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TABLE OF CONTENTS

2
CHAPTER 1
Velocity & Acceleration

3
CHAPTER 2
Force & Motion

3
CHAPTER 3
Vertical Motion

3
CHAPTER 4
Resolving Forces

4 Friction
CHAPTER 5

4 Connected Particles
CHAPTER 6

7
CHAPTER 7
Work, Energy & Power

7
CHAPTER 8
General Motion in a Straight Line
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
Solution:
1. VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION Part (i)
Calculating deceleration using Newtons second law:
0.12
1.1 Kinematics Equations 0.12 = 0.15 = 0.15 = 0.8 2
= + Calculate at using relevant kinematics equation
3
= +
1
2
1
and = 2 2 0.8 = = 1.4 1
2 2
1 Calculate kinetic energy at
= ( + ) 1
2 = (0.15)(1.4)2 = 0.147
2 = 2 + 2 2
Calculate energy lost:
1.2 Displacement-Time Graph =
0.147 0.072 = 0.075
Calculate speed as leaving using . . formula:
1
0.075 = 2 (0.15) 2 = 1 1
Calculate when particle comes to rest:
01
0.8 = = 1.25
Gradient = speed
Draw velocity-time graph with data calculated:
1.3 Velocity-Time Graph

Gradient = acceleration
Area under graph = change in displacement Part (ii)
{S12-P42} Question 7: Calculate displacement from to
1
= (32) + (0.8)(2)2 = 4.4
2
Calculate displacement from to
1
= (11.25) + (0.8)(1.25)2
The small block has mass 0.15. The surface is 2
horizontal. The frictional force acting on it is 0.12. = 0.625
Block set in motion from with speed 3 1 . It hits Draw displacement-time graph with data calculated:
vertical surface at 2 later. Block rebounds from wall
directly towards and stops at . The instant that block
hits wall it loses 0.072 of its kinetic energy. The
velocity of the block from to direction is 1 at
time after it leaves .
i. Find values of when the block arrives at and
when it leaves . Also find when block comes
to rest at . Then sketch a velocity-time graph
of the motion of the small block.
ii. Displacement of block from , in the
1.4 Average Velocity
direction is at time . Sketch a For an object moving with constant acceleration over a
displacement-time graph. On graph show
period of time, these quantities are equal:
values of and when block at and when it
o The average velocity
comes to rest at .
o The mean of initial & final velocities
o Velocity when half the time has passed
PAGE 2 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
1.5 Relative Velocities i. Find the time for which 1 is higher than the
top of the tower
ii. Find velocities of the particles at instant when
they are same height
iii. Find the time for which 1 is higher than 2 and
moving upwards
Let be the distance travelled by and for Solution:
1 1 Part (i)
= ut + 2 2 = ut + 2 2
Substitute given values into displacement equation:
If a collision occurs at point 1
+ = 25 = (30) + (10) 2
2
This gives you the time of when the collision occurred 5 2 + 30 25 = 0
Same analysis if motion is vertical Solve quadratic for
= 1 5
2. FORCE AND MOTION 1 reaches tower at = 1 then passes it again when
Newtons 1st Law of Motion: coming down at = 5
Therefore time above tower = 5 1 = 4 seconds
Object remains at rest or moves with constant velocity
Part (ii)
unless an external force is applied Displacement of 1 is 1 , and of 2 is 2 & relationship:
1 = 25 + 2
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion:
Create equations for 1 and 2
= 1 1
1 = 30 + (10) 2 2 = 10 + (10) 2
2 2
3. VERTICAL MOTION Substitute back into initial equation
Weight: directly downwards 1 1
30 + (10) 2 = 25 + 10 + (10) 2
Normal contact force: perpendicular to place of contact 2 2
Simple cancelling
3.1 Common Results of Vertical Motion = 1.25
Find velocities
Finding time taken to reach maximum height by a
= +
projectile travelling in vertical motion: 1 = 30 10(1.25) = 17.5 1
= + 2 = 10 10(1.25) = 2.5 1
Let = 0 and find
The time taken to go up and come back to original Part (iii)
position would be double of this We know when 1 and 2 at same height = 1.25.
Finding maximum height above a launch point use: Find time taken to reach max height for 1
2 = 2 2 = +
Let = 0 and find is 0 at max height
Finding time interval for which a particle is above a given 0 = 30 10 = 3
height: Time for 1 above 2 = 3 1.25 = 1.75 seconds
Let the height be and use
1
= + 2 2 4. RESOLVING FORCES
Let = If force makes an angle with a given direction, the
There will be a quadratic equation in effect of the force in that direction is cos
Solve and find the difference between the 2 s to find cos(90 ) = sin
the time interval sin(90 ) = cos
{S04-P04} Question 7: Forces in equilibrium: resultant = 0
Particle 1 projected vertically upwards, from horizontal If drawn, forces will form a closed
ground, with speed 301 . At same instant 2 polygon
projected vertically upwards from tower height 25,
with speed 10 1
PAGE 3 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
Methods of working out forces in equilibrium: Scenario 2: ring is about to move downwards
o Construct a triangle and work out forces This time friction acts in the opposite direction since
o Resolve forces in and directions; sum of each = 0 friction opposes the direction of motion, thus:
= sin 30 +
Using information from before:
0 = sin 30 + 0.24 cos 30 20
= 28.3

Lamis Theorem: 5.1 Equilibrium


For any set of three forces P,Q and Force required to keep a particle in equilibrium on a
R in equilibrium rough plane
Max Value Min Value

= =
sin sin sin

5. FRICTION
Friction = Coefficient of Friction Normal Contact Force
= The particle is about to The particle is about slip
Friction always acts in the opposite direction of motion move up down
Limiting equilibrium: on the point of moving, friction at Thus friction force acts Thus frictional force acts
max (limiting friction) down the slope up the slope
Smooth contact: friction negligible = + sin + = sin
Contact force:
o Refers to both and {W12-P43} Question 6:
o Horizontal component of Contact force =
o Vertical component of Contact force =
o Magnitude of Contact force given by the formula:
= 2 + 2
Coefficient of friction is 0.36 and the particle is in
{W11-P43} Question 6: equilibrium. Find the possible values of
The ring has a mass of 2. The Solution:
horizontal rod is rough and the The magnitude of friction on particle in both scenarios
coefficient of friction between is the same but acting in opposite directions
ring and rod is 0.24. Find the two Calculate the magnitude of friction first:
values of for which the ring is in = 6 cos 25
limiting equilibrium = 0.366 cos 25
Scenario 1: particle is about to move upwards
= 6 sin 25 +
Solution: = 4.49
The ring is in limiting equilibrium in two different Scenario 2: particle is about to move downwards
scenarios; we have to find in both: = 6 sin 25
Scenario 1: ring is about to move upwards = 0.578
= sin 30
Since the system is in equilibrium, resultant = 0: 6. CONNECTED PARTICLES
= cos 30 Newtons 3rd Law of Motion:
= 0.24 cos 30
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Substitute relevant information in to initial equation
0 = sin 30 0.24 cos 30 20
= 68.5

PAGE 4 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
{Exemplar Question} Solution:
A train pulls two carriages: Diagram showing how to resolve forces:

The forward force of the engine is = 2500. Find the


acceleration and tension in each coupling. The
resistance to motion of A, B and C are 200, 150 and 90N
respectively.
Solution:
To find acceleration, regard the system as a single
object. The internal s cancel out and give:
2500 (200 + 150 + 90) = 1900
= 1.08 2
To find 1 , look at C Resolving forces at vertically:
1 200 = 1000 1 cos 40 + 2 cos 60 = 5
2500 1 200 = 10001.08 Resolving forces at A horizontally:
1 = 1220 1 sin 40 = 2 sin 60
To find 2 , look at A Substitute second equation into first:
2 90 = 400 2 sin 60
2 90 = 4001.08 ( ) cos 40 + 2 cos 60 = 5
sin 40
1 = 522 Solve to find 2 :
2 = 3.26
Put this value back into first equation to find 1
6.1 Pulleys 1 = 4.40

{S12-P41} Question 6:
Equation 1:
No backward force
= 2

Equation 2:
3 = 3
has a mass of 0.6 and has a mass of 0.4. The
pulley and surface of both sides are smooth. The base
{W05-P04} Question 3: of triangle is horizontal. It is given that sin = 0.8.
Initially particles are held at rest on slopes with string
taut. Particles are released and move along the slope
i. Find tension in string. Find acceleration of
particles while both are moving.
ii. Speed of when it reaches the ground is
2 1 . When reaches the ground it stops
moving. continues moving up slope but does
not reach the pulley. Given this, find the time
when reaches its maximum height above
ground since the instant it was released
The strings are in equilibrium. The pegs are smooth. All
the weights are vertical. Find 1 and 2
PAGE 5 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
Solution: Pulley Case 3
Part (i)
Effect of weight caused by in direction of slope:
Effect of weight = sin where sin = 0.8
Effect of weight = 4.8
Effect of weight caused by in direction of slope:
Effect of weight = 0.4100.8 = 3.2
Body has greater mass than body so when released
moves down moves up on their slopes
1
4.8 = 0.6 Force on pulley = 2 cos (2 )
3.2 = 0.4 Acts: inwards along dotted line which bisects
Solve simultaneous equations:
4.8 3.2
0.6
= 0.4 = 3.84 6.3 Two Particles
Substitute back into initial equations to find : {S10-P43} Question 7:
4.8 3.84 = 0.6 = 1.6 2
Part (ii)
Use kinematics equations to find the time which it take
to reach the ground:
20
= and =
1.6
1 = 1.25 and are rectangular boxes of identical sizes and are
When reaches the ground, only force acting on is at rest on rough horizontal plane. mass = 200
its own weight in the direction of slope = 3.2 and mass = 250. If 3150 boxes remains at
= 3.2 = 0.4 rest. If > 3150 boxes move
= 8 2 i. Find coefficient of friction between and floor
Now calculate the time taken for to reach max height ii. Coefficient of friction between boxes is 0.2.
This occurs when its final velocity is 0. Given that > 3150 and no sliding occurs
02 between boxes. Show that the acceleration of
8 = 2 = 0.25
boxes is not greater than 2 2
Now do simple addition to find total time: iii. Find the maximum possible value of in the
Total Time = 1.25 + 0.25 = 1.5 above scenario
Solution:
6.2 Force Exerted by String on Pulley Part (i)
Pulley Case 1 Pulley Case 2 =
= to max that does not move the boxes
= to contact force of both boxes acting on floor
3150 = (2000 + 2500)
= 0.7
Part (ii)
Find frictional force between and :
= 0.22000 = 400
Use Newtons Second Law of Motion to find max
acceleration for which boxes do not slide (below )
400 = 200 = 2 2
Force on pulley = 2 Force on pulley = 2 Part (iii)
Acts: downwards Acts: along dotted line has to cause an acceleration of 2 2 on which
will pass on to as they are connected bodies
Simply implement Newtons Second Law of Motion
= (200 + 250)(2) + 3150
The 3150 comes from the force required to overcome
the friction
= 900 + 3150 = 4050
PAGE 6 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
7. WORK, ENERGY AND POWER There is also some work done against resistive force of
Principle of Conservation of Energy: 500; due to law of conservation of energy, this leads
us to the main equation:
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be
. . = .
changed into other forms + . .
Work Done: = 610000 = 315000 + 500
1 610000 315000 295000
Kinetic Energy: = 2 = = = 590
2 500 500
Gravitational Potential Energy: =
Power: =
.

and = 8. GENERAL MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

7.1 Changes in Energy DIFFERENTIATE


= () ()
displacement velocity acceleration
is the final energy of the object
is the initial energy of the object INTEGRATE
() is the energy caused by driving force Particle at instantaneous rest, = 0
acting on the object Maximum displacement from origin, = 0
() is the energy used up by frictional force Maximum velocity, = 0
or any resistive force
{W10-P42} Question 7:
{S05-P04} Question 7: Particle travels in straight line. It passes point with
Car travelling on horizontal straight road, mass 1200kg. velocity 5 1 at time = 0.
Power of car engine is 20 and constant. Resistance s velocity after leaving given by:
to motion of car is 500 and constant. Car passes point = 0.002 3 0.12 2 + 1.8 + 5
with speed 10 1. Car passes point with speed of is increasing when: 0 < < 1 and > 2
25 1. Car takes 30.5 to move from to . of is decreasing when: 1 < < 2
i. Find acceleration of the car at i. Find the values of 1 and 2 and distance
ii. Find distance by considering work & energy when = 2
Solution: ii. Find of when = 2 and sketch velocity-
Part (i) time graph for the motion of
Use formula for power to find the force at Solution:
= Part (i)
20000 = 10 = 2000 Find stationary points of ; maximum is where = 1
We must take into account the resistance to motion and minimum is where = 2
= = 2000 500
= 0.006 2 0.24 + 1.8
= 1500

Use Newtons Second Law to find acceleration: Stationary points occur where = 0
1500
1500 = 1200 = = 1.25 2 0.006 2 0.24 + 1.8 = 0
1200
Part (ii) Solve for in simple quadratic fashion:
Use power formula to find work done by engine: = 30 10
. . Naturally 1 comes before 2
=
1 = 10 2 = 30
..
20000 = 30.5 . . = 610000 Finding distance by integrating
30
There is change in kinetic energy of the car so that =
means some work done by the engine was due to this: 0
1 1 30
. . = 2 1200(10)2 . . = 2 1200(25)2 = (0.002 3 0.12 2 + 1.8 + 5)
. . = . . . . 0
30[0.0005 4
. . = 375000 60000 = 315000 = 0 0.04 3 + 0.9 2 + 5]
= 285

PAGE 7 OF 8
CIE A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS//9709
Part (ii) Since the distance before 20 seconds has already been
Do basic substitution to find taken into consideration:
= 0.002 3 0.12 2 + 1.8 + 5 =
= 30 = 5 6.5 2
To draw graph find of at 1 using substitution and =
6
plot roughly = 0.75
1 = 13 1
2 = 2( 20) + (0.75)( 20)2
Graph: 2
2 = 2 40 + 150 + 0.375 2 15
2 = 0.375 2 13 + 110
Finally add both to give you
= 1 + 2
= 0.375 2 13 + 110 + 92
= 0.375 2 13 + 202

{S13-P42} Question 6:
Particle P moves in a straight line. Starts at rest at
point and moves towards a point on the line.
During first 8 seconds, s speed increases to 8 1
with constant acceleration. During next 12 seconds
s speed decreases to 2 1 with constant
deceleration. then moves with constant acceleration
for 6 seconds reaching point with speed 6.5 1
i. Sketch velocity-time graph for s motion
ii. The displacement of from , at time
seconds after leaves , is metres. Shade
region of the velocity-time graph representing
for a value of where 20 26
iii. Show that for 20 26,
= 0.375 2 13 + 202
Solution:
Part (i) and (ii)

Part (ii)
First find when = 20, this will produce a constant
since 20 26
1 1
1 = (8)(8) + (8 + 2)(12) = 92
2 2
Finding when 20 26:
1
= + 2
2
PAGE 8 OF 8