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Chapter Tour Homeostasis

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Use this outline to organize your notes/thoughts while referencing the textbook.

Pay attention to roots! (portfolio)

If you thoughtfully complete this you could use it as a unit artifact for your portfolio!

1.4 Characteristics of Life

A. List and describe ten characteristics of life.

Characteristic Description
Movement Internal or gross

Responsiveness Reaction to internal or external change

Growth Increase in size without change in shape

Reproduction New organisms or cells

Digestion Breakdown of food into simpler forms

Absorption Movement of substances through membranes and into fluids

Circulation Movement within body fluids

Assimilation Changing nutrients into chemically different forms

Excretion Removal of metabolic wastes

Respiration Use of oxygen; removal of CO2

B. Define metabolism and give examples. The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in
order to maintain life. EX: metabolic reaction takes place when someone eats a spoonful of sugar.
C. Contrast anabolism with catabolism
Anabolism: The building up in the body of complex chemical compounds from smaller simpler compounds.
EX: proteins from an amino acid.
Catabolism: destructive metabolism involving the release of energy and resulting in the breakdown of complex
materials within the organism.
1.5 Maintenance of Life
A. Requirements of Organisms
Requirement Use
Water Required for metabolic reactions, for transport of substances, for
temperature regulation

Food Nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials for building new
living matter

Oxygen Used in releasing energy from nutrients

Heat A byproduct of metabolism, its presence governs the rate at which reactions

Pressure Force required to facilitate movement of air or fluids.

B. Homeostasis: Maintenance of a stable internal environment
1. Receptors: A specialized cell or group of nerve endings that responds to sensory stimuli.
2. Set Point: the level or point at which a variable physiological state (as body temperature or
weight) tends to stabilize.
3. Effectors: A muscle, a gland, or an organ capable of responding to a stimulus, especially a
nerve impulse.

Negative Feedback Mechanism: the output reduces the original effect of the stimulus.
Examples: the control of blood sugar by insulin.

Positive Feedback Mechanism: the output enhances the original stimulus.

Examples: Childbirth. A hormone is released which speeds up contractions. Blood clotting

1. Stimulus produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated).

2. Receptor detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change
3. Input information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. The control
center determines the appropriate response and course of action.
4. Output information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the
5. Response a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain

In your own words...what is the difference between a negative feedback loop and a positive?
Negative feedback loop is where nothing enhances anything, but things happen to prevent things like your
blood sugar getting too high or too low.
Positive feedback is where a chemical or hormone is released to further enhance something such as oxytocin
enhancing childbirth to make the baby come out.