aggressive, based on racial supremacy depend on the strength or weakness of people by national and transnational
and hatred of foreigners, another, is our national or ethnic identities. But let actors, and widespread exclusion and
a defensive nationalism that seeks to us not forget that identities are complex discrimination.
protect natural resources and appeals to and flexible because they also allow for Racism is a persistent colonial legacy
the principle of sovereignty. The combi- multiple combinations caused by race, that impedes the social mobility of indig-
nations and articulations between the gender, sexuality and age. enous people and needs to be eradicated
identities of these nationalisms, will give In this era of recognition of minorities, from all angles of society, politics, culture,
room to other scenarios not foreseen for the emphasis should be on giving ethnic economy and so on. In relation to this,
which for now there are no answers, only minority women empowerment, especially and as a formidable challenge, would be
conjectures; think for example, United young women, who still suffer from the the construction of a differentiated citi-
States President Donald Trumps anti- dominion of authoritarianism and patri- zenship and political culture of respect for
immigration policies, the controversial archy, which places them in domesticity, indigenous rights. This is what it means to
wall between the borders of Mexico and with little hope of overcoming cyclical build nation states with equality and social
the United States, economic protectionism poverty and very restricted access to any justice for all diversity of cultures.
and its impact on the educational dreams kind of formal education. This situation

22 SangSaeng
Shrinking Spaces: A Perspective from Iraq

By Hamid K Ahmed
(Senior Advisor of the Prime Ministers Advisory Committee (PMAC) in Iraq)


e are liv ing in a ver y good, for business, for the environment conf lict resolution just like the one
rapid ly cha ng i ng world and people everywhere, provided that we enjoyed in our country Iraq while
where the pace of change human values are preserved. fighting ISIS, as well as constructive
is logarithmic rather than I n a t i ny world , to su r v ive a nd interaction that will sustain humanitys
linear. In the last two decades, the pace prosper, a set of skills are required to survival.
in which humanity has evolved has never suppress the greed and dominance taxing T hese va lues were ca l led for by
been seen before. As a result, the world is our resources and power. To achieve a various United Nations agencies since
shrinking at an incredibly fast rate, meta- better world for humanity, we should the dawn of the 20th century and the
phorically speaking, from size small to aim for a world of tolerance, inclusivity a n nou nc ement of t he M i l len n iu m
size tiny as in Thomas L. Friedmans and diversity, respect for differences and D e v e l o p m e n t G o a l s ( M D G s) . B u t
words or as pale blue dot as in astron- build upon effective communication unfortunately, the rise of Al-Qaida and
omer Carl Sagans words. The unlimited techniques. Collaboration and coopera- its evolution into different names and
wealth of knowledge and resources are tion are necessities among communities forms poses security threats to the global
connecting people from all over the and nations in order to face world threats community. As a result, we saw the rise
planet. This connection can be a force for and challenges. We need collaborative of nationalism and far-right parties

Summer 2017 23

UN/Pernaca Sudhakaran

24 SangSaeng
Shrinking Spaces: A Perspective from Iraq

There is no remedy
I would prescribe
than education and in
particular GCED and
ESD to eradicate all
forms of extremisms
and terrorism.

Hamid K Ahmed

Dr. Ahmed at UNESCO Week for Peace and Sustainable Development:

The Role of Education

and movements, which create great technologies are. The kind of military in a poor country halves the risk of civil
challenges for the UNs efforts in trying being used in Iraq against ISIS or Daesh war.
to promote the principles of Learning can only be useful and effective in the Which is why, after my participation
to Live Together, Global Citizenship short term. Instead, we need to target the at UNESCO Week in Ottawa, Canada, I
E duc at ion (G CE D), E duc at ion for root causes of these phenomena in order have suggested a set of recommendations
Sustainable Development (ESD) and to succeed in the long term and achieve to my government. Since then, I have
other core values. the SDGs by 2030. received the approval from the Iraqi
The rise of nationalism will undoubt- There is no better remedy I would cabinet. I have met with senior officials
edly undermine the concept of dialogue prescribe than education and in partic- in both the Ministry of Higher Education
and coexistence among civilisations ular GCED and ESD to eradicate all and Scientific Research and the Ministry
and cultures that the UN resolutions forms of extremism and terrorism. of Education to discuss the inclusion
called for in 2000. At that time, the The RAND Corporation examined of GCED and ESD with or within their
UN proclaimed the year 2000 as The how 648 terrorist groups ended between curricula. This sparked interesting and
International Year for the Culture of 1968 and 2006. Most obser ved t hat intellectual discussions surrounding this
Peace and 2001 as The United Nations through a political process, education issue, while taking into consideration the
Year of Dialogue among Civilisations. and training, terrorist groups were current circumstances in my country.
Nationalism will hinder UN efforts to defeated by police work and rehabilita- In Iraq, we are experiencing the
forge a prosperous future for mankind tion. Only 7 per cent were crushed by challenge of national unity and internal
and will prevent or delay achieving the military force. diversity as well as a lack of social cohe-
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Terrorist groups and extremists are sion. As such, societies are not able to
and in particular goal 4.7. probably less threatened by military focus on national citizenship let alone
I wou ld a r g ue t h at t he bi g ge s t power and drones than by girls and boys on the global dimension of citizenship,
challenge and threat that we face in our with books. That is why extremists shot and, because of this, they are scep-
contemporary tiny world is the rise of Malala Yousafzai, threw acid in the faces tical. I argued that although GCED is
extremism and terrorism with all its of Afghan school girls, kidnapped Nige- controversial in current Iraq, it must be
facets and colours. rian school girls and recently prevented campaigned for should we aim to erad-
There is no remedy that can eradicate girls from entering schools in Iraqi icate extremism and relate to the global
this menace, no matter how powerful occupied areas. One study found that the community.
our might is and how advanced our doubling of primary school enrolment

Summer 2017 25

Understanding the Impact of
Human Rights Issues
on Young People Today

By Barry van Driel

(International Director of Teacher Training and Curriculum Development at the Anne Frank
House, the Netherlands)

Free2choose-Create: Ljubljana, Slovenia 2016 - Activity Production

26 SangSaeng

Anne Frank House/Aaron Peterer

Free2choose-Create: Albuquerque, USA April 2016 - Activity Introducing the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR)

classroom of 15 universit y mission statement:
students in Thailand fidgets xx to preserve the Secret Annex, the
uncomfortably as they watch place where Anne Frank went into
a s h o r t fou r-m i nu t e f i l m hiding during World War II and
made by young people titled Should where she wrote her diary
the media give a voice to extremists? xx to bring her life story to the attention
Almost simultaneously, 22 civil society of people all over the world
representatives from Europe and North xx to encourage people to reflect on the
America at Etvs Lornd University dangers of anti-Semitism, racism
(ELTE University), Tom Lantos Institute and discrimination and the impor-
summer school in Budapest watch the tance of freedom, equal rights and
same film. Elsewhere in Austria, high democracy.
school students watch a film created by
other young people that ask the question: In addition to a permanent exhibi-
Should people be allowed to read Mein tion, the Anne Frank House has rotating
Kampf? temporar y ex hibitions. In line with
The Anne Frank House (AFH) is the educational mission to ref lect on
best known as a museum in Amsterdam, equal rights, the interactive exhibition
the Netherlands. This is the place where Free2Choose was created in 2005.
Anne Frank wrote her famous diary and Free2Choose was initially situated
where she and seven others went into at the very end of the museum route
hiding for more than two years, from and focused on contemporary issues.
1942 to 1944, before being betrayed and Visitors were given the opportunity to
sent to death camps in Eastern Europe. watch several short 3 to 4 minute films
More than 1.3 million people visit the that explored the boundaries of human
Anne Frank House/Aaron Peterer

museum annua lly and t his number rights, such as the right of free speech
is growing. Less are familiar with the and the right to privacy. Examples of
fact that the Anne Frank House is an such films were: Should neo-Nazis have
educational non-profit organisation. The the right to march in front of a syna-
educational mandate of the Anne Frank gogue in Germany? and Should people
House is to remember (the past), reflect be allowed to burn their national flag?
(on the past and present) and respond (in The visitors were allowed to hear both
terms of taking action). pro and con arguments. The arguments
The educational mandate fits into a on both sides of the issue were presented
broader three-part Anne Frank House in such a way that they could be seen as

Summer 2017 27

Anne Frank House/Aaron Peterer

Free2choose-Create: Soweto, South Africa 2008 - Activity Production

legitimate. Visitors could then vote on communities and schools, and to also the Free2Choose topics, in some cases,
where they would stand on the issue. reflect on where certain rights or demo- the students have commented that
Finally, they were given feedback on how cratic values might clash with each other. the subjects of the films are not so
other visitors to the Museum had voted. In this manner, students are encouraged interesting or relevant to their lives.
Based on the exhibition at the Anne to think critically about the possible This has led to a follow-up project that
Frank House, two related educational boundaries that exist in the freedoms we has student empowerment at its core:
programmes were developed in order to hold dear and often take for granted. Free2Choose-Create.
be used outside the museum, especially Teacher training seminars have been
in educational settings. organised on a regular basis in a number
of countries to help teachers make Empowering the Youth
effective use of the films. Nevertheless, Free2Choose-Create (F2CC) builds on
Into the Classroom a significant challenge has been that the experiences of Free2Choose and
In addition to showing the video clips many teachers have had little experience adds the dimensions of peer education,
about human rights at the Anne Frank working with interactive discussion and youth empowerment and filmmaking.
House, the Free2Choose Project has been debate methodologies about often contro- The peer education approach has become
taken into classrooms and non-formal versial issues. central to many Anne Frank House
education environments to promote Teacher training has helped teachers educational projects and shifts a certain
student-centred learning. Since its with the confidence and skills needed amount of responsibility to young
inception, Free2Choose discussions have when using films in classroom settings. people with respect to the creation and
taken place in more than 30 countries An educational manual has accompanied implementation of materials. The Anne
worldwide, mostly in middle schools and school-based projects to assist teachers Frank House has utilised peer education
high schools. in using the video clips in an effective as a core educational approach since the
The main aim in s cho ols is for manner (mostly on DVD since not all 1990s, especially giving secondary school
students (mostly between the ages of 13 schools are well-connected). Though students the tools and opportunities to
and 16) to understand the importance students have indicated that they enjoy work with their fellow students around
of human rights in their own lives, the challenges of discussing and debating issues as diverse as Holocaust Education,

28 SangSaeng

Anne Frank House/Aaron Peterer

Free2choose-Create: Kolkata, India December 2014 - Activity Post-production

Human Rights, anti-Semitism, and they impact the lives of young people
the persecution of Roma for example, today, the workshops provide the youth
and individuals and communities who with practical skills such as writing
identify as LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, scripts, using cameras, conducting
transgender, queer). effective interviews and editing videos.
Students play an active role in all The participants work with professional
aspects of the F2CC programme. The human rights educators and filmmakers
core idea behind F2CC is that young to identify human rights violations and
people, with sufficient supervision and dilemmas in their own communities and
guidance, can take responsibility for the subsequently, in small groups, write their
creation and educational implementation own scripts for a short 3 to 5 minute film. The main aim is for
of Free2Choose films. Participants conduct research and film students to
A special 2 to 4 day Free2Choose- interviews and then hit the streets or the understand the
Create workshop introduces young hallways of their schools. The background
people to the topic of human rights, the research and the filmed interviews lead importance of
history of human rights, the contempo- to a short 3 to 5 minute film that clearly human rights in their
rary importance of human rights and its portrays a human rights dilemma. own lives.
relevance to the lives of people and young The f inal step of the workshop
people today and their communities. involves developing skills for presenta-
Careful attention is devoted to making tions and debates. Students strengthen
the groups as heterogeneous as possible in their ability to lead discussions and
order to promote the kind of multi-per- debates about the topics of the films.
spective that can lead to rich discussions Since they have done the research on
and debates. the films and conducted the interviews,
In addition to a better understanding they are best qualified to lead discussions
of human rights issues and especially how around the films.

Summer 2017 29

Overcoming Treacherous Terrain to Reach for
Greater Future Through Education

By Nomsa Mpalami
(Non-formal education officer, Lesotho)

30 SangSaeng
Strengthening Literacy Learning in Lesotho

Global Citizenship
aims to enable
learners to appreciate
differences, multiple
identities like culture,
language, religion, and
to live in an increasingly
diverse world.

esotho is a small, mountainous cater to disadvantaged youths and adults. Development for Basic Education. The
and landlocked countr y Both females and males are given the most important part of the training is
completely surrou nded by opportunity to register through different that I learned to live harmoniously with
the Republic of South Africa. literacy programmes within the country. other people. As participants, we came
Three quarters of this country is located I am a primary school teacher by from different cultures and norms but we
in the highlands. Its topography has profession, and I work at the LDTC in learned to appreciate our differences.
had a negative impact on its childrens the Basic Education Unit. One of my
education. Most of the schools in the duties is to develop literacy and func-
highlands are not accessible to most tional literacy materials for learners, and Sharing the Growth
learners due to long walking distances. to train literacy teachers. The training motivated me to share
As a result, Lesotho Distance Teaching This article entails the activities what I learned with my colleagues. On
Centre (LDTC) was established in 1974 that I implemented in my country after March 2016, I facilitated a dissemination
as a non-formal education department the training I attended in South Korea workshop for my colleagues in the Basic
of the Ministry of Education, in order to in 2015. The training was on Capacity Education Unit. The workshop was

Summer 2017 31

financed by the Lesotho government. to develop instructional materials. The et hno-ling uist ic st r ucture consists
The participants consisted of 11 officers participants were further equipped with almost entirely of the Basotho) in recent
from Maseru (LDTC headquarters) and the skills to live together peacefully and years failed to appreciate their differences
14 field work officers from six LDTC harmoniously, taking into consideration and cultivate a spirit of tolerance. Those
operational districts. The purpose of the prevailing situation of the declining with a low level of education do not know
the workshop was to share with my level of peace in Lesotho where in some their basic human rights and therefore,
colleagues the knowledge and skills I had cases, people unnecessarily died due to it is not easy for them to respect other
acquired during the training in South lack of political tolerance. At the end of peoples rights. They also lack the skills
Korea and to establish those activities the workshop, I distributed story books that can help them solve problems peace-
that could best suit literacy learners. to the participants which were donated fully. When they face difficulties, they
The following topics were covered by APCEIU. resort to violence which leads to uncalled
i n t hat work shop: Development of Literacy learners, like anybody, face deaths. Global Citizenship Education
Materials, Peace and Human Rights daily challenges in their lives. Some of (GCED) aims to enable learners to appre-
Education, and ICT (Information and the challenges they face are poverty and ciate differences, multiple identities like
Communication Technology). The offi- violence. Due to their low level of educa- culture, language, religion, and to live
cers were fascinated by the presentations tion, they struggle to find employment in an increasingly diverse world. There-
since it had improved their skills on that would allow them to provide for fore, there is a need to equip literacy
developing better educational materials. their families. Reports from the media learners with skills that will help them
The easy steps that followed during the show that relationships within families manage conflicts peacefully. Moreover,
development of storybooks at APCEIU and neighbours are sometimes bad due GCED embraces inclusion, which means
were explained. Participants cherished to political and religious differences. everyone including literacy learners, are
the idea and felt that the initiative might The above cha l lenges usua l ly responsible to contribute towards a more
be good for Lesotho, where we are finan- occur just because the Basotho people peaceful world.
cially challenged and therefore unable (Ba nt u-spea k i ng people, L esot hos It was on this background that my

32 SangSaeng
Strengthening Literacy Learning in Lesotho

Nomsa Mpalami
Nomsa Mpalami Officers after receiving story books from APCEIU

Nomsa Mpalami
The book titled Mabinabine a pelo ea ka The original learners story (left), the story after being edited (right)

colleagues and I felt that it would be Facilitators also helped the participants the invitations. Teachers distributed
important to have training on peace ga i n a de e p u nder s t a nd i ng of t he the invitations to the learners, and, in
education, so that they could in turn meaning of conf lict and how to effec- return, the officers collected them back.
train literacy learners and teachers and tively manage them. The participants A learner had to choose one topic from
to develop a booklet that covers peace felt that the training was an eye-opener the following two topics: Life without
education after the training. I made a because in their everyday lives, they knowing how to read and write and Life
request with experts on peace education experienced conflicts but were unfortu- of a herd-boy in a cattle post. Learners
to facilitate the training. The Department nately resolved in a negative manner. The were requested to write stories which
for Peace Education (DPE) in Lesotho training might have improved partici- were illustrated with pictures. About
accepted the request. Therefore, on June pants relationships in the workplace and 90 literacy learners participated in the
28, 2016, the training workshop on peace hopefully within their families as well. Writing Festival and 28 of them were
education was held with facilitators from selected as best performers.
DPE and 26 officers. The objectives of the The purpose of the Writing Festival
workshop were to: Writing Festival was to enhance the literacy learners
xx help participants understand the The Writing Festival is an activity meant writing and reading skills, and to explore
meaning of conflict for literacy learners. The festival included their art skills.
xx empower and equip participants with literacy learners from LDTC, inmates
the skills that would enable them to from Lesotho Correctional Services, and
manage conflicts. the Bridge Project Community Learning Learner Book Project
The facilitators conducted a workshop Centres. The activity was sponsored One of the aims of GCED is to create
with a series of activities to enhance their by the Lesotho Bridge Project under resources that can be used for learning
presentation. They explained the tools UNESCO. and teaching by using the students and
that could be used to resolve conf licts T he fe s t i v a l w a s c onduc t e d by teachers thoughts. In order to motivate
such as a conflict tree and conflict wheel. literacy teachers, officers and I designed literacy learners, t heir stories were

Summer 2017 33

compiled into a Learner Book. 1974, literacy learners published a book. English). They also build a kraal or
The next steps were followed in the The heading of the book is Mabi- enclosure for some animals such as
development of a Learner Book. Firstly, nabine a pelo ea ka, which mea ns cattle. There are no public services
a panel of six officers was given the task that learners are revealing their life such as schools, shops, clinics, etc.
to proofread and edit the stories. Then, experiences. They live there without their parents.
three of the best stories were chosen from The book consists of three sections: Some stories show that herd-boys
each district. Finally, an artist modified 1. Life without knowing how to read suffer from cold in the winter and are
all the pictures. and write: Learners tell personal even abused by criminals.
stories about life without knowing 3. If I am educated: Learners from
how to read and write. They also tell formal schools (grades 5-7), who are
Launching of Learner Book stories about the impact of literacy in being helped by literacy teachers after
During International Literacy Day their lives. school in one of the Bridge Project
On October 2016, the International 2. Life of a herd-boy in the cattle Cent res, tel l stories about t heir
Literacy Day (ILD) was celebrated in the post: Learners write personal stories aspi rat ions. Some wa nt to be
village of Ha Teko. During this celebra- about life in the cattle posts. A cattle policemen while others want to be
tion, the Learner Book was launched and post is a place usually located in the nurses.
the deputy principal secretary, senior mountains far away from villages. It
officials from the Ministry of Education provides great pastures for animals My c ol le a g u e s e x pre s s e d t he i r
and Training, community members, and especially during the summer time. appreciation for implementing the above
the best learners who participated in the Herd-boys build sma ll huts t hat activities and are willing to complete the
writing festival attended. This event was serve as shelters known as motebo projects that are yet to be finished, so
special in that for the first time since the in Sesotho (one of the two official that literacy learners and teachers can
Literacy Programme was established in languages in Lesotho, the other being benefit from such initiatives.

34 SangSaeng
GCED & Youth: An Open Forum in Jeju


Coming Together to Build a Better, More Inclusive Future

By Anusheh Bakht and Braulio Gmez

(Members of the GCED Youth Network from Pakistan and Mexico respectively)

n the evening glow of this May after-
noon, while walking on the millennia
old Ttarabi Oreum trail, the extraor-
dinary nature of our situation dawned
on us. Here we were 50 young leaders
from around 40 countries, gathered on the
ancient Oreum in Jeju, South Korea. Built
from years of volcanic residue, Oreums
are small volcanic cones that were formed
on Jeju Island a long time ago. For some of
the locals, Oreums have a special meaning
since it is a devoted place for visiting
during various stages of life.
Such was our zealous, seam-bursting
energy that it seemed as if the whole
world had contracted and come together
as a bubble on this volcanic cone. We had
just started a conversation with Zeinab,
a youth leader from Lebanon, and soon
we were engrossed in the most recent
developments in our respective countries.
The conversation covered ideas and
issues ranging from religion and culture
to economics and political conflicts. Our
words wove through the lives of thou-
sands of people young, old, men and
women and the issues they confront on
a daily basis as members of a consolidated
community, including those who live in
fragmented and broken communities. We
discussed the intertwined challenges of
our respective countries that we, as young
people and the upcoming generations,
have to face in order to build safer and
stronger societies. The incredible magic of

the moment was palpable as we made our

way to the top of the trail to fly kites with
Participants at Jaejudo Joa elaborating artwork made of waste picked up from the shores. This peace messages.
activity was part of the study visits from the GCED projects taking place on the island.

SangSaeng Summer 2017 35


Group photo from the peace campaign at Ttarabi Oreum The last half of Day 4 was devoted to exploring the Oreum and making a
campaign by writing peace messages on kites.

This moment, amidst the humid air Development Goals (SDGs). It is pertinent issues in our societies. This is followed by
of Jeju and whirring windmills, made that people from around the world benefit a PEST and SWOT analysis to check the
me realise that we, without any effort, from the values promoted through GCED. feasibility of the proposed project.
embodied the essence of global citizenship. GCED is as much a part of formal educa- The participants were divided into
The differences of cultures, religions, tion as it can be fostered through informal smaller groups based on issues of interest.
ethnicities and race dissolved in our inex- means. Sense of community, friendship, These groups were able to come up with
plicable urge to understand each other and mutual understanding, critical thinking projects which interest them the most.
the issues afflicting our communities. The and solution-oriented debates are the core The unique part of these projects was their
3rd Youth Leadership Workshop on Global values and dynamics of GCED that were multi-dimensional and cross-cultural
Citizenship Education was able to make put into practice. scope. For instance, one of the groups that
us feel like global citizens: compassionate Concerted efforts were made to ensure provided a remarkable example of this
and curious, in times when rhetoric of that the practical dimension of GCED was was the one that worked with the social
exclusion dominates most political, social brought into the debates and discussions. issues surrounding female menstruation.
and economic discourses. A comprehensive plan was developed They discovered that in each of the group
with a wide range of approaches, not only members countries, with its particular-
thoughtful and interesting discussions ities and peculiarities, there were lots of
The Workshop at a Glance regarding global issues or GCED itself, prejudices and taboos surrounding female
The workshop was more incredible but also brainstorming initiatives that the menstruation cycle.
because the venture was driven by the youth can take globally to tackle problems There was also a lack of access to
GCED Youth Network under the tutelage in specific contexts. sanitary pads for girls, resulting either
of APCEIU. The major objective of the While the first day was devoted in an increase of school absence, an
workshop was to foster values of global to expand upon the complex subject exposure to unhygienic solutions or
citizenship education and global citizens of GCED, the second day was about both. They proposed to address this
amongst youth leaders. It further aimed introducing advocacy to the participants. issue through a campaign to debunk
to equip the youth leaders with the Advocacy, a central aspect of GCED, not the my ths surrounding the issue of
necessary advocacy skills. The workshop only implies having a deep understanding female menstruation. The group further
spanned over seven days from 28 May about the issue we want to tackle, but also developed a strategic plan to distribute
to 3 June. The key activities ranged from defines a concrete and realistic strategy. free sanitary pads in those schools that
presentations, study trips, reflections The Advocacy Toolkit, developed by the lack the resources to acquire them. The
and core sessions geared towards the Youth Advocacy Group for the United discussion raised key points such as the
development of advocacy plans by the Nations Secretary-Generals Global global nature of many of the issues we
participants. The participants were also Education Initiative along with Plan Inter- confront in our local communities. It
given the opportunity to attend the Jeju national, was used as a major resource for also emphasised the need to collaborate
Forum of Peace and Prosperity. these sessions. It was identified that two and learn from successful practices in
Global Citizenship Education (GCED) steps should be taken before starting a other parts of the world. Each group was
i.e. Sustainable Development Goal 4.7, project or initiative. This includes focusing thus able to provide new insights into
forms the essence of the Sustainable on research to identify the problems and issues that form the core of GCED.

36 SangSaeng
GCED & Youth: An Open Forum in Jeju

Participants from Arab States take a selfie during the Cultural Night on Day Group photo from participants and organisers of the 3rd Youth Leadership
3 of the workshop. Workshop on GCED

Together for Tomorrow within the chaos that surrounds us; we but meaningful chats we had with our
After the advocacy sessions, participants only have to put our minds to it. roommates or the rest of the participants
and facilitators gathered in a big circle to On the last day of the workshop, on the bus or during a break.
reflect upon the activities of the day. With participants attended the Jeju Forum The most brilliant features of the
moments of copious laughter separated for Peace and Prosperity. Two of the workshop were its briefness, richness
by periods of deep thoughts, sometimes youth participants, Umair Mushtaq and informality. Our lack of familiarity
very tired but also emotionally charged, from Pakistan and Leen Nassrullah from with each other did not overshadow an
the participants shared their feelings and Palestine, were able to speak on the panel astonishing fact: we were taking part in a
insights for the rest of the group making and discuss initiatives from their home historical event. The innumerable social,
us feel like a community of change-makers countries. Thus, the workshop was able political and economic possibilities of
whose strength lies in our diversity. to provide a chance for the participants being part of a dialogue with an interloc-
The cognitive and associative aspects to showcase their local activities. More utor who lives thousands of miles away
of both GCED and advocacy were rein- importantly, the forum was an oppor- from you is nothing less than a miracle,
forced when participants got the chance tunity for the participants to listen to especially when the exchange is facilitated
to partake in practical projects during extremely insightful panel discussions by a language foreign to most participants
the study visit. There were two study t hat we re p ar t of t he Je ju For u m . and organisers alike and takes place in a
groups; the first one visited Global Inner Amongst them, the panel on challenges foreign country. This did not happen in
Peace while the second group spent a faced by Haenyeo, female sea divers in any other period of human history and
considerable part of the day with Jaejudo Jeju, was inspiring and enlightening. The remains improbable even today.
Joa. Global Inner Peace is a civil organ- Jeju Forum was able to introduce key While reflecting on this, we discov-
isation geared towards the resolution of global debates on issues of peace, empow- ered that we were in a unique place and
issues related to the conservation of the erment and development. moment in history, and that we should
environment through the implementa- The workshop was successfully able take responsibility. The actual moment
tion of different activities such as peace to combine the theoretical and practical must be committed to enhance and to
campaigns or cleaning beaches. aspects of GCED. As it drew towards globally promote this kind of interaction
Jaejudo Joa is an environmental its end, a synthesis of these dimensions that is empowered by GCED, and we
grass roots level initiative which works was able to create a wholesome picture young people are key agents in that
towards the conservation of the beaches in the minds of the participants. What mission.
of Jeju Island. Participants got the chance is astonishing about having a complete In the evening glow of this May
to clean one of the beaches and use GCED approach in a programme is that afternoon, while walking on the trail
the collected glass to create jewellery those activities that are not part of the of the millennia old Ttarabi Oreum, we
and decorative pieces. Jaejudo Joa is official curriculum are able to play a realised that we can be the change we
a perfect example of how we can use significant role in reinforcing our identity want to see in the world. The success of
seemingly useless and harmful things in as global citizens. In this sense, many of the 3rd Youth Workshop on GCED lies
our surroundings to create aesthetically our most significant takeaways came from in this realisation.
appealing objects. It gives a powerful the collection of memories from simple
message that harmony and peace are daily life interactions, such as the little

Summer 2017 37


Expansive Waves that Generate Change

(An interview with Eduardo Mndez, Executive Director of the Musical Foundation
Simn Bolvar, El Sistema)

El Sistema is a publicly financed educational programme that uses music as a tool for social development. El Sistema was founded in
Venezuela in 1975 by the educator and activist Jos Antonio Abreu. The programme is known for helping young people from impoverished
environments. An important product of El Sistema is the Simn Bolvar Symphony Orchestra. As the Executive Director of the Musical
Foundation Simn Bolvar, Mr. Mndez has been actively introducing El Sistema and its methodology internationally. The interview was
conducted at the Jeju Forum for Peace and Prosperity 2017 where Mr. Mndez was a speaker.

Q1. How did you become involved with El Sistema?

I started with El Sistema when I was 5 years old. I started as a a place that can create an impact in our community and all
student in one of the ncleos, the learning centres as we call this requires a series of interactions with local governments,
them, in the ncleo of Mrida. I learned how to play the violin private companies and finding and training teachers. Creating
and went through all the stages of the ncleos, from its initia- a ncleo required a lot of work. In 1983, El Sistema was in a
tion, the childrens orchestra and the youth orchestra. When I moment of development which was high in comparison to the
turned 17, I auditioned for the Simn Bolvar orchestra, which rest of the country. And today, when in Mrida there used to
is at the top of the pyramid in El Sistema. I passed the audition be one ncleo, there are now 15 in the state of Mrida alone.
and started playing in the orchestra, but at the same time, I El Sistema was improving throughout the years and today,
started law school. I decided to study law because my parents it has standardised its creation and formation of ncleos
were lawyers and in that time, there was this mentality that within and outside of Venezuela. There are distinct processes
music was not a real profession. which have been perfected in what we call backstage. We see
This was 1995 and in Venezuela, there was this belief that the children and the orchestras playing, but behind there is a
if someone was a musician, they would starve to death. Music machinery of people that make all this possible. El Sistema has
was not a profession, it was a vocation. I studied law and grad- become an institution of national and international prestige.
uated after five years while playing in the orchestra at the same A few years ago, the idea that musicians died of hunger,
time. that it was not a real profession, has been changed with the
Af ter a year, Dr. Jos Antonio Abreu, our founding attitude of parents wanting their children to be part of El
director, my teacher and mentor, asked me to participate in Sistema so that their children can be successful in the field of
the administrative team of El Sistema, which needed staff that music. El Sistema has proved that musicians have a decent and
knew what El Sistema was all about. The project was in its worthy profession. Gustavo Dudamel, being the great genius,
developing stages. I started as an assistant, coordinating small and many other outstanding students who have become
things and little by little through the guidance of Dr. Abreu heroes, are just as famous as soccer players. Dudamel is a hero
and other directives of El Sistema, after two or three years, I to many children; everyone strives to be like him.
was given the position of national director of ncleos. I spent There is a change from the time where I needed two
five years being in charge of all the schools at a national level, professions until now, when a musician has become a worthy
and then I was given the position of executive director where I profession. It was not an easy task to transform the way a
have been for almost 10 years. community thinks. El Sistema has been generating processes
El Sistema had about 25 years of existence when I became and changing societies for 42 years. And these processes can
part of it. Organising a ncleo looked simple, but it was more be evaluated throughout time: how it used to be and how it is
than just a music school. It is a place where values are taught, now.

38 SangSaeng
The Power of Music: An Agent of Transformation

APCEIU/Song Kwang-Bin
Mr. Mendez speaking at the Jeju Forum 2017

El Sistema via twitter @elsistema

The pedagogical vision of musical studies is the biggest contribution of El Sistema

Summer 2017 39

Q2. What is the role of El Sistema and how is it related to UNESCOs concept of
culture of peace?

One of the reasons that I am here this afternoon, at the Jeju culture of peace. The concept of UNESCOs culture of peace
Forum, it has to do with the teaching of a culture of peace. highlights the importance of tolerance, solidarity and team-
El Sistema has a methodology that does not only deal with work. A boy that has a violin is incapable of holding a gun and
teaching music. Many people think of El Sistema as a factory this is what the project El Sistema has been creating. It is not
of musicians. El Sistema does produce musicians but this is not just about transformation and learning in a musical way. We
its initial result. Its initial result is the transformation of the are talking about the transformation of the inner human being.
human being, providing children with the tools and values in This is what Dr. Abreu always says, that an economically poor
order for them to become better citizens. child is wealthy spiritually through music.
Today, El Sistema has 840,000 children and young adults in A child that lives surrounded by the worst situations either
our projects. Think about the magnitude of this number. And learns to oppress or learns to live oppressed. And this oppres-
all these children at the same time have families so we multiply sion transforms a child into a being without aspirations, no
that number by two or three. These children and families have morals and incapable of anything. With music on the other
friends and communities and we multiply that number again hand, a child meets kind faces in the ncleo, he finds love and
by three or four. The influence a class produces in a child is learns values, he meets friends, this child learns that he is valu-
magnified by the thousands and millions of people it impacts able to many people and that he can carry this message to his
in the end. In some way, these children receive a direct and an family, a message of dignity and self-esteem.
indirect impact. The basic impact El Sistema tries to impart is After three or four months at the ncleos, this child gives
music as a tool of change and social transformation. This can his first concert and he is acknowledged by his family and
generate human and social values. community. Through this, he learns that he can do it, that he
A child that plays in an orchestra learns discipline, learns can do something with his life, and that he is brave and valu-
to socialise and learns about solidarity. This child learns to able. This self-esteem generates the possibility for this child to
compete in a healthy way, learning from his friends and also become a citizen of good, a citizen that thinks of possibilities
being tolerant, and all these values make up the concept of and of hope.

Q3. What were some conflicts that you and El Sistema faced, and how did you
overcome these obstacles?

There is no perfect institution. El Sistema has had many chal- road for many children to keep developing, which is the case of
lenges throughout its 42 years, challenges from the moment Gustavo Dudamel. But if we do not generate the conditions of
it started and after being founded. Many criticised Dr. Abreu, free, unlimited access, the basic conditions to attain this road,
people called him naive for trying to be inclusive with everyone then how do you know which kid has the conditions to study
and the music purists at that time told him it was insane, and which kid does not have them?
that music was for the talented and those who could play it. This is an opportunity for social inclusion, which from the
And this is another paradigm that was broken when Dr. Abreu beginning was an obstacle, but today it has transformed into a
gave access to everyone, without making any distinctions. One strength. Dr. Abreus ideas were criticised as impossible at first,
of the things Dr. Abreu says, is that the Universal Declaration but time showed that as more children were included, results
of Human Rights forgot to include art as one of the funda- demonstrated through different leaders and presidents, that
mental rights. We believe that art and music are agents of social throughout the 42 years, El Sistema became a programme that
transformation. Forty-two years until today, we are seeing Dr. conceptualised a project for social inclusion.
Abreus words come into reality when he said that this project This is a special project, and thanks to the wisdom of
would reach the entire world. Dr. Abreu the project has the possibility and the ability to
One main obstacle was conceptualising El Sistema as transform the way many people think. The project used to
a social programme. A person that does not know about be thought of as a cultural programme, a project that needed
the project of El Sistema is initially thinking of a cultural resources to promote its concerts, but we do not promote
programme. El Sistema is not a cultural project; El Sistema is concerts. What we do is promote continuous and permanent
a project of transformation and social change that uses music educational activities within music for the purpose of human
as a tool for transformation. Music alone is not the objective; and social development.
music is the bounce for the social process. We provide the

40 SangSaeng
The Power of Music: An Agent of Transformation

El Sistema via twitter @elsistema

Children participating in the activities of El Sistema

Q4. We are living in a time where waves of nationalistic and extreme views are paving
their way through our society. How does El Sistema deal with these views?

El Sistema is an example of coexistence; if something, El Sistema ambitions and are not far from reality.
can contribute to the world through the experience of integra- In one week, we have had in Venezuela people from Korea,
tion. An orchestra for example, is integration in itself. It does not Mexico, Angola, Brazil and the United States training in our
matter what religion you are, your nationality or race, it does not centres of study. It does not matter where you come from, the way
matter if you are ugly or pretty. All of this does not matter when you think or your beliefs, the important thing is that you receive
you are playing in an orchestra. The important thing is if you the same formation, the same education, so that you are able to
can do your job and if you can play. We can even say that the take and adapt the programme into your country, but taking into
collective level is somewhat more important than the personal account the characteristics and the idiosyncrasies of the different
one which is what the orchestra looks for and what El Sistema communities that the programme would be adapted in. If I recall,
looks for as well. Contrary to all these concepts of nationalism, in 2012, the symphonic orchestra of Caracas performed in Seoul
extremism and the actual waves of nationalistic countries, we a joint concert with the children of the initiative of El Sistema
make a call to a process of integration. in Seoul and they played the 5th Symphony of Beethoven, a
Integration is a tool that is fundamental to the development universal work played by Venezuelan and Korean children. This is
of all people, as history has proven, as people get closer, they the integration that contributes to the development of the people
achieve a higher level of development much faster. I believe and this is the message that we want to give, an orchestra and the
that the orchestra is the message El Sistema wants to give, the philosophy of the collective practice of empowering the people to
message of integration. El Sistema is in more than 40 coun- live in harmony and tolerance, in a culture of peace, which in part
tries, where its initiatives are being developed, inspired in the generates a process of transformation for humanity.
orchestra of El Sistema. We were able to generate, to plant the
seed of this Venezuelan idea, Venezuelan in the sense that a
Venezuelan man founded El Sistema, but this is a universal The interview was conducted in Spanish and then translated into
idea. In fact, the dream of Dr. Abreu has always been a global El English by Ins Kim (Office of Culture, Communication and Public
Sistema, global youth orchestras and youth choirs which are our Information, APCEIU)

Summer 2017 41

Yearlong Wait Culminates in Cultural Vibrancy

By Maralmaa Munkh-Achit
(Programme Coordinator of Zorig Foundation, Mongolia)

Children performing a traditional dance

42 SangSaeng
Naadam, A Celebration of Culture

very year in July, a traditional
fest iva l t hat d ates back to
G e n g h i s K h a n s e m p i r e
takes place in Mongolia. The
three-day festival called Naadam is the
busiest time of the year with tourists
from all over the world visiting Mongolia
to see colour f u l ly dressed loca ls
celebrating their biggest holiday with
their loved ones, eating famous local
foods and watching traditional sports
The Naadam festival is held from
11 to 13 July, across the country. Once
the festival approaches, people prepare
their traditional outfits known as deel
to go and see the opening ceremony
at t he Nationa l Stadium located in
the capital Ulaanbaatar. Herders and
horsemen start preparing months before
the real celebration starts and they wear
their newest deel and ride their fastest
I n t he c ou nt r y side , Na ad a m i s
not just a regular celebration but an
opportunity to meet with your nomadic
neighbours and exchange greetings.
While the capital city hosts the biggest
ceremony, all 21 provinces and over 300
soums (small local divisions similar to a
village) host their own Naadam festivals.
In soums or provinces, Naadam dates
may vary in order to permit its citizens
to participate in the national celebration
a nd compete in some of t he spor ts
The official Naadam opening cere-
mony starts when honourable soldiers
bring the nine banners of the Great
Mongol Empire from the government
house to Naadam stadium on horseback.
The president then makes his opening
remarks and traditional performances of
dance and music follow.

Special Celebration
Naadam originated as a celebration
Courtesy of Oyundari Erdenebat

follow ing impor tant events such as

weddings, spiritual gatherings and has
centuries of long traditions. In Secret
History of Mongolia, a historical record
written in the 13th century, the Naadam
festival is mentioned multiple times as a
way of celebrating victories in wars and
hunting trips. Naadam is the perfect

Summer 2017 43

occasion to witness Mongolian culture

from all aspects including sports, arts,
traditional dresses, and local cuisine.
Rooted in the tradition of training
warriors, the highlight of the festival
are the three manly games. The tradi-
tional competitions such as wrestling,

Courtesy of
horse racing and archer y constitute
the three-day festival. For a traditional
wrestler, Naadam is their biggest cham-
pionship with up to 1,024 wrestlers
competing in 10 rounds to claim their
new ranks. Only men are allowed to
participate and wrestlers must wear a
special costume named zodog and
Wrestling ranks are named after
Honourable soldiers bringing the nine banners of the Great Mongol Empire to the stadium
animals such as falcons, elephants, lions,
hawks and the winner claims the title
of lion. Once the wrestler defeats his
opponent, they do a gesture similar to
a bird f lapping its wings to resemble a
garuda or hawk. Similar to Japanese
su mo, Mongolia n w rest ling is st i l l
popular among its people and winning
wrestlers win the love and admiration of
the people along with a high prize.
Horse racing is another important
game of the festival. It is hard to imagine
Mongolia without its horses; therefore
Courtesy of Scott Presly

horse racing comes with many traditions

and rules. Horses are divided into age
groups to make the competition fairer.
Distance of the race is determined by the
age group to fit their physical capabilities
and the race takes place in an open field
Horse racing during Naadam outside the city. For the national horse
race, owners of the horses start training
months before the festival begins in
order to ensure the diet and stamina is
just right for the race.
Horse trainers bring their trained
horses on race day and start off with
giingoo, a traditional song sung by
jockey kids to encourage the horses
for their upcoming race. Jockeys in
Courtesy of

Mongolia are ver y young compared

to their Western counterparts. Some
children in the countryside learn to ride
a horse as early as when they begin to
walk. The first five horses to come to the
finish line are given prizes and receive
special titles. The last horse to finish in
the two-year-old age group is given a
special prize because it is believed that
they will win the next years race.
Wrestlers imitating falcons taking off (devee)

44 SangSaeng
Naadam, A Celebration of Culture

Courtesy of
Shamanistic performance at the Naadam opening ceremony

Archery is another sport that has a The winning archers are given the titles will be welcomed with a big bowl of airag
lot of historical significance. Mongolian of precise marksman. and it is a tradition to at least take a little
warriors were known for their horse sip from the bowl before returning it to
riding and archery skills and many local the host.
tales include stories of famous archers. Food at Naadam In 2010, the Naadam festival was
Genghis Khans nephew was a famous For Mongolians, Naadam cannot be inscribed into the UNESCO Intangible
archer who did not miss his target from celebrated properly without certain Cu ltura l Heritage of Humanit y list
half a kilometre away. types of foods and drinks. The most because of its history, tradition and
Initially, archery was included in the c om mon ly c on su me d fo o d du r i ng significance to the region. It is truly a
Naadam festival to encourage young Naadam is khuushuur. A round fried unique festival where one can be fully
archers, improve their skills and to prac- dough pocket filled with meat and onion immersed in Mongolian culture. At
tice for hunting trips. Nowadays, archery is sold everywhere from street food stalls Naadam, you can listen to traditional
has developed and taken a more modern to fancy restaurants. Similar to Italian long songs, throat singing or khoomii,
form. Archers compete in teams of ten calzones, it can be pan or deep-fried and horsehead fiddle performances, watch
with four arrows per person. Men and is very filling. Khuushuur costs between or even take part in traditional dances
women can participate equally and the 800-2,000 Mongolian tugriks (30 cents to as well as enjoy the famous traditional
goal is to hit 33 targets. 1 USD) depending on where you buy it. It sports.
The target is made out of small wood goes well with condiments like ketchup Since everyone participates in the
or woven and is stacked on top of each and soy sauce and is widely enjoyed by ceremony, it revives the community spirit
other to form a small wall. Once the many including foreigners who visit and brings joy to everyones soul. There
archer hits the target, everyone says Mongolia. is a saying in Mongolian, Daraa jiliin
uuhai which is equal to hooray in Airag or mares fermented milk is a Naadam daanch hol baina daa, which
Mongolian. famous drink in Mongolia and Naadam translates to, It is a long way till next
Archers compete with a full tradi- is a great time to try it. It may taste a little years Naadam. It shows that Naadam
tional deel costume and hat, and wear sour at first and contains small amount is awaited by many and is a favourite
leather braces to stretch their arms of alcohol, up to 3 per cent. If you visit a holiday of the Mongolian people to
without the sleeves getting in their way. household that ferments horse milk, you cherish and celebrate their culture.

Summer 2017 45

A Strangers Visit in the Night,
Part of an Almost Lost Cultural Heritage

By Tshering Zangmo
(Journalist at Bhutan Broadcasting Service, Bhutan)

46 SangSaeng
Bomena in Bhutan

Bhutan is one of the last countries to open us in the village. All of our eight family
its door to modernization. The tiny Hima- members sleep alongside each other in the
layan kingdom however is regarded as the large living room. After few casual conver-
last Shangri-La for the commitment it has sations with my grandmother, I dozed off.
shown in preserving its environment and In what seemed like a dream, I felt
the rich culture it possess in this rapidly someone right beside me. I confirmed it
developing world. There are many stories was not one of my family members. In
from Bhutan that have attracted the atten- that moment all I could do was shout. In
tion of foreigners but very few make it to an instant, the person escaped. The next
Bhutan given its tourism policy of high moment, all of my family members woke
value and low volume. up and were surprised to see the expres-
I, as a young Bhutanese, at times guide sion on my face. I still could not compose
some of my friends who visit my country what had happened nor could I see a
and each time I have noticed that they are peaceful sleep coming anymore.
surprised with the many aspects of Bhuta- The next day, I was spending some
nese culture. A simple example would be alone time in the field recollecting the
a Bhutanese wearing their national dress incident when my grandmother came with
every day to work. a cup of tea. I was still very disturbed and
Culture in Bhutan is regarded as one of she noticed.
the greatest strengths for a small country I want to leave early, its not safe here,
to preserve its sovereignty. While the world I said.
is awed by the rich and strong cultural She gave me a comfortable pat on my
practices in Bhutan, some of the Bhutanese shoulders and sat next to me.
culture to their knowledge is surprising Let me take you back to the days
and fascinating as well. Such is the culture when I was your age, said grandmother.
of Bomena which attracts the attention In the hopes to divert my mind, I agreed
of not only foreigners but also the urban and listened attentively.
Bhutanese dwellers. I will begin from how I met your
grandfather. On days when I used to work
in the field, I noticed that your grandfather
Roots Revisited had his eyes on me. It was a rare thing for
Though I was born in the western devel- young girls to be bold and directly take the
oped part of the country, my roots are hint and make our approach, so I passed.
from eastern Bhutan, the most remote part However your grandfather could make out
of the country. Back in 2011, before I left from the coy remarks I would make that I
for college, I visited my village for a week. was interested in him. Ever since I would
While my stay made me feel the need to stay awake every night and wait for him to
do more in terms of reaching for the basic visit me.
Kinley Wangchuk

amenities such as electricity or a source Did you have a private room? I

of safe drinking water, I had the opportu- asked.
nity to learn about one of the oldest and It was the same as it is today, she said.
strangest customs of the village which She then narrated to me of how my
made me decide never to go back to my grandfather came one night and how
village again. he made his visit frequent until they got
The day in the village starts in the fields married. After we shared a few giggles, we
and people work until the sun goes down. could not prolong our conversation since
On random occasions, all the villagers someone came along and the next day, I
gather together to bring along some local left.
beverages and dance to the bonfire for
hours. While I made my presence to the
gathering for the second time, I decided Night Hunting
to go to bed early since I did not enjoy the It was in my college, after two years had
celebration like I did in the past. passed since the horrific episode that we
It was very dark by then and so I were introduced to the culture of Bomena
dragged my grandmother to accompany as part of our sociology class. When the
me home. There is no private room for professor began with the lecture, I got a

Summer 2017 47


48 SangSaeng
Bomena in Bhutan

dj vu feeling. He went on to state that

this is one of the cultural aspects that exists
in the rural parts of the country and how
this was seen by modern thinkers and
writers. I could not concentrate much but
decided to delve into this subject myself.
Bomena translates to the tradition of
night hunting in Bhutan. It does not relate
to the hunting of animals at night but the
hunting of girls and women by men. It is
a culture which was very popular in the
olden times of Bhutan and still continues
to exist in some parts of the country where
men at night will try to sneak into a girls
apartment for sexual activities.
This can happen under different
circumstances. An urban dweller on a
random visit can eye a girl during the day
and the girl would have already shown her
interest through coy remarks. An ordinary
villager would have a woman he has seen
recently by planning to visit her later at
night or it can happen after a long night
gathering in the village.
In all the situations, the men will have
to make an extra effort to sneak into the

Kinley Wangchuk
girls house. This was very convenient as
the two storied Bhutanese houses had
large traditional doors and windows with a
wooden latch which made it easier for the
men to find ways to enter.
After carefully estimating the time
when all the villagers were assumed to
be asleep, the men, either in groups or as
or threatened with marriage. would support his/her education.
individuals, would make their way to the
After their successful night, the men The modern day demands different
girl of their choice. In here they had to be
had to make sure they were gone before needs starting from mandatory documents
extra careful as families in villages slept
the sun came up and if he slept in he would needed for a child to be enrolled in schools
alongside each other in a row in the same
have to find a way to sneak out again. In and also the fact that it is expensive to raise
the cases where the family is said to have a child. However, if you go through certain
For the urban dweller that already had
discovered the man in the morning, it literatures that support this culture, they
an invitation, the girl would wait until he
resulted in marriage. claim that the modern thinker misinter-
was there and she will direct him to her
preted the culture itself. They even note
bed. For the men who casually visit the
that urban people have oppressed the rural
girls, they will have to be extra cautious
Disappearing Culture culture in the name of advancement.
to not wake up the entire family first,
The culture of Bomena is near to extinc- My grandmother visited me after
then look for the girl among the family
tion in Bhutan. Most of the modern I graduated. On my graduation night, I
members next to her and finally make a
thinkers, bloggers and writers claim this was getting ready for the big party my
lengthy request to the girl until she agrees.
tradition to be illicit and also has meta- friends were throwing. My sister made
It can either result in a consensual agree-
phors of rape and other crimes. While it a note about my backless dress and how
ment or a painful rejection. An interesting
is true to say that this culture resulted in it is very exposing while looking at my
record also claims that even if the family
unwanted pregnancies, bringing up a child grandmother expecting her to support
members know of the incident and the
in the olden days was not a big deal given her point. In that moment, instead of my
visiting man is up to their expectations,
the joint family members role in collec- grandmother supporting my sister, I saw
they would pretend to be unaware of the
tively raising the child. Moreover, the child her smiling in acceptance.
stealthy visit. If it is the other way round,
grew up to support the family in the fields I guess this is how we blend the genera-
the uninvited guest is either chased away
and hence there was no question of who tional gap.

Summer 2017 49

impact in their respective host schools, and are expecting their own
2017 UN GCED SEMINAR successful completion of the programme.

Global Forum for Youth

Leaders to Share GCED

The 3rd Youth Leadership

Workshop on GCED was held
from 28 May to 3 June on Jeju
Island, Republic of Korea.
During this workshop, 50
youth leaders and activists
from 42 countries participated
APCEIU, together with the Republic of Korea and Qatar in workshops for youth advocacy and study visits in order to better
Permanent Missions to the United Nations, as well as understand GCED local initiatives.
the World Federation of United Nations Association, Organised by APCEIU and the core members of the GCED Youth
Network, this workshop was a forum for participants to actively share
co-organised the 2017 UN Global Citizenship Education
and engage with each other based on their local youth activities.
Seminar at the United Nations in New York City.
On the final day, participants took part in a session on The Role of
Titled The Role of Global Citizenship Education in
Youth and Culture in Shaping a Peaceful and Sustainable Future in
the 2030 Agenda and Beyond, the seminar, which
the 2017 Jeju Forum for Peace and Prosperity.
ran on 19 June, focused on how Global Citizenship
Education (SDG Target 4.7) contributes to the values
and visions of the United Nations.
An annual event since 2015, the discussions this year
also touched on the best practices that contribute to Exploring Solidification of
the realisation of the SDG Target 4.7, the Sustainable GCED Action in Southern
Development Goal for GCED. Africa
APCEIU and the UNESCO Regional Office for Southern
Africa showcased the diverse
GCED efforts of institutions
working in various regions of
Sub-Saharan Africa.
Running from 6-7 April, the 2017 Sub-Saharan Africa Regional
Global Citizenship Education Network Meeting also examined the
diverse concepts embedded in human rights, peace, and gender
equality; concepts that have been strongly implemented in the region.
Held in Johannesburg, South Africa, the meeting brought about 50
representatives from Sub-Saharan Africa education-related ministries,
civil society organisations, universities and research institutions and
UNESCO entities.
Moreover, the meeting jumpstarted the formation of the Africa
Successful First Half of the 2017 Asia-Pacific Teacher Regional GCED Network.
Exchange Programme
Sixty-two exchange teachers from four countries were dispatched
to Korean host schools to carry out their educational activities from
March and April to June, as part of the 2017 Asia-Pacific Teacher Kick-off Meeting for
Exchange for Global Education programme.
the 2nd Phase of GCED
The three-month experience at each Korean school has provided
Curriculum Development
the exchange teachers from Cambodia, Mongolia, the Philippines
and Integration
and Vietnam with the opportunity to enhance the awareness and
commitment of global citizenship education and acquire new The 2nd Phase of GCED
insights and motivations. Curriculum Development and
At the same time, students and teachers at Korean schools were Integration has officially kicked
able to deepen their understanding of their partner countries and off with the International Bureau
learn how to embrace differences and appreciate diversity. of Education (IBE-UNESCO) as well as four partner countries from
Meanwhile, 34 Korean teachers dispatched to Malaysia, 22-24 March at APCEIU offices in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Indonesia, Thailand and Cambodia, are now making a positive The kick-off meeting was successful due to the enthusiastic

50 SangSaeng
participation of the four partner countries of Cambodia, Colombia, Development was held at the Jeju International Peace Center from
Mongolia and Uganda and IBE-UNESCO. 22-23 February.
The goal of the meeting was to provide assistance in setting up Professors designed and implemented GCED courses in nine
a clear path for the year ahead. It will also aid in further cementing different universities in the Republic of Korea under the support of
every stakeholders resolve in implementing the course of action they APCEIU. Throughout the workshop, participants shared and learned
adopted. about newly developed GCED curriculum implemented in each university and their departments.
Workshops on PVE-E
in Africa Sub-Regional Workshop
on ESD and GCED in
Central Asia
other partners organised two
capacity-building workshops The first sub-regional workshop
on Global Citizenship Education f o r Te a c h e r E d u c a t i o n
(GCED). Institutions on mainstreaming
The first workshop focused on the Prevention of Violent Extremism Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Global Citizenship
through Education (PVE-E) in Sub-Saharan Africa, which took place in Education (GCED) was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan on 19-23 June
Addis Abba, Ethiopia on 21-23 February. 2017.
The second workshop brought together the UNESCO International The workshop was co-organised by APCEIU and the UNESCO
Institute for Capacity Building of Africa, the UNESCO Dakar Office Cluster Office in Almaty, in cooperation with the UNESCO Asia-Pacific
and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, to collaborate Regional Office in Bangkok, the Central Asia Regional Environmental
in Dakar, Senegal on 9-11 May 2017. Center and was financially supported by the Government of Japan.
The workshops aimed to strengthen the capacities of education The meeting aimed to strengthen the capacities of teacher educators
policy makers and teacher educators to design and implement so that they can properly implement ESD and GCED and build upon
relevant and effective policies and practices to promote PVE-E in the the outcomes of the two workshops to promote GCED in Central Asia,
context of GCED and eventually contribute to sustainable peace in which was organised by APCEIU and UNESCO Almaty since 2015.
Sub-Saharan Africa.

Education for Sustainable

Development and Global
Citizenship Workshop in
Islamabad and the UNESCO
headquarters co-organised a
three-day national workshop
Practices for Educators to Empower Learners to
on Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship
Become Global Citizens
Education in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Running from 15-17 February, the national workshop raised More than 500 experts, practitioners and policymakers from across
awareness and understanding of education stakeholders in Pakistan the world gathered in Ottawa, Canada to explore pedagogical
on the concept of Education for Sustainable Development and Global approaches and teaching practices in order to achieve the Sustainable
Citizenship, focusing on the Sustainable Development Goals in target Development Goals through Education for Sustainable Development
4.7. and Global Citizenship Education.
This workshop was a forum to discuss issues surrounding SDG Running from 6-10 March, the UNESCO Week for Peace and
Target 4.7, aimed to ensure that all learners are provided with the Sustainable Development: The Role of Education, brought together
knowledge, attitudes and skills to promote sustainable development the Global Review Forum for the Global Action Programme on ESD
and global citizenship. and the Third UNESCO Forum on GCED representing UNESCOs
two major educational approaches. APCEIU participated in the exhibition of a Global Citizen Campus booth with activities related
to GCED and SDGs. Utak Chung, the Director of APCEIU, pledged
that APCEIU would continue to support the promotion of GCED and
Sharing Outcomes, renew its efforts towards the advancement of global citizenship.
Support for GCED Course In collaboration with the UNESCO Bangkok Office, APCEIU
Development also organised a session to prepare teachers for global citizenship
education in Asia. The session explored themes and pedagogical
An academic workshop to
methods through which GCED can be approached.
share the outcomes of the 2016
Support for GCED Course

Summer 2017 51
EIU Photo

SangSaeng is available online:
Ntor, Rajshahi, Bangladesh Md Tanveer Hassan Rohan