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Mechanical Equipment Choices for Cooling Towers Company Confidential November 17, 2016
Mechanical Equipment
Choices for Cooling Towers
Company Confidential
November 17, 2016

Why is this important?

Just give me a fan?

Why is this important? Just give me a fan? 1. Each manufacture of equipment has a

1. Each manufacture of equipment has a standard Equipment Package.

2. No Specification – You will be provided the standard equipment.

3. Questions to be asked:

Is the standard equipment good enough for you and your customer?

Does the standard Equipment meet the needs of your customer?

What does your specification state?

Table of Contents 1. Why is it important? 2. Mechanical Components in a Cooling Tower
Table of Contents
1. Why is it important?
2. Mechanical Components in a Cooling Tower
3. Comparisons of Product Types
4. Summary
Company Confidential
November 17, 2016
3

Why is this important?

Just give me a fan?

Why is this important? Just give me a fan? 1. Energy Efficiencies 2. Sound Levels 3.

1. Energy Efficiencies

2. Sound Levels

3. Maintenance

4. Cost – upfront and replacement

5. Service Life

Which is important to you and your customer?

Energy Efficiencies • Making a typical cooling tower mechanical selection • Example: 670 ton cooling

Energy Efficiencies

Making a typical cooling tower mechanical selection

Example: 670 ton cooling tower selection with standard low noise fan, right angle gear drive, and a NEMA premium efficient 50 HP motor, running 24/7/365 (8760 hours/year), will have an annual energy cost of around $25,000.

A 1% improvement in efficiency can save in the range of $600 - $750 annually

Ways to make this improvement in efficiency, can be in the form of:

make this improvement in efficiency, can be in the form of: • Fan design used •

Fan design used

Choice of drive or motor used

Choice of speed reduction, direct, belt or gear drive

Even choosing to utilize a larger tower with lower horsepower.

Energy cost based upon cost per Kwh of 14.5¢

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

5

Sound Noise is a growing concern for communities around the world. With expanding urban and

Sound

Noise is a growing concern for communities around the world. With expanding urban and industrial development, government and industry are faced with increasingly stringent and strictly enforced noise regulations.

Urban areas often have restrictive sound requirements at property lines

Schools, hospitals, commercial and other buildings consider how sound affects occupant comfort

Industrial facilities consider how sound affects operator health and safety

Cooling Tower Manufactures have acoustically engineered and verified solutions to address these concerns.

engineered and verified solutions to address these concerns. This picture shows a cross flow tower with

This picture shows a cross flow tower with inlet sound attenuation, but the mechanical equipment makes a large impact on the sound produced from the tower.

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

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Sound How loud is a typical Cooling Tower? Company Confidential November 17, 2016 7

Sound

How loud is a typical Cooling Tower?

Sound How loud is a typical Cooling Tower? Company Confidential November 17, 2016 7

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

7

Maintenance Cooling Towers have a significant impact on total system performance  Keep overall HVAC

Maintenance

Cooling Towers have a significant impact on total system performance

Keep overall HVAC energy costs low if properly maintained

Every 1º F rise in cwt decreases chiller performance by up to

3%

Decreased chiller performance may cause an increase in energy use and shorten the life of the chiller

increase in energy use and shorten the life of the chiller  Tower structures may last

Tower structures may last 15 – 25 years with good maintenance and water treatment . It may last even longer with stainless steel options.

Replacing bearings for mechanical equipment is typically

required about every 10-12 years.

you can get it to last as long as the structure

With good maintenance

it to last as long as the structure With good maintenance Provide a Cooling Tower that

Provide a Cooling Tower that Allows for Ease of Maintenance

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

8

Cost Let’s take a look at Cost of Tower: • First Cost or Initial Capital

Cost

Let’s take a look at Cost of Tower:

First Cost or Initial Capital Investment

Low First Cost you are going to get the standard package.

Increase of initial investment can give you improved efficiencies, lower sound, easier to maintain equipment

Operating Cost – With improved efficiencies come reduced operation cost

Maintenance Cost – By selecting certain motors, couplings, and drivetrain components you can reduce the amount of maintenance required, and cost of maintenance materials.

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

9

Service Life • How long will your cooling tower and mechanical equipment last? • Tower

Service Life

How long will your cooling tower and mechanical equipment last?

Tower structures may last 15 – 25 years with good maintenance and water treatment . It may last even longer with stainless steel options.

Mechanical Equipment service life will depend upon your selections.

Certain Mechanical will have wear items or components that have to be replaced.

Belts have to be replaced annually

Gearbox seals replace on average every 3-5 years

Oil changes on gearboxes – every 6 months with turbine mineral oil, or only every 5 years for synthetic oils.

Close Couplings and driveshaft flex elements replaced every 5-7 years

Fans, gearboxes, and motors have the potential with good maintenance to last as long as the tower structure.

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

10

What are the Mechanical Components? 1. Fan 2. Motor 3. Geareducer or Bearing housing 4.
What are the Mechanical Components?
1. Fan
2. Motor
3. Geareducer or Bearing housing
4. Coupling/Driveshaft or Belt and Sheave
Company Confidential

Breakdown of Mechanical Equipment

Ultra-Quiet Fan

Gear box

Close Coupling

Cooling Tower Duty Motor

Fan Gear box Close Coupling Cooling Tower Duty Motor COPYRIGHT © 2013 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.
Fan Gear box Close Coupling Cooling Tower Duty Motor COPYRIGHT © 2013 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.

Industrial Design – Fan

U-Bolt style hub for secure connection to fan shank

Galvanized or Epoxy Coated Hubs

connection to fan shank • Galvanized or Epoxy Coated Hubs • Small diameter hub • Fan

Small diameter hub

Fan blades clamped between cast center hubs

hub • Fan blades clamped between cast center hubs COPYRIGHT © 2016 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.

Sound Levels – Fan Solutions

Standard Low Sound Fans

Designed to maximize air movement efficiency at low sound levels

Quiet Fans $

Increased blade count and reduced speed lowers sound levels with minimal cost impact

~2-4 dBA reduction, ~0-3% thermal derate

Ultra Quiet Fans $$

High solidity acoustic geometry airfoil for ultra quiet and efficient operation

~7-12 dBA reduction, generally no thermal derate

*Not all tower models are available for upgrade.

derate *Not all tower models are available for upgrade. Upgrade your © 2012 SPX Cooling Technologies,
derate *Not all tower models are available for upgrade. Upgrade your © 2012 SPX Cooling Technologies,

Upgrade your

© 2012 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

November 17, 2016

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Built to Perform = Motors

Built to Perform = Motors • TEFC motors - Has fan on NDE of shaft to

TEFC motors

- Has fan on NDE of shaft to move air across the motor housing providing air flow over the motor even when used with a VFD.

TEAO motors for inside airstream models

- Only gets airflow from the fan it is

driving.

at low frequencies, this may not be

enough air flow to keep the motor cool.

With a motor used on a VFD,

air flow to keep the motor cool. With a motor used on a VFD, COPYRIGHT ©
Direct Drive Motors Advantages: • Energy Savings • Increased Capacity • Reduced Maintenance • No

Direct Drive Motors

Advantages:

Energy Savings

Increased Capacity

Reduced Maintenance

No Oil in System

Reduced Sound

Reduced Maintenance • No Oil in System • Reduced Sound Disadvantages: • High First Cost •

Disadvantages:

High First Cost

Long Lead-Time

More Weight

More Height

VFD Required

No Motor Starter Bypass

Proprietary Software

Unknowns:

Longevity, How Corrosion Resistance, Heat Rejection, Generator “Back EMF”, Magnetic Field Safety Concerns, Weakening Magnetic Field, Shaft Currents, and Bearing Life/Thrust Loads

Company Confidential

November 17, 2016

16

NC Industrial Design – Drivetrain

Gear Drive

Higher First Cost

100,000 hour bearing life minimum

Up to 5 year change interval

2 - 7 db quieter than other gearboxes

Ability to turn down to 25%

than other gearboxes • Ability to turn down to 25% Belt Drive • Lower First Cost

Belt Drive

• Lower First Cost

• 40,000 hour bearing life

• Annual Belt Changes

• Belt Tensioning Maintenance Required

• Required Greasing of Bearings

Maintenance Required • Required Greasing of Bearings COPYRIGHT © 2016 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc. November

Geardrive or Belt Drive Maintenance Requirements

 

Gear Drive

Belt Drive

Inspect/Adjust Belts

NA

Monthly

Lubricate Fan Shaft Bearings

NA

Monthly

Inspect and Grease Motor Base

NA

Yearly

Check Oil Level

Monthly

NA

Change Oil in Gearbox

5 years

NA

Bearing Lubrication

Sealed oil bath

Open grease lubrication

Belt Replacement

NA

Typ 1 yr

Bearing Replacement

Typ 10 yrs

Typ 3 yrs

Transmission Efficiency

98%

95% max, typ 90%

3 yrs Transmission Efficiency 98% 95% max, typ 90% COPYRIGHT © 2016 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.

Summary

1. Energy Efficiencies

2. Sound Levels

3. Maintenance

4. Cost – upfront and replacement

5. Service Life

4. Cost – upfront and replacement 5. Service Life COPYRIGHT © 2016 SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.