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Three-Phase UPS with High Power Factor and High

Frequency Transformer Isolation


Ren P. T. Bascop1, Carlos G. C. Branco2, Ccero M. T. Cruz3, Luiz D. S. Bezerra4, Guilherme A. T. Hertz5
Federal University of Cear, Department of Electrical Engineering, Energy Processing and Control Group
Fortaleza-CE Brazil
1
rene@dee.ufc.br , 2gustavo@dee.ufc.br , 3cicero@dee.ufc.br, 4daniel@dee.ufc.br, 5hertzguilherme@gmail.com

Abstract-This work proposes an double conversion three-phase of the system, since the transformer offers a galvanic isolation
uninterruptible power system (UPS) with power factor to the load from undesirable disturbances of the main supply.
correction, high frequency (HF) transformer isolation, and
suitable for operation with line-to-line input voltages equal to Such transformer is placed at the output employing the
220V or 380V. For both input voltages, the proposed converter delta/wye connection [3]. The addition of such magnetic
has almost the same efficiency processing the same output component increases both weight and volume, and also adds
power. The structure is composed by single-phase chopper cost and difficulties in the transportation to the installation
modules, single-phase boost modules, and one three-phase site.
inverter [1]. The relevant features are soft commutation of the
controlled switches in the chopper stage, simple control strategy Transformerless UPS incorporating with common neutral
that can be implemented with well-known integrated circuits bus line could be a solution to improve power conversion
(IC), and the use of few batteries in series due to the same efficiency, volume and weight reduction [4]. Although this
reference of the step-up stages. Principle of operation of the UPS topology offered a way to obtain these advantages, these
proposed system, implemented control strategy and types dont provide isolating to critical loads, such as,
experimental results obtained for a 15kVA prototype are
presented. medical instruments.
In [5-8] are proposed three-phase rectifiers with one
I. INTRODUCTION transistor based on flyback and Cuk converters operating in
discontinuous and continuous modes, that can be used for the
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) are used to protect development of UPS topologies.
many sensitive loads against a wide variety of utility voltage For high power systems, in [9] was proposed some three-
disturbances and power outages. Most of such systems phase rectifiers. These rectifiers are named Vienna rectifier II.
consist in the true on-line UPS configuration. In general, this They are suitable for applications such as telecommunication
is the most reliable UPS configuration due to its capacitor rectifiers and UPS systems.
tank in the bus that mitigates input disturbances. This kind of Other technique found to implement three-phase rectifiers
UPS provides total independence between input and output is the association of single-phase high frequency isolated
voltage amplitude and frequency, and, thus, high output converters, also, named three-phase rectifier based on
voltage quality can be obtained [2]. modular technique [10-11]. The first one was based on high
Most of true on-line UPS operates with a low frequency frequency isolated series resonant converters, and the second
transformer using a silicon-steel core. In this configuration, it one was given by two boost stages and full-bridge converters.
is normally required an isolating transformer for proper
operation of the bypass circuit and also to improve reliability

Grid Isolated choppers Boost converters Three-phase Inverter

Vi Vcd Vbus Vo
Load

St

GRID MODE
BATTERY MODE
St THYRISTOR +
Batteries Battery charger

Fig. 1. Simplified block diagram of the proposed three-phase high frequency isolated UPS.

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D1 D3 S1 D1 D3 S1 S3
Cf1
Lf D5 D7 D5 D7
Tr Lf Tr

Np Vcd Cf Vcd
Vi Ns Vi Np Ns

D6 D8 D6 D8
Cf2 S2
D2 D4 D4 S2 S4
D2
(a) (b)
S1 S5
Cf1 S1 Cf1
D1 D3
D1 D3
Lf D5 D7 D5 D7
S2 Tr Lf S2 S6
Tr
D9 D11
Vi Vcd
D9 Vcd
Np Ns Vi Np Ns

S3 D6 D8 S3 S7 D6 D8
D2 D4 D10
D2 D4 D10 D12
Cf2 S4 Cf2
S4 S8
(c) (d)
Fig. 2. Single-phase chopper circuits.

Lf Lb D Lb1 D1
Vbus+
Lf Vbus+

High-frequency
D2
filter Cf High-frequency Lb2
C1 filter
Cf C1
S1 S1 S2
Vbus- Vbus-

(a) (b)
Lf Lb1 D1 Lf Lb1 D1 Vbus+
Vbus+

High-frequency S1
High-frequency filter C1
filter C1 Cf
Cf
S1
S2 C2
Vbus-
Vbus-
Lb2
Lb2 D2 (c)
D2 (d)
Fig. 3. Single-phase boost converters.

Vbus+ Vbus+

S1 S3 S5 Sa1 S1 S3 S5
C1 L1 A L1 A
L2 B L2 B
L3 C L3 C

C2 S2 S4 S6 Sa2 S2 S4 S6
C3 C4 C5 C3 C4 C5
Vbus- Neutral Vbus- Neutral

(a) (b)
Vbus+ Vbus+

S1 S5 S9 S1 S5 S9

+ S2 S6 + S2 S6
C1 S10 C1 S10
L1 L1
D1 D3 D5 A A
L2 B L2 B
L3 C L3 C
Cc Cc Cc
S3 S7 S11 S3 S7 S11
C3 C4 C5 C3 C4 C5
+ D2 D4 D6 +
C2 Neutral C2 Neutral
S4 S8 S12 S4 S8 S12
Vbus- Vbus-
(c) (d)
Fig. 4. Three-phase inverters.

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Single-phase chopper (Phase A) Single-phase boost (Phase A)
Vout1 Lb Db

S1 S3
D1 D5 D7
Va D3
St
Lf C1

380V

220V

S5
S2 S4 Tr
C2
D2 D4 D8 D6

Voltage balance circuit Three-phase inverter


Vout2 Lb Db
Vbus+
S1 S3 S6 S8 S9 S10
Vb D1 D3 D5 D7
C1 St
Lf
C3 a
L1

380V L4
L2 b

220V
L3 c
S5 S7 S11 S12
Tr C4 S13
C2 S2 S4
D2 D4 D6 D8 C5 C6 C7
Vbus-
N
Vout3 Lb Db
Vbus+
D1 S1 S3 D5 D7
Vc D3
St
Lf C1 Dt Lbat Sbat1
Dr3 Dr1 Cbat1
+
Tr1
380V Battery

Bank + Ns Np
220V Cbat
S5

Tr
C2 S2 S4
D6 D8
D2 D4
Sbat2 Cbat2 +
Dr4 Dr2
Vbus-
Battery charger

Fig. 5. Proposed three-phase high frequency isolated UPS.

sharing through the modules due to the implemented control


Considering as reference the block diagram shown in Fig. strategy in the boost stage that is closed loop controlled.
1, and classical converters presented in Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and The choppers controlled switches are driven with fixed
Fig.4, is feasible to obtain many topological structures of duty cycle (D0.5). The control strategy allows the
three-phase high frequency isolated UPS systems. Based on application of high frequency voltage pulses to the primary
this converters was generated the architecture shown in Fig. windings of the isolation transformer Tr, enabling the use of a
5, based also in [1] that is analyzed in this work. high frequency transformer. The choppers must be designed
using the mathematical theory presented in [1].
II. PROPOSED UPS CIRCUIT
C. Boost Stages
A. Topology Description The three boost converters modules are connected to the
The proposed UPS shown in Fig. 5 is composed by the output of the choppers, and are controlled using conventional
following converters: three single phase full-bridge choppers, average current mode control implemented with the well-
three single phase boost converters, a three-phase voltage known PWM IC UC3854B [12].
Va
source inverter and a balancing half-bridge leg. The proposed Chopper 1
system chosen for analysis could operate with either 220Vac Vout1
or 380Vac line-to-line input voltages, and three-phase 220Vac Vb
line-to-line output voltage. Chopper 2
Vout2
B. Chopper Stages Vc
The three choppers are open-loop controlled using only Chopper 3

one PWM analog control IC circuit based on the SG3525A. Vout3

The simplified control block diagram is shown in Fig. 6. The


Fixed Duty Cycle
simultaneous operation of the choppers allows the current PWM

Fig. 6 Control block diagram of the chopper stages.

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IL1 Vbus+ Vbus+
Vout1 Boost 1
Three-phase inverter
N
Balance circuit
Va
Voltage Ci(s) PWM
-
Reference + Vbus-
(Grid mode) Voltage Compensator
Current Compensator S5 S6 +
Cv(s) -
Voltage + +
Reference
(Battery mode) Vref

IL2
Vout2 Boost 2 - Vref=0V
C(s) +
PWM PWM
Vb
Voltage - Ci(s) PWM
Reference +
(Grid mode)
Current Compensator
Voltage
Reference Fig. 8 Control block diagram of the balancing circuit.
(Battery mode)
IL3
Vout3 Boost 3

Vc
E. Three Phase Inverter Stage
Voltage
Reference
-
+
Ci(s) PWM In this application a three-phase voltage source inverter is
(Grid mode)
Current Compensator chosen due to its simplicity control implementation and
Voltage
Reference
(Battery mode)
operation [14]. This topology is also shown in Fig. 5.
The control block diagram is shown in Fig. 9. The line-to-
Fig. 7 Control block diagram of the boost stages. neutral voltage per phase is sampled and controlled using
Each boost converter is controlled using your own IC, your own compensator circuitry. The reference voltage of
shown in Fig. 7. The voltage reference is obtained from input each phase has the same amplitude and is phase-shift from
line-to-neutral voltages. In order to provide a good current each other in 120. This reference voltage signals are
sharing and operation stability through the boost circuits, the generated using a quadruple 8-bit digital-to-analog converter
sawtooth of each integrated circuit are synchronized. with serial interface (TLC5620), controlled by a PIC
Using this current control technique, the power delivery by microcontroller and synchronized with the utility voltage.
each phase is equal, then the neutral displacement voltage is
zero and the system will not present any over or under F. Battery Charger Stage
voltages [11]. The battery charger is based on isolated half-bridge DC-
The three boost converters main functions are: control the DC converter, as shown in Fig. 5. The converter operates in
power flow in each phase module, control the dc-link bus continuous conduction mode (CCM) of the current through
voltage Vbus, power factor correction, and stepping up the the filter inductor, and is supplied by the dc-link bus
battery voltage up to the dc-link bus voltage. Additionally, capacitors. The control scheme of the battery charger is
this stage provides an active filtering to block the pulsating shown in Fig. 10. The implemented control has one voltage
current of the nonlinear load (i.e. the inverter stage) from the and one current control compensator, where, both operates
battery bank. using the OR logic. In this application the battery is charged
under constant current controlled by the current regulator.
D. Balancing control circuit For this application, a thyristor St associated with a passive
When three-phase voltage source inverters are used to fed snubber was used to connect the battery bank thought the on-
non-linear loads, the output neutral point of the wye, must be line power circuitry during the battery powered mode. Switch
connected to the middle point generated by two capacitors in St is turned on when the ac mains voltage is null or out of the
series connection, as shown in Fig. 5. The indicated input voltage range and it is turned off when ac mains voltage
capacitors are unbalanced when an asymmetrical non-linear is within the desired limits.
load is connected to the output of the inverter. To regulate the Va

voltage across the capacitors C3 and C4, it is used an auxiliary Vbus+


Three-phase
Vb
circuit, which is also shown in Fig. 5. N
Inverter
The auxiliary circuit is a bidirectional buck converter. The Vc
Vbus-
control block diagram of the balancing circuit is shown in
Fig. 8. The balance circuit has a ground in the middle point of
the capacitors, which is also the neutral point of the inverter.
The voltages are sampled across the both capacitors and send Legc
to the adder, and the resultant signal is compared with a null PWM
Cvc(s)
-
+
Vrefc

voltage.
The error signal is send to the compensator and the control Cvb(s)
- Vrefb
+
voltage is compared with separate two triangular carriers as Legb PWM

shown in Fig. 8. - Vrefa


Compared to the utilization of the four-leg voltage source Lega PWM
Cva(s) +

inverters [13] used for the same purpose in literature, it


presents the same number of active switches, and the current
circulating through the controlled switches is lower. Fig. 9 Control block diagram of the three-phase inverter.

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Vbus+ IL Vbat
The results shown in Figs. 12-15 were obtained for an
Battery charger input line-to-line voltage equal to 380Vac and the results
shown in Figs. 16-17 were obtained for an input voltage line-
to-line equal to 220Vac. The non-linear load used for the tests
Ci(s)
+
- complies with the requirements of IEC62040-3.
Iref
- Vref
PWM Cv(s) + B. Waveforms for the grid mode operation (line-to-line
Input voltage equal to 380Vac)
Fig. 10 Battery charger control block diagram. In this section will be presented the experimental
waveforms regarding the grid mode operation, for the line-to-
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS line input voltage equal to 380Vac.
Figure 12 shows the line currents and line-to-neutral input
A. Developed system specifications
voltage of phase a. The measured harmonic content of the
The design specifications of the proposed UPS system are
shown in Table I. The switching frequency for the chopper input currents is equal to 8.5% for this case. It can be
and boost stage modules is assumed fs=30kHz. The switching observed that the input current is close to sinusoidal and has a
frequency for the three-phase inverter stage is assumed unity input power factor.
fs=20kHz. Figure 13 shows the voltage behavior across the dc-link
capacitors C3 and C4. It can be seen that both voltages are
TABLE I
almost the same. Thus, the voltage balance converter is
Developed UPS specifications working as expected, as well as the boost voltage regulation,
Input Voltage 3 (line-to-line) VI = 220 Vca / 380 Vca 15%
Output Voltage 3 (line-to-neutral) V0 = 127 Vca
because the sum of the two voltages is equal to the total dc-
DC-link bus voltage Vbus = 400 Vdc (200V + 200V) link voltage (400Vdc).
Grid Frequency fr = 60 Hz The output current of phase c and line-to-neutral output
Output Power Capacity S0 = 15 kVA voltages are shown in Fig. 14, where a high quality sinusoidal
Output Frequency f0 = 60 Hz
Input Power Factor 0.99 voltage waveform is obtained. It can be seen that the rms
Output Power Factor 0.7 voltage values are regulated as specified in Table I. The
Number of Batteries (in series) 16 (12 V / 16 Ah) current shape defines the load type as informed before. The
A photograph of the prototype is shown in Fig. 11. It is measured harmonic content of the outputs voltages
divided into four levels: from top to bottom are shown the waveforms is equal to 2.5%.
three-phase inverter power and control section, the magnetic The utility input current for one phase, the battery current,
components used in the three-phase inverter, the chopper- as well as the output voltage waveform for one phase is show
boost phase modules and control and the magnetic in Fig. 15, when occurs the UPS transition from grid mode to
components used in the chopper-boost modules. The battery
battery mode. Notice that the load voltage continues to
bank isnt shown in this figure and its supposed to be in an
regulate even if AC mains failures.
external assembly. The experimental waveforms consists of
relevant voltages and currents waveforms collected from the
C. Waveforms for the grid mode operation (line-to-line
proposed UPS. The grid mode operation experimental results
input voltage equal to 220Vac)
were realized for two different input voltages levels.
In this section will be presented the experimental
waveforms regarding the grid mode operation, for the line-to-
line input voltage equal to 220Vac.
Inverter Figure 16 shows the line current of phase a and line-to-
neutral input voltages. It can be observed that the input
current presented almost the same behavior as operating with
Magnetics input voltage equal to 380Vac. Thus, this is a relevant
(Inverter)
characteristic of this converter that could be used for a
flexible input voltage range.
Chopper- boost
The dc-link capacitors voltage behavior isnt show due to
phase module the same obtained waveform as shown for the 380Vac
condition.
Magnetics The output current of phase b and line-to-neutral output
(Chopper) voltages are shown in Fig. 17, where a high quality sinusoidal
voltage waveform is also obtained for this operating
Fig. 11. Photograph of the prototype. condition.
Other relevant conclusion is that the system efficiency is
almost the same for both input voltages levels.

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Fig. 12. Line currents and line-to-neutral input Fig. 13. DC-link bus capacitors voltages. Fig. 14. Output current of phase b and line-to-
voltage of phase a. Operation in 380 Vac. Operation in 380 Vac. (Ch2:100V/div.; neutral output voltages. Operation in 380 Vac.
(Ch1:20A/div., Ch2:20A/div., Ch3:20A/div., Ch3:100V/div.; 5ms/div.) (Ch1:100A/div., Ch2:100V/div., Ch3:100V/div.,
Ch4:100V/div., 2.5ms/div.) Ch4:100V/div., 2.5ms/div.)

Fig. 15. UPS transition from grid mode Fig. 16. Line current of phase a and line-to- Fig. 17. Output current of phase b and line-to-
operation to battery mode. From top to bottom: neutral input voltages. Operation in 220 Vac. neutral output voltages. Operation in 220 Vac.
input current (one phase), battery current and (Ch1:50A/div., Ch2:100V/div., Ch3:100V/div., (Ch1:100A/div., Ch2:100V/div., Ch3:100V/div.,
output voltage (one phase). (Ch1:100A/div.; Ch4:100V/div., 2.5ms/div.) Ch4:100V/div., 2.5ms/div.)
Ch2:20A/div., Ch4:100V/div.; 10ms/div.)
[3] F. Bottern and H. Pinheiro, A three-phase UPS that complies with the
IV. CONCLUSIONS standard IEC 62040-3, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp.
2120-2136, Aug. 2007.
In this paper was proposed a three-phase online UPS that [4] E. H. Kim. J. M. Kwon, J. K. Park, and B. H. Kwon, Practical Control
uses high frequency transformer isolation. This type of Implementation of a Three- to Single-Phase Online UPS, IEEE Trans.
technology reduces significantly the total weight and size of Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 29332942, August 2008.
[5] J. W. Kolar, H. Ertl, and F. C. Zach, A Novel Three-phase single
the overall system. switch discontinuous-mode AC-DC buck-boost converter with high
Accordingly to the experimental results shown in Figs. 12 quality input current waveform and isolated output, IEEE Trans.
and 15, the system presents power factor correction. This Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 160172, March 1994.
characteristic is due to the boost stage modules, which is [6] O. Opeldoorn and P. Schmidt, Single transistor three-phase power
conditioner with high power factor and isolated output, in Proc. of
controlled using a simple and well know dedicated analog IC. IEEE Applied. Power Elec. Conf., pp. 731-737, 1994.
The three phase inverter stage presents sinusoidal output [7] R. Y. Igarashi and I. Takahashi, Unit power factor three-phase dither
voltage when supplying nonlinear loads, according to Figs. rectifier using a single switched device, in Proc. IEEE Ind. Applicat.
Soc. Conf., vol. 2, pp. 769-779, 1994.
14, 15, and 17. Accordingly to the experimental results shown [8] J. A. Pomilio and G. Spiazzi, High-precision current source using low-
in Fig. 13, the voltage balancing circuit functions as projected loss, single switch three-phase AC/DC converter, IEEE Trans. Power
even if non-linear loads are connected in the inverter outputs. Electron., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 561566, July 1996.
[9] J. W. Kolar, U. Drofenik, and F. C. Zach, VIENNA rectifier II A
ACKNOWLEDGMENT novel single-stage high-frequency isolated three-phase PWM rectifier
system, in Proc. of IEEE Applied. Power Elec. Conf., pp. 2333,
The authors would like to thank CM Comandos Lineares 1998.
Ltda due to research financial support with agreement of [10] D. C. Martins and E. S. de Andrade, Isolated Three-phase rectifier unit
with high power factor, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 47, no.1, pp.
MCT (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology). 8996, January 2000.
REFERENCES [11] M. L. Heldwein, A. F. de Souza, and I. Barbi, Three-phase rectifier
unit for telecommunication applications using single-phase modules,
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[14] D. C. Martins and I. Barbi, Introduction to the Study of DC-AC
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