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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PART ONE
CONTENTS
1 INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (ATA 31) ............................................. 1-1
1.1 THE ATMOSPHERE ....................................................................... 1-1
1.1.1 STANDARD ATMOSPHERE ................................................ 1-3
1.2 PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS ............................................................. 1-4
1.2.1 AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS.................................................. 1-4
1.2.2 LOCATION OF PROBES AND STATIC VENTS ....................... 1-7
1.3 ALTIMETERS ................................................................................ 1-10
1.3.1 ANEROID BAROMETER .................................................... 1-10
1.3.2 FRICTION COMPENSATION ............................................... 1-13
1.3.3 TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION ....................................... 1-13
1.3.4 PRESSURE COMPENSATION............................................. 1-15
1.4 SERVO ASSISTED ALTIMETERS ..................................................... 1-18
1.4.1 GENERAL ....................................................................... 1-18
1.5 DIRECT SERVO ALTIMETER ........................................................... 1-19
1.5.1 DATUM PRESSURE SETTING ............................................ 1-22
1.6 PRESSURE REVERTING SERVO ALTIMETER .................................... 1-23
1.6.1 SERVO MODE OPERATION ............................................. 1-25
1.6.2 STANDBY MODE OPERATION ........................................ 1-25
1.6.3 DATUM PRESSURE SETTING ............................................ 1-26
1.7 CABIN ALTIMETERS ...................................................................... 1-26
1.8 AIRSPEED INDICATORS ................................................................. 1-28
1.8.1 SIMPLIFIED AIRSPEED INDICATOR .................................... 1-28
1.8.2 PITOT PRESSURE............................................................ 1-31
1.8.3 SPEED OF SOUND ........................................................... 1-32
1.8.4 MACHMETER .................................................................. 1-33
1.8.5 COMBINED SPEED INDICATOR .......................................... 1-35
1.8.6 PRESSURE OPERATED CSI ............................................. 1-36
1.8.7 SERVO OPERATED CSI ................................................... 1-37
1.9 VERTICAL SPEED INDICATORS ...................................................... 1-38
1.9.1 BASIC OPERATION .......................................................... 1-38
1.9.2 CALIBRATION .................................................................. 1-40
1.9.3 ALTITUDE & TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION .................... 1-41
1.10 GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS ......................................................... 1-42
1.10.1 GYROSCOPIC PROPERTIES .............................................. 1-42
1.10.2 RIGIDITY......................................................................... 1-42
1.10.3 PRECESSION .................................................................. 1-43
1.10.4 PRECESSION .................................................................. 1-45
1.10.5 VERTICAL GYRO ............................................................. 1-46
1.11 GYRO HORIZON UNIT .................................................................... 1-48
1.12 VERTICAL REFERENCE UNIT (VRU) ............................................... 1-53
1.13 ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (ADI) .......................................... 1-54
1.13.1 WARNINGS ..................................................................... 1-56
1.13.2 ATTITUDE DISTRIBUTION ................................................. 1-56
1.13.3 ATTITUDE TRANSFER SWITCHING..................................... 1-58
1.14 STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATORS .................................................. 1-59
1.14.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ........................................ 1-59

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Part 1 Page 1


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.14.2 RUNNING UP .................................................................. 1-60


1.14.3 ERECTION CONTROL ...................................................... 1-60
1.14.4 CAGING ......................................................................... 1-60
1.14.5 ATTITUDE INDICATION ..................................................... 1-60
1.15 STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATOR H 341 .......................................... 1-62
1.15.1 DESCRIPTION ................................................................. 1-63
1.16 DIRECTION INDICATORS ............................................................... 1-65
1.17 TURN & SLIP INDICATOR .............................................................. 1-67
1.17.1 BANK INDICATION ........................................................... 1-69
1.18 TURN CO-ORDINATOR .................................................................. 1-71
1.19 HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)..................................... 1-72
1.20 COLLINS 331A-8K HSI ................................................................ 1-74
1.20.1 WARNING FLAGS ............................................................ 1-76
1.21 ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA) ........................................................... 1-77
1.22 STALL WARNING INDICATION ........................................................ 1-79
1.23 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS ............................................. 1-81
1.24 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM ................................... 1-84
1.25 ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (EADI) ................... 1-84
1.25.1 FULL TIME EADI DISPLAY DATA ...................................... 1-86
1.25.2 PART TIME EADI DISPLAYS ............................................ 1-87
1.26 ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI) .............. 1-89
1.26.1 FULL TIME EHSI DISPLAYS ............................................. 1-90
1.26.2 PART TIME EHSI DISPLAYS ............................................ 1-92
1.26.3 PARTIAL COMPASS FORMAT............................................ 1-93
1.26.4 MAP MODE .................................................................... 1-96
1.26.5 COMPOSITE DISPLAY ...................................................... 1-97
1.27 EFIS CONTROLLER ...................................................................... 1-98
1.27.1 DISPLAY CONTROLLER ................................................... 1-99
1.27.2 SOURCE CONTROLLER ................................................... 1-101
1.28 OTHER SYSTEM INDICATIONS ....................................................... 1-103
1.29 POWERPLANT INSTRUMENTATION ................................................. 1-103
1.30 FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE .............................................................. 1-103
1.30.1 RESISTANCE GAUGES..................................................... 1-103
1.30.2 CAPACITANCE QUANTITY INDICATORS ............................. 1-104
1.31 FUEL FLOW INDICATOR ................................................................ 1-106
1.31.1 FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTERS ............................................ 1-108
1.31.2 SYNCHRONOUS MASS FLOW FLOW-METER SYSTEM ......... 1-108
1.31.3 MOTORLESS MASS FLOW METER SYSTEM ....................... 1-109
1.32 PRESSURE INDICATORS................................................................ 1-111
1.32.1 PRESSURE CAPSULE DETECTION .................................... 1-112
1.32.2 BOURDON TUBE DETECTION ........................................... 1-113
1.33 OIL & FUEL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS ....................................... 1-115
1.33.1 RESISTIVE BULB SENSOR ............................................... 1-115
1.33.2 THERMOCOUPLE SENSOR ............................................... 1-116
1.34 ENGINE RPM INDICATORS ............................................................ 1-117
1.34.1 ENGINE SPEED GENERATOR ........................................... 1-119
1.35 EXHAUST TEMPERATURE INDICATING............................................ 1-121
1.36 ENGINE PRESSURE INDICATORS ................................................... 1-124

Part 1 - Page 2 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.36.1 EPR FORMULA ............................................................... 1-125


1.37 VIBRATION INSTRUMENTS ............................................................. 1-126
1.38 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS (ENGINE & AIRFRAME) ........................ 1-130
1.39 ENGINE INDICATING & CREW ALERTING SYSTEM (EICAS) ............. 1-130
1.39.1 DISPLAY UNITS ............................................................... 1-131
1.40 DISPLAY MODES .......................................................................... 1-135
1.40.1 OPERATIONAL MODE....................................................... 1-135
1.40.2 STATUS MODE ................................................................ 1-135
1.40.3 MAINTENANCE MODE ...................................................... 1-135
1.41 DISPLAY SELECT PANEL ............................................................... 1-137
1.41.1 DISPLAY SELECT PANEL OPERATION ............................... 1-138
1.42 ALERT MESSAGES ....................................................................... 1-139
1.43 MAINTENANCE CONTROL PANEL ................................................... 1-141
1.44 ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING ...................... 1-142
1.44.1 DISPLAY UNITS ............................................................... 1-142
1.45 ECAM DISPLAY MODES ............................................................... 1-143
1.45.1 FLIGHT PHASE RELATED MODE ....................................... 1-143
1.45.2 ADVISORY MODE ............................................................ 1-144
1.45.3 ECAM FAILURE MODE .................................................... 1-145
1.46 CONTROL PANEL ......................................................................... 1-151
1.46.1 ECAM CONTROL PANEL ................................................. 1-152

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Part 1 Page 3


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PAGE
INTENTIONALLY
BLANK

Part 1 - Page 4 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1 INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (ATA 31)


Aircraft instruments can, on initial observation, appear a bewildering mass of dials
or 'TV ' type screens. The different types of instrumentation required fall into one
of the following types:

1. Pressure instruments. 2. Gyroscopic instruments

3. Compasses. 4. Mechanical indicators

5. Electronic instruments

1.1 THE ATMOSPHERE

A relatively thin layer of air called the atmosphere surrounds the earth. This
extends upwards from the surface for a distance of about 250 miles and is
composed mainly of nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21% plus 1% of other gases which
includes amongst others, argon, carbon dioxide and helium. Under the
gravitational effect of the earth, the atmosphere exerts a pressure upon the
surface of the earth. This pressure, if measured at sea level, it is approximately
1.013bar (14.7lbf/in2), and reduces with height.

The pressure reduction, is not linear, the rate of pressure reduction decreases
with a rise in altitude to form an exponential curve. Temperature and water
vapour within the air also affects the pressure of the air, and therefore the height
at which a particular pressure can be measured. Figure 1 shows a
Height/pressure graph.
65

60

55 AT 8,000ft
240mb
50

45
HEIGHT X 1000ft

40

35

30
AT 8,000ft
750mb
25
AT SEA
20 LEVEL
1013mb
15

10

0
0 .100 .200 .300 .400 .500 .600 .700 .800 .900 1.000
AIR PRESSURE IN BARS

Height/Pressure Graph
Figure 1

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-1


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Temperature change within the atmosphere can be divided into 3 bands,


corresponding to the 3 layers or regions of the atmosphere:

1. The Troposphere.

2. The Stratosphere.

3. The Chemosphere.

Figure 2 shows three bands of the atmosphere.

+22.473
135 140,000ft
CHEMOSPHERE -
TEMPERATURE INCREASES AT
125 APPROXIMATELY 2.256C FOR
AN INCREASE IN HEIGHT OF
115 1000ft

STRATOPAUSE 104,987ft
105
-56.5
95
85
ALTITUDE FEET X 1000

75
STRATOPHERE - TEMPERATURE
UPPER LIMIT OF ICAO ISA 65,800ftt AT -56.5C
65
55
45
TROPOPAUSE 36,090ft
35
-56.5
25
TROPOSPHERE - TEMPERATURE
15 DECREASES 1.98C FOR AN
INCREASE IN HEIGHT OF 1000ft

5
+15
0
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
TEMPERATURE (DEGREES C)

Atmosphere Bands
Figure 2

Page 1-2 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The height of these layers varies considerably with latitude and the season. It is
assumed that the troposphere extends to a height of 36,090ft and has a
temperature gradient falling at a linear rate to 56.5C at 36,090ft. The
stratosphere is assumed to range from 36,090ft to 104,987ft and to have a
constant temperature of 56.5C. Above this is the Chemosphere, extending to
the limits of the atmosphere and which is assumed to have a temperature
gradient, which initially rises approximately 2C for each 1000ft of altitude. For
the purpose of aircraft pressure instruments, these higher levels are not
important.

1.1.1 STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

To be able to produce an instrument capable of accurately measuring aircraft


height (and speed) using only the prevailing atmospheric pressure, requires that
the instrument be calibrated and tested against a set of standard conditions.
Standard atmospheres have been in use since 1800s. the early ones being
based on very simple temperature laws. During WW1, these were found to be
inadequate, this led to the development and the international acceptance in 1924
of the International Committee on Air Navigation (ICAN) standard. This standard
was adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) in 1952.

Advances in aircraft performance and the introduction of missiles highlighted the


need for an increase in the altitude range of the standard atmosphere, the ICAO
limit being 65,000ft. This introduced two further standards to supplement the
ICAO standard, these being the Wright Air Development Centre (WADC) and the
Air Research Development Command (ARDC). Table 1 shows the comparison of
the standard atmospheres.

Height in feet Air Pressure in Millibars


x 1000 ICAN ICAO WADC ARDC
0 1013.25 1013.25 1013.25 1013.25
10 696.91 696.81 696.81 696.91
20 465.63 465.63 465.63 465.63
30 301.89 300.01 300.89 300.89
40 187.61 187.54 187.54 188.23
50 115.81 115.97 115.97 115.97
60 71.79 71.72 71.72 71.716
70 44.36 - 44.35 44.438
80 - - 27.43 27.425
90 - - 16.96 17.067
100 - - 10.49 10.820
110 - - 6.53 6.981
120 - - 4.22 4.5779
130 - - 2.84 3.0476
140 - - 1.97 2.0575
150 - - - 1.4650
160 - - - 0.9727
Table 1

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-3


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.2 PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS

1.2.1 AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS

An Air Data system of an aircraft is one which the total pressure created by the
forward motion of an aircraft, and the static pressure of the atmosphere
surrounding it, are sensed and measured in terms of speed, altitude and rate of
change of altitude. The measurement and indication of these three parameters
may be achieved by connecting the appropriate sensors, either directly to
mechanical-type instruments, or to a remotely-located Air Data Computer (ADC),
which then transmits the data in electrical signal format to electro-mechanical or
servo-type instruments.

The basic Air Data Instruments display airspeed, altitude, Mach number and
vertical speed. All are calculated from air pressure received from a Pitot/Static
source.

1. Static air pressure, which is simply the outside air pressure at the instant of
measuring.

2. Pitot pressure is the dynamic pressure of the air due to the forward motion of
the aircraft and is measured using a tube, which faces the direction of travel.

Page 1-4 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 3 shows a Pressure head as fitted to aircraft to allow Pitot and Static
pressures to the relevant indicators.

STATIC LINE
PITOT LINE

HEATER
CONNECTION

FORWARD

PITOT PROBE STATIC VENTS

Aircraft Pressure Head


Figure 3

Indicated Airspeed (IAS), Mach No, Barometric Height (Height above sea level),
and Vertical speed (Rate of climb/dive) are derived from the Pitot/Static inputs.

1. IAS = Pitot minus Static - (In knots).

2. Mach No = Pitot - Static divided by Static.

3. Baro Ht = Static - (In feet).

4. Vertical Speed = Change in Static pressure - (X 1000ft/min).

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-5


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 4 shows typical aircraft static vent:

FUSELAGE

STATIC
VENT

STATIC
PIPE

Aircraft Static Vent


Figure 4

Page 1-6 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.2.2 LOCATION OF PROBES AND STATIC VENTS

The choice of probe/vent locations is largely dependent on the type of aircraft,


speed range and aerodynamic characteristics, and as result there is no common
standard for all aircraft. On larger aircraft it is normal to have standby probes and
static vents. These are always located one on each side of the fuselage and are
interconnected so as to balance out dynamic pressure effects resulting from any
Yawing or side-slip motion of the aircraft.

Figure 5 shows the location of probes and vents on a Boeing 737.

Boeing 737 Air Data Probe and Vent Location


Figure 5

Pitot and static pressures are transmitted through seamless and corrosion-
resistant metal (light alloy) pipelines. Flexible pipelines are also used when
connections to components mounted on anti-vibration mountings is required. In
order for an Air Data System to operate effectively under all flight conditions,
provision must also be made for the elimination of water that may enter the
system as a result of condensation, rain, snow, etc. This will reduce the
probability of Slugs of water blocking the lines. This provision takes the form of
drain holes in the probes, drain taps and valves in the systems pipelines. The
drain holes within the probes are of diameter so as not to introduce errors into the
system.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-7


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Methods of draining the pipelines varies between aircraft types and are designed
to have a capacity sufficient to allow for the accumulation of the maximum
amount of water that could enter the system between maintenance periods.
Figure 6 shows a typical water drain valve.

ORANGE
TRANSPARENT FLOAT
PLASTIC PIPE INDICATOR

DRAIN
BAYONET
VALVE
FITTING
(SELF SEALING) CAP

Water Drain Valve


Figure 6

The three primary instruments in the Air Data System are:

1. Altimeter (Baro Ht).

2. Indicated Air Speed (IAS) Indicator.

3. Vertical Speed Indicator.

The IAS is often combined to display Mach No as well as indicated airspeed and
is referred to as the Combined Speed Indicator.

Page 1-8 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 7 shows the connection and equations for the primary Air Data
instruments.

Air Data Instrumentation


Figure 7

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-9


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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.3 ALTIMETERS

1.3.1 ANEROID BAROMETER

In its simplest form, if a membrane or pressure sensitive capsule is to be used to


measure pressure, it usually forms part of a sealed capsule. If the capsule is
evacuated, the atmospheric pressure on the outside of the capsule will force the
capsule into the chamber until its resistance is sufficient to support the
atmospheric pressure. The greater the atmospheric pressure the greater the
movement of the capsule, before a balance is attained, and vice versa.

If a linkage mechanism is attached to the membrane, this movement can be


transmitted to a pointer to reflect the movement of the capsule. This then is the
principle upon which the aneroid barometer is based for the measurement of
atmospheric pressure. Figure 8 shows a simplified aneroid barometer.

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE

PIVOT

CAPSULE STACK

Simplified Aneroid Barometer


Figure 8

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Altitude measurements require little change in the basic instrument configuration


to enable barometric pressure (atmospheric pressure) to be translated into
aircraft altitude. Figure 9 shows a simplified mechanism of a directly operated
capsule altimeter.

AIRTIGHT POINTER
INSTRUMENT
CASE

EXTERNAL STILL
AIR PRESSURE
(STATIC)

CAPSULE STACK

Simplified Altimeter
Figure 9

It consists of an airtight instrument case containing an evacuated capsule stack.


The capsule stack is connected by a system of levers and gears to a pointer
which, moves over a scale calibrated in feet. External still air (static) pressure is
fed in to the instrument case so that as the aircraft climbs the pressure in the
case falls, allowing the capsule to expand. This motion is then used by the
system of levers and gears to drive the pointer over the dial. When the aircraft
loses altitude, the reverse happens.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 10 shows the face of a barometric altimeter .

3 - POINTER ALTIMETER

SINGLEPOINTER ALTIMETER

Barometric Altimeter
Figure 10

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.3.2 FRICTION COMPENSATION

Friction in the gearing of a simple altimeter cannot truly be compensated for,


however, it is reduced as much as possible by careful design and meticulous
attention to cleanliness and finish during manufacture. The rate of response of
the instrument to capsule movement can be further improved, when considered
necessary, by the use of a vibrator. This simply helps prevent the mechanism
from sticking.

1.3.3 TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

Temperature affects the strength of the materials used in the manufacture of the
capsules and springs, causing them to become stronger as temperature
decreases. The overall effect of this is that with a drop in temperature the
capsule stack will tend to extend, with the result that the instrument will over-read.
Conversely, a rise in temperature causes the capsule stack to contract and the
instrument under-read. There are two main methods employed to compensate
for this temperature-induced variations in readings, both of which use a bi-
metallic element as the compensating mechanism.

The first method used is to mount the capsule stack within a U shaped bi-
metallic bracket, the open end of which is connected to the top of the capsule
stack by pins. The composition of the b-metallic brackets is arranged so that with
a drop in temperature the limbs tend to move inwards, exerting a compressive
force onto the capsule stack, in opposition to the tendency of the capsule stack to
expand with a fall in temperature. Figure 11 shows the U bracket method of
temperature compensation.

DROP IN TEMPERATURE
LIMBS MOVE INWARDS
EXERTING A COMPRESSIVE
FORCE ONTO THE CASULE STACK

CASULE
STACK

BIMETAL
U SPRING

Temperature Compensation U Bracket


Figure 11

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The second method employed to compensate for changes in temperature of the


capsule stack is to introduce a bi-metallic link into the system of levers used to
transmit capsule movement to the instruments pointers. In this instance, a U
shaped bi-metallic link has been introduced. This effectively alters the length of
the linkage to compensate for the tendency of the capsule stack to expand or
contract with changes in temperature. Figure 12 shows the bi-metallic
compensating link method.

CAPSULE

BIMETAL
COMPENSATING
LINK

Bi-metallic Compensating Link


Figure 12

Page 1-14 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.3.4 PRESSURE COMPENSATION

All aircraft pressure operated altimeters, are calibrated to one of the standard
atmospheres, and will provide an accurate altitude indication providing that the
atmospheric pressure prevailing conforms to the standard atmosphere. Anyone
who is familiar with the weather forecast on TV will realise that the atmospheric
pressure is always changing at any given point, as well as varying from area to
area. We are not concerned with the reasons why this happens, only the effect
this has on the altimeter.

Under standard conditions, at sea level with an ambient atmospheric pressure of


1013.25 millibars, an altimeter calibrated to the ICAO standard atmosphere would
indicate zero feet. If the sea level pressure remains constant at 1013.15
millibars, the altimeter indications would correspond to the ICAO pressure
standards.

However, standard atmospheric conditions rarely prevail and variations in sea-


level pressure will result in variations in the indicated altitude. For example, if the
sea-level pressure falls to 1010 millibars, then the capsule stack would sense this
decrease in pressure and expand, showing an error of +100ft. A corresponding
change in sea-level pressure to 1016.55 millibars would cause an error reading of
100ft. At this height, one-millibar change in pressure corresponds to a 30ft
change in altitude, but as altitude increases so does the error. This is shown in
figure 13.

ICAO PRESSURE PRESSURE


STANDARD DROP RISE

+100ft
ERROR

Ht 5,000ft

843.21

-100ft
ERROR

SEA LEVEL SEA LEVEL SEA LEVEL


1013.25 1010.00 1016.55

A1 A2 A3
Pressure Compensation
Figure 13

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The ICAO standard atmosphere also assumes a temperature of 15C at sea level
and a temperature drop (lapse rate)of 1.98C per 1000ft up to 36,090ft, it then
remains at a constant temperature of 56.5C. If the lapse rate differs from this
assumption then even a correctly set altimeter will indicate an error when an
aircraft flies into an area where air temperature is higher or lower than that
expected.

Assuming the same sea-level pressures, the pressure at a certain height over a
column of cold air is less than the pressure over a column of warm air at the
same height. This is because cold air is denser than warm air. Therefore, in
these conditions, an altimeter will over-read in air colder than standard conditions
and under-read in air warmer than standard conditions.

To help overcome these problems, the altimeter is fitted with a mechanism which
enables the instrument datum can be adjusted to the prevailing barometric
pressure. This mechanism consists of a system of gears within the instrument,
which is controlled by a knob on the face of the instrument. This knob, called the
Ground Pressure Setting Knob, allows the instrument datum and therefore the
indicator pointers be repositioned without affecting the capsule stack. At the
same time, an indicator, usually calibrated in millibars, will rotate to display the
instrument datum setting. This indicator, known as the Baroscale, can be
displayed as a linear scale but more commonly displayed using a veeder counter
viewed through an aperture in the indicator face.

The altimeter may be adjusted by the ground engineers to the prevailing


atmospheric pressure before take-off, but is more commonly adjusted by the flight
crew, who will obtain information regarding the prevailing atmospheric pressure
from flight maps and from the local Air Traffic Control (ATC) via the aircrafts VHF
communication system. The information obtained in this way is given in the form
of radio Q codes, the most important of which are:

QFE Airfield barometric pressure. Altimeters with the baroscale set to this
will read zero feet when landing or taking-off at the airport for which the QFE was
given.

QNH Actual sea-level barometric pressure. Altimeters with the baroscale set
to this will indicate height above mean sea-level (MSL).

QNE Standard sea-level barometric pressure (1013.25). Altimeters with the


baroscale set to 1013.25 will indicate Standard Pressure Altitude.

QFE is normally set into the altimeter before take-off and on approach before
landing at any particular airport. QNH is normally set into the altimeter when the
aircraft is below 3,000. QNE set into the altimeter when the aircraft is above
3,000ft.

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 14 shows the Radio Q Codes for atmospheric pressure.

STANDARD SETTING
FLIGHT LEVEL

1013.25 MILLIBARS
QNE

SEA LEVEL
HEIGHT ABOVE
SEA LEVEL
QNH

HEIGHT ABOVE
AIRFIELD
QFE

Radio Q Codes
Figure 14

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.4 SERVO ASSISTED ALTIMETERS

Despite the use of a vibrator mechanism to enhance its response, the basic
altimeter becomes increasingly inaccurate with height. This results directly from
the non-linear changes in atmospheric pressure, with changes in altitude. For
example, the pressure drop from sea level to 1000ft is 36.08mb, whereas from
50,000ft to 51,000ft the pressure drop is only 5.44mb.

In addition to the errors caused by friction, the reduced pressure changes as


height increases also exaggerates the errors which result from capsule hysteresis
and creepage. Hysteresis occurs when the capsule movement lags behind the
pressure change causing the motion. Creepage is the tendency for the capsule
to readjust itself without a pressure change occurring.

1.4.1 GENERAL

The errors within the basic altimeter can be reduced to acceptable levels by
minimising the work done by the capsule. This is achieved by interposing a
servo-assistance mechanism between the capsule stack and the gearing
mechanism. The other main difference between the servo assisted altimeter and
the basic altimeter is the dial presentation. This consists of a single pointer
moving over a scale calibrated from 0-1000ft in 50ft divisions and a veeder digital
counter, which records height up to 99,950ft which again is displayed in 50ft
increments.

Two main methods are used to provide servo-assistance for the basic altimeter.

1. Direct Servo-Control.

2. Pressure Reverting Servo-Control.

Direct Servo-Control: The servomechanism is operated directly from the


capsule stack, with no mechanical link between the capsule stack and the
gearing. Consequently, there is no back-up mechanical operation of the
instrument in the event of a failure.

Pressure reverting Servo-Control: The servomechanism is controlled from a


remote pressure sensor, and a mechanical connection between the capsule and
the gearing is retained to allow reversion to mechanical operation (pressure
reverting) in the event of a power failure.

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1.5 DIRECT SERVO ALTIMETER

Referring to figure 15, the I bar of the transducer is connected to the capsule
stack and pivoted so that I bar position will change as the capsule expand and
contract in response to a change of altitude. The E core, whose position
relative to the I bar is controlled by the servo-motor, is wound as a transformer,
with the primary coil on the centre limb and the secondary coils wound in series
opposition onto the outer limbs. The primary is supplied via a transformer from
the aircrafts 115V 400Hz supply. Figure 15 shows the face of a direct reading
Altimeter.

Direct Reading Altimeter


Figure 15

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 16 shows a schematic diagram of a direct reading servo-controlled


altimeter.
400Hz
115V

CAPSULES
TRANSFORMER

SERVO
AMP

FOLLOWER

LEVER
CAM

ADJUSTING BAR
WORM GEAR

MILLIBAR
SHAFT
MOTOR

OVERRUN
SWITCH

COUNTERS
MILLIBAR
COUNTERS
HEIGHT

SETTING KNOB
SOLENOID

PRESSURE
GROUND
WARNING

POINTER
FLAG

Direct Reading Servo-Controlled Altimeter Schematic


Figure 16

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PART 1

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Providing the I bar is equidistant from the E bar limbs, the resultant output
from the secondary coils will be zero. However, when a change of altitude
occurs, the I bar will pivot to follow the capsule movement and consequently the
air gaps between the outer limbs of the E bar and the I bar will become
unequal. The magnetic flux in the outer limb with the smaller gap will increase
and the induced voltage on that limb will also increase. The opposite effect
occurs in the other outer limb. This results in an output voltage, the magnitude
and phase of which depends upon the amount and direction of the movement of
the I bar. This output voltage is fed via an amplifier to the control winding of a
two-phase AC servo-motor. Figure 17 shows the operation of the E & I
transducer for increases and decrease of height.

A LT I TU D E A LT I TU D E
C O N ST A NT R IS IN G
(L O W L E V E L ) (L O W L E V E L )

A .C . A .C .
EX CI T AT I ON EX CI T AT I ON
SU PP L Y SU PP L Y

R E S U LT AN T R E S U LT AN T
W A V E FO RM W A V E FO RM

A LT I TU D E A LT I TU D E
C O N ST A NT F A L L IN G
(H IG H L E V E L) (H IG H L E V E L)

A .C . A .C .
EX CI T AT I ON EX CI T AT I ON
SU PP L Y SU PP L Y

R E S U LT AN T R E S U LT AN T
W A V E FO RM W A V E FO RM

E & I Bar Operation


Figure 17

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The two-phase AC motor has its main winding supplied with a constant reference
voltage from the transformer. When the I bar is displaced by the movement of
the capsules, the resultant voltage output to the servo-motor control winding
either lags or leads the reference voltage. This sets up a rotating field in the
motor, which causes it to rotate in a direction such that the pointer and digital
counter moves in the correct sense to indicate the increase or decrease in
altitude. At the same time the servo-motor drives the cam and cam follower
which re-positions the E bar to equalise the air gaps between the E bar cores
and the I bar, thus reducing the transducer output to zero when the aircrafts
height stabilises.

As the motor only drives the indicator, any power failure will result in the
indication remaining at the height shown when the power failed. For this reason
a Power Failure Warning Indicator (PFWI) is fitted to the instrument. The PFWI
takes the form of a spring-loaded flag, which is held out of view by solenoid action
while the power is connected. Any power failure removes the supply from the
solenoid, allowing the flag to be returned into view by the spring action.

To prevent the servomotor overrunning and damaging the altimeter mechanism,


an overrun limit switch is incorporated. When the cam reaches a predetermined
position, a stud on the side of the cam makes contact with the limit switch, opens
its contacts and disconnects the electrical supply from the altimeter. The
servomotor stops and the PFWI comes into view.

1.5.1 DATUM PRESSURE SETTING

As with the basic altimeter, a Ground Pressure Setting Knob (GPSK) is provided
to allow the various Q codes to be set into the instrument. When this knob is
rotated, the veeder counter is turned by the associated gear train to show the
millibars set. Rotation of the knob also alters the setting of the millibar
adjustment rod; this moves the millibar lever about its pivot causing the worm
gear to move laterally. Movement of the worm gear shaft in this way rotates the
differential gear, cam and cam follower, displacing the E bar relative to the I
bar. An error signal is therefore generated and fed via the amplifier to the servo-
motor, driving the indicator gear train, the worm gear cam and cam follower and
the E bar back to the zero output position. The altimeter now shows aircraft
altitude with respect to the ground pressure set onto the baroscale.

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1.6 PRESSURE REVERTING SERVO ALTIMETER

This type of altimeter is servo assisted with automatic reversion to mechanical


operation from the capsule stack in the event of power or other failures. The
servo-assistance takes the form of a control transformer (synchro), amplifier and
a two phase drag cup motor connected to the gearing mechanism between the
capsule stack and the indicator pointer and counter. Figure 18 shows the face
of a pressure reverting altimeter.

Pressure Reverting Altimeter


Figure 18

In the servo mode of operation, the altimeter is connected to a master altimeter or


Air data Computer (ADC), which provides a signal so that the altimeter gives a
corrected indication of the aircrafts altitude. When the standby mode is selected,
or in the event of a failure, the altimeter will operate as an unassisted basic
precision altimeter. A vibrator mechanism is also incorporated within the
altimeter to help reduce the effects of friction when operating in the standby
mode.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 19 shows a schematic of the pressure reverting altimeter.

MILLIBAR
SETTING
POINTER

KNOB
COUNTER
MILLIBAR
COUNTERS
HEIGHT

BACKLASH
GEAR
ANTI
MOTOR
DRAG
CUP

TRANSFORMER
CONTROL
SERVO
AMP

SYNCHRO
SIGNAL
ALTITUDE SIGNAL
FROM ADC
CX

MECHANISM
CAPSULE

Pressure Reverting Altimeter


Figure 19

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

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1.6.1 SERVO MODE OPERATION

With power on, the altimeter functions in the standby mode until the altimeter is
switched to servo motor by momentarily turning the mode selector switch to the
RESET position. This via a self-maintaining relay circuit (nor shown), connects
the power to the amplifier and drag cup motor circuits, and retracts the standby
flag from view. A corrected altitude signal generated by a synchro transmitter in
the master altimeter or ADC, is fed to the stator of the control transformer (CT).
This gives an error signal related to the difference between the position of the
stators magnetic field and the position of the rotor coil. Provided these are
aligned at 90 to each other a null error signal is produced. The rotor position is
initially determined by capsule displacement.

Provided the rotor position and the CT stator input signal position remain at 90,
no error signal is produced, however, when the rotor position is out of alignment
with respect to the input signal position an error signal is produced. This error
signal is fed to the amplifier and then fed to the control phase of the two-phase
drag cup motor. The motor, which is connected to the altimeters gearing
mechanism now assists the capsules to drive the indicator to the correct reading
and also to align the CT rotor to the nil error position stopping the motor. Thus as
the CT rotor is always driven to the nil error position, the indications produced by
the instrument reflect the input signal position generated by the master altimeter
or ADC.

1.6.2 STANDBY MODE OPERATION

The altimeter is fitted with a failsafe detection circuit, which automatically returns
the altimeter to the standby mode under any one of the following conditions:

1. AC power failure.

2. Servo Motor failure.

3. Amplifier failure.

4. Detection circuit failure.

Difference at sea-level between the input signal and standby altimeter of more
than 4,000ft (difference increases with an increase of altitude).

Under these conditions, the main AC supply is isolated, the standby flag drops
into view and the vibrator is energised.

In addition to the circumstances listed above, the standby mode can be selected
by momentarily setting the mode selector switch to STANDBY. This interrupts
the supply and allows the self-maintaining relay to de-energise thus isolating the
main supply. This action completes the DC supply circuit for the vibrator and
returns the standby flag into view.

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PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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A change in static pressure resulting from a change in altitude causes the


capsule to expand or contract. This motion is then used to drive the indicator
pointer and drum counter to indicate barometric altitude. Although the motor and
control transformer are permanently connected to the gearing, because of their
small size and low friction, they impose negligible additional friction upon the
system.

1.6.3 DATUM PRESSURE SETTING

The Q codes can be set into the altimeter using the millibar setting knob. The
knob when turned adjusts the millibar scale, the capsule position and, via bevel
gear and worm drive the stator of the CT. Thus the rotation of the setting knob
causes simultaneous adjustment of the millibar scale, the capsule mechanism,
the pointer and counter and the CT stator. It is necessary to simultaneously
adjust the CT stator with the CT rotor (via capsule mechanism) to ensure that
inputs from the master altimeter or ADC are not affected.

1.7 CABIN ALTIMETERS

In addition to the aircraft altimeters, most passenger aircraft also carry a cabin
altimeter. This is to enable the flight crew to monitor the pressurisation of the
cabin environment control system. This type of instrument is a single pointer
instrument with a range of zero feet to 20,000ft. The instruments case is
unsealed (vented to cabin pressure) and is normally only proved with
compensation for temperature fluctuation. As a consequence, it suffers from
errors due to changes in atmospheric conditions from the standard atmosphere to
which it is calibrated. In spite of this, the accuracy of the instrument is better than
500ft, which is sufficient for its normal application.

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 20 shows a Cabin Altimeter and sectioned view.

EN D
P L A TE
T E M P E R A TU R E
C OM PEN SA TOR

F IL T E R
C IR C L IP

M E C H AN IS M
P L A TE
H A N D S T A FF &
P I N IO N A S S E M B L Y

R O C K IN G S H A F T
P O IN T E R & S E C TO R A S S E M B L Y

Cabin Altimeter
Figure 20

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AERODYNAMICS,
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1.8 AIRSPEED INDICATORS

Airspeed is displayed in two ways, in nautical miles per hour, knots (1 nautical
mile = 6,080ft, 1.5 miles), or as a factor of the speed of sound, Mach (Mach 1 =
speed of sound). This information can be displayed separately, using an
Airspeed Indicator (ASI) displaying airspeed in knots and a Mach meter (MM)
displaying airspeed relative to the speed of sound, or both displays can be
combined into a single instrument.

1.8.1 SIMPLIFIED AIRSPEED INDICATOR

When an aircraft is stationary (on the ground) all external surfaces are subjected
equally to the prevailing atmospheric pressure. When the aircraft is in motion,
there are changes in the pressures felt on its external surfaces and the aircraft
experiences a build up of an additional pressure on its leading edges resulting
from its passage through the air. For any given height, the build up of this
pressure (known as dynamic pressure) is proportional to the speed of the aircraft.
This pressure when sensed by a Pitot tube, and ducted to an instrument, can be
used to measure aircraft speed.

Pitot pressure alone cannot be used to accurately measure speed, since no


allowances is made for the thinning of the air at altitude. This would if left
uncorrected lead to an apparent (indicated) loss of airspeed as altitude is
increased. Measuring the difference in pressure between the dynamic pitot
pressure, and the static pressure used to measure altitude compensates for this
apparent loss of speed.

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A IRS P E E D

PI VOT

A T MO SPH ER IC
PR ES SU R E

PI T OT
C A PSU L E S T AC K
PR ES SU R E

A T MO SPH ER IC
PR ES SU R E

S T AT IC
P R E S S U RE G E A R ING

P IT O T
P R E S S U RE

P O IN T E R

C AP S UL E

Simplified Airspeed Indicator


Figure 21

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AERODYNAMICS,
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The Airspeed Indicator in its most simple form consists of a sealed instrument
case with a capsule which has pitot pressure applied to its inside while static
pressure is fed to the case. The movement of the capsule is due only to the
effects of the dynamic pressure, which results directly from the aircrafts speed
through the air. Figure 22 shows two types of simple airspeed indicators.

DOUBLE POINTER AIRSPEED INDICATOR

SINGLE POINTER AIRSPEED INDICATOR

Airspeed Indicators
Figure 22

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1.8.2 PITOT PRESSURE

The Pitot pressure as sensed by the Pitot tube, is the sum of the dynamic
pressure and the static pressure and can be represented by the formula:

P = V2 + S
Where - P = Pitot Pressure.

- = air density.

- V = aircraft velocity.

- S = Static Pressure.

It can be seen from the above formula that the actual dynamic pressure build-up
increases as the square of the aircrafts speed increases whereas the movement
of the capsule has a linear response to pressure change. If therefore, as is
normally required, the instrument scale is to be linear with respect to speed, and
not compressed or cramped at low speeds, the square law pressure rise must be
compensated for within the indicator. This is normally achieved using a ranging
spring assembly as shown in figure 23.

RANGING
SCREWS
RANGING
PLATE

RANGING
SPRING

CASULE

Ranging Assembly (Square Law Compensation)


Figure 23

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1.8.3 SPEED OF SOUND

When an aircraft flies at or near the speed of sound, shockwaves build up around
the aircraft due to the increased resistance of the air to the passage of the
aircraft. The effect of these shockwaves are such that the aerodynamic stability
of the aircraft is affected, resulting in buffeting, loss of directional control and loss
of lift. The severity of these effects when flying at, near or through the speed of
sound (sound barrier), is different for each type of aircraft but is always severe
enough for the pilot to be forewarned via instrumentation that he is approaching
the speeds at which these effects can be expected.

The problems associated with the speed of sound are aggravated by the fact that
the speed of sound varies with air density (altitude & temperature), as altitude
increases the speed of sound decreases. Hence the need for a Machmeter,
which indicates the aircrafts speed in relation to the speed of sound. This is
indicated as a Mach number, Mach 1 = speed of sound at the altitude at which
the aircraft is flying. Mach number can be represented by the formula:

TRUE AIRSPEED
Mach Number =
LOCAL SPEED OF SOUND

This can be derived from:

TRUE AIRSPEED (P - S)
ALTITUDE (S)

When referring to aircraft flying speeds with respect to the speed of sound, there
are three distinct speed bands:

1. Subsonic Speeds up to 0.75 Mach.

2. Transonic Speeds from 0.75 to 1.20 Mach.

3. Supersonic Speeds in excess of 1.20 Mach.

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1.8.4 MACHMETER

Figure 24 shows a typical Machmeter.

Machmeter
Figure 24

To enable the Machmeter to indicate aircraft speed as a factor of local or ambient


speed of sound, the airspeed as measured by the instrument is modified by
altitude. This is accomplished by using a different airspeed capsule operating in
conjunction with an aneroid altitude capsule. These two being housed within a
single instrument and coupled together in such a way that the Mach number
indicated is increased with an increase in the aircrafts airspeed and further
increased with an increase in the aircrafts altitude.

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Figure 25 shows a schematic of the Machmeter.

ALTITUDE
RETAINING
CAPSULE
SPRING

PUSH
ROD

SECTOR
ROCKING
POINTER ARM

VERTICAL
HIGH LINK PITOT
ENTRY

PIVOT

LOW
AIRSPEED
CAPSULE

Machmeter Schematic
Figure 25

As can be seen from the diagram in figure 25, an increase of aircraft speed
causes the dynamic pressure P-S to increase and the airspeed capsule to
expand. This motion is then transmitted via the vertical link, rocking arm and
sector arm to the pointer; causing it to move up the Mach number scale. A rise in
altitude causes the altitude capsule to expand, this motion is transmitted to the
rocking arm, via the rocking arm pivot, moving the rocking arm towards the centre
line of the sector arm pivot. The rocking arm therefore moves closer to the pivot
of the sector arm. This action modifies and increases the effect of the airspeed
capsule causing the indicated Mach speed to be increased.

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1.8.5 COMBINED SPEED INDICATOR

As aircraft become more and more complex the demand for instrumentation is
continually rising. This has resulted, where practical, in two or more instruments
being combined into one. This practice has been particularly successful with
respect to airspeed and Mach speed indications. Two different examples of this
are shown in figure 26.

PRESSURE OPERATED CSI

SERVO OPERATED CSI

Combined Speed Indicators


Figure 26

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1.8.6 PRESSURE OPERATED CSI

Figure 27 shows the schematic layout for the pressure operated Machmeter.

AIRSPEED ROCKING SHAFT

AIRSPEED
DIAL HAIRSPRING
TUNING BLOCK BI-METALIC LINK

STATIC
SECTOR

POINTER AIRSPEED
PITOT
CAPSULE

MACH ALTITUDE
DISC CAPSULE
HAIRSPRING

SECTOR

AIRSPEED HAIRSPRING
DIAL
BI-METALIC LINK

ALTITUDE ROCKING SHAFT

Pressure Operated Machmeter Schematic


Figure 27

The construction of the pressure operated combined speed indicator is very


similar to the Machmeter discussed earlier. The main difference is that the
altitude capsule mechanism is not connected to the airspeed capsule
mechanism. The airspeed capsule and pointer operate as a conventional ASI
indicating the actual airspeed of the aircraft by pointer against the outer airspeed
dial.

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The altitude capsule is connected to a disc located behind the ASI pointer and
inside the ASI scale. The Mach scale is printed on this disc. An increase in
altitude, causes the altitude capsule to expand driving the Mach scale disc
counter clockwise, whilst an increase in airspeed causes the pointer to move
clockwise. The result of this is that an increase of airspeed and/or altitude
produces an increase in the Mach number reading on the innerscale against the
ASI pointer.

1.8.7 SERVO OPERATED CSI

This instrument has a conventional ASI mechanism combined with a servo-


controlled digital Mach speed counter providing the dual display. The
servomechanism usually receives its control signals from the ADC. Because the
Machmeter part of the instrument is power operated the instrument is provided
with a power failure warning indicator. This normally takes the form of a power
failure warning flag, or shutters which obscure the Mach digital counters in the
failed mode.

There is also a second pointer on this type of CSI and is known as the Velocity
Maximum Operating (Vmo) pointer. This is provided for the purpose of indicating
the maximum safe speed of an aircraft over its operating altitude range; in other
words, it is an indication of the critical Mach number.

This instrument also has a command bug and associated setting know in the
bottom left hand corner of the instrument. This is used to set a required airspeed
value, which can be used as the datum for an autothrottle control system, or as a
fast/slow speed indicator. There are also five external index pointers around the
bezel, which are manually set to any desired reference speed, i.e. take off speeds
V1 and V2.

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1.9 VERTICAL SPEED INDICATORS

The vertical speed indicator, commonly known as the rate of climb indicator,
provides the flight crew with an accurate indication of the rate at which the aircraft
is changing height. This indication is very necessary when flying on instruments
only, at night or in poor visibility.

1.9.1 BASIC OPERATION

The rate of climb (Vertical Speed Indication) is a measure of an aircrafts rate of


altitude change, both climbing and descending. The instrument used is a further
adaptation of the differential pressure instrument (Cabin Pressure), however, this
time the pressure fed into the instrument case and into the capsule is static
pressure (atmospheric pressure). The difference being that pressure to the case
is fed through a restrictor. This has the effect of greatly reducing the rate at
which the pressure in the case can change, whilst allowing the capsule to
respond rapidly to any change in pressure. Figure 28 shows a simplified Vertical
Airspeed Indicator.

CALIBRATED
CHOKE
STATIC
PRESSURE

STATIC
TUBE

CAPSULE

Simplified Vertical Airspeed Indicator


Figure 28

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Referring to figure 28, the pressure flow into and out of the case is restricted by a
calibrated choke, when the aircraft climbs, the pressure in the capsule falls,
maintaining a balance with external (to the aircraft) air pressure. The pressure
within the instrument case also falls, but is unable to escape at the same rate as
that from the capsule, causing a pressure differential to occur. The pressure
within the instrument case being the greater when compared to the capsule. This
causes the capsule to contract, and by a series of linkages the indicator pointer to
indicate the rate of climb.

The faster the change of altitude the greater the differential pressure, which
results in a greater contraction of the capsule and a further deflection of the
instrument pointer to indicate a greater rate of climb. Upon descent, the capsule
pressure becomes greater than that of the instrument case and the capsule
expands, causing the pointer to indicate a descent. In level flight the two
pressures are in balance and the pointer indicates zero

Figure 29 shows a typical vertical speed indicator.

Vertical Speed Indicator


Figure 29

The rate of climb/descent is indicated by a single pointer moving over a dial face,
which is graduated in feet per minute. The dial face, which can have either linear
or logarithmic graduations, conventionally has a zero point situated at the 9-o-
clock position. The indicator pointer moves clockwise over the face to indicate
ascent and anti-clockwise to indicate descent.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.9.2 CALIBRATION

Calibration is set during manufacture and cannot be adjusted during servicing


and testing. Calibration of the instrument is achieved by two calibration springs,
which act on the centre of the capsule via a calibration stem. The forces exerted
by the calibration springs are modified during calibration by two rows of screws,
one row bearing onto the top spring and the other the bottom spring.

Adjustment of the screws varies the effective length of the spring, which
dependant upon capsule position will control the capsules response to pressure
change and will therefore modify the indications produced. The upper spring
controls the expansion of the capsule (rate of descent) and lower spring controls
the compression of the capsule (rate of ascent). Figure 30 shows the inside of a
vertical speed indicator showing the calibration springs.

CALIBRATION CALIBRATION
SPRINGS SCREWS

ROCKING BALANCE
SHAFT WEIGHT
MECHANISM

LINK

CALIBRATION
SCREWS

METERING
UNIT

CALIBRATION
BRACKET

STATIC
CAPSULE CAPILIARY
TUBE

Vertical Speed Indicator Calibration Spring


Figure 30

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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1.9.3 ALTITUDE & TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

The way in which air passes through a metering device varies with air density and
with temperature. Since the metering unit is required to give a given pressure
difference for any given rate of altitude change, it must compensate for changes
in air temperature and the change in air density at different altitudes.

Altitude Compensation

Compensation for altitude changes is obtained by a combination of two basic


metering devices, an orifice and a capillary tube. The pressure difference across
an orifice for a given rate of altitude change decreases as altitude increases and
therefore produces a negative error. Whereas, the pressure difference across a
capillary tube for a given rate of altitude change increases as altitude increases,
and therefore produces a positive error. Thus, the two effects tend to cancel
each other.

Temperature Compensation

The viscosity of the air is proportional to temperature; viscosity falling with a drop
in temperature. The effects of this is that the pressure difference across an orifice
for a given rate of altitude change increases with a decrease in temperature.
Conversely, the pressure differential across a capillary tube for a given rate of
altitude change decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, during design, a
correct combination of orifice and capillary tubes can be chosen which will
provide a stable pressure differential over a wide range of altitude and
temperature changes. Figure 31 shows the internal working of a metering unit.

GASKETS

AIR
FILTER
CAPILLARY

STATIC
INPUT

ORIFICE

CONNECTING TUBE
TO CAPSULE

Metering Unit
Figure 31

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.10 GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS

A number of instruments depend on the use of gyroscopes for their correct


operation. It is useful to know the basic principles of how they work, before
describing, in some depth, what they do.

1.10.1 GYROSCOPIC PROPERTIES

As mechanical device a gyroscope may be defined as a system containing a


heavy metal wheel (rotor), universally mounted so that it has three degrees of
freedom:

Spinning freedom: About an axis perpendicular through its centre (axis of


spin XX).

Tilting Freedom: About a horizontal axis at right angles to the spin axis
(axis of tilt YY).

Veering Freedom: About a vertical axis perpendicular to both the other


two axes (axis of veer ZZ).

The three degrees of freedom are obtained by mounting the rotor in two
concentrically pivoted rings, called inner and outer rings. The whole assembly is
known as the gimbal system of a free or space gyroscope. The gimbal system is
mounted in a frame so that in its normal operating position, all the axes are
mutually at right angles to one another and intersect at the center of gravity of the
rotor.

The system will not exhibit gyroscopic properties unless the rotor is spinning.
When the rotor is spinning at high speed the device becomes a true gyroscope
possessing two important fundamental properties:

1. Gyroscopic Inertia (Rigidity).

2. Precession.

1.10.2 RIGIDITY

The property, which resists any, force tending to change the plane of rotor
rotation. It is dependent on:

1. The mass of the rotor.

2. The speed of rotation.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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1.10.3 PRECESSION

The angular change in direction of the plane of rotation under the influence of an
applied force. The change in direction takes place, not in line with the force, but
always at a point 90 away in the direction of rotation. The rate of precession
also depends on:

1. The strength and direction of the applied force.

2. The angular velocity of the rotor.

Figure 32 shows a gyroscope.

Z
FRAME

Y
X

ROTOR

OUTER
RING

Y
INNER
RING

Gyroscope.
Figure 32

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 33 shows the characteristics of gyro rigidity.

Gyro Rigidity
Figure 33

Gyro A has its spin axes parallel with the Earth's spin axes, located at the North
Pole. It could hold this position indefinitely.

Gyro B has its spin axes parallel to the Earth's spin axes, but located at the
Equator. As the Earth rotates, it would appear to continually point North.

Gyro C is also situated at the Equator. As the Earth rotates, it appears to rotate
about its axes, however it is the Earth that is rotating and not the gyro.

This rigidity can be used in a number of gyro instruments including the directional
gyro.

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.10.4 PRECESSION

If an external force is applied to a spinning gyro, its effect will be felt at 90 0 from
the point of application, in the direction of gyro rotation. This is known as
precession. It can be seen in Figure 34, that if a force is applied to the bottom of
the rotating wheel, it will rotate about its horizontal axis.

This property is not wanted in some instruments, such as directional gyros. The
use of precession is used in turn indicators, which will be covered later.

DIRECTION PRECESSION RATE


OF = APPLIED FORCE
ROTATION 90 IN THE
DIRECTION OF SPIN

SPIN AXIS

90

APPLIED DIRECTION
FORCE OF
PRECESSION

Gyro Precession
Figure 34

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1.10.5 VERTICAL GYRO

Figure 35 shows the effects on a free gyro in an aircraft circling the earth. As can
be seen, it would only be perpendicular to the earth's surface at two points.

Behaviour of a Vertical Gyro


Figure 35

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

In order for the gyro to be used to indicate the aircraft's attitude, it has to be
corrected to continually be aligned to the vertical. These corrections are very
slow and gentle, since the amount of correction needed, for example, in a ten-
minute period is small. Figure 36 shows a vertical gyro corrected to the local
vertical.

Corrected Vertical Gyro


Figure 36

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Instruments that use either the rigidity or the precession of gyros are:

1. Gyro Horizon Unit.

2. Attitude Director Indicator.

3. Standby Horizon Unit.

4. Direction Indicator.

5. Turn and Slip Indicator.

6. Turn Co-ordinator.

1.11 GYRO HORIZON UNIT

The Gyro Horizon Unit gives a representation of the aircrafts pitch and roll
attitudes relative to its vertical axis. For this it uses a displacement gyroscope
whose spin axis is vertical. Figure 37 shows a displacement gyro and the two
axis of displacement.

ROLL PITCH

Displacement Gyro
Figure 37

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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Indications of attitude are presented by the relative positions of two elements, one
symbolising the aircraft itself, the other in the form of a bar stabilized by the
gyroscope and symbolising the natural horizon. Figure 38 shows a typical Gyro
Horizon Unit.

SPERRY
6
6

3 3

Gyro Horizon Unit


Figure 38

The gimbal system is so arranged so that the inner ring forms the rotor casing
and is pivoted parallel to an aircrafts lateral axis (YY1); the outer ring is pivoted at
the front and rear ends of the instrument case, parallel to the longitudinal axis
(ZZ1). The element symbolizing the aircraft may either be rigidly fixed to the
case, or it may be externally adjustable for setting a particular pitch trim
reference.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 39 shows the construction of the Gyro Horizon unit.

OUTER
RING ROTOR
Y Z1

SYMBOLIC BALANCE
AIRCRAFT WEIGHT

PIVOT
Z POINT

Y1
X1 HORIZON
ROLL BAR
POINTER
& SCALE

Construction of a Gyro Horizon Unit


Figure 39

In operation the gimbal system is stabilized so that in level flight the three axes
are mutually at right angles. When there is a change in the aircrafts attitude,
example climbing, the instrument case and outer ring will move about the YY1 of
the stabilized inner ring.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The horizon bar is pivoted at the side and to the rear of the outer ring and
engages an actuating pin fixed to the inner ring, thus forming a magnifying lever
system. The pin passes through a curved slit in the outer ring. In a climb attitude
the pivot carries the rear end of the bar upwards so that it pivots about the
stabilized actuating pin. The front end of the bar is therefore moved downwards
through a greater angle than that of the outer ring, and since the movement is
relative to the symbolic aircraft element, the bar will indicate a climb attitude.

Figure 40 shows climb attitude operation.

Z
1

X
HORIZON BAR 1

Climb Attitude operation.


Figure 40

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Changes in the lateral attitude of an aircraft, i.e. rolling, displaces the instrument
case about the axis (ZZ1), and the whole stabilized gimbal system. Hence, lateral
attitude changes are indicated by movement of the symbolic aircraft element
relative to the horizon bar, and also by relative movement between the roll angle
scale and pointer. Figure 41 shows roll attitude operation.

Y Y
1

BANK TO
PORT

DATUM
X
1

Roll attitude operation


Figure 41

Freedom of gimbal system movement is 360 for roll axis and 85 for the and
pitch axis. The pitch scale is restricted by means of a resilient stop. This will
prevent gimbal lock.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.12 VERTICAL REFERENCE UNIT (VRU)

The VRU consists of an electrically-driven gyroscope spinning about a vertical


axis. The gyro has full freedom of movement in roll, and plus 85 degrees, minus
85 degrees of freedom in pitch. It also has an erection system for maintaining the
rotor spin axis vertical. The VRU contains two synchros for detecting movement
about the roll (aileron) and pitch (elevator) axes of the aircraft, and also contains
circuitry for maintaining the functional operation of its internal components.
Figure 42 shows the Vertical Reference Unit (RU).

PITCH ERECTION
VIBRATION CUTOFF SWITCHES
ISOLATION
MOUNTS

FRAME
DEHYDRATION
PLUG

GYRO
CASE

ROLL ERECTION
CUTOFF SWITCHES

ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION

BONDING
GIMBAL
STRAP
RING

Vertical Reference Unit (VRU)


Figure 42

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.13 ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (ADI)

The ADI presents a symbolic three-dimensional display of the aircrafts attitude,


combined with lateral and vertical steering commands. The aircrafts attitude is
displayed by the relationship of a stationary airplane symbol with respect to a
moveable horizon line. The horizon line is carried on a sphere, which is servo
driven in pitch and roll. The sphere is marked off in increments of 5 degrees, and
is coloured blue to represent sky above the horizon line, and black or
brown/orange to represent ground below the horizon line. The sphere is
unbalanced in the roll axis so that on loss of power it rotates to approximately 90
degree left bank indication. Cross pointer bars are used to indicate flight director
commands and are brought into view by operation of the flight director switches
(FD BARS). The horizontal (pitch) bar indicates below the miniature airplane
symbol to command pitch up attitude. The vertical (roll) bar indicates to the right
center display to command right roll, and to the left of center of display to
command left roll. Both bars are biased out of view when the FD BARS are off,
but the FD flag will not appear unless a power loss is experienced.

Aircraft position relating to a glideslope is given by a pointer moving over a


vertical display. Aircraft position above the glideslope beam is indicated by the
pointer being positioned below the glideslope scale index, and aircraft position
below the glideslope beam is indicated by the pointer being positioned above the
glideslope beam. The loss of the glideslope valid signal will cause the glideslope
warning flag (GS) to come into view. The glideslope indicator and warning flag
are mounted on the right hand side of the ADI presentation.

Localiser deviation is indicated by lateral movement of the localiser pointer, and


is a read on a fixed horizontal scale. The pointer indicates to the right of the fixed
scale index if the aircraft is to the left of the localiser beam and to the left of the
index if aircraft is to the right of the localiser beam. The loss of either the
localiser valid input or tuned to localiser input will bias the localiser pointer from
view. Loss of the localiser valid signal causes the localiser (LOC) flag to move
into view. The localiser indicator is positioned at the bottom of the ADI display,
above the inclinometer.

Slip information is conventionally displayed on the ball type inclinometer mounted


on the indicator at the bottom of the ADI display. Instantaneous testing of the
sphere and flight director is accomplished by pressing the TEST switch.

The sphere should indicate:

(a) 10 5 Pitch Nose up.

(b) 20 5 Roll to the Right.

(c) ATT and FD flag in view.

(d) FD Bars Indicate Nose Up and Roll to the Right.

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 43 shows an Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)

FD GSL
2
F
1

S 2
RW
T Y
AT
TEST

Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)


Figure 43

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PART 1

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AERODYNAMICS,
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1.13.1 WARNINGS

1. ATT Flag

Indicates an internal failure of the ADI or a Gyro Attitude (VRU) failure.

2. FD Flag

Indicates an internal failure of the command bars for any axis or flight director
failure.

3. LOC Flag

Indicates a loss of the localiser valid signal, or insufficient signal with index off
scale.

4. Glideslope Flag

Indicates loss of the localiser valid (G/S) signal with index off scale.

1.13.2 ATTITUDE DISTRIBUTION

Figure 44 shows a block schematic of the attitude transfer switching circuit and
shows the distribution of the attitude information. The transfer switching is drawn
in the NORMAL position fed from 28V ESS DC.

Switching allows either gyro to supply both ADI attitude displays and the
autopilot. The flight data recorder and weather radar are hard wired to No 1 gyro.

Primary outputs are used exclusively for the ADI attitude displays. Buffered
secondary 3 wire outputs are used for the autopilot, FDR and ADI cross-
switching. The latter arrangement prevents a faulty ADI being paralleled with the
other ADI thus causing the loss of both.

The instrument comparator monitor (ICM) provides comparison of the ADI


attitude displays. A two wire roll signal is also fed to the ICM to increase the
heading warning threshold in turns.

Page 1-56 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


26V AC
ESS
26V AC
VERT GYRO 1 NO 2
PRIMARY 3 WIRE & VALID
P/R
115V
AC ESS ADI
SECONDARY No 1
3 WIRE & VALID

RESOLVER
COMPARARATOR
ALL ON
2
P/R
AUTOPILOT

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


P/R WX INSTRUMENT
(ARINC 708) COMPARATOR
P/R MONITOR
FDR (ICM)
P
APDU
PART 1

ROLL THRESHOLD

Figure 44
AEROPLANE

P/R MONITOR
AERODYNAMICS,

WX RADAR
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

Attitude Distribution
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

115V
AC No 2 ALL ON AUTOPILOT (RACO)
1
R
ERROR
SECONDARY
3 WIRE & VALID
ADI
P/R
No 2
PRIMARY 3 WIRE & VALID
RESOLVER
COMPARARATOR

VERT GYRO 2 26V AC

Page 1-57
ESS
26V AC
NO 2
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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1.13.3 ATTITUDE TRANSFER SWITCHING

The attitude transfer switching comprises of two banks of relays operated by a


three position guarded switch on the left hand instrument panel, such, that ALL-
ON-1 or ALL-ON-2 operation can be achieved. Operation of the switch to ALL-
ON-2 energise the LH bank of relays and Vice-Versa. Figure 45 shows a
schematic of the Attitude Switching.

CUTOUT
(RACO)
ANGLE
ROLL
FIRST OFFICER

115V AC (No 2)
VERT GYRO
2

No 2
N
COMPASS (RH)

1
FROM HSI
INST. COMP.
MONITOR

COMPASS (LH)
FROM HSI

VERT GYRO
2

115V AC (ESS)
No 1
N
CAPTAIN

1
AUTOPILOT

A.I.D.S.

WX RX

Attitude Switching
Figure 45

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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
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AERODYNAMICS,
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1.14 STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATORS

The standby attitude indicator provides a continuous visual indication of the


aircraft attitude in the pitch and roll axes.

1.14.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

The standby attitude indicator display comprises a two-coloured drum supported


in an outer gimbal, a roll marker mounted on the outer gimbal shroud and a roll
scale and aeroplane index mounted on the front cover behind the dial glass. A
white line dividing the two colours on the drum, blue representing the sky and
dark orange representing the earth, represents the horizon. Attitude is indicated
by the position of the drum relative to the aircraft symbol. A graduated scale on
the drum, which can indicate 60 degrees of dive or 80 degrees of climb, indicates
pitch angle. Roll angle is indicated by a white marker relative to the roll scale
which is graduated at zero degrees and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 degrees left
and right of zero. A fast erection knob is provided on the bottom right-hand side
of the instrument face and is a purely mechanical caging device. Figure 46
shows a Standby Attitude Indicator and its location.

Standby Attitude Indicator H 301


Figure 46

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1.14.2 RUNNING UP

28 V DC is applied to the indicator, which produces a three, phase 19 V, 400 Hz


supply to the stator winding of the gyro. The stator becomes energised and the
gyro rotor begins to run up. When it has reached 18,000 rpm a sensor operates
the gyro flag on the upper right part of the display causing it to disappear from
view. This indicates that the gyro has attained a usable airspeed and there is a
power supply to the unit.

1.14.3 ERECTION CONTROL

Erection control is achieved through a single-pendulum mechanical erector


device, which basically slaves the gyro erector assembly to the local vertical.
Should the gyro axis deviate from the vertical axis, it will be acted upon by the
erector device to cancel out this deviation and return the gyro to the vertical axis.

The erection control consists of a reduction gear, erector bob-weight and a


moving pendulum. Energy from the gyro is taken through a reduction gear to
drive a gearwheel integral with the erector bob-weight. An assembly consisting of
the erector bob-weight and moving pendulum is driven about the same shaft. The
erector bob-weight is also driven about the reduction gear shaft and rotates at a
speed of approximately 40-rpm. The moving pendulum is driven between two
limits called the stop and driving plates. When the shaft is aligned with vertical
axis the pendulum and bob-weight are in the horizontal plane. The pendulum is
then forced against its driving plate by the function torque of its bearings, which
counteracts the driving effect of the bob-weight.

If the shaft deviates from the vertical axis, the pendulum is no longer in the
horizontal plane. It will move erratically, the effect of which will be to bring the
shaft into alignment with the vertical axis.

1.14.4 CAGING

As the gyro runs up to speed, the gyroscopic assembly may occupy any random
position inside its casing. Caging to case datum may be rapidly achieved and
without abruptness, by pulling the fast erection knob approximately thirty seconds
after energising the gyro. This brings the gyroscopic assembly to the vicinity of
the vertical axis and when the knob is released it is free to move and aligns itself
precisely with the vertical axis.

1.14.5 ATTITUDE INDICATION

When the gyro is erected and running at full speed and the aircraft is in a level
flight attitude, then the horizontal line on the datum and the roll pointer (which are
both attached to the gyro mechanism) are aligned with the aeroplane index and
the roll scale datum respectively. Because the gyro axis remains at the local
vertical due to the gravity sensitive erection control system, movement of the
aircraft (and therefore the instrument dial carrying the pitch datum and roll datum)
from the vertical is relative to the gyro. Aircraft movement in the pitch axis causes

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

a vertical displacement between the horizon line and the aeroplane index;
movement about the roll axis causes a rotational displacement between the
horizon line and the aeroplane index and also between the roll pointer and the
roll scale datum. Figure 47 shows a simplified circuit for the Standby Attitude
Indicator.

0.3 A
1A STATIC
28V DC INVERTER
EMERG/BATT GYRO
19V AC
400 Hz

ROTOR
SPEED
SENSOR

5V AC
INSTRUMENT
LIGHTING

Standby Attitude Indicator Circuit


Figure 47

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AERODYNAMICS,
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1.15 STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATOR H 341

The attitude indicator type H341 is an electrically operated gyroscopic horizon


assembly that provides a visual presentation of the aircrafts flight attitude in the
pitch and roll axes. It is fitted with crossed pointers that display ILS deviations,
and with an inclinometer for providing slip indication.

The instrument operates from the aircraft 28 V DC supply; the 400 Hz 3-phase
AC supply for the gyroscope is provided by a built-in static inverter. Figure 48
shows the Standby Attitude Indicator and its location.

Standby Attitude Indicator H 341


Figure 48

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AERODYNAMICS,
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1.15.1 DESCRIPTION

The attitude display comprises a two-coloured spherical drum mounted on pivots,


a roll pointer registering against a roll scale, and an aircraft symbol, the horizon is
represented by the intersection of the two colours of the sphere; these are blue
and brown, denoting sky and earth respectively. Attitude is indicated by the
position of the sphere relative to the aircraft symbol. Pitch angle is indicated by a
graduated scale on the sphere, the indication is limited to 65 degrees in dive and
105 degrees in climb. Roll freedom is unlimited and roll angle is indicated by the
position of the roll pointer relative to the roll scale. Power failure or insufficient
gyro rotational speed is indicated by the appearance of a flag in the upper right-
hand portion of the dial presentation. The flag is coloured fluorescent red, with
four superimposed diagonal black stripes.

After the gyro commences to run up, a fast erection mechanism is used to bring it
to the vertical position. This is brought into operation by pulling the knob on the
front of the instrument and waiting for a few seconds until the horizon line
stabilises at its datum position and the roll index reads zero.

Localiser and glideslope pointers indicate ILS deviation and are driven from No. 1
VHF navigation system. LOC and G/S failure warning flags are driven out of view
by external 28 V DC validity signals also emanating from NAV 1 receiver; the
flags are in view when the validity signals are missing or do not conform. When
power is applied to the NAV 1 receiver but it is not tuned to a localiser frequency,
external bias voltages remove the LOC and G/S pointers and flags from view.
Figure 49 shows the Standby Attitude Indicator internal circuit.

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1A

28V DC
EMERG/BATT
STATIC GYRO
INVERTER

G/S LOC
SIGNAL SIGNAL

G/S
VALIDITY

5V AC LOC
INSTRUMENT VALIDITY
LIGHTING

Standby Attitude Indicator Internal Circuit


Figure 49

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.16 DIRECTION INDICATORS

This indicator was the first gyroscopic instrument to be introduced as a Heading


Indicator and although for most aircraft currently in service it has been
superseded by remote-indicating compass systems (see later). The instrument
uses a horizontal axis gyroscope and, being non-magnetic, is used in conjunction
with a magnetic compass.

In its basic form, the outer ring of the gyro carries a circular card, graduated in
degrees, and referenced against a lubber line fixed to the gyro frame. When the
rotor is spinning, the gimbal system and card are stabilized so that, by turning the
frame, the number of degrees through which it is turning may be read on the
card. Figure 50 shows a Directional Indicator.

180 170

Directional Indicator
Figure 50

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AERODYNAMICS,
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In the directional gyro, the rotor is enclosed in a case, or shroud, and supported
in an inner gimbal which is mounted in an outer gimbal, the bearings of which are
located top and bottom on the indicator case. The front of the case contains a
cut-out through which the card is visible, and also a lubber line reference.

The caging/setting knob is provided at the front of the case to set the indicator
onto the correct heading (magnetic). When the setting the heading, the inner
gimbal has to be caged to prevent it from precessing as the outer gimbal is
rotated. Figure 51 shows the construction of a directional gyro.

Directional Gyro
Figure 51

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1.17 TURN & SLIP INDICATOR

This indicator contains two independent mechanisms:

1. A gyroscopically controlled pointer mechanism for the detection and


indication of the rate at which an aircraft turns.

2. A mechanism for the detection and indication of slip/slide.

A gimbal ring and magnifying system, which moves the pointer in the correct
sense over a scale calibrated in what is termed Standard Rates, actuate the
rate of turn pointer. Although they are not always marked on a scale, they are
classified as follows:

1. Rate 1 - Turn Rate 180 per minute.

2. Rate 2 - Turn Rate 360 per minute.

3. Rate 3 - Turn Rate 540 per minute.

4. Rate 4 - Turn Rate 720 per minute.

Figure 52 shows a typical Turn & Slip indicator.

2 MIN

Turn & Slip Indicator


Figure 52

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For the detection of rates of turn, a rate gyroscope is used and is arranged in the
manner shown in figure 53.

INPUT
AXIS

FWD
X Y1

F
Y X1
P

Rate Gyro Turn Indicator


Figure 53

It differs in two respects from the displacement gyro as it only has one gimbal ring
and a calibrated spring restraining in the longitudinal axis YY1. When the
indicator is in its normal operating position the rotor spin axis, due to the spring
restraint, will always be horizontal and the turn pointer at the zero datum. With
the rotor spinning, its rigidity will further ensure that the zero position is
maintained.

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When the aircraft turns to the left about the vertical input axis the rigidity of the
rotor will resist the turning movement, which it detects as an equivalent force
being applied to its rim at point F. The gimbal ring and rotor will therefore be
tilted about the longitudinal axis as a result of precession at point P.

As the gimbal ring tilts, it stretches the calibrated spring until the force it exerts
prevents further deflection of the gimbal ring. Since precession of a rate gyro is
equal to its angular momentum and the rate of turn, then the spring force is a
measure of the rate of turn.

Actual movement of the gimbal ring from its zero position can, therefore, be taken
as the required measure of turn rate.

1.17.1 BANK INDICATION

In addition to the primary indication of turn rate, it is also necessary to have an


indication that an aircraft is correctly banked for the particular turn. A secondary
indicating mechanism is therefore provided, which, depends for its operation on
the effect of gravitational and centrifugal forces. A method commonly used for
bank indication is one utilising a ball in a curved liquid-filled glass tube as shown
in Figure 26.

In the normal level flight the ball is held at the center of the tube by the force of
gravity. Let us assume the aircraft turns left at a certain airspeed and bank angle.
The indicator case and the tube move with the aircraft and centrifugal force (CF)
in addition to that of gravity acts upon the ball and tends to displace it outwards
from the center of the tube. However, when the turn is executed at the correct
bank angle and matched with airspeed, then there is a balanced condition
between the two forces and so the resultant force (R) hold the ball in the center of
the tube.

If the airspeed were to be increased during the turn, then the bank angle and
centrifugal force would also be increased. As long as the bank angle is correct
for the appropriate conditions, the new resultant force will still hold the ball
central.

If the bank angle for a particular rate of turn is not correct (under-banked/over-
banked), then the aircraft will tend to either skid or slip. In the skid condition the
centrifugal force will be the greatest, whereas in the slip condition the force of
gravity is greatest.

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Figure 54 shows bank indication for various aircraft bank conditions.

Bank Indications
Figure 54

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1.18 TURN CO-ORDINATOR

The final instrument in this group is the turn co-ordinator. Basically, its
mechanism is changed slightly from the turn and slip indicator, so that it senses
rotation about the longitudinal axis, (bank) as well as the vertical axis, (turn). This
gives a more accurate indication to the pilot, of the turning of the aircraft.

Figure 55 shows a Turn co-ordinator indicator.

TURN COORDINATION

L R
2 MIN
NO PITCH
INFORMATION

Turn co-ordinator Indicator


Figure 55

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1.19 HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)

The HSI consists of a servo-driven azimuth (compass) card, which is read in


relation to a miniature aircraft symbol in the center of the display, and a lubber
line at the 12 oclock position, the azimuth card being driven by the gyrocompass
system.

A glideslope pointer and scale on the right hand side of the indicator gives a
conventional display of the aircraft with respect to the glideslope. The scale is in
a three-position rotation display, the three positions being glideslope, when the
scale is presenting ILS glideslope deviation. The center mark is a rectangle and
the outer marks are dots. No 2 scale is presented to display vertical navigation
display and No 3 scale shows vertical navigation failure flag.

The course deviation bar represents the centerline of a selected VOR or a


selected localiser course. Deviation from a selected course is indicated by the
bar moving across a scale, which is represented by four white dots, two on either
side of the center of the rotatable mask.

Two windows in the course mask show indications of: -

1. To-From a VOR station, (a solid triangle with a V annotation).

2. To-From a selected NAV co-ordinate (a solid triangle with an N


annotation).

3. To-From a station with aircraft ILS selected (a half-blue and half-yellow


flag).

4. Failure flag (orange and yellow striped flag).

One radio bearing pointer displays the bearing to the next WPT. The bearing
pointer is a pink arrow.

A window to the left of the heading dial displays an ALERT annunciator flag to
indicate the proximity of a navigation reference point.

On the top left and top right hand corners of the instrument are to windows
labeled DIST (distance to waypoint) and GND SPD (ground speed) respectively.

Three windows located in the lower left hand corner of the instrument are blank
until one of the auxiliary servo monitors detects a persistent excessive null, at
which time the ISM causes the appropriate servo symbol to come into view.

A cursor consisting of two trapezoids indicates the selected heading on the


heading dial. The heading select indicator is remotely positioned by the heading
(HDG) knob on the navigation selector. A heading (HDG) flag will be displayed,

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and will cover the heading index at the 12 oclock position if the heading source
fails, or if there is interrupted supply.
Selected course is displayed on the heading dial by an orange dagger-shaped
indicator, rotating in the centre of the heading dial. A similarly coloured pointer
opposite the dagger-shaped indicator provides the reciprocal of selected course.
The dagger and pointer, together with the airplane symbol, serve as the index for
the course deviation indicator. The course select indicator is remotely positioned
by means of the course setting knobs on the navigation selector. Figure 56
shows a Sperry RD700D HSI.

SELECTED SELECTED
COURSE HEADING
CAPTURED CAPTURED

SELECTED
WAYPOINT
BEARING
CAPTURED

VERTICAL VERTICAL
FAIL FLAG NAVIGATION

GLIDESLOPE

COURSE MASK
ANNUNCIATION'S

Sperry RD700D HSI


Figure 56

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1.20 COLLINS 331A-8K HSI

The HSI consists of a servo-driven azimuth (compass) card, which is read in


relation to a miniature aircraft symbol in the center of the display and a lubber line
at the 12 o'clock position. The azimuth card is driven by the gyro compass
system.

A vertical track or glideslope deviation pointer and scale, on the right-hand side
of the HSI, gives a conventional display of the aircraft with respect to the
glideslope. The deviation scale is marked by five dash marks, one long dash
mark in the center, two short dash marks above it and two short dash marks
below it. The vertical track or glideslope deviation pointer is such that when the
aircraft is on the glidepath the pointer is in the central position on the scale. If the
aircraft is off the glideslope, the pointer will move to indicate whether the
deviation is up or down and the amount of movement indicates the extent of the
deviation.

The course deviation bar represents the centerline of a selected VOR or localizer
course. The course deviation scale is marked by five dots, the center one being
enclosed in a small circle. If the aircraft moves off course, the deviation bar will
move to indicate whether left or right of selected course, and the amount of
deviation.

A To-From pointer is used when the navigation receiver is tuned to, and receiving
a VOR signal. The to-from pointer indicates whether the selected course is "To"
(pointer up) or "from" (pointer down) the received signal. When the selected
course is the same as the selected VOR radial, and the aircraft is heading
towards the signal course, a "to" indication is given. When the selected course is
the same as the selected VOR radial and the aircraft is flying away from the
signal course, a "From" indication is given.

An RNAV bearing pointer indicates the direction to the active waypoint. When not
in the RNAV mode, the pointer is biased to the 6 o'clock position.

Two digital LCD displays in the top left-hand and right-hand corners of the HSI
indicate the distance to go to the next waypoint (MILES) and the groundspeed of
the aircraft (GND SPEED). The brightness of the two displays can be adjusted
using the HSI & RA DIM control located on the main instrument panel.

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Figure 57 shows a Collins 331A-8K HSI.

Collins 331A-8K HSI


Figure 57

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1.20.1 WARNING FLAGS

1. MAG annunciator.

Is displayed to show that the information is magnetic heading.

2. HEADING warning flag.

HEADING warning flag comes into view and covers the MAG annunciator if the
heading information becomes unreliable.

3. Navigation warning flag.

Comes into view if navigation data is (orange with white stripes) missing, or
unreliable, when the receiver is tuned to a VOR station.

4. VERT warning flag (GS).

Comes into view when glideslope data is missing or unreliable.

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1.21 ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA)

Apart from the main flight instruments, one item of information that the pilot needs
to know at various stages of flight is the angle of attack. Earlier aircraft had a
range of devices that gave the pilot indication of an approaching stall, which was
an essential indicator but knowing the angle of attack has become an essential
part of flying modern, larger aircraft.

The simplest forms of angle of attack indicators are the Angle of Attack probe and
the stall vane. The probe consists of a hinged-vane-type sensor mounted in the
leading edge of a wing so that the vane protrudes into the airstream. Figure 58
shows an Angle of Attack vane sensor.

ELCTRICAL
CONNECTION
FWD

HINGED
VANE

SYNCHRO

INDEX
PINS
FUSELAGE
SKIN

Angle of Attack Vane Sensor


Figure 58

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In normal level flight conditions, the airstream maintains the vane in a parallel
position. If the aircrafts attitude changes such that the AOA increases, then by
definition, the airflow will meet the leading edge at an increasing angle, and so
cause the vane to be deflected. Figure 59 shows the detection of the AOA.

A330

ANGLE
OF
ATTACK VANE ARM
AIRCRAFT ANGLE OF ATTACK
LONGITUDINAL TRANSDUCER
AXIS


FLIGHT PATH

AIRFLOW

Detecting AOA
Figure 59

When the AOA reaches that which the warning unit has been pre-set, the vane
activates a circuit to activate the stick shaker on the control column (Indicating the
aircraft is approaching a stall).

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1.22 STALL WARNING INDICATION

Figure 60 shows the Stall Warning System

DEMODULATOR

SHAKER
STICK
M
SS1
TRANSMITTER
POSITION
FLAP
AOA SIGNAL
BIAS OFF

VANE SENSOR
SUPP
HTR

SYNCHRO SUPP
K1
WOW
SW

GND
28V
DC

FLT
400Hz
115V

Stall Warning System


Figure 60

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The system in figure 60 consists of a precision counter-balanced aerodynamic


vane, which positions a synchro. The vane is protected against ice formation by
an internal heating element. Also, since the pitch attitude of an aircraft is
changed by the extension of the flaps, the sensor synchro is also interconnected
with a synchro within the transmitter of the flap position indicating system, in
order to modify the AOA signal output as a function of the flap position.

Stick shaking is accomplished by a motor which is secured to the control column


and drives a weighted ring that is deliberately unbalanced to set up vibrations of
the column, to simulate the natural buffeting associated with a stalled condition.
Figure 61 shows a stick-shaker installation.

MOUNTING
BRACKET

STICK-SHAKER
MOTOR

Stick-Shaker Installation
Figure 61

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1.23 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

Modern technology has enabled some significant changes in the layout of flight
instrumentation on most aircraft currently in service. The biggest change has
been the introduction of Electronic Instrument systems. These systems have
meant that many complex Electro-mechanical instruments have now been
replaced by TV type colour displays. These systems also allow the exchange of
images between display units in the case of display failures.

There are many different Electronic Instrument Systems, including:

1. Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS).

2. Engine Instrumentation & Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

3. Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM).

Figure 62 shows a typical flight deck layout of an Airbus A320.

COMBINED
AIRSPEED
INDICATOR
EADI ALTIMETER

BASIC T GROUPING WITH


ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

RADIO VERTICAL
MAGNETIC SPEED
INDICATOR EHSI INDICATOR

EFIS EFIS ECAM EFIS EFIS


ENGINE
PFD ND WARNINGS ND PFD

ECAM
SYSTEMS

GLASS FLIGHTDECK - AIRBUS A320

Flight Deck Electronic Instrumentation Layout


Figure 62

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The Electronic Instrument System (EIS) also allows the flight crew to configure
the instrument layout by allowing manual transfer of the Primary Flight Display
(PFD) with the Navigation Display (ND) and the secondary Electronic Centralized
Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) display with the ND. Figure 63 shows the switching
panel from Airbus A320.

ATT HDG AIR DATA E/S DMC ECAM / ND XFR

NORM NORM NORM NORM


CAPT F/O CAPT F/O CAPT F/O CAPT F/O
3 3 3 3 3 3

A320 EIS Switching Panel


Figure 63

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As well as a manual transfer, the system will automatically transfer displays when
either the PFD or the primary ECAM display fails. The PFD is automatically
transferred onto the corresponding ND, with the ECAM secondary display used
for the primary ECAM display.

The system will also automatically transfer the primary ECAM information onto
the ND if a double failure of the ECAM display system occurs. Figure 64 shows a
block schematic of the EIS for the Airbus 320.

DISPLAY DISPLAY DISPLAY


MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM
DMS No 1 DMS No 3 DMS No 2

Electronic Instrument System (EIS)


Figure 64

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1.24 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

As in the case of conventional flight instrument systems, a complete EFIS


installation is made up of left (Captain) and right (First Officer) systems. Each
system comprises:

1. Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI).

2. Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI).

3. Display Control Panel.

4. Symbol Generator.

The EADI and EHSI can either be positioned side by side or vertically top and
bottom. Normally the EADI is positioned on the top or on the onside position.

1.25 ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (EADI)

The EADI displays traditional attitude information (Pitch & Roll) against a two-
colour sphere representing the horizon (Ground/Sky) with an aircraft symbol as a
reference. Attitude information is normally supplied from an Attitude Reference
System (ARS).

The EADI will also display further flight information, Flight Director commands
right/left to capture the flight path to Waypoints, airports and NAVAIDS and
up/down to fly to set altitudes. Information related to the aircrafts position with
respect to Localizer (LOC) and Glideslope (GS) beams transmitted by an ILS.
Auto Flight Control System (AFCS) deviations and Autothrottle mode, selected
airspeed (Indicated or Mach No) Groundspeed, Radio Altitude and Decision
Height information.

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Figure 65 shows a typical EADI display

Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) Display


Figure 65

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The EADI has two display formats:

1. Full Time EADI Display (Data which is always present).

2. Part Time EADI Display (Data which is only present when active).

1.25.1 FULL TIME EADI DISPLAY DATA

Attitude Sphere: Moves with respect to the aircraft symbol to display


actual pitch and roll attitude.

Pitch Attitude: The pitch attitude display has white scale reference
marks at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 on
the sphere.

Roll Attitude: Displays actual roll attitude through a moveable index


and fixed scale reference marks at 0, 10, 20, 30,
45, 60 and 90.

Aircraft Symbol: Serves as a stationary symbol of the aircraft. Aircraft


pitch and roll attitudes are displayed by the
relationship between the fixed miniature aircraft and
the moveable sphere.

Flight Director Cue: Displays computed commands to capture and


maintain a desired flight path. Flying the aircraft
symbol to the command cue satisfies the commands.

Fast/Slow Display: The pointer indicates fast or slow error provided by an


angle-of-attack, airspeed or alternative reference
system.

Inclinometer: The EADI uses conventional inclinometer, which


provides the pilot with a display of aircraft slip or skid,
and is used as an aid for coordinated maneuvers.

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Attitude Source
Annunciation: The selected attitude source is not annunciated if it is
the normal source for that indicator. As other attitude
sources are selected, they are annunciated in white at
the top left-hand side of the EADI. When the pilot and
co-pilot sources are the same, then the annunciation
is amber.

1.25.2 PART TIME EADI DISPLAYS

Several displays are in view only when being used. When not in use, these
displays are automatically removed from the EADI.

Radio Altitude: Displayed by a four-digit display from 20 to 2500


feet. Display resolution between 200 and 2500 feet is
in 10-foot increments. The display resolution below
200 is 5 feet. The display disappears for altitudes
above 2500 feet (Radio Altitude max altitude is 2,500
feet).

Decision Height: Decision Height is displayed by a three-digit display.


The set range is from 0 to 990 feet in 10-foot
increments. The DH display may be removed by
rotating fully counterclockwise the DH set knob.

Note; when the Radio Altimeter height is 100 feet above the DH, a white box
appears adjacent to the radio altimeter display. When at or below the DH, an
Amber DH will appear inside the white box.

Flight Director
Mode Annunciators: Flight director vertical and lateral modes are
annunciated along the top of the EADI. Armed vertical
and lateral modes are annunciated in white to the left
of the captured vertical and lateral mode annunciators.
Capture mode annunciators are displayed in green
and are located on the top center for lateral modes
and in the top right corner for vertical modes. As the
mode's transition from armed to capture, a white box
is drawn around the capture mode annunciator for 5
seconds.

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Marker Beacon: Displayed above the Radio Altimeter height


information. The markers are of a specified colour of:

Blue - Outer Marker.

Amber - Middle Marker.

White - Inner Marker.

Rising Runway: a miniature rising runway displays Absolute altitude


reference above the terrain. It appears at 200 feet,
and contacts the aircraft symbol at touchdown (0 feet).

Rate-of-Turn: Pointer and scale at the bottom of the display


indicates rate or turn. Used with the inclinometer, will
enable coordinated turns to be achieved.

Glide Slope: By tuning to an ILS frequency, the Glide Slope


information will be displayed. Aircraft displacement
from the Glide Slope beam centerline is then indicated
by the relationship of the aircraft to the Glide Slope
pointer. The letter G inside the vertical scale pointer
identifies the information as Glide Slope deviation.
When tuning to other than an ILS frequency, the Glide
Slope display is removed.

Expanded Localizer: By tuning to an ILS frequency, the Rate-of-Turn


display is replaced by the expanded Localizer display.
When tuning to other than an ILS frequency, the
expanded localizer display is replaced by the Rate-of-
Turn display.

Vertical Navigation
Display: The deviation pointer indicates the VNAVs computed
path center to which the aircraft is to be flown. In this
mode, the letter V inside the vertical scale pointer
identifies the information as VNAV deviation.

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1.26 ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI)

The EHSI presents a selectable, dynamic colour display of flight progress and
plan view orientation. The EHSI has a number of different modes of operation,
these are selectable by the flight crew and the number will be dependent on the
system fitted.

Figure 66 shows an EHSI display.

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) Display


Figure 66

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The EHSI has two display formats:

1. Full Time EADI Display (Data which is always present).

2. Part Time EADI Display (Data which are only present when active).

1.26.1 FULL TIME EHSI DISPLAYS

Aircraft Symbol: The aircraft symbol provides a quick visual cue as to


the aircrafts position in relation to the selected course
and heading, or actual heading.

Heading Dial: Displays the heading information on a rotating


heading dial graduated in 5 increments. Fixed
heading indexes are located at each 45 position.

Heading Bug &


Heading Readout: The notched heading bug is positioned around the
rotating heading dial by the remote heading select
knob on the Display Controller. A digital heading
select readout is also provided for convenience in
setting the heading bug. Heading select error
information from the heading bug is used to fly to the
bug.

Course Deviation
Indicator: The course deviation bar represents the centerline of
the selected navigation or localizer course. The
aircraft symbol pictorially shows the aircraft position in
relation to the displayed deviation.

Select Course Pointer


& Course Readout: Course pointer is positioned inside the heading dial by
the remote select knob on the Display Controller.
Course error information from the course select
pointer is used to fly the selected navigation path. A
digital course select readout is provided for
convenience in setting the select course pointer.

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Distance Display: The distance display indicates the nautical miles to the
selected DME station or LRN Waypoint. Depending
on the equipment, the distance will be displayed in a 0
to 399.9 NM or a 0 to 3999 NM format. An Amber H
adjacent to the distance readout indicates DME Hold.
This will indicate to the crew that DME information is
from the previous VOR/DME beacon, and not the one
providing VOR bearing.

Navigation Source
Annunciators: Annunciation of the navigation source is displayed in
the upper right hand corner. Long range navigation
sources such as INS, VLF, RNAV and FMS are
displayed in blue to distinguish them from short-range
sources, which are annunciated in white.

Time-to-Go/Ground
Speed: Either Time-to-Go or Groundspeed can be displayed,
selected via the Display Controller. Ground Speed is
calculated using the LRN, if fitted. If no LRN, then the
EFIS uses the DME distance to calculate Ground
Speed.

Drift Angle Bug: The drift angle bug with respect to the lubber line
represents drift angle left or right of the desired track.
The drift angle bug with respec to the compass card
represents actual aircraft track. The bug is displayed
as a magenta triangle that moves around the outside
of the compass card.

Desired Track: When LRN is selected, the Course Pointer now


becomes the Desired Track Pointer. The position of
the desired Track Pointer is controlled by the LRN. A
digital display of desired track (DRAK) is displayed in
the upper left-hand corner.

TO-FROM Annunciator: An Arrowhead in the center of the EHSI indicates


whether the selected course will take the aircraft TO
or FROM the station or Waypoint. The TO-FROM
annunciator is not in view during ILS operation.

Heading Source
Annunciation: At the top center of the EHSI is the heading source
annunciator.

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Heading SYNC
Annunciator: The heading SYNC annunciator is located next to the
upper left corner and indicates the state of the
compass system in the slaved mode. The bar
represents commands to the compass gyro to slew to
the indicated direction (+ for increased heading and 0
for decreased heading). Heading SYNC is removed
during compass FREE mode and for LRN derived
heading displays.

1.26.2 PART TIME EHSI DISPLAYS

Vertical Navigation
Display: The vertical navigation display comes into view when
the VNAV mode on the flight director is selected. The
deviation pointer then indicates the VNAVs computed
path center to which the aircraft is to be flown. In this
mode the letter V inside the scale pointer identifies
the deviation display.

Glide Slope Deviation: The Glide Slope display comes into view when a VHF
NAV source is selected and the NAV source is tuned
to an ILS frequency. The deviation pointer then
indicates the Glide Slope beam center to which the
aircraft is to be flown. The letter G inside the scale
pointer identifies the deviation display.

Bearing Pointer
Source Annunciators: The bearing pointers indicate relative bearing to the
selected NAVAID. Two bearing pointers are available
and can be tuned to either VOR or ADF NAVAIDs. If
no NAVAIDs are selected then the pointers and
annunciators are removed. The bearing source
annunciators are colour and symbol coded with the
bearing pointers.

Elapsed Time
Annunciation: When in the Elapsed Time (ET) mode, the ET display
can read minutes and seconds or hours and minutes.
The hour/minute mode will be distinguishable from the
minute/second mode by an H on the left of the digital
display.

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1.26.3 PARTIAL COMPASS FORMAT

The partial compass mode displays a 90 ARC of compass coordinates. The


Partial mode allows other features such as MAP and Weather Radar displays to
Be selected. Figure 67 shows a Partial EHSI display (Compass Mode).

EHSI Partial Compass Mode Display


Figure 67

Wind Vector Display: Wind information is displayed in any partial format.


The wind information can be shown as magnitude and
direction or as head/tail component and cross wind
component, type used is determined on installation of
EFIS. In both cases, the arrow shows the direction
and the number indicates the velocity of the wind (in
knots). Wind information is calculated from the LRN.

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Range Rings: Range rings are displayed to aid in the determining


the position of radar returns and NAVAIDs. The range
ring is the compass card boundary and represents the
selected range on the Radar.

NAVAID Position: NAVAID position can be selected during MAP mode.


The source of the NAVAID position marker is selected
and annunciated in conjunction with the associated
bearing source and is colour coded.

Weather Information: Weather information from the Radar can be displayed


in partial compass mode. Weather Radar data is
presented in the following colours:

1. Black - No storm.

2. Green - Moderate storm.

3. Yellow - Less severe storm.

4. Red - Severe storm.

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Figure 68 shows an EHSI partial format with Weather Radar information.

EHSI Weather Radar Display


Figure 68

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1.26.4 MAP MODE

The MAP mode will allow the display of more navigational information in the
partial compass mode. Information on the location of Waypoints, airports,
NAVAIDs and the planned route can be overlaid on the compass mode.
Weather information can also be displayed in the MAP mode to give a very
comprehensive display.

Figure 69 shows an EHSI MAP mode display.

EHSI MAP Mode Display.


Figure 69

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1.26.5 COMPOSITE DISPLAY

In the event of a display unit failure, the remaining good display can display a
Composite Display. This display is selected via the Display Controller and is
basically a display consisting elements from an EADI and EHSI display.

Figure 70 shows a typical composite display.

EFIS Composite Display


Figure 70

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1.27 EFIS CONTROLLER

Allows the crew to select the required display configuration and what information
is to be displayed. Both Captain and Co-Pilot have their own display controllers.
The controllers have two main functions:

Display Controller: Selects the display format for EHSI as either FULL,
ARC, WX or MAP.

Source Select: Selects the system that will provide information


required for display. The source information will be
VOR, ADF, INS, FMS, VHF and NAV.

EFIS Display Controllers are shown at Figure 71.

DISPLAY SELECT BUTTONS

FULL GS SC
WX ET MAP REV
ARC TTG CP

CRS DIM DH BOT TOP HDG

TEST

RASTER DIM

DISPLAY CONTROLLER

SOURCE SELECT BUTTONS

NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 HDG ATT

ADF 2 VOR 2
VOR 1
ADF 1
ADF 2
AUTO
ADF 1
OFF
OFF
BRG BRG

SOURCE SELECT CONTROLLER

EFIS Display and Source Controllers


Figure 71

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1.27.1 DISPLAY CONTROLLER

FULL/ARC: The FULL/ARC button is used to change the EHSI


display from full compass rose display to a partial
compass display format. Successive pushes of the
button change the display format back and forth
between FULL and ARC.

WX (Weather): The WX button is used to call up weather radar


returns on the partial compass display. If the EHSI is
in the FULL display format, selecting the WX display
will automatically select the ARC format. A second
push of the WX button will remove the weather
information but the ARC format will remain.

GS/TTG: By pressing the GS/TTG button, Groundspeed or the


Time-to-GO will alternately be displayed in the lower
right corner of the EHSI.

ET: By pressing the ET button, Elapsed time is displayed.


If the ET button is pressed again, it will zero the
displayed time. The sequence is:

1. Zero.

2. Start.

3. Stop.

MAP: By pressing the MAP button, the full compass display


is changed to the partial compass display, with active
Waypoints displayed. Also VOR/DME ground station
positions will be displayed.

SC/CP: By pressing the SC/CP button, the flight director


command cues are toggled back and forth from single
cue (SC) configuration to cross pointer (CP)
configuration.

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REV: In the event of an EADI/EHSI display failure, the REV


button may also be used to display a composite
format on the remaining good display. The first push
of the button will blank the EHSI and put the
composite display onto the EADI. The second push
blanks the EADI and puts the composite display onto
the EHSI. A third push will return EHSI/EADI to
normal.

CRS Select Knob: Rotation of the Course select knob allows the course
pointer on the EHSI to be rotated to the desired
course.

DIM: Rotation of the outer concentric DIM knob allows the


overall brightness of the EADI, EHSI to be adjusted.
After the reference levels are set, photoelectric
sensors maintain the brightness level over various
lighting conditions.

DH: Rotation of the inner concentric DH knob allows the


Decision Height, displayed on the EADI, to be
adjusted. If the knob is rotated fully counterclockwise,
the DH display is removed.

TEST: By pressing the TEST button, the displays will enter


the test mode. In the test mode, flags and cautions
are presented along with a check of the flight director
mode annunciations. If the test is successful a
PASS is displayed. If the test is unsuccessful then
an FD FAIL is annunciated.

RASTER DIM TOP/BOT: Rotation of the outer (Bottom display) and inner (Top
display) concentric knobs adjusts the raster scan
display (Weather Radar and Attitude Sphere).

HDG: Rotation of the heading select knob allows the


heading select bug to be rotated to the desired
heading.

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1.27.2 SOURCE CONTROLLER

Used to select the available sources of heading, attitude, bearing and


navigational information for display. Since each aircraft is different, the source
controller is normally tailored to fit each need.

NAV: This button is used to control the source of VHF NAV


display information. Each push of the button will
toggle the source between pilot and copilots NAV
information. VHF systems include DME, ILS and
VOR.

LRN: Long Range Navigation selections depend on the


systems available. These include INS, VLF and FMS
systems.

ATT: Attitude button selects the source of attitude


information. Each push of the button will select a
different source for display. Not available to all
aircraft.

BRG: This knob allows the selection of VOR and ADF


bearings to be displayed. The selected source is
annunciated on the left-hand side of the display and
the bearing to the selected beacon via two bearing
pointers.

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The EFIS comprises the following units:

1. Symbol Generator (SG).

2. Display units X 2 (EADI & EHSI).

3. Control Panel.

4. Remote Light Sensor.

Figure 72 shows the EFIS units and signal interface in block schematic form.

Honeywell

ATT 2 GS

AOA 20 20
F
10 10
G
FULL GS SC
WX ET REV
ARC TTG
MAP
CP 10 10
S
DIM DH BOT TOP CMD 20 20
CRS HDG
M .99
I
TEST 200DH DH 140RA
RASTER DIM

AIR EFIS SG No 1
DATA
COMP NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 ATT
HDG
Honeywell
ADF 2 VOR 2
VOR 1 CRS NAV 1
INERTIAL
ADF 1
ADF 2
AUTO
ADF 1
345 H 2.1 NM
OFF +0 N
OFF
33 3
REF BRG BRG

30

6
W
SYSTEM

E 1
VOR 1

24

2
ADF 1 21 15
S
HDG
GSPD
NAV AID 013 130 KTS

ILS/VOR
EFIS SG No 3
RAD ALT
Honeywell

ATT 2 GS
WEATHER AOA 20 20
F
RADAR 10 10
G

10 10
S
DME CMD
M .99
20 20
FULL
ARC
WX
GS
TTG
ET MAP
SC
CP
REV 200DH DH 140RA

CRS DIM DH BOT TOP


HDG
FMS TEST

RASTER DIM

AFCS EFIS SG No 2
Honeywell

NAV VLF FMS INS 1 ATT


CRS NAV 1
INS 2 HDG
GPWS VOR 2
345
+0
33
N
3
H 2.1 NM
ADF 2
VOR 1
30

ADF 1
ADF 2
6

AUTO
ADF 1
W

OFF
E 1

OFF VOR 1
BRG BRG
24

ADF 1 21 15
S
HDG
GSPD
013 130 KTS

EFIS Block Schematic


Figure 72

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1.28 OTHER SYSTEM INDICATIONS

There are endless different instrument displays, which show the pilot's or flight
engineer, the condition of the aircraft's many systems, the range of instruments
depending on the size of the aircraft. On earlier airliners there could have been
dozens of instruments on the panels to pass on information regarding, for
example, oil temperature & pressure, cabin altitude, hydraulic oil quantity,
electrical power being used, etc.

1.29 POWERPLANT INSTRUMENTATION

Information required by the flight crew to enable them to monitor the engines
include:

1. Fuel Contents.

2. Fuel Flow.

3. Engine RPM.

4. Engine Temperature.

5. Engine pressure.

1.30 FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE

Most modern aircraft have a number of fuel tanks within the wing structure and
each individual tank's contents must be known. There are two main methods of
indicating fuel contents:

1. Resistance Gauges.

2. Capacitance Quantity Indicators.

1.30.1 RESISTANCE GAUGES

This type of gauge tends to found on smaller aircraft. It has a float in the fuel tank
that is connected to a variable resistor. As the fuel level changes, the float will
move, thus changing the resistance, which in turn will alter the current flow
through a DC circuit, which in turn will operate a meter indicating fuel contents.

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Figure 73 shows a simplified resistance gauge.

INDICATOR

S
TANK
RESISTOR

+ DC
POWER

FUEL TANK

Resistance Gauge
Figure 73

1.30.2 CAPACITANCE QUANTITY INDICATORS

This has the advantage over other quantity systems in that it can give accurate
readings in very large or unusually shaped tanks. The probes within the fuel tank
are actually capacitors. The two plates of the capacitor will be separated by fuel
on the lower end and air on the upper end. Since fuel and air have different
dielectric constant values, the amount of capacitance will change as the fuel level
rises and falls. The probes will then send signals to the flight deck gauges to
indicate fuel contents. This system usually includes a totalizer, which will give a
reading of the total fuel on board. Some fuel systems will also include indications
of fuel used since take-off.

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Figure 74 shows a circuit of a capacitance quantity system.

TANK UNIT

LOOP
IS A

EMPTY LOOP
IB B

REF C
FULL
2 - PHASE DISCRIMINATION
MOTOR STAGE

AMPLIFIER
STAGE

INDICATOR
REF
PHASE AMPLIFIER UNIT

Capacitance Quantity Indicating System


Figure 74

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1.31 FUEL FLOW INDICATOR

Although the amount of fuel consumed during a given flight may vary slightly
between engines of the same type, fuel flow does provide a useful indication of
the satisfactory operation of the engine and the amount of fuel being consumed
during flight. A typical system consists of a fuel flow transmitter, which is fitted
into the low pressure fuel system, and an indicator, which shows the rate of fuel
flow and the total fuel used in pounds per hour. The transmitter measures the
fuel flow electrically and an associated electronic unit gives a signal to the
indicator proportional to the fuel flow. Figure 75 shows a fuel flow transmitter &
indicator.

Fuel Flow Transmitter & Indicator


Figure 75

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In some aircraft, a combined fuel flow/pressure indicator is used. This type of


indicator usually has two pointers moving over the double-scale, one pointer the
right engine and the other the left engine. On most large passenger aircraft, a
dedicated fuel flow indicator is used for each engine. Figure 76 shows two types
of fuel flow indicators.

TWIN ENGINED COMBINED FUEL FLOW/PRESSURE


INDICATOR

SINGLE ENGINE FUEL FLOW INDICATOR

Fuel Flow Indicators


Figure 76

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1.31.1 FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTERS

There are two types of fuel flow transmitters currently in use:

1. Synchronous Mass Flow Flow-meter System.

2. Motorless Mass Flow Meter System.

1.31.2 SYNCHRONOUS MASS FLOW FLOW -METER SYSTEM

This system measures mass flow rather than volume. In this way, it
compensates for fuel temperature in its readout. The system also measures in
pounds per hour. Figure 77 shows a schematic diagram of the Synchronous
Mass Flow Flow-meter System.

CALIBRATED
RESTRAINING TURBINE DECOUPLING IMPELLER
SPRINGS DISK
FUEL FLOW

IMPELLER
MOTOR

FLUID
PASSAGE
FLUID
PASSAGE

115V TRANSMITTER
400Hz

MOTOR
CIRCUIT

INDICATOR

Synchronous Mass Flow Flow-meter System


Figure 77

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Referring to figure 77, fuel enters the transmitter impeller, which is rotated at a
constant 60rpm by the synchronous impeller motor. The temperature of the fuel
will determine its volume and the amount of force to be created by the action of
the impeller. The turbine is twisted against its retaining springs by the mass flow
force created by impeller movement. The mass flow electrical transmitter
arrangement works on the principle of a torque synchro.

1.31.3 MOTORLESS MASS FLOW METER SYSTEM

The motorless flow meter represents the latest in electronic solid-state fuel
measuring systems. It is small in size and accounts for variables such as fuel
temperatures and specific gravity with an accuracy of 1% as opposed to 2% for
motor driven flow meters. Almost all the large turbine powered aircraft are
configured with the motorless type, pound per hour fuel flow meter system.
Figure 78 shows a schematic of the Motorless Mass Flow Meter.

DRUM
t
PICK-OFF PICK-OFF
COIL 1 COIL 2

DRIVE

FUEL
FLOW

IMPELLER
SPRING MAGNET
MAGNET
TWO
ONE

Motorless Mass Flow Meter


Figure 78

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Referring to figure 78, The flow meter transmitter converts the rate into two
electronic signals. The signals are created as the flowing fuel gives an angular
displacement to two continuously rotating magnets. The magnets induce
electronic impulses into stationary coils and the time difference is used as a
measure of the mass flow rate.

The fuel enters from the drive end and rotates the drum containing magnet 1 and
the drive shaft. The spring connects the drive shaft to the impeller containing
magnet 2. As the magnets rotate, the pick-off coils receive current pulses, the
first pulse occurring at pick-off coil 1. Then as the spring deflects in proportion to
fuel flow, magnet 2 turns with the impeller and induces a current pulse with a time
lag into pick-off coil 2.

The greater the mass flow, the greater the spring deflection and angular
difference between the magnets. The time displacement which, results is directly
proportional to mass flow rate in this motorless transmitter design. The indicator
contains electronic circuits, which convert the time difference to a pound per hour
readout.

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1.32 PRESSURE INDICATORS

It is essential for the correct and safe operation of the engine that accurate
indication is obtained of both the temperature and pressure of the engine oil and
fuel supply. Figure 79 shows a fuel pressure indicator and an engine oil
pressure indicator.

FUEL PRESSURE INDICATOR

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR

Fuel & Oil Pressure Indicators


Figure 79

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There are two methods of detecting the pressure, these are:

1. Pressure Capsule detection.

2. Bourbon Tube detection.

1.32.1 PRESSURE CAPSULE DETECTION

This type of indicator utilizes a pressure capsule or diaphragm. Like the


bourbon tube, a diaphragm type pressure indictor is attached to a capillary tube,
which attaches to the fuel system and carries pressurised fuel to the diaphragm.
As the diaphragm becomes pressurised it expands, causing an indicator pointer
to rotate. Figure 80 shows a pressure capsule type fuel pressure indicator.

DIAPHRAGM

Capsule Type Pressure Indicator


Figure 80

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1.32.2 BOURDON TUBE DETECTION

The bourdon tube is made with a metal tube that is formed in a circular shape
with a flattened cross-section. One end is open while the other is sealed. The
open end of the bourdon tube is connected to a capillary tube containing the
pressurised medium. As the pressurised medium enters the bourdon tube, the
tube tends to straighten. Through a series of gears, this movement is used to
move the indicating pointer on the instrument face. Figure 81 shows a Bourdon
tube mechanism.

POINTER BOURDON
STAFF TUBE

ANCHOR
POINT
GEARING

Bourdon Tube Mechanism


Figure 81

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The most common method used on modern passenger aircraft is a pressure


transmitter and indicator. The operation is that oil/fuel pressure acting on a
bourdon tube within the transmitter moves an electromagnet core. This
movement is then transmitted to the indicator via a torque synchro system,
moving a pointer over the calibrated pressure scale. Figure 82 shows a
schematic of this system.

PRESSURE
INPUT
26 V AC

ENGINE
FIREWALL

BOURDON
FLIGHTDECK
TUBE
PRESSURE
INDICATOR
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER

Pressure Transmitter and indicator


Figure 82

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1.33 OIL & FUEL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS

There are two main types of temperature sensors used in the oil & fuel
temperature measurement, these are:

1. Resistive Bulb Sensor.

2. Thermocouple Sensor.

1.33.1 RESISTIVE BULB SENSOR

Oil & fuel temperatures are sensed by a temperature sensitive element (resistive
BULB), fitted in the oil and fuel system. A temperature sensor and indicator is
shown in figure 82.

28V DC

TEMPERATURE
BULB
(RESISTIVE TYPE)
CONNECTOR
PINS
OIL TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR

MICA
INSULATOR

MICA
CORE

COMPENSATING
COIL
NICKEL WINDING
ON MICA CORE

Temperature Sensor & Indicator


Figure 82

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The indicator contains a Wheatstone Bridge circuit with the temperature sensor
as the variable resistance. A change rise in temperature causes a rise in the
resistance value and, consequently, unbalances the bridge network with a
corresponding flow of current at the indicator. The indicator pointer is deflected
by an amount equivalent to the temperature change and this is recorded on an
indicator calibrated in degrees centigrade.

1.33.2 THERMOCOUPLE SENSOR

The advantage of the thermocouple sensor over the resistive bulb type is that it
requires no power from the aircraft electrical system to operate, It is self-
contained and self-generating circuit. It derives its power from a pair of dissimilar
metals, iron and constantan, which when heated at the hot junction, produces a
millivoltage and causes a current flow through the meter. Figure 83 shows the
thermocouple sensor and indicator,

CONSTANTAN (-)
(YELLOW)

IRON (+)
(BLACK)

THERMOCOUPLE
HOT JUNCTION

OIL TEMPERATURE
INDICATOR

Thermocouple & Indicator


Figure 83

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1.34 ENGINE RPM INDICATORS

All engines have their rotational speed (rpm) indicated, on two spool or triple
spool engines, the high pressure assembly speed (N3) is always indicated; in
most cases, additional indicators show the speed of the low pressure (N1) and
intermediate pressure (N2) assemblies. Engine speed indication is electrically
transmitted from a small generator driven by the engine to an indicator that shows
the speed as a percentage of the maximum engine speed. Figure 84 shows the
compressor speeds for a triple spool engine.

INTERMEDIATE
LOW PRESSURE PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE
LOW SPEED INTERMEDIATE HIGH SPEED
N1 COMPRESSOR SPEED N3 COMPRESSOR
N2 COMPRESSOR

Compressor Spool Speeds


Figure 84

The engine speed is often used to assess the engine thrust, but it does not give
an absolute indication of the thrust being produced because inlet temperature
and pressure conditions affect the thrust at a given engine speed.

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Figure 85 shows two types of engine rpm indicators.

ENGINE RPM
INDICATOR

N1 PERCENTAGE
INDICATOR

Engine Speed Indicators


Figure 85

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AEROPLANE
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1.34.1 ENGINE SPEED GENERATOR

The Engine speed generator supplies a three-phase alternating current, the


frequency of which is dependent upon engine speed. The generator output
frequency controls the speed of a synchronous motor in the indicator, and
rotation of a magnet assembly housed in a drum or drag-cup induces movement
of the drum and consequent movement of the indicator pointer. Figure 86 shows
an engine speed generator & indicator.

SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR FIELD

POINTER
YOKE

SPOOL
DRIVE

FLUX
COUPLING
SPRING

INDICATOR

GENERATOR
FIELD
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
OUTPUT

Engine Speed Generator & Indicator


Figure 86

Where there is no provision for driving a generator, a variable-reluctance speed


probe, in conjunction with a phonic wheel, may be used to induce an electric
current that is amplified and then transmitted to an indicator. This method can be
used to provide an indication of rpm, without the requirement for a separately
driven generator, with its associated drives, thus reducing the number of
components and moving parts of the engine.

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Figure 87 shows a variable-reluctance speed probe and phonic wheel system.

SPEED SIGNAL
TO AMPLIFIER

COMPRESSOR
CASE

SPEED
PROBE
DRIVE
SHAFT

PHONIC
WHEEL

Variable-Reluctance Speed Probe & Phonic Wheel


Figure 87

The speed probe is positioned on the compressor casing in line with the phonic
wheel, which is a machined part of the compressor shaft. The teeth on the
periphery of the wheel pass the probe once every revolution and induce an
electric current by varying the magnetic flux across a coil in the probe. The
magnitude of the current is governed by the rate of change of the magnetic flux
and is thus directly related to the engine speed.

In addition to providing an indication of rotor speed, the current induced at the


speed probe can be used to illuminate a warning lamp on the instrument panel to
indicate to the flightcrew that a rotor assembly is turning. This is particularly
important at engine start, because it informs the flightcrew when to open the fuel
cocks to allow fuel to the engine.

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1.35 EXHAUST TEMPERATURE INDICATING

The temperature of the exhaust gases is always monitored closely during engine
operation, especially during the starting cycle when overheat damage is most
prevalent. Hot section temperature is considered the most critical of all engine
operating parameters because an out of limits condition can render an engine
unairworthy in a matter of seconds.

There are a number of different locations that the exhaust temperature can be
measured and thus a number of different indicators such as:

1. Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) Indicates the temperature is being


monitored forward of the turbine wheel(s).

2. Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Indicates the temperature is being


taken at some intermediate position between multiple turbine wheels.

3. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Indicates the temperature is being taken


aft of the turbine wheels.

4. Turbine Outlet Temperature (TOT) Indicates the temperature is being taken


aft of the turbine wheels.

Figure 88 shows a typical EGT indicator.

OVER TEMP
LIMIT BUG
OVERTEMP
WARNING
LIGHT

EGT Indicator
Figure 88

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Each type of EGT system consists of several thermocouples spaced at intervals


around the circumference of the engine exhaust section casing. The EGT
indicator in the cockpit displays the average temperature measured by the
individual thermocouple probes. The thermocouple probes consist of two wires of
dissimilar metals that are joined together inside a metal guard tube. Transfer
holes in the tube allow the exhaust gas to flow across the junction. The metals
from which the thermocouple wires are made are usually nickel-chromium and
nickel-aluminium alloys. Figure 89 shows a thermocouple with figure 90 showing
a typical thermocouple harness.

NICKEL
ALUMINIUM
WIRE

NICKEL
CHROMIUM
WIRE

TRANSFER HOLES

Thermocouple
Figure 89

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TO GAS TEMPERATURE
CONTROL SYSTEM
THERMOCOUPLES

JUNCTION
BOX
JET PIPE

THERMOCOUPLE
AIR INTAKE

Thermocouple Harness
Figure 90

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1.36 ENGINE PRESSURE INDICATORS

The Engine Pressure Ration (EPR) system has for many years been the most
widely used thrust indicating system for aircraft flight deck indication. The EPR is
used as a performance (thrust) setting instrument on many flight decks.

The EPR is ratio of two engine pressures: Turbine discharge total pressure and
compressor inlet pressure. Each manufacturer uses a slightly different engine
station numbering system, and engine stations are a means of identifying engine
pressure ratio tap off points. For example Pratt & Whitney uses station 2 (Pt2)
and station 5 (Pt5), to identify the engine pressure ratio tap-off points of single-
spool engines. They also use stations 2 and 7 (Pt2) & (Pt7), to identify the engine
pressure ratio tap-off points of a dual-spool engine. Figure 91 shows a typical
EPR indicator.

EPR Indicator
Figure 91

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1.36.1 EPR FORMULA

The following example is of a Pratt & Whitney JT12 engine EPR cockpit
indications. When turbine discharge pressure is 19.11 pounds per square inch
absolute and the compressor inlet pressure is 14.7 pounds per square inch
absolute, the EPR will be 1.3. Figure 92 shows the EPR system and the
calculation of the example in this paragraph.

Pt7 = 19.11 PSI (ABSOLUTE)

Pt2 = 14.70 PSI (ABSOLUTE)


Pt7 MANIFOLD

= 1.3
19.11
14.70
EPR =
INDICATOR

PRESSURE RATIO
EPR

TRANSMITTER

Pt2 PROBE

EPR System
Figure 92

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1.37 VIBRATION INSTRUMENTS

A turbo-jet engine has an extremely low vibration level and a change of vibration,
due to an impending or partial failure, may pass without being noticed. Many
engines are therefore fitted with vibration indicators that continually monitor the
vibration level of the engine. The indicator is usually a milliammeter that receives
signals through an amplifier from engine mounted transmitters. Figure 93 shows
a vibration transmitter and indicator.

ENGINE VIBRATION
MEASURED IN
MILS (THOUSANDTHS)
OF INCHES

VIBRATION
TRANSMITTER

Vibration Transmitter & Indicator


Figure 93

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The vibration level recorded on the indicator is the sum total of vibration felt at the
pick-up. A more accurate method differentiates between in the frequency ranges
of each rotating assembly and so enables the source of vibration to be isolated.
This is particularly important on m multi-spool engines. A crystal-type vibration
transmitter, giving a more reliable indication of vibration, has been developed for
multi-spool engines. A system of filters in the electronic circuit to the indicator
makes it possible to compare the vibration source. A multiple selector switch
enables the pilot to select a specific area to obtain a reading of the level of
vibration. Figure 94 shows a multiple-selector vibration indicator.

Multiple-Selector Vibration Indicator


Figure 94

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Figure 95 shows the functional diagram of a large engine indicating system.

CORE SPEED

FUEL PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
EXHAUST GAS

FUEL FLOW
MONITOR
COMPRESSOR
SPEED

ENGINE VIBRATION

TEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
ENGINE

OIL
RATIO

OIL

Large Engine Indicating System


Figure 95

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Figure 96 shows a typical LED type electronic engine instrumentation group for a
four engine aircraft.

LED Electronic Instrument group


Figure 96

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1.38 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS (ENGINE & AIRFRAME)

With the introduction of the "Glass Cockpits", most traditional gauges,


instruments and warning lights have been replaced by fully electronic display
systems. There are different types of display systems available, the two main
ones being:

1. Engine Instrument and Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

2. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM).

1.39 ENGINE INDICATING & CREW ALERTING SYSTEM (EICAS)

The basic system comprises two display units, a control panel and two computers
supplied with analog and digital signals from the engine and system sensors.
The computers are designated Left and Right and only one is in control of the
system at any one time, the other is held in standby. In the event of a failure, it
may be switched in either manually or automatically.

Operating in conjunction with the system are discrete caution and warning lights,
standby engine indicators and a remotely-located panel for selecting
maintenance data display. The system provides the flight crew with information
on primary engine parameters (Full-time), with secondary engine parameters and
advisory/caution/warning alert messages displayed as required.

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1.39.1 DISPLAY UNITS

These units provide a wide variety of information relevant to engine operation,


and operation of other automated system. The operation of these displays is the
same as those in the EFIS as previously described.

The upper unit displays primary engine parameters, i.e. N1 speed, EGT, and
warning and caution messages. The lower unit displays secondary parameters,
i.e. N2 speed, fuel flow, oil quantity, pressure and temperature. In addition, the
status of non-engine systems e.g. flight control surface position, hydraulic
system, APU, etc., can be displayed.

On the upper unit, a row of Vs will appear when secondary information is being
displayed on the lower unit. Seven colors are produced by the CRTs for
displaying information. Table 1 shows the colors and description of there
uses.

Colour Description
White All scales, normal operating range of pointers, digital readouts.
Red Warning messages, maximum operating limit marks on scales,
and digital readouts.
Green Thrust mode readout and selected EPR/N1 speed marks or
target cursors.
Blue Testing of system only.
Yellow Caution and advisory messages, caution limit marks on scale,
digital readouts
Magenta During in-flight engine starting, and for cross bleed messages.
Cyan Names of all parameters being measured (e.g. N1, oil pressure,
TAT, etc.) and status marks or cues.

Table 1

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Figure 97 shows layout of the EICAS Displays.

CAUTION

RESET CANCEL

UPPER
DISPLAY
8
SBY
0
1
1013 2
(PRIMARY)
X 100 ft
3

7 3 5 0 00
5

6 4

LOWER
DISPLAY
(SECONDARY)
- -
DISPLAY COMPUTER BRT THRUST REF SET
BOTH
ENGINE STATUSEVENT L AUTO R
MAX IND
RECORD L R RESET

EICAS Primary and Secondary Display Formats


Figure 97

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Figure 98 and 99 show display formats for primary and secondary displays.

CAUTION
TAT 15c

0.0 0.0
CANCEL RECALL 10 10
2 2
6 6

N1

0 0

EGT

VVVVVVV

Primary EICAS Display


Figure 98

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88.00 88
50 50

OIL PRESS N2

120 120 86 86

OIL TEMP
N3

18 18 4.4 4.4
OIL QTY
N1 FAN
FF
3.1 1.9
VIB

Secondary EICAS Display


Figure 99

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1.40 DISPLAY MODES

EICAS is designed to categorize displays and alerts according to the function and
usage. For this purpose there are three modes of displaying information:

1. Operational (selected by the flight crew).

2. Status (selected by the flight crew).

3. Maintenance (ground use only and selected via the maintenance


panel).

1.40.1 OPERATIONAL MODE

This mode displays the engine operating information and any alerts required to
be actioned by the crew in flight. Normally only the upper display unit presents
information: the lower one remains blank and can be selected to display
secondary information as and when required.

1.40.2 STATUS MODE

When selected this mode displays data to determine the dispatch readiness of an
aircraft, and is closely associated with details contained in the aircrafts Minimum
Equipment List. The display shows the positions of the flight control surfaces in
the form of pointers registered against vertical scales, selected sub-system
parameters, and equipment status messages on the lower display unit. Selection
is normally done on the ground, either as part of the pre-flight checks of dispatch
items, or prior to shutdown of electrical power to aid the flight crew in making
entries in the aircrafts Technical log. Figure 100 shows an example of a status
page.

1.40.3 MAINTENANCE MODE

This mode provides maintenance engineers with information in five different


display formats to aid them in fault finding and verification testing of major sub-
systems.

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L C R 0.0 FF 0.0
HYD QTY 0.99 1.00 0.98

HYD PRESS 2975 3010 3000

APU EGT 440 RPM 103 OIL 0.75

OXY PRESS 1750

RUD

AIL ELEV AIL

EICAS Status Page


Figure 100

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1.41 DISPLAY SELECT PANEL

To control the operation of the EICAS, a control panel is situated on the center
pedestal. Figure 101 shows a typical EICAS control panel.

DISPLAY COMPUTER BRT


BRT

ENGINE STATUS EVENT


BAL MAX IND
RECORD L AUTO R RESET
L BOTH R

EICAS Control Panel


Figure 101

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1.41.1 DISPLAY SELECT PANEL OPERATION

Engine Display Switch: This is a push type switch for removing or presenting
the display of secondary information on the, lower
display.

Status Display Switch: This is a push type switch for removing or presenting
the status page on the lower display.

Event Record Switch: Normally, there is an auto event function, this will
automatically record any malfunctions as they occur.
The push switch enables manual event marking so
that the crew can record a suspect malfunction for
storage in a non-volatile memory. This data can be
retrieved from the memory and displayed by ground
engineers by operating the ground maintenance
panel. This manual switch can also be used for
activating the recording of fault data, either in the air
or on the ground, on the Environmental Control
system, Electrical Power system, Hydraulic system
and APU.

Computer Select Switch: In the AUTO position it selects the left or primary
computer and automatically switches to the other in
the event of a failure. The other positions are for
manually selecting either the right or left computers.

Display Brightness: Controlled by the inner knob for the display intensity,
the outer for display brightness.

Thrust Reference Set


Switch: Pulling and rotating the inner knob positions the
reference cursor on the thrust indicator display (either
EPR or N1) for the engines, which are selected by the
outer knob.

Max Indicator Reset: If any of the measured parameters e.g. Oil Pressure,
EGT etc. and if they exceed normal operating limits,
this will be automatically alerted on the display units.
The purpose of the reset button is to clear the alerts
from the display when the excess limits no longer
exist.

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1.42 ALERT MESSAGES

The system will continually monitor a large number of inputs (400+) from engine
and airframe systems. If a malfunction is detected then the appropriate alert
message is annunciated on the upper display. Up to 11 messages can be
displayed and are at the following levels:

LEVEL A - Warning: Requiring immediate corrective action and are


displayed in RED. Master warning lights are also
activated and aural warnings from the Central
Warning System are given.

LEVEL B - Caution: Requiring immediate crew awareness and possible


action. They are displayed in AMBER. An aural
tone is also repeated twice.

LEVEL C - Advisory: Requiring crew awareness, displayed in AMBER.


There are no caution lights or aural tones associated
with this level.

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Figure 102 shows a display with the three different types of alert messages
Displayed.

LEVEL A
TAT 15c
WARNING
APU FIRE
R ENGINE FIRE 70.0 110.0
CABIN ALTITUDE 10 10
2 2
LEVEL B C SYS HYD PRESS 6 6
R ENG OVHT
CAUTION AUTOPILOT N1
C HYD QTY
R YAW DAMPER 999
775
LEVEL C L UTIL BUS OFF
ADVISORY
EGT

VVVVVVV

Upper EICAS Display Alert Messages


Figure 102

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1.43 MAINTENANCE CONTROL PANEL

This panel is used by maintenance engineers for the purpose of displaying


maintenance data stored within the systems computer memories. Figure 103
shows a typical maintenance control panel.

PERFORMANCE AND
AUXILLIARY POWER SELECTS DATA FROM
UNIT FORMATS AUTO OR MANUAL EVENT
IN MEMORY
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ELECTRICAL AND HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FORMAT
MESSAGE FORMATS

EICAS MAINT EVENT


READ
DISPLAY SELECT AUTO MAN

ECS ELEC PERF

MSG HYD APU


REC ERASE

CONF ENG
MCDP EXCD
TEST

ERASES STORED DATA


CONFIGURATION AND BITE TEST SWITCH CURRENTLY DISPLAYED
MAINTENANCE ENGINE RECORDS REAL-TIME
FOR SELF-TEST ROUTINE
CONTROL/DISPLAY EXCEEDANCES DATA CURRENTLY DISPLAYED
PANEL (IN MANUAL EVENT)

Maintenance Control Panel


Figure 103

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1.44 ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING

ECAM differs from EICAS in that the data displayed relate essentially to the
primary systems of the aircraft and are displayed in checklist and pictorial or
synoptic format.

1.44.1 DISPLAY UNITS

These can be mounted either side-by-side or top/bottom. The left-hand/top unit is


dedicated to information on the status of the system; warnings and corrective
action in a sequenced checklist format, while the right-hand/bottom unit is
dedicated to associated information in pictorial or synoptic format. Figure 104
shows the layout of ECAM displays.

400
350 60
1
300 8 4 0 80
MACH 9

250 120
IAS
240 KNOTS
140

220
180
200

LDG GEAR
5
GRVTY EXTN
RESET
OFF
DOWN

ECAM Display Layout


Figure 104

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1.45 ECAM DISPLAY MODES

There are four display modes, three of which are automatically selected and
referred to as phase-related, advisory (mode and status), and failure-related
modes. The forth mode is manual and permits the selection of diagrams related
to any one of 12 of the aircrafts systems for routine checking, and also the
selection of status messages provided no warnings have been triggered for
display. Selection of the displays is by means of a system control panel. See
Figure 81

1.45.1 FLIGHT PHASE RELATED MODE

In normal operation the automatic flight phase-related mode is used, and the
displays will be appropriate to the current phase of aircraft operation, i.e. Pre-
flight, Take-off, Climb, Cruise, Decent, Approach, and post landing. Figure 105
shows display modes. The upper display shows the display for pre-take off, the
lower is that displayed for the cruise.

E N G IN E
V IB (N 1 )
10 10
5 5
F .US E D 0 .8 0 .9
8 7. 0 6 5. 0 KG
N1 1530 1530
% F O B : 1 4 0 0 0 KG V IB (N 2 )
O IL
1 .2 1 .3
10 10 QT Y
5 5
F LA P 1 1 .5 1 1 .5
6 50 4 80
S F
EG T
C
A IR
L DG E LE V A U TO 500F T
N2
80 8 0 .2 F UL L
% C AB V /S F T/M IN
C K PT 2 0 FWD 2 2 A FT 23
FF
1500 1 5 00 24 22 24 250
K G /H
C AB A LT FT
4150
N O S M O K IN G : ON
S E A T B E LT S : ON L D G I N H I B IT
S P LR S : F UL L A PU B LEED
T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G
F LA P S : F UL L
S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %

E C A M U P P E R D IS P L A Y E C A M L O W E R D IS P L A Y - C R U IS E

ECAM Upper and Lower Display (Cruise Mode)


Figure 105

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1.45.2 ADVISORY MODE

This mode provides the flight crew with a summary of the aircrafts condition
following a failure and the possible downgrading of systems. Figure 106 shows
an advisory message following a Blue Hydraulic failure.

5 10 5 10

87.0 65.0
N1
% FOB : 14000KG

5 10 5 10
S FLAP F
650 480
EGT
C
ADVISORY
N2 FULL
MESSAGES 80 80.2
%
FF
1500 KG/H
1500

HYD B RSVR OVHT FLT CTL


B SYS LO PR SPOILERS SLOW
1 FUEL TANK PUMP LH
FAILURE
MESSAGES

ECAM Advisory Mode


Figure 106

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1.45.3 ECAM FAILURE MODE

The failure-related mode takes precedence over the other modes. Failures are
classified in 3 levels

LEVEL 3: WARNING

This corresponds to an emergency configuration. This requires the flight crew to


carry out corrective action immediately. This warning has an associated aural
warning (fire bell type) and a visual warning (Master Warning), on the glare shield
panel.

LEVEL 2: CAUTION

This corresponds to an abnormal configuration of the aircraft, where the flight


crew must be made aware of the caution immediately but does not require
immediate corrective action. This gives the flight crew the decision on when
action should be carried. These cautions are associated to an aural caution
(single chime) and a steady (Master Caution), on the glare shield panel.

LEVEL 1: ADVISORY

This gives the flight crew information on aircraft configuration that requires the
monitoring, mainly failures leading to a loss of redundancy or degradation of a
system, e.g. Loss of 1 FUEL TANK PUMP LH or RH but not both.

The advisory mode will not trigger any aural warning or attention getters but a
message appears on the primary ECAM display.

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Figure 107 111 shows the 12-system pages and status page available.

C ON D TE M P C C AB P R E S S L DG E LE V MAN 50 0 F T

AP C A B AL T
PS I V/ S F T /M IN
FT
A LTN M O DE UP
F AN F AN 2
8 10
0 1150
C KP T 2 0 F W D 22 A FT 2 3 0 4 .1 2 0 4150
DN
24 22 24
M AN
SY ST 1 SY ST 2
C H C H C H SA F ET Y
VE NT
HOT IN L ET EX T RA C T
A IR

PA C K 1 PA C K 2

T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G
S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 % S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %

A IR C O N D IT IO N IN G S Y S T E M P A G E P R E S S U R IS A T IO N S Y S T E M P A G E

ECAM System Displays


Figure 107

Note; These pages are displayed:

Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.

Whenever called manually.

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BAT 1 BAT 2 F/ CT R
E LE C 28 V D C B AT 28 V G B Y
15 0A 15 0A

DC 1 DC 2

D C ES S
SP D BR K
TR 1 TR 2
L R
28 V ES S TR EM ER G GEN 28 V
15 0A 28 V 11 6V 15 0A A IL P IT CH TR IM G Y A IL
13 0A 40 0H Z B G G B
3 .2 UP

AC 1 A C ESS AC 2
R UD
L R
GE N 1 GE N 2 G B Y
EL EV EL EV
26 % A PU 26 %
11 6V 26 %
EX T PW R
11 6V B G Y B
11 6V
40 0H Z 11 6V 40 0H Z
40 0H Z
40 0H Z

T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G
S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 % S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %

E L E C T R IC A L S Y S T E M P A G E F L IG H T C O N T R O L S Y S T E M P A G E

ECAM System Displays


Figure 108

Note; These pages are displayed:

Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.

Whenever called manually.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-147


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

F .U SE D 1 FU E L K G F .U SE D 2 H YD
1550 F OB 1550
GR EE N B LU E Y E LL O W

A PU 2 87 5 0
3000 PSI 3000 PSI 3000

L E FT R IG H T
C TR

5 50 5 50
1 07 5 0 5 60 0 1 07 5 0

T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G
S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 % S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %

FUE L SYSTE M P AG E H Y D R A U L IC S Y S T E M P A G E

-ECAM System Displays


Figure 109

Note; These pages are displayed:

Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.

Whenever called manually.

Page 1-148 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

WHEEL B LE E D

2 4 C 2 0 C
C H C H

R AM A IR 2 3 0 C
5 0 C
LO HI LO HI
C C
170 140 140 140
1 REL 2 3 REL 4
1 2
GN D

A PU
AUTO BRK
LP HP HP LP

TAT +19 C G.W. 60300 KG T AT +1 9 C G .W . 6 0 3 0 0 K G


SAT +17 C 23 H 56 S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %
C.G. 28.1 %

LANDING GEAR/WHEEL/BRAKE SYSTEM PAGE A IR B LE ED SY STE M PA GE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 110

Note; These pages are displayed:

Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.

Whenever called manually.

The Gear/Wheel page is displayed at the related flight phase.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-149


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

D OOR O X Y 1 85 0 P S I A PU
A PU
A V I O N IC 26%
ARM ARM
B LE E D
C A BIN 116 V
35 PSI
400 HZ
FW D C OM PT
C A RG O

N
10 %
EM ER ARM ARM
E X IT 0 80
C A RG O F LA P O P E N
B U LK EG T
7 C
ARM ARM 5
C A BIN
3 580

T AT +1 9 C T AT +1 9 C
S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 % S A T + 17 C 2 3 H 56 C .G . 2 8 .1 %

D O O R /O X Y S Y S T E M P A G E AP U SY STEM PAG E

ECAM System Displays


Figure 111

Note; These pages are displayed:

Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.

Whenever called manually.

Related flight phase.

Page 1-150 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.46 CONTROL PANEL

The layout of the control panel is shown in Figure 112.

DISPLAY ON & SGW SELECT DISPLAY ON &


BRIGHTNESS SWITCHES BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL CONTROL

TOP DISPLAY 1 ECAM SGU 2 BOTTOM DISPLAY

FAULT FAULT

OFF OFF

OFF BRT OFF BRT


MESSAGE
CLEARANCE
SWITCH
CLR ENG HYD AC DC

BLEED COND PRESS FUEL


STS

APU F/CTL DOOR WHEEL


RCL

STATUS
MESSAGE RECALL
SWITCH SWITCH
SYSTEM SYNOPTIC
DISPLAY SWITCHES

ECAM Control Panel


Figure 112

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 1-151


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.46.1 ECAM CONTROL PANEL

SGU Selector Switches: Controls the respective symbol generator units. Lights
are off in normal operation of the system. The FAULT caption is illuminated
amber if the SGUs internal self-test circuit detects a failure. Releasing the switch
isolates the corresponding SGU and causes the FAULT caption to extinguish,
and the OFF caption to illuminate white.

System Synoptic Display Switches: Permit individual selection of synoptic


diagrams corresponding to each of the 12 systems, and illuminate white when
pressed. A display is automatically cancelled whenever a warning or advisory
occurs.

CLR Switch: Light illuminates white whenever a warning or status message is


displayed on the left-hand display unit. Press to clear messages.

STS Switch: Permits manual selection of an aircrafts status message if no


warning is displayed. Illuminates white when pressed also illuminates the CLR
switch. Status messages are suppressed if a warning occurs or if the CLR switch
is pressed.

RCL Switch: Enables previously cleared warning messages to be recalled


provided the failure conditions which initiated the warnings still exists. Pressing
this switch also illuminates the CLR switch. If a failure no longer exists the
message NO WARNING PRESENT is displayed on the left-hand display.

Page 1-152 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PART TWO
CONTENTS
2 AVIONICS SYSTEMS ................................................................... 2-1
2.1 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT ...................................................................... 2-1
2.2 AUTOPILOT SYSTEM ..................................................................... 2-1
2.2.1 Error Sensing ................................................................ 2-2
2.2.2 Correction ..................................................................... 2-2
2.2.3 Follow-Up ...................................................................... 2-2
2.2.4 Command ..................................................................... 2-2
2.3 AUTOPILOT INTERLOCKS .............................................................. 2-4
2.4 SERVOMOTORS ............................................................................ 2-6
2.5 SINGLE AXIS CONTROL SYSTEM ................................................... 2-8
2.6 TWO-AXIS SYSTEM ....................................................................... 2-8
2.7 THREE-AXIS SYSTEM.................................................................... 2-8
2.8 SENSING ATTITUDE CHANGES....................................................... 2-8
2.9 AUTOPILOTS & FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEMS .................................. 2-10
2.10 ALTITUDE HOLD SYSTEM .............................................................. 2-11
2.11 AIRSPEED HOLD........................................................................... 2-12
2.12 ALTITUDE ALERTING SYSTEM ....................................................... 2-12
2.13 CONTROLS AND SELECTORS ......................................................... 2-13
2.14 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM (AFDS) ............................ 2-15
2.15 MODE CONTROL PANEL ............................................................... 2-21
2.15.1 Power supplies A and B ................................................ 2-21
2.15.2 Microprocessor A and B ................................................ 2-21
2.15.3 Push-Button and Toggle Switches ................................ 2-21
2.15.4 Fluorescent Tube Control .............................................. 2-21
2.15.5 Liquid Crystal Displays & Control Knob Encoders ......... 2-22
2.15.6 AFDS Disconnect Switches ........................................... 2-23
2.16 AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR COMPUTER (AFDC) ....................... 2-25
2.16.1 Input Signal Selection ................................................... 2-25
2.16.2 AFDC Processors ......................................................... 2-25
2.17 PRIMARY FLIGHT COMPUTER (PFC) .............................................. 2-26
2.18 COMMUNICATIONS ........................................................................ 2-27
2.19 RADIO WAVES ............................................................................. 2-27
2.20 WAVELENGTH & FREQUENCY ....................................................... 2-28
2.20.1 Frequency Bands .......................................................... 2-29
2.21 CARRIER WAVE............................................................................ 2-29
2.22 AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) .................................................... 2-30
2.23 FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM).................................................... 2-31
2.24 RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION ......................................................... 2-33
2.24.1 Ground Wave Propagation ............................................ 2-34
2.24.2 Sky Wave Propagation .................................................. 2-34
2.24.3 Space Wave Propagation.............................................. 2-34
2.25 ANTENNAS ................................................................................... 2-34
2.26 MICROPHONES (MIC) ................................................................... 2-37

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Part 2 - Page 1


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.26.1 Carbon Microphone ...................................................... 2-37


2.26.2 The Crystal Microphone ................................................ 2-38
2.26.3 Moving Coil Microphone ............................................... 2-39
2.26.4 Electrostatic Microphone .............................................. 2-40
2.27 EARPHONES ................................................................................ 2-41
2.28 VHF RADIO COMMUNICATION ....................................................... 2-44
2.28.1 VHF Control Panel ........................................................ 2-45
2.29 AUDIO CONTROL PANEL .............................................................. 2-46
2.30 VHF TRANSCEIVER ...................................................................... 2-47
2.30.1 Control .......................................................................... 2-47
2.31 VHF COMMUNICATION ANTENNA .................................................. 2-48
2.32 SERVICE INTERPHONE .................................................................. 2-49
2.32.1 Attendant Interphone Handsets .................................... 2-50
2.33 FLIGHT & GROUND CREW CALL SYSTEM ...................................... 2-51
2.34 PASSENGER ADDRESS SYSTEM (PA) ............................................ 2-52
2.35 AUDIO INTEGRATION SYSTEM ....................................................... 2-53
2.36 CONTROL WHEEL MIC SWITCH ..................................................... 2-54
2.37 OPERATION OF VHF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ............................ 2-56
2.38 HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) RADIO COMMUNICATION ........................... 2-57
2.38.1 HF Communication Control Panel................................. 2-59
2.39 SELECTIVE CALLING SYSTEM (SELCAL) ...................................... 2-61
2.39.1 SELCAL Control Panel ................................................. 2-62
2.39.2 SELCAL Decoder ......................................................... 2-63
2.40 COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR) ............................................... 2-64
2.40.1 Voice Recorder Control Panel ...................................... 2-66
2.40.2 Voice Recorder Unit...................................................... 2-67
2.40.3 Underwater Locator Device .......................................... 2-67
2.41 NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ................................................................. 2-68
2.42 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI RANGE (VOR) ............................... 2-68
2.42.1 VOR Operation ............................................................. 2-69
2.42.2 Deviation Calculations .................................................. 2-72
2.42.3 VOR Aerial Locations ................................................... 2-73
2.43 DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) ................................... 2-76
2.43.1 DME Operation ............................................................. 2-79
2.43.2 DME Controller ............................................................. 2-81
2.44 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)............................................ 2-82
2.44.1 ILS Operation ............................................................... 2-83
2.44.2 Antennas ...................................................................... 2-87
2.44.3 LOC/GS Operation ....................................................... 2-88
2.45 MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS) ................................................ 2-90
2.46 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF).......................................... 2-92
2.46.1 Loop Aerial ................................................................... 2-93
2.46.2 Station Line .................................................................. 2-94
2.46.3 Sensing the Correct Null ............................................... 2-95
2.47 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS) ......... 2-101
2.47.1 Transponders ............................................................... 2-101
2.47.2 ATCRBS Control Panel ................................................ 2-103
2.47.3 Mode A ......................................................................... 2-103

Page 2 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.47.4 Mode C ......................................................................... 2-104


2.48 MODE S TRANSPONDERS ............................................................. 2-107
2.48.1 Mode S Interrogation & Replies..................................... 2-107
2.48.2 Discrete Addressing ...................................................... 2-107
2.48.3 Operation ...................................................................... 2-108
2.49 TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM ................... 2-110
2.49.1 TCAS Introduction ......................................................... 2-110
2.49.2 The TCAS II System ..................................................... 2-112
2.49.3 Aural Annunciation ........................................................ 2-115
2.49.4 Performance Monitoring ................................................ 2-119
2.49.5 TCAS Units ................................................................... 2-119
2.49.6 Self Test........................................................................ 2-121
2.49.7 Data Loader Interface ................................................... 2-122
2.50 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS) ............................................. 2-123
2.50.1 General Principle........................................................... 2-124
2.50.2 INS Operation ............................................................... 2-126
2.50.3 Earth Rate Compensation ............................................. 2-130
2.50.4 Vehicle Rate Compensation .......................................... 2-131
2.50.5 Alignment ...................................................................... 2-135
2.50.6 The Navigation Mode .................................................... 2-135
2.50.7 Strapdown Inertial Navigation ....................................... 2-136
2.50.8 Laser Ring Gyro (LRG) Operation ................................. 2-138
2.50.9 Mode Select Unit (MSU)................................................ 2-140
2.50.10 Mode Select Unit Modes ............................................... 2-141
2.50.11 MSU Annunciators ........................................................ 2-142
2.50.12 Inertial System Display Unit (ISDU) ............................... 2-143
2.50.13 Keyboard ...................................................................... 2-144
2.50.14 Display .......................................................................... 2-144
2.50.15 System Display Switch (SYS DSPL) ............................. 2-144
2.50.16 Display Selector Switch (DSPL SEL)............................. 2-144
2.50.17 Dimmer Knob ................................................................ 2-145
2.50.18 Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) ......................................... 2-145
2.50.19 IRS Alignment Mode ..................................................... 2-147
2.50.20 Gyro Compass Process ................................................ 2-147
2.50.21 Initial Latitude ................................................................ 2-147
2.50.22 Alignment Mode ............................................................ 2-147
2.51 RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI) .............................................. 2-150
2.51.1 Dual Distance Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) ......... 2-151
2.51.2 DDRMI Principle............................................................ 2-151
2.52 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ........................................... 2-154
2.52.1 Space Segment ............................................................ 2-154
2.52.2 Control Segment ........................................................... 2-155
2.52.3 Operation ...................................................................... 2-156
2.52.4 Signal Structure ............................................................ 2-158
2.52.5 Time Measurements ..................................................... 2-158
2.52.6 Position Fixing ............................................................... 2-160
2.52.7 Ionospheric Propagation Error....................................... 2-161
2.52.8 Derived Information ....................................................... 2-162
2.52.9 Navigation Management ............................................... 2-162
2.52.10 Boeing 777 GPS ........................................................... 2-164
2.52.11 GPS Modes of Operation .............................................. 2-165
2.52.12 Acquisition Mode ........................................................... 2-165

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Part 2 - Page 3


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.52.13 Navigation Mode ........................................................... 2-166


2.52.14 Altitude Aided Mode...................................................... 2-166
2.52.15 Aided Mode .................................................................. 2-167
2.52.16 Receiver Autonomous Integrity (RAIM) ......................... 2-169
2.52.17 Differential GPS ............................................................ 2-170
2.53 COMPASS SYSTEMS ..................................................................... 2-171
2.53.1 Direct Reading Compass .............................................. 2-171
2.53.2 Remote Reading Compass (Magnet Gyro) ................... 2-173
2.53.3 Flux valve (Detector Unit) ............................................. 2-174
2.53.4 Control Panel ................................................................ 2-175
2.53.5 Synchronisation Annunciator ........................................ 2-175
2.53.6 Synchronisation Knob ................................................... 2-175
2.53.7 Slaved/DG Switch ......................................................... 2-175
2.53.8 System Test.................................................................. 2-177
2.53.9 Gyro Unit ...................................................................... 2-177
2.53.10 Servo System ............................................................... 2-178
2.53.11 Slaving loop .................................................................. 2-180
2.54 RADIO ALTIMETER ....................................................................... 2-181
2.54.1 Basic Principles ............................................................ 2-181
2.54.2 Radio Altimeter Antenna ............................................... 2-184
2.54.3 Testing.......................................................................... 2-186
2.55 WEATHER RADAR ........................................................................ 2-187
2.55.1 Principle Of Operation .................................................. 2-190
2.55.2 Scanner Stabilization .................................................... 2-192
2.55.3 Weather Radar Installation ........................................... 2-194
2.55.4 Test Mode .................................................................... 2-197
2.55.5 Radome ........................................................................ 2-199
2.56 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM ......................................... 2-200
2.56.1 System Operation ......................................................... 2-204
2.56.2 Ground Proximity Warning Computer ........................... 2-205
2.56.3 GPWS Control Panel .................................................... 2-206
2.56.4 Warning Lights.............................................................. 2-206
2.56.5 GPWS Bite Operation ................................................... 2-208
2.56.6 BITE Tests .................................................................... 2-208
2.56.7 Fault Recording ............................................................ 2-208
2.57 ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM ...................... 2-210
2.57.1 Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) ............................. 2-211
2.57.2 Terrain Alerting & Display (TAD) ................................... 2-214
2.57.3 Envelope Modulation .................................................... 2-216
2.57.4 Terrain Look Ahead Alerting ......................................... 2-217
2.57.5 Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) ...................................... 2-218
2.57.6 TCF/TAD Control .......................................................... 2-220
2.57.7 EGPWS Interface ......................................................... 2-221
2.57.8 System Activation ......................................................... 2-223
2.57.9 Self Test ....................................................................... 2-223
2.58 AIR DATA SYSTEM (ADS) ............................................................ 2-226
2.58.1 Total Air Temperature Probe ........................................ 2-227
2.58.2 Location Of Probes And Static Vents ............................ 2-228
2.58.3 Air Data Computer (ADC) ............................................. 2-231
2.58.4 Altitude Module ............................................................. 2-233
2.58.5 True Airspeed/Indicated Airspeed Vs Altitude ............... 2-234
2.58.6 Air Data Computer (ADC) ............................................. 2-235

Page 4 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.58.7 Digital Air Data Computer (DADC) ................................ 2-236


2.58.8 Definitions and Abbreviations ........................................ 2-237

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Part 2 - Page 5


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PAGE
INTENTIONALLY
BLANK

Page 6 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2 AVIONICS SYSTEMS
2.1 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT

The Automatic Flight Control Systems or AFCS, in modern jet transports, are all
uniquely tailored to the specific aircraft, but all share common features. For
example, the flight aerodynamics of a DC-9 are different from those of a Boeing
747 but both aircraft would most likely require an "attitude hold" mode of
operation.

In this case, the attitude hold feature is common to both autopilot designs, but
gains in the two autopilots will differ to accommodate the differences in the
aerodynamics of each aircraft. Each AFCS receives attitude and heading signals
from a vertical and directional gyro and has its own rate gyro/accelerometer
system to develop attitude and flight path stabilization signals. The AFCS
computers comprise an electronic "brain" that receives signals from its "senses"
to compute the proper responses and provides outputs to electric and/or
hydraulic actuators, which move the aircraft's control surfaces.

2.2 AUTOPILOT SYSTEM

Today's modern autopilots are designed to provide pitch, roll, and yaw axis
stabilization around the pilot's desired reference attitude. To do this, the autopilot
system must detect changes in aircraft attitude and respond to those changes
more quickly and smoothly than its human counterpart.

For an autopilot to maintain this stability, it must:

1. Know what the pilot's desired aircraft attitude is.

2. Know what the actual aircraft attitude is.

3. Compares the two and produce a control signal if there is a difference or error:

4. Use the control signal to correct for the difference or error and Control the
speed of the correction.

The human pilot controls the aircraft by detecting a change in aircraft attitude by
one of his senses. His brain then computes the necessary corrective action
required and transmits a signal to his muscles to move the flight controls. Again
his senses will detect that corrective action has taken place and he will move the
flight controls back to where they started. A typical autopilot would have to do all
that the human pilot does, but would do it through electronic or electrohydraulic
devices.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-1


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The autopilot is divided into four main parts:

2.2.1 Error Sensing

Determines when the flight condition of the aircraft is differing from that
commanded by the pilot. Almost all-modern aircraft use a gyro of some type for
this purpose, and there are two ways that the error signal can be generated,
either by attitude gyros or rate gyros. The attitude gyros only detect how far the
aircraft is away from the settings; the rate gyros detect the rate at which it is
deviating and, hence, are more accurate.

2.2.2 Correction

This is the correcting input, sent to the actuators connected into the flying control
systems. This input is simply the command from the autopilot to reverse the
movement of the aircraft away from its set course. It does not have any idea of
when to stop the correction; this is the job of the follow-up mechanism.

2.2.3 Follow-Up

Is the detection mechanism, which senses that the aircraft is righting itself, under
the commands from the correction part of the autopilot. The mechanism reduces
the correction input as it nears the original selected position and, by the time the
aircraft is level, there will be no correcting input to the actuators.

2.2.4 Command

The command system is incorporated to allow the pilot to dictate which heading,
height, speed or rate of climb he wants the aircraft to follow. This can be a
simple 'Heading Hold' system which is controlled by a "bug" on the compass,
which the pilot sets with a knob on the instrument. Alternatively, the system
'Mode Control Panel' can have many different parameters commanded by the
pilot, such as autopilot modes, altitude, and vertical speed and airspeed/mach
number modes.

Page 2-2 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 1 shows a block schematic of a typical autopilot.

PITCH SERVO
VERTICAL
GYROSCOPE

AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER AIRCRAFT
TRIM SYSTEM

COMPASS
GYROSCOPE

AUTOPILOT ROLL SERVO


CONTROLLER

AIR DATA
COMPUTER
YAW SERVO

Basic Autopilot
Figure 1

The sensors take the place of our pilot's "senses" to detect various changes in
aircraft attitude. This information is fed to the computer, which calculates the size
of its output signal and which axis to send it on. The controller turns the autopilot
on and off and provides other system inputs not discussed here. Finally we come
to the loads which are the muscle of our system and move the aircraft's flight
control surfaces in response to the output signal of the computer. As the aircraft
responds to these signals, the sensors, through aerodynamic feedback, detect
the attitude change and tell the computer when the aircraft is back where it
should be.

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.3 AUTOPILOT INTERLOCKS

Before an automatic control system can be engaged with an aircraft's flight


controls, certain preliminary operating requirements must be fulfilled to ensure
that the system is in a condition whereby it may safely take control of the aircraft.
The principal requirements are that the connections between system power
supplies, the elements comprising the system and the appropriate signal and
engage circuits are electrically complete. It is the practice, therefore, to
incorporate within any automatic control system, a series of switches and/or
relays, known as interlocks, which operate in a specific sequence to ensure
satisfactory engagement, and the coupling of input signals from outer loop control
elements. Figure 2 shows the interlock circuit.

A/P DISCONNECT A.C - D.C. MACH TRIM PITCH TRIM ATT REF

CAPT F/O

YAW
K1 DAMP MAN
ENGAGE AUTO
OFF
RELAY

AUTO
PILOT

ENGAGE
RELAY

K2
OFF

SERVO
RUDDER
CLUTCH
SERVOS
ELEVATOR
AILERON
OFF CLUTCHES
28V DC

Interlock Circuit
Figure 2

Page 2-4 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The number of interlocks incorporated in any one system varies considerably


according to the control capability of that system. The signals from the pitch roll
and yaw gyros or computers are at their respective servos, but cannot impose
their influence until the clutches are engaged.

In the yaw damper only position, K1 relay will close and energize the rudder servo
clutch and engage it to accept signals from a gyro or computer to move the
rudder. With No 1 switch in the autopilot position, it will energize K1 relay subject
to all the interlock switches being made, switch No 2 will now engage the aileron
and elevator clutches, and switch No 3 will pick a voltage from switch No 2 and
energize the rudder clutch. So in the yaw damper position, it is yaw damper only,
and in the autopilot position it is yaw, pitch and roll engagement.

In the yaw damper switch position, only the pilot's disconnect and power valid's
are needed; in the full autopilot condition all switches must be made.

Here is a review of the interlock switches.

Firstly, the autopilot disconnects; either the Captain's or the First Officer's switch
will disconnect the autopilot. The switches are usually located on the control
column.

The power ac and dc valid's are qualifying that power is available and any loss of
power will disconnect.

Mach trim has to be engaged in this case. In some systems, Mach trim is on all
the time, whether the autopilot is engaged or not, and in others it is disengaged
when the autopilot is engaged.

The pitch trim switch is qualifying that auto pitch trim is available in the autopilot
mode. The reason that this is important is that if there is a mis-trim, the autopilot
can compensate for that situation until the autopilot is disconnected, either
through malfunction or deliberate action, or the aircraft could nose up/down rather
dramatically.

The attitude reference switch is checking that the valid's from the vertical gyro are
all correct, and the attitude references are available for the autopilot.

On more sophisticated systems, there are other interlock switches, for example
air data computer, compass system, hydraulic pressure monitoring and radio
altimeters.

Some systems, apart from those that use electrical interlocks, do not use an
electrical servomotor. Instead they use a hydraulic servo.

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
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PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.4 SERVOMOTORS

The power output element of any automatic flight control system consists of
servomotors, or servo-actuators as they are sometimes called, connected into the
aircraft's primary flight control system circuits; the number of servomotors
employed is governed by the number of control loops required. In addition to the
actuation of primary flight controls, servomotors may also be used, in some
cases, for the actuation of the secondary flight controls provided for trimming
purposes and for yaw damping.

In general, servomotors operate on either electro-pneumatic, electromechanical,


or electro-hydraulic principles, the choice, and constructional features adopted in
applying such principles being dependent on the type of automatic control
system, and on the methods adopted for actuation of the primary flight control
surfaces. Servomotors may be connected either in series or in parallel with the
normal flight control system of an aircraft. A series-connected servomotor is one,
which moves the flight control surfaces without moving the pilot's controls, while a
parallel-connected servomotor moves both the control surfaces and the pilot's
controls.

Servomotors may utilise either direct current or alternating current, depending on


the individual systems. Motor type ranges from dc permanent magnet to ac two-
phase or hysteresis type.

The closed loop servo technique can be applied as a means of achieving


automatic flight control of an aircraft. A functional diagram is at Figure 3. This
forms the basic control system for all classes of automatic flight control systems.
This system controls what is termed Inner Loop stabilization.

Page 2-6 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

SERVOMOTORS
(ACTUATORS)

FEEDBACK
PROCESSING
SIGNAL
AERODYNAMICS

PILOTS DEMANDS

SENSING
ERROR

MODE SELECT
AUTOPILOT
CONTROLS
MANUAL
FLIGHT

ATTITUDE
SENSING

Inner Loop Stabilization


Figure 3

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-7


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The number of control loops, or channels, comprising an automatic flight control


system is dependent on the number of axes about which control is to be effected
and in this connection it is usual to classify systems as:

1. Single Axis System.

2. Two-Axis System.

3. Three-Axis System.

2.5 SINGLE AXIS CONTROL SYSTEM

In the single axis system, control is normally about the Roll axis. The control
surfaces forming part of this system are therefore the Ailerons. It is found on
small aircraft to provide lateral stabilization (wing levelling).

2.6 TWO-AXIS SYSTEM

In the two-axis system, control is normally about the Roll and Pitch axes. The
control surfaces forming part of this system are therefore the Ailerons and
Elevators. These are found on medium sized aircraft and provide a means of
automatically controlling the aircrafts heading and altitude.

2.7 THREE-AXIS SYSTEM

In the three-axis system, control is about all three axes (Pitch, Roll and Yaw).
These systems are designed to meet the requirements for stabilization and
control of high performance category aircraft, and have a large number of modes
of operation.

2.8 SENSING ATTITUDE CHANGES

Under automatically controlled flight conditions, the sensing of all changes in the
aircrafts attitude is accomplished by referencing them against some form of
stabilized device. The device universally adopted for this purpose, from the
earliest types of control system to those now current, has been the gyroscope.

In addition to the gyro, it is also the practice in many cases to adopt a pendulous
device which although not purely stabilizing in function, can serve as a back-up
to a gyro by sensing short-term attitude changes brought about by the effects of
accelerations, vertical speed changes, and by side-slip.

Page 2-8 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 4 shows the gyro configuration for a three-axis automatic control system.

OF PRECESSION
DIRECTION
ROLL
AXIS

PITCH RATE
GYRO
YAW RATE
GYRO

AXIS
YAW
OF PRECESSION

ROLL RATE
DIRECTION

GYRO
OF PRECESSION
DIRECTION
PITCH
AXIS

Three-axis Automatic Control System.


Figure 4

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.9 AUTOPILOTS & FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEMS

Once the controller has been selected, and activated, the aircraft is controlled by
the Flight Director/Autopilot System. Rate gyros detect any movement of the
aircraft from the selected flight datum and will output a signal proportional to the
disturbance and in the opposite sense. The gyro output, along with other signals
from associated systems, are processed in the Flight Director/Autopilot
Computer, which in turn will give flight director information and or outputs to move
the control surfaces to bring the aircraft onto the correct flight datum.

Figure 5 shows a schematic of a Flight Director/Autopilot System.

AERODYNAMIC RESPONSE

FLIGHT FLIGHT
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR
ENGAGED COMMAND BAR

GYRO INPUT

MODE SELECT PILOTS


INPUT
AUTOPILOT
NAV AIDS INPUT COMPUTER

HEADING INPUT FEEDBACK

ALTITUDE INPUT
SERVO

AUTOPILOT
ENGAGED

Flight Director/Autopilot System


Figure 5

Page 2-10 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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2.10 ALTITUDE HOLD SYSTEM

We know that any change in the aircraft's attitude will be detected by the
Autopilot system. This system alone will not be able to detect a pure vertical
displacement of the aircraft. To maintain an aircraft at a selected altitude we
require further sensing elements.

The purpose of the Altitude Hold system is to maintain the aircraft at a selected
height. The pilot will select "ALT" on the Flight Mode Panel (FMP) and the
system will maintain that altitude. The sensing element consists of a pressure
transducer, similar to that in the Air Data System. Any change in the static
pressure will be felt and an output produced, this output will be fed to the pitch
channel of the autopilot system to adjust the aircraft's altitude.

A simplified Altitude Hold system is shown at Figure 6.

ANEROID
CAPSULE

STATIC

CONTROL

CHASER
MOTOR MOTOR
ERROR
AMP
ALT HOLD
SELECT

REF
TO PITCH
CONTROL
CHANNEL

Altitude Hold System


Figure 6

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-11


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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.11 AIRSPEED HOLD

Since airspeed hold sensors are used in conjunction with altitude hold sensors,
the methods of transmitting error signals are of a common nature. The only
difference is that whereas an altitude sensor measures only static pressure
changes, an airspeed sensor is required to measure Static and Pitot pressures.

2.12 ALTITUDE ALERTING SYSTEM

The Altitude Alerting System allows the pilot to make changes to the aircraft's
altitude and provide alerts to the pilot when the selected altitude is reached. The
pilot sets the required altitude, from 0 - 50,000 feet, in steps of 10 feet, on the
Flight Mode Panel (FMP).

The altitude alerter gives the pilot an alert when the aircraft approaches the
selected altitude, entry alert ("C" Chord) and illuminates a warning lamp. The
system will then alert the pilot when the aircraft does not follow the selected
altitude with an exit alert ("C" Chimes) and illuminates a warning lamp. Figure 7
shows the different alerts.

1000 feet

EXIT ALERT
ENTRY ALERT ON
ON
C CHORD ENTRY ALERT
OFF

250 feet

SELECTED HEIGHT

250 feet

EXIT ALERT
ON
C CHIME

1000 feet

Alert Levels
Figure 7

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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2.13 CONTROLS AND SELECTORS

Figure 8 shows the controls from a BAe 146 aircraft.

S P L IT
A /P A /P N AV 1 N AV 2

M GSL A LT VS M A CH V - NA V IA S
O
D
0 6 8 2 4 6
E
C O U RS E C O U RS E
T UR B
S H DG
V /L B -L O C L -N AV H DG
E
L

M OD E SELE CTO R N A V IG A T IO N S E L E C T O R

R UD EL EV P IT CH
T EST R OL L
L R
A LT S E L D OW N
A
L A LT AR M 2 5 9.0 0
T
F EET
YD A /P
S
E
L YD 1 UP
YD 2
IN

A L T IT U D E S E L E C T O R A U T O P IL O T S E L E C T O R

BAe 146 Autopilot controllers


Figure 8

a) MODE SELECTOR : Is mounted on the glare-shield and contains the push


button switches for the selected mode. Hidden legends are used so that
the button appears blank, until a mode is selected when a white triangle is
illuminated. Engagement of the autopilot is indicated by a green triangle
on the AP button at the top of the panel.

In essence the bottom row selects lateral modes and the middle row
selects vertical modes.

b) NAVIGATION SELECTOR : Mounted on the glare-shield and contains a


large rotary switch labeled NAV 1-SPLIT-NAV 2. This selects the
distribution of radio navigation information to the autopilot and to the pilots
flight instruments.

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AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The autopilot and flight directors use the information that is displayed on
the captain's HSI. With SPLIT selected NAV 1 supplies HSI 1 and NAV 2
supplies HSI 2. If NAV 1 is selected then both HSIs are supplied from
NAV 1 and a NAV 2 selection supplies both HSIs from NAV 2.

The COURSE selector knobs allow rotation of the course pointer on the
HSIs. A HDG knob provides remote selection of the heading cursor on
both HSIs. Two ratios are available, coarse and fine.

c) ALTITUDE SELECTOR : Mounted on the glare-shield this contains a five-


figure readout; the last two figures are fixed zeros. A mode select button
labeled ALT ARM allows arming of the selected altitude. The 'armed' state
is indicated by a white triangle.
A press to TEST switch allows warning altitudes to be checked against the
altitude set on the captain's altimeter.

e) AUTOPILOT CONTROLLER : Mounted on the center console and


contains the autopilot (AP) and the yaw damper YD engage buttons.
These also indicate engagement by green illuminated IN for the AP, and
YD1/YD2 for the yaw damper.

PITCH and ROLL controls and associated out of trim indicators (ELEV and
RUD) are also found on the controller.

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2.14 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM (AFDS)

The Boeing 777 AFDS is used as an example in this module.

The purpose of the AFDS is to automatically control the aircrafts attitude and to
supply indications to the flight crew in order for them to manually control the
aircrafts attitude. The autopilot controls the aircrafts attitude through: Takeoff
(Flight Director only), Climb, Cruise, Descent, Approach, Go-around and
Autoland.

In the Flight Director mode, the director bars (horizontal/vertical) show on the
Primary Flight Displays (PFD). The bars are used as guides to control the
attitude of the aircraft. Figure 9 shows the Primary Flight Display (PFD).

LNAV VNAV
HOLD
LOC G/S 5100
5200
200
A/P
180 6
20 20
5000 2

160 10 10 1

3
14 2 4800
10 10 1
120
4600 2
20 20
6
100

4400

Primary Flight Display


Figure 9

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The mode select panel is the primary interface between the flight crew and
AFDS. Other flight crew inputs to the AFDS are; the disconnect switches and the
Go-around (GA) switches. Figure 10 shows the Auto Flight Director System
(AFDS) mode control panel for the Boeing 777 aircraft.
F/D ON

OFF
A/P

(c)
F/D ON

OFF
A/P
LOC

APP

1000
1000

LOC

APP
17000

17000
ALTITUDE

ALTITUDE
HOLD

HOLD
AUTO

AUTO
VS/FPA
+3288
FPA

VS/FPA
+3288
FPA
V/S

V/S

DOWN

UP
BANK
LIMIT

V/S

DOWN
25
TRK

V/S

UP
238

SEL

HOLD
HDG

HDG

AUTO

BANK
LIMIT
A/P DISENGAGE

25
TRK
V-NAV
L-NAV

FLCH

238

HOLD
SEL
MACH

HDG
HDG
288

AUTO
V-NAV
L-NAV

FLCH

A/P DISENGAGE
MACH

(a)
288

IAS

IAS
IAS

IAS

CLB
A/T ARM

A/T
ON
R

OFF
A/T
CLB
R

ON
A/T ARM

L
OFF

(b)
L

F/D ON

OFF
F/D ON

A/P
OFF
A/P

Boeing 777 AFDS Mode Control Panel


Figure 10

Page 2-16 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

With reference to Figure 10a:

A/P Engage Switch Captains autopilot engage button, shows white when
engaged.

A/T ARM Left and right autothrottle arm switches.

F/D Switch Allows the selection of the Flight Director bars for display on the
PFD.

CLB CON Switch Climb continuous thrust switch.

A/T Switch Engages the autothrottle system.

L-NAV Switch Engages lateral navigation mode.

V-NAV Engages vertical navigation mode.

FLCH Flight Level change engage switch.

IAS/MACH Window Shows the selected IAS/MACH as selected using the


IAS/MACH select knob.

IAS/MACH Switch Selects either IAS or MACH as the reference for speed hold
mode.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-17


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AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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With reference to Figure 10b:

A/P DISENGAGE Bar - There are three toggle switches under the disengage
bar. The left switch controls the left AFDS only and the right switch controls the
right AFDS. The center switch controls the center AFDS. The center AFDC
cannot do a single autopilot engagement because it does not connect to any back
drive unit. It is there only as a back up for the left or right. The bar is normally in
the up position. Pushing the bar down will disengages all the AFDS.

Figure 11 shows the operation of the disengage bar.

DISENGAGE BAR UP DISENGAGE BAR DOWN


(ALL THREE AFDS ENGAGED) (ALL THREE AFDS DIS-ENGAGED)

DISENGAGE BAR UP
RIGHT AFDS SWITCH DOWN
(ONLY LEFT AND CENTER AFDS ENGAGED)

Disengage Bar Operation


Figure 11

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Light Sensor A photo light sensor on the MCP front panel monitors ambient
lighting. It controls the brightness of the LCDs on the mode panel.

HDG/TRK Switch This switch controls the reference for the Heading/Track
window.

HDG/TRK Window The window shows heading or track angle in increments of


one degree. The window range is from 001 to 360. At AFDS power-up, the
window shows 360.

Heading/Track Selector Switch This control has two concentric selectors and
one push-button. The outer selector controls the bank angle, the inner selector
controls the value of heading/track required. The inner selector (push-button)
selects between Heading, or Track select modes.

HOLD Push Button Engages the AFDS into Heading/Track hold mode.

Vertical Speed/Flight Path Angle (V/S/FPA) reference Switch This switch


controls the reference for the vertical speed/flight path angle window.

Vertical Speed/Flight Path Angle Window - The window shows vertical speed
value (range is +6000 fpm to 8000 fpm). The flight path angle is +9.9 to 9.9.

Vertical Speed/Flight Path Angle selector Rotate the selector up to decrease


the value and down to increase the value.

VS/FPA Push Button Engages the VS/FPA mode.

Altitude Window Has a range from 0 to 50,000ft. The increment is variable.


The set altitude is also the altitude alert value for the caution and warning system.
At AFDS power-up the display is set at 1,000ft.

Altitude Selector The control has two concentric selectors. The inner selector
changes the reference altitude in the window. If the selector is pushed while in V-
NAV, this will activate the altitude intervention.

The outer selector changes the window increment. With it selected to 1000
position, the inner selector changes the window at 1000 feet/detent. With the
outer selector in the AUTO position, the window change rate is 100 feet/detent.

HOLD Push Button Engages the Altitude hold mode.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-19


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PART 2

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

With reference to Figure 10c:

A/P Engage Switch First Officers autopilot engage button, shows white when
engaged.

F/D Switch Allows the selection of the Flight Director bars for display on the
PFD.

LOC Push Button Engages the ILS LOC mode. Captures and holds the
aircraft to a Localizer flight path.

APP Push Button Engages the Approach mode. Captures and holds the
aircraft to a Glideslope (vertical descent) flight path.

Figure 12 shows a block schematic of the Mode Control Panel.

ARINC AFDC
POWER SUPPLY INPUT/OUTPUT
A SIGNAL 429 RX L
PROCESSING
AFDC
ARINC L/C
429 TX &
MICROPROCESSOR A AIMS

A/T ARM
A/T F/D ON
L R
HDG 238
5

AUTO SEL
25
BANK
LIMIT
V-NAV
OFF
OFF
ARINC AFDC
429 RX C
LCD ON-OFF
DIPLAY PUSH
SW SWITCHES
LIGHTS & KNOBS

AFDC
MICROPROCESSOR B ARINC R
429 TX &
AIMS
INPUT/OUTPUT
POWER SUPPLY SIGNAL
ARINC AFDC
A PROCESSING 429 RX R

Mode Control Panel Schematic


Figure 12

Page 2-20 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


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MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 2

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2.15 MODE CONTROL PANEL

2.15.1 Power supplies A and B

They receive 28V dc from the left and right 28V dc buses. The MCP functions
with either source. Power supplies A and B supply +12V, -12V and +5V dc to
their respective microprocessors and logic circuits. They also supply power
supply C, which is part of the fluorescent tube control.

2.15.2 Microprocessor A and B

There are two separate microprocessors within the MCP. Microprocessor A


receives data from the left and center AFDC and microprocessor B receives data
from the right and center AFDC. Microprocessor sends data to the left and center
AFDC, microprocessor B sends data to the right AFDS.

To make sure all three AFDC use data from one MCP processor, all AFDS use
the microprocessor data sent to the master AFDS. When the left AFDS is
master, microprocessor A writes to the LCD displays. The right and center AFDC
receive microprocessor A data through the AFDC cross-channel buses.

When the right AFDS is master, microprocessor B writes to the LCD displays.
The left and center AFDC receive microprocessor B data through the AFDC
cross-channel buses.

2.15.3 Push-Button and Toggle Switches

Each push-button and toggle switch has two sets of contacts. One set connects
to microprocessor A and one set connects to microprocessor B. The LED
annunciators in the push-button switches also connect to each microprocessor.

2.15.4 Fluorescent Tube Control

The fluorescent tube control circuit supplies current to drive the tube and the tube
heater. There is a heater coil around the tube, which will operate when the
temperature is <40F.

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2.15.5 Liquid Crystal Displays & Control Knob Encoders

There are four LCD windows, which show reference values. The values change
when the selector is rotated or when the AFDC command a new reference.
Microprocessor A and B drive each LCD. Each selector connects to the two
encoders and each encoder sends data to the on-side microprocessor. Figure 13
shows the LCD illumination.

FLUORESCENT
TUBE

LCD (TYPE)
DISPLAY

LCD Illumination
Figure 13

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2.15.6 AFDS Disconnect Switches

The autopilot disconnect switches are on the outboard side of each control wheel.
The switch is a push-button type with multiple contacts. These switches manually
disconnect all AFDCs.

Figure 14 shows the Captains Control wheel A/P disconnect switch.

ELEVATOR
TRIM SWITCHES

AUTOPILOT
DISCONNECT
BUTTON

A/P Disconnect Switch


Figure 14

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-23


HDG TRK V/S FPA
A/T ARM IAS MACH ALTITUDE

L R
A/P
HDG 238 V/S
IAS 288 +3288 17000
L-NAV

Page 2-24
AIMS A/P
OFF 5 25 AUTO 1000
DOWN
BANK LOC
AUTO
SEL F/D ON
CLB V-NAV LIMIT

F/D ON ON

APP
A/P DISENGAGE

A/T VS/FPA
OFF
FLCH HOLD HOLD

OFF UP

A/C SENSORS MODE CONTROL


FLIGHT DECK
NAVIGATION CONTROLS
SENSORS

TO/GA Collins

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT
DIRECTOR
COMPUTER
DISC (AFDC)
BACKDRIVE

Figure 15
PART 2

ACTUATORS
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,

AFDS Block Diagram


MODULE 11 BOOK 2

Figure 15 shows the AFDS block schematic diagram


JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

AIR DATA INERTIAL


POSITION
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

REFERENCE UNIT PRIMARY


TRANSDUCERS
FLIGHT
COMPUTER

ACTUATOR
CONTROL
SECONDARY ELECTRONICS PCU
ATTITUDE &

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


ELEVATOR
AIR DATA
AILERON &
REFERENCE UNIT
RUDDER
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2.16 AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR COMPUTER (AFDC)

There are three AFDC within the AFDS each containing the following:

1. ARINC 629 Input/output modules (I/O).

2. Discrete Input/output (I/O) module.

3. Processor A.

4. Processor B.

5. Processor C.

6. Power supply module.

2.16.1 Input Signal Selection

Each ARINC and discrete input/output module monitors and selects input signals.
Each I/O module monitors the validity of the signal first, if validity check is good,
the I/O section selects the signal by one of the following methods:

1. Mid value selection which uses the middle value of the three signals.
Radio Altitude (RA) and ILS are examples of signals selected using this
method.

2. Priority selection for signals with two sources (left/right). Example; the Air
Data Inertial reference Unit (ADIRU) is the normal source of air/inertial
data. If the ADIRU fails, the AFDC selects the Secondary Attitude Air Data
reference Unit (SAARU).

3. Forced selection for Aeroplane Information Management System (AIMS)


data. AIMS tell the AFDC which signal to use.

2.16.2 AFDC Processors

The AFDC has three processors (A,B and C). Processor A and B receive digital
backdrive commands from the Primary Flight Computers (PFC). They convert
the digital backdrive signals into analogue signals for output to the backdrive
actuators.

Processor C calculates the autopilot and flight director control laws, test and data
loading, engage/disengage logic and failure detection/fault response monitoring.

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2.17 PRIMARY FLIGHT COMPUTER (PFC)

The PFC receives commands from the AFDC. The PFC calculates and sends
surface position digital commands to the Actuator Control Electronics (ACE).
The ACE converts these signals to analogue and sends the signal to the Power
Control Units (PCU). The PCU move the flight surface, sending positional
feedback signal to the ACE, which converts the feedback signals into digital and
sends it to the PFC. The PFC then calculates and sends the digital feedback
signals to the AFDC. The AFDC converts the signals into analogue, and sends
these signals to the backdrive actuators, which moves the control column, control
wheels and rudder pedals.

Figure 16 shows the Primary Flight Computer/Actuator Control Electronics Block


diagram.

ANALOG
ANALOG

POWER
CONTROL
UNIT
POSITION
TRANSDUCER PRIMARY CONTROL
FLIGHT SURFACE
BACKDRIVE COMPUTER
ACTUATOR
ACTUATORS
CONTROL
ELECTRONICS

ANALOG

FLIGHT CONTROL - ARINC 629 BUS (X3)

AFDC AIMS ADIRU SAARU

PFC/ACE Block Diagram


Figure 16

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2.18 COMMUNICATIONS

The word "Communication" is defined as the exchange of information of any kind,


by any means and involves the transfer of meaningful information from one
location (the sender or transmitter), to another location (the destination or
receiver).

Radio Communication equipment in aircraft is primarily for the purpose of


communicating with Air Traffic Control (ATC), and other ground stations. It can
also be used for communicating with other aircraft and internally to speak with
cabin crew and passengers.

2.19 RADIO WAVES

Radio signals emanate from the antenna of a transmitter partly in the form of
Electromagnetic waves. During radio transmission, the antenna in addition to
the electromagnetic field also generates an electric field. The two fields radiate
from the antenna at the speed of light, which is approximately 186,300 Mls/sec
(300,000,000 mtr/sec). Since radio waves travel at the speed of light, as soon as
the transmitter starts to transmit, its signal may be detected instantly hundreds or
thousands of miles away, depending on the power of the transmitter and the
nature of the wave being transmitted.

The transmitter typically radiates an electromagnetic signal in a 360 pattern from


the antenna. Figure 17 shows the effect of a radio wave being transmitted from
an Omni-directional aerial.

AERIAL

Radio Wave Transmission


Figure 17

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2.20 WAVELENGTH & FREQUENCY

The length of a radio wave depends on its frequency. Like an ac sine wave, the
wave emanating from an antenna increases to a maximum in one direction, drops
to zero, and then increases to maximum in the opposite direction. The
wavelength, indicated by the Greek letter lambda (), is the distance from the
crest of one wave to the next. Since the wave travels at the speed of light
(300,000,000 mtr/sec) the wavelength in metres is equal to 300,000,000 divided
by the number of cycles per second (hertz).

Figure 18 shows the relationship between wavelength and frequency.

WAVELENGTH = CREST TO CREST (MTR)

RADIO WAVE
CYCLE
FREQUECNY = NUMBER OF CYCLES PER SECOND

VELOCITY
WAVELENGTH =
FREQUENCY
VELOCITY = SPEED OF LIGHT

( 300,000,000 METRES PER SECOND)

VELOCITY
FREQUENCY =
WAVELENGTH

Wavelength and Frequency


Figure 18

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2.20.1 Frequency Bands

Frequencies utilized in various types of radio systems range from 3 KHz to as


high as 30 GHz. The frequencies are divided into seven bands, and these bands
are assigned to certain types of operation. Table 1 shows the various types of
bands.

Designation Frequency range Wavelength


Very Low Frequency (VLF) 3 30 KHz 1000,000 10,000 Mtr
Low frequency (LF) 30 300 KHz 10,000 1,000 Mtr
Medium Frequency (MF) 300 3000 KHz 1,000 100 Mtr
High Frequency (HF) 3 30 MHz 100 10 Mtr
Very High Frequency (VHF) 30 300 MHz 10 1 Mtr
Ultra High frequency (UHF) 300 3000 MHz 1 Mtr 10 cm
Super High frequency (SHF) 3 30 GHz 10 cm 1 cm

Frequency Bands
Table 1

Above these radio frequencies lie the various light frequencies. Infrared and
white light are currently being used for some information transmission at
frequencies between 109 1011 KHz. Below the radio frequencies are the
audible sound waves, ranging from 20 Hz to 15 KHz. The audio frequency range
for radio transmission is between 300 Hz 3 KHz and is known as Commercial
Quality Speech. Without special techniques, the transmission of these low
frequencies would cause two major problems:

1. High power would be required to transmit them.

2. All radio transmissions would interfere with each other.

2.21 CARRIER WAVE

The energy that carries the intelligence of a radio signal is called the Carrier
Wave. The frequency of this carrier wave may be only a few hundred kilohertz
(VLF) or several thousand megahertz (UHF). Carrier waves are usually in the
Radio Frequency (RF) range, which is in excess of 20 KHz. Frequencies below
20 KHz are in the Audio Frequency (AF) range.

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In order to carry intelligence, a RF carrier wave must be modulated. This means


its form and characteristics are changed by means of some form of signal
impressed onto it. There are two methods used for modulating the carrier wave,
these are:

1. Amplitude Modulation (AM).

2. Frequency Modulation (FM).

2.22 AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)

In amplitude modulation, the audio signal is mixed in a Modulator with the


higher carrier frequency. The audio affects the amplitude of the carrier frequency
as shown in figure 19.

CARRIER FREQUENCY

AUDIO FREQUENCY

TRANSMITTED AMPLITUDE
MODULATED SIGNAL

Amplitude modulation
Figure 19

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2.23 FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)

This type of modulation provides a signal that is much less affected by


interference than an AM signal. Frequency modulation is accomplished by
varying the frequency of the carrier in accordance with the audio signal desired.
Figure 20 shows how frequency modulation affects the carrier wave.

AUDIO WAVE

FREQUENCY MODULATED SIGNAL

Frequency Modulation (FM)


Figure 20

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Figure 21 shows the relationship of frequency modulation with different


amplitudes of audio frequency.

1KHz AUDIO

HALF MAX MAX


AMPLITUDE AMPLITUDE

10.5KHz 11KHz
9.5KHz 9KHz

10KHz CARRIER

FM Modulation
Figure 21

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2.24 RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

The carrier wave emitted by a radio transmission antenna may be broken into
three different propagation categories:

1. Ground wave.

2. Space wave.

3. Sky wave.

Figure 22 shows the different propagation paths.

IONOSPHERE

V E
VE

WA
A

C E
W

PA A VE
Y

S EW
SK

AC
SP
E
AV
W
ND
OU
GR

Radio Wave Propagation


Figure 22

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2.24.1 Ground Wave Propagation

Ground waves tend to be held near the earths surface and bend with the
curvature of the earth. Ground waves travel a distance limited by the
transmitters output power, antenna design, local terrain, and current weather
conditions. Typically, a relatively powerful transmitter is capable of sending
ground waves a distance of 1,000 miles.

2.24.2 Sky Wave Propagation

Sky waves tend to travel in straight lines, but may also be reflected off the
ionosphere layer in order to reach the receiver. Because of this method, sky
waves may produce a skip zone, where no reception is possible. Neither the line-
of-sight nor the reflected wave can be received in the skip zone.

The ionospheres density and distance from the earth determine the skip-zone
range and the exact frequencies that are reflected. The ionosphere is a layer of
ionized gases that surround the earth at an altitude of between 20 250 miles,
varying with the time of day, season and location. The density of this layer is also
affected by the suns solar flare activities. All these factors will determine the
frequencies that are reflected and their angle of reflection off the ionosphere.

2.24.3 Space Wave Propagation

Space wave frequencies have a short wavelength, which allows them to


penetrate the ionosphere. Because of this, space waves are limited to line-of-
sight reception only. This method is used to communicate with satellites (SAT
COMM/GPS).

2.25 ANTENNAS

An antenna is a specially designed conductor that accepts energy from a


transmitter and radiates it into the atmosphere. During reception, an antenna
acts as a device that receives an induced current from passing electromagnetic
waves. This induced current is then sent to the radio receiver circuitry. Where
transmitters and receivers are built into one unit, often called a Transceiver, the
same antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.

The size and design of antennas vary in accordance with the frequency or
frequencies of signals being handled. As frequencies increase the wavelengths
decrease and the length of the antenna must be matched as closely as possible
to the wavelengths of the carrier waves. On aircraft the size of the antenna is
normally .
Most aircraft communication antennas are of the Blade type. The radiating
surface is and is protected by a polyurethane rubber coating. They are
generally termed Broad band antennas, meaning they will receive a wide range
of frequencies. The required frequency is filtered out from all the others by
circuitry within the transceiver. Figure 23 shows a typical VHF blade antenna.

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ANTENNA
CAP

ANTENNA
EROSION
BOOT

AIRCRAFT MOUNTING
SKIN SCREWS

TUNING
CABLE

ANTENNA
CABLE

VHF Antenna
Figure 23

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Figure 24 shows an Antenna Coupling unit.


ANTENNA

ANTENNA
COUPLER
RECEIVER

Antenna Coupling Unit


Figure 24

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2.26 MICROPHONES (MIC)

The purpose of the mic is to convert sound energy into electric energy. This
process uses the dynamic energy of the sound wave produced by the pilot. The
sound strikes a diaphragm, and the sound energy is converted into mechanical
energy. This mechanical energy is then converted into electric energy. There
are four common aircraft microphones:

1. The Carbon Microphone.

2. The Crystal Microphone.

3. The Moving Coil Microphone.

4. Electrostatic Microphone.

2.26.1 Carbon Microphone

The carbon mic contains tiny carbon granules compressed in a sealed chamber.
The voice diaphragm vibrates the carbon chamber, changing the resistance of
the carbon granules. A current that passes through the granules changes in
amplitude as the sound wave moves the diaphragm. Figure 25 shows the
operation of a carbon microphone.

CARBON CONDUCTING
GRANULES SURFACE
CERAMIC
CUP

DIAPHRAGM
INSULATED
PLUNGER

Carbon Microphone
Figure 25

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2.26.2 The Crystal Microphone

The crystal mic is a voltage generator which utilizes the piezoelectric properties of
a quartz crystal. When the crystal is subjected to mechanical pressure it
develops a potential across two of its faces. This potential is dependent on the
pressure exerted on the crystal. This in turn produces an output, which
corresponds exactly to the applied pressure wave.

Figure 26 shows a crystal microphone operation.

DIAPHRAGM ELECTRODES

CRYSTAL

Crystal Microphone Operation


Figure 26

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2.26.3 Moving Coil Microphone

The moving coil microphone is again a type of voltage generator, this time
working on the electromagnetic-induction principle. The diaphragm is attached to
a coil, which is free to move in or out of a strong magnet. Movement of the
diaphragm causes the coil to cut the magnetic flux and a voltage is induced into
the coil. Figure 27 shows the operation of the moving coil microphone.

MAGNET

COIL

Moving Coil Microphone Operation


Figure 27

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2.26.4 Electrostatic Microphone

An electrostatic microphone is similar to the carbon microphone in that it controls


the power taken from a dc supply. The principle is that of varying the value of a
capacitor by altering the distance between the capacitor plates. When the
diaphragm moves under the influence of a sound pressure wave the gap between
the plates varies and alters the capacitance. The current varies directly as the
charge across the microphone alters. Figure 28 shows the operation of the
electrostatic microphone.

DIAPHRAGM AIRGAP

MOVEABLE
PLATE FIXED
PLATE

Electrostatic Microphone Operation


Figure 28

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2.27 EARPHONES

The earphone is a transducer that converts electrical waves into sound (pressure)
waves. The waveform of the sound wave should be identical to the electrical
wave in all factors but amplitude. Earphones therefore, merely perform the
reverse process of a microphone. The same principles apply to earphones as
they did for microphones.

Figures 29 - 31 show the different types of earphones and microphones found on


modern aircraft.

HEADBAND

PRESS-TO-TALK
SWITCH

MOUTHPIECE

EARPIECE

ONLY USED TO
MONITOR AUDIO
NO TALK FACILITY

Headset and Hand Held Microphone


Figure 29

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HEADBAND

EAR PIECE
TRANSDUCERS

AUDIO TUBES

AMPLIFIER
BOOM MIC

JACK PLUG

Headset and Hand Held Microphone


Figure 30

HEAD
RESTRAINER
MASK

OXYGEN
COMMUNICATION
CONNECTION
JACK PLUG

Emergency Oxygen Mask


Figure 31

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Figure 32 shows a simplified block schematic diagram of a basic radio system.

DEMODULATOR
DETECTOR &
FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
RADIO
MODULATED

FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
RADIO

FREQUEUNCY
AMPLIFIER
AUDIO
MODULATOR

LOUDSPEAKER
FREQUEUNCY
AMPLIFIER

FREQUENCY
OSCILLATOR
AUDIO

FRQUENCY
AMPLIFIER

RADIO
RADIO
MICROPHONE

Simplified Radio System


Figure 32

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2.28 VHF RADIO COMMUNICATION

Aircraft communication systems normally use the VHF wave band within a
118.000 MHz to 136.000 MHz range. Within this range the channel spacing was
previously 25 KHz, but because of the high demand for more channels it is
currently being reduced to 8.33 KHz. The VHF system provides short-range
(space wave) voice communication between:

1. The aircraft and ground stations.

2. Aircraft to aircraft.

All modern aircraft have at least two VHF systems, on the larger aircraft, there is
also a third system fitted.

Each VHF communication system receives RF energy via its antenna, processes
the RF signal and sends the resulting AF to the digital audio control system, and
the SELCAL (see later). During transmission, microphone audio from the flight
compartment is processed by the VHF communication system and the RF energy
is transmitted via the antenna. Control of the frequency selection is provided on a
VHF Communication control panel. Figure 33 shows a VHF Radio system block
schematic.

AUDIO OUT TO
INTERPHONE
VHF
AERIAL
RF IN & OUT

MICROPHONE
VHF
INTERPHONE COMMUNICATION
TRANSCEIVER
1ST OFF
VHF
CONTROL
PANEL

CAPT

VHF Radio System


Figure 33

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2.28.1 VHF Control Panel

The purpose of the VHF communication control panel is to provide frequency


selection (tuning), frequency transfer, and testing of the associated VHF
transceiver.

There are two sets of concentric frequency select knobs. On each set, the out
knobs select the 2nd and 3rd digits and the inner knobs select the 4th and 5th digits.
Above each set of knobs is a frequency select readout for displaying the selected
frequency. A two position VHF COMM TRF (transfer) switch allows the selection
of one of the pre-selected frequencies. The unselected frequency window has a
bar obscuring the readout.

The COMM TEST switch is a push button switch that enables confidence testing
of the receiving circuits in the system. Figure 34 shows a VHF control panel.

VHF COMM

120.60 118.30
TFR

COMM

TEST

VHF Control Panel


Figure 34

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2.29 AUDIO CONTROL PANEL

The audio control panels provide microphone selector pushbuttons and listen
switches for the VHF communication systems. The mic selector pushbuttons
connect the microphone to the desired VHF transceiver. The audio volume
controls allow the selection of audio from the transceivers to heard over the flight
compartment speakers or headphones.

Figure 35 shows an audio control panel.

MIC SELECTOR

SERV FLT
1 - VHF - 2 HF - 1 INOP PA
INT INT

1 - NAV - 2 1 - ADF INOP MKR

MASK B
V R

R/T I/C
BOOM

Audio Control Panel


Figure 35

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2.30 VHF TRANSCEIVER

The purpose of the transceiver is to transmit and receive RF signals for voice and
data communication. It is a solid-state device with a minimum transmit power
output of 20 watts.

2.30.1 Control

The transceiver is tested using front panel controls. The squelch disable
pushbutton allows the testing of the receiver section of the transceiver. An amber
transmit monitor lamp illuminates whenever the transmitted output power
Exceeds 10 watts. There are also phone and mic jacks available for the
monitoring of the receiver and transmitter.

Figure 36 shows a VHF transceiver.

ON WHEN
TESTS THE
TRANSCEIVER
RECEIVER
POWER > 10W
SECTION OF
THE TRANSCEIVER
SQUELCH TRANSMIT
DISABLE POWER

PHONE MIC

MONITORING
OF AUDIO OPERATION OF
OUTPUT TRANSMITTER

VHF Transceiver
Figure 36

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2.31 VHF COMMUNICATION ANTENNA

The purpose of the VHF antenna is to radiate and intercept radio signals in the
VHF frequency range (118.00 136.00 MHz). The No 1 VHF antenna is located
on top of the fuselage and VHF No 2 antenna is on the forward underside of the
fuselage. Figure 37 shows the VHF antenna location on a Boeing 737 aircraft.

UPPER VHF AERIAL OPTION FOR 3RD


(NO 2 SYSTEM) VHF SYSTEM

LOWER VHF AERIAL


(NO1 SYSTEM)

VHF Antenna Location (Boeing 737 aircraft)


Figure 37

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2.32 SERVICE INTERPHONE

The service interphone system allows communication between the flight crew,
cabin attendants, ground crew or maintenance personnel. Jacks for plug-in
microphone and headsets are installed at various locations in the aircraft. These
jacks allow ground personnel to communicate with each other. An on/off switch
on the aft overhead panel on the flight deck controls the external jacks. Handsets
are available at the forward and aft attendants panels. Figure 38 shows the
layout of the Boeing 737 interphone system.

ACCESSORY

INTERPHONE
AUDIO

SERVICE
UNIT

OFF

ON
ATTENDANTS
AUDIO SELECTOR PANEL

MKR
PA

STATION
B
FLT
INT

AFT
V
INOP
SERV
INT

MASKS

BOOM
MIC SELECTOR

1 - ADF
INOP
HF - 1

ATTENDANTS
FORWARD
I/C

STATION
1 - NAV - 2
1 - VHF - 2

R/T

CONTROL
PILOTS

STAND
MIC

FLIGHT COMPARTMENT

EXTERNAL POWER

WHEELWELL

LIGHT
SPEAKER

NOSE
SERVICE
INTERPHONE

NORM
ON
PANEL

FLIGHT

PILOT

CALL
EXTERNAL
HEADSET

POWER

IN USE
NOT

Boeing 737 Interphone System


Figure 38

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2.32.1 Attendant Interphone Handsets

The handsets provide the facility for introducing microphone audio into the
system and for listening to audio from the systems other stations. The handsets
resemble the common hand-held telephone receiver. A pushbutton switch is
located on the grip to activate the mic. Handsets are permanently installed at
each attendants station. Figure 39 shows the forward attendants interphone
panel as fitted to the Boeing 737 aircraft.

LIGHTS
MUSIC SYSTEM
VOLUME CONTROL

MUSIC ATTENDANTS
CAPTAINS CALL LIGHT
CALL LIGHT CALL SYSTEM

CAPTAIN ATTENDANT RESET

HANDSET

HANDHELD
MICROPHONE

Forward Attendants Interphone Panel


Figure 39

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2.33 FLIGHT & GROUND CREW CALL SYSTEM

The crew call system is a three-way alerting system that signals crew members to
use the interphone system. The three types of crew call are:

Captains Call A Hi tone chime sounds once and the Captains


CALL light illuminates. This advises the flight crew that a call has been
initiated from the attendants panel or ground crew panel.

Attendant Call A Two-tone chime sounds and the Pink Master


Call lights illuminates when an attendants call is initiated from the
flight compartment or either attendants panels. The lights reset at the
attendants panels.

Ground Crew Call When the ground crew call is initiated in the flight
compartment, a call horn sounds in the nose wheel well.

Figure 40 shows the ground crews interphone panel, which is located in the nose
wheel bay.

INTERPHONE
EXTERNAL
POWER

FLIGHT SERVICE

NOSE
PILOT WHEELWELL

ON

NORM

NOT CALL
IN USE
LIGHT

Ground Crews Interphone Panel


Figure 40

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2.34 PASSENGER ADDRESS SYSTEM (PA)

The passenger address (PA) system provides a means of transmitting flight crew
announcements, boarding music and chime signals to the passenger cabin.
Audio inputs from the pilots, attendants and tape reproducer are prioritized by the
PA amplifier. The priority is:

1. Pilots.

2. Cabin attendants.

3. Pre-recorded announcements.

4. Boarding music.

The audio with the highest priority is amplified and distributed to the passenger
cabin speakers, attendants speakers and audio integration.

Figure 41 shows the layout of the PA system for the Boeing 737 aircraft.

PA
AMPLIFIER

PA SPEAKER

PA MIC

PA SPEAKERS

PA System (Boeing 737 aircraft)


Figure 41

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2.35 AUDIO INTEGRATION SYSTEM

Provides the flight crew with a means of controlling all radio communications,
interphone and PA selection and Navigation receivers audio signals. Both pilots
have their own individual system and control panel. Figure 42 shows a block
schematic of the audio integration system.

MKR
PA

R
B
FLT
INT

AUDIO SELECTOR PANEL


INOP
SERV
INT
MIC SELECTOR

1 - ADF

BOOM
MASKS
INOP
HF - 1

I/C
1 - NAV - 2
1 - VHF - 2

R/T
HAND
MIC

OXYGEN
MASK
SWITCHES
CONTROL

HEADSET
& BOOM MIC
HEADSET

SPEAKER

Audio Integration System


Figure 42

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2.36 CONTROL WHEEL MIC SWITCH

The purpose of the INT/MIC switch is to provide PTT input for the boom or
oxygen mask microphones. The switch is a three-position switch on the outboard
horn of the captains and first officers control wheel. In the MIC position, mic
audio is directed to the selected communication system. In the INT position, mic
audio is connected directly to the flight interphone system.

Figure 43 shows the control wheel INT/MIC switches of a Boeing 737 aircraft

MIC/INT SWITCH
PRESS-TO-TALK

MICROPHONE

INTERPHONE

Control Wheel INT/MIC Switches


Figure 43

Page 2-54 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


VHF COMM

120.60 118.30
TFR
NO 1
COMM
VHF COMM
TEST
TRANSCEIVER

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


MIC SELECTOR

MIC SELECTOR

SERV FLT
1 - VHF - 2 HF - 1 INOP PA
INT INT
SERV FLT
1 - VHF - 2 HF - 1 INOP PA
INT INT

1 - NAV - 2 1 - ADF INOP MKR


PART 2

1 - NAV - 2 1 - ADF INOP MKR


MASK B
V R

Figure 44
AEROPLANE

R/T I/C MASK B


V R
BOOM
AERODYNAMICS,

R/T I/C
MODULE 11 BOOK 2

BOOM
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VHF COMM

VHF Communication System


120.60 118.30
NO 2
TFR VHF COMM
COMM TRANSCEIVER
Figure 44 shows the layout for a two VHF communication system.

TEST

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2.37 OPERATION OF VHF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

To operate the system, apply power to the transceiver and allow a short warm up
period.

Select the VHF comm to be used (1 or 2) on the audio selector panel.

Select the frequency of the ground station that is going to be used and 'listen out'
to ensure that no other transmissions are taking place.

With the microphone close to the mouth, key the transmitter with the ac PTT
switch and speak slowly and clearly into the microphone to establish 2-way
communication with the ground station.

Identify your position by airline and aircraft registration using the standard
phonetic alphabet;

1. A = alpha.

2. B = Bravo etc

Once you have finished speaking, release the PTT switch and listen for the reply,
ensuring that it is loud and clear. Complete the check by confirming to the
ground station the receipt of the reply.

Some important points to note are:

1. DO NOT TRANSMIT ON 121.50 MHz. This is a recognized


emergency/distress channel.

2. DO NOT TRANSMIT WHILST REFUELLING IS TAKING PLACE.

3. DO NOT INTERRUPT ATC-AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATION.

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2.38 HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) RADIO COMMUNICATION

The HF communication system (HF COMM) is for communication between the


aircraft and ground stations. The ionosphere reflects the frequencies in the HF
band, so the line of sight does not limit the reception range of the system. That is
why the HF COMM is suitable for long range, worldwide communication.

The frequency range of the system is 2 to 29.999 MHz. Frequency selection is


made in 1 KHz steps, so there are 28000 channels available. There are two
modes of operation. These modes are:

1. AM AMPLITUDE MODULATION.

2. SSB SINGLE SIDE BAND.

In the AM mode the system transmits a carrier with amplitude modulation. In the
SSB mode the carrier and the lower side band is removed. The system only
transmits the upper side band (USB). Figure 45 shows a block schematic of a HF
system.

POWER &
HF COMM CONTROL
TUNING &
CONTROL CONTROL HF COMM
PANEL
ANTENNA
RECEIVE COUPLER
TRANSMIT

MIC

KEY

AUDIO SELCAL
OUT SYSTEM
HF COMM
TRANSCEIVER

HF Communication
Figure 45

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AERODYNAMICS,
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A HF aerial is of quite a different technology compared with most other aerials for
two reasons. One is the power output of the Transmitter (400 watts) the other
reason is that the quarter wavelength (/4) distance is about 40 metres at 2 MHz
but only 2.5 metres at 30 MHz, so broadband aerials are not possible. Instead all
HF aerials are fed from an aerial coupling unit to attempt to electrically lengthen
or shorten the aerial for optimum matching, especially to the transmitter. Figure
46 shows the location of the HF antenna and coupling unit.

HF ANTENNA
HF COUPLER
UNIT

HF Antenna & Coupling Unit Locations


Figure 46

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To get optimal power transfer from transmitter to antenna, the antenna


impedance must be the same as the transmitter output impedance (50-Ohm).
For each frequency the impedance of an antenna is different. Since the antenna
on the aircraft has a fixed length, it is only suitable for one frequency. The
antenna coupler tunes filters to adapt the antenna impedance for each different
frequency to the transmitter output impedance.

2.38.1 HF Communication Control Panel

The purpose of the HF Control Panel is to enable frequency selection, mode


control and RF sensitivity adjustment. There are four frequency select controls
for MHz, 100 KHz, 10 KHz and 1 KHz frequencies. The function selector allows
selection of the operating mode as either:

1. OFF.

2. Upper Side Band (USB).

3. Lower Side Band (LSB).

4. Amplitude Modulation (AM).

Note: LSB is reserved for military operations and normally, civil aircraft have the
facility to select USB.

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Figure 47 shows a HF communication control panel.

MEGA HERTZ SELECTED KILO HERTZ


SELECTOR FREQUENCY SELECTOR
DISPLAY

2 .0 0 0
LSB AM
USB

OFF
RF
SENS

FUNCTION RECEIVER
100 KILO HERTZ 10 KILO HERTZ
SELECTOR GAIN
SELECTOR SELECTOR
SWITCH CONTROL

HF Communication Control Panel


Figure 47

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2.39 SELECTIVE CALLING SYSTEM (SELCAL)

The selective calling (SELCAL) system allows a ground station to call an aircraft
or group of aircraft using HF and VHF communications without the flight crew
having to continuously monitor the ground stations frequency.

A coded signal is transmitted from the ground station and received by the
aircrafts HF or VHF transciever tuned to the appropriate frequency. The output
code is fed to a SELCAL decoder, which, activates aural and visual alerts if and
only if the received code corresponds to the code, selected in the aircraft.
Figure 48 shows the SELCAL System layout.

VO
E IC
C OD E
L CO
A M
LC M
UN
SE IC
AT
IO
N

AIRLINE DISPACH
COMMUNICATION
ARINC ARINC
REMOTE VOICE
STATION STATION

SELCAL Operation
Figure 48

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There are a total of 10920 codes available and these codes are assigned to
airline organisations, who in turn assign codes to their individual aircraft either on
a flight number or aircraft registration basis.

2.39.1 SELCAL Control Panel

The SELCAL control panel consists of SELCAL warning lamps annotated to the
associated radio system, i.e. VHF 1, VHF 2, HF 1 and HF 2. It also provides a
means of resetting the SELCAL, thus cancelling the visual and audio indications.
The panel also has a self-test button to allow testing of the SELCAL system.
Normally located along with the control panel is the SELCAL code selection
panel, this is used to set the aircrafts SELCAL code.

Figure 49 shows a SELCAL selector panel.

SELCAL CODE SELECTION PANEL

SELCAL ANNUNCIATOR PANEL

SELCAL Selector Panel & Code Select Panel


Figure 49

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2.39.2 SELCAL Decoder

The SELCAL decoder determines if the aircrafts four-letter code has been
received and produces alert signals in the form of indicators on the SELCAL
control panel and audio tones to the audio system. The alerts are cancelled by
pressing the corresponding alert light on the SELCAL control panel. A self-test of
the alerts lights and audio warnings is carried out using the self-test button on the
SELCAL control, panel. Figure 50 shows a block schematic of the SELCAL
system.

LAMP DRIVES
5 WIRE
CODE
SELECT
RESET

TEST
AUDIO SYSTEM

CHIME LAMP
VHF 1 SWITCH
SWITCH

LAMP
VHF 2
SWITCH

VHF 3 DECODER LAMP


SWITCH

VHF 4 LAMP
SWITCH

VHF 5 LAMP
INTERRUPTER SWITCH
CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL
SUPPLY

SELCAL Block Schematic


Figure 50

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2.40 COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR)

The CVR records the last 30 minutes of the flight deck audio on continuous
magnetic tape. All voice communication is recorded. Operation is automatic
from engine start until five minutes after engine shutdown. The CVR receives
sound from the flight compartment and audio signals from the digital audio control
system. The voice recorder continuously records the sound and audio. Sensing
of the aircraft-on-ground and parking-brake-set is used to permit bulk erasure
of the voice recording.

The system records on four channels:

1. Channel 1 - Records the third crew members summed microphone


and telephone audio or passenger address system audio.

2. Channel 2 Records the First Officers summed microphone and


telephone audio.

3. Channel 3 records the Captains summed microphone and


telephone audio.

4. Channel 4 records the control panel area microphone audio.

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Figure 51 shows a block schematic of the Cockpit Voice Recorder System.

TAPE AND
MOTOR
ERASE
HEAD

BRAKE ON
PARKING
RECORDING
HEADS

TEST

GROUND
A/C ON
3
1

ERASE
MIC

METER

Cockpit Voice Recorder System


Figure 51

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2.40.1 Voice Recorder Control Panel

The control panel allows remote monitoring and testing of the voice recorder unit
detects flight compartment sounds and conversations. It also controls bulk
erasure of the recording tape. It contains an area microphone (capacitive) which
senses compartment audio. Pressing the erase button for a minimum of 2
seconds erases the tape. This is only possible when the aircraft is on the ground
and the parking brake is set.

Pressing the TEST switch tests all 4 recording channels in sequence. The meter
indicates green during TEST if the test tone is recorded at a sufficient level. The
headset jack is used to monitor all 4 recorded channels. Figure 52 shows a CVR
control panel.

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER

2 4 6 8
0 10

TEST ERASE

HEADSET
600 OHMS

CVR Control Panel


Figure 52

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2.40.2 Voice Recorder Unit

The voice recorder unit makes a 30 - minute recording of four audio channels on
a continuous polyamide tape. The recorder is shock and heat resistant and
contains an underwater locating beacon. It has a TEST switch to initiate an
internal test signal to be recorded. A phone jack monitors the recording as it is
being recorded. The Status indicator provides monitoring of the tape transport
operation and the recorded signal during test. Figure 53 shows a voice recorder
unit.

TEST

PHONE

STATUS IND

UNDERWATER
LOCATING
DEVICE

BATTERY
LIFE LABEL

Voice Recorder Unit


Figure 53

2.40.3 Underwater Locator Device

The underwater locating device is a battery operated acoustical beacon that is


activated when the unit is submerged in water. The unit provides a usable signal
for 30 days. The battery replacement date decal is located on the front of the
device.

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2.41 NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

Aircraft navigation is simply a matter of knowing the direction in which we are


flying and our position in relation to the earth's surface. Navigation through the
air is a relatively simple matter of calculating the distance travelled in a given
period of time. In today's modern aircraft we have various methods of assisting
the crew to navigate their aircraft safely form A to B. These navigational aids are
as follows:

1. Very High Frequency - Omni-Range - VOR.

2. Distance Measuring Equipment - DME.

3. Instrument Landing System - ILS.

4. Marker Beacon System MBS.

5. Automatic Direction Finder - ADF.

6. Air Traffic Control - ATC.

7. Traffic Alert & Collision Avoidance System TCAS.

8. Inertial Navigation System - INS.

9. Radio Magnetic Indicator - RMI.

10. Global Positioning System - GPS.

11. Compass Systems

12. Radio Altimeter System RADALT.

13. Weather Radar.

2.42 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI RANGE (VOR)

VOR is an international standard navigational beacon system enabling a number


of aircraft to receive signals from a ground station and determine the bearing to
the station, with respect to magnetic North. This is possible because the VOR
ground station, or transmitter, continually broadcasts an infinite number of
directional radio beams or radials. The VOR signal received in an aircraft is used
to operate a visual indicator from which the pilot determines the bearing of the
VOR station with respect to the aircraft.

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2.42.1 VOR Operation

The VOR operates in the frequency band from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz. The VOR
ground-station transmits a combination of signals in all directions (omni-
directional). The VOR ground station modulates two signals of 30 Hz each on the
carrier. One 30 Hz signal is the reference signal and the other is the variable
signal. The phase shift between the reference signal and the variable signal
depends on the radial over which the two signals are transmitted. The radial in
the magnetic north direction has a phase shift of 0 degrees, the radial in the
magnetic east direction (90 degrees) has a phase shift of 90 degrees, the radial
in the magnetic south direction (180 degrees) has a phase shift of 180 degrees,
etc. In this way the VOR ground station identifies each radial with the phase shift
between the reference and the variable signal.

Figure 54 shows a VOR ground station and corresponding transmitted


frequencies.
000

VOR RADIAL = 45
VOR BEARING = 225

270 090

VOR
BEACON

180

VOR Ground Station Operation


Figure 54

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The radial information is transmitted from the ground station to the aircraft. When
the VOR system in the aircraft detects the phase shift between the reference and
the variable signal it knows on which radial the aircraft flies. For the bearing
information (opposite direction from aircraft to ground station) the VOR system
adds 180 degrees. In this way the bearing to the station depends on the detected
radial from the station.

The phase shift between the reference and the variable signal identifies a radial
with respect to the magnetic north. The bearing, which is a result from the
detected radial, has therefore also a relation with the magnetic north. So the
bearing output from the VOR system is a MAGNETIC bearing output. This
information is displayed on a Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI). Figure 55 shows a
schematic of the VOR system.

RECEIVED
VOR SIGNAL
30Hz AM
ROTATION
INTERMEDIATE DETECTOR
FREQUENCY

AUDIO
RF IF DETECTOR TO PHASE
DETECTOR

RADIO
FREQUENCY

30Hz FM
REFERENCE
DETECTOR

RMI VOR Indications


Figure 56

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Figure 57 shows VOR control panel from a BAe 146 aircraft.

1 1 1 . 25 ACT

1 1 1 . 30 PRE

I
STBY L
NORM
VOR/DME S

T
E
ON TEST S
T
HOLD
DME

SPILT
NAV 1 NAV 2

068 246
COURSE COURSE

VOR Control & Course select Panels (BAe 146)


Figure 57

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2.42.2 Deviation Calculations

For lateral guidance in airways, the pilots can select a VOR course on the VOR
control panel. The deviation from the selected course is calculated in the
systems, which show course and deviation (EFIS) or use it for guidance
(AFCAS). Also calculated from the difference between received radial and
selected course is the information if the aircraft flies to or from a VOR station.
The navigation display shows selected course, deviation, and the to-from
information. Figure 58 shows HSI indications for a selected VOR course.

FROM FLAG
IN VIEW
SELECTED
COURSE

TO FLAG
IN VIEW
SELECTED VOR
RADIAL
POSITION WRT
VOR RADIAL

AIRCRAFT

E 12
6
3

15
S
N
33

21

24
30 W
0 0 0
MILES

HSI Indications for a VOR Course


Figure 58

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2.42.3 VOR Aerial Locations

Figure 59 shows the location of the VOR aerials on a Boeing 737 and a Fokker
100 aircraft.

VOR AERIAL
LOCATED ON TOP
OF VERTICAL
STABILISER

VOR AERIAL
LOCATED ON EITHER
SIDE OF VERTICAL
STABILISER

VOR Aerial Locations (B737 & F100 Aircraft)


Figure 59

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VOR operates in the VHF band responding to horizontally polarised


transmissions. It shares its frequency range with the Localiser facility of the ILS
and in so doing often shares the aerial system and much of the receiver unit. The
aerial can be mounted on either side of the fin and much be Omni directional to
receive VOR/ILS signals from all directions or flush mounted on either side of the
nose section. Figure 60 shows the construction of a typical VOR/ILS aerial
system.

No 2 SYSTEM

No 1 SYSTEM

No 1 SYSTEM

No 2 SYSTEM

VOR/ILS Aerial
Figure 60

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Figure 61 shows a VOR system block diagram.


ANTENNA

T
S
L

E
S
I
AUDIO
VOR

PRE
ACT

VOR/DME

TEST
1 1 1 . 25
1 1 1 . 40

ON
HOLD
NORM

DME
STBY

CONTROLLER
VOR
RECEIVER
VOR
D
F
A

E 12
6
VOR
3

15
S
N
33

21

VOR

0 24
W 3
COMPASS HEADING

D
F
A

SELECTOR
NAV
COURSE
246
NAV 2

E 12
6
3

15

SPILT
S
N
33

21

24
30
COURSE

W
068
NAV 1
000
MILES

VOR Block Diagram


Figure 61

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2.43 DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME)

The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) system gives distance information


from the aircraft to the DME ground station. The system interrogates the ground
station and the ground station gives a reply on every interrogation. The system
then detects the time-delay between the transmitted interrogation and the
received reply and from the time-delay the distance is calculated. Figure 62
shows the principle of DME operation.

DME Operation
Figure 62

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The DME system operates in the UHF band and interrogates the ground stations
in the frequency range from 1025 MHz to 1150 MHz. Within this frequency range
the following ground stations are interrogated:

1. DME - Gives a reply on every DME interrogation.

2. VOR/DME - Combination of VOR and DME station and gives VOR bearing
and distance replies.

3. ILS/DME - Combination of ILS and DME station and gives ILS guidance and
distance replies.

4. MLS/DME - Combination of Microwave Landing System (MLS) and DME


station.

5. TACAN - Military station for bearing and distance information for military
aircraft. The civil aircraft use only the distance replies from these stations.

6. VOR/TAC - Combination of VOR and TACAN station and gives VOR bearing
and distance replies.

In addition to the distance reply, identification tones (1350Hz) are received from
the ground station and may be heard as Morse code by the aircrew through
headsets.

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Figure 63 shows the location of DME antennas.

DME No 1

DME No 2

BROADBAND
L-BAND AERIAL

DME antenna Location


Figure 63

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Figure 64 shows the principle of operation of the DME.

DME TRANSPONDER AIRCRAFT

RX TX
TIMING
INTERROGATION

50 SEC RANGE
DELAY CIRCUIT

REPLY

TX RX

DISTANCE
OUTPUT

DME Operation
Figure 64

2.43.1 DME Operation

In the DME system, the airborne unit transmits a 2-pulse group to the ground
station at a random rate of 150 pulse pairs a second. After a 50 second delay,
the ground station retransmits the pulse groups. Pulses are sent at one
frequency and received at a different frequency, using the same antenna.

Since many aircraft are using the DME facility, the aircraft equipment must be
capable of selecting only those pulses that are replies from their own
interrogations. A Search and Track circuit within the airborne equipment
achieves the selection.

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The Search and Track circuit receives all DME replies and examines them to
determine which ones have a regular time relation with respect to the transmitted
signals. When the search circuit determines which received pulses are due to its
own interrogations, the tracking unit locks onto them. At the same time, the pulse
rate is greatly reduced; this in turn reduces the interrogation/replies at the ground
station.

Figure 65 shows a basic DME system.

CONTROL
VHF/NAV

PANEL
1 2 3.5
NAUTICAL MILES
INDICATOR

DME
INTERPHONE
SYSTEM
FLIGHT

FREQUENCY SYNTHESISER
RCVR/XMITTR
DELAYED

VARIABLE DELAY
CONTROLLED
TX
MATCHING
CIRCUITS

LOCK
ON
IDENTIFICATION

TRANSMITTER
DUPLEXER
RECIEVER
AUDIO

SUPPRESSOR
BUS

Basic DME System


Figure 65

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2.43.2 DME Controller

Figure 66 shows a NAV/VHF controller from a BAe 146 aircraft.

NAV/VHF Controller
Figure 66

All DME frequencies are paired with either VOR or ILS system frequencies.
When these system frequencies are selected, the associated DME facility will be
automatically be selected. DME frequency range is 960 to 1215 MHz.

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2.44 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)

The purpose of the ILS is to provide approach information to the pilot when, due
to weather, the runway is obscured from view. A typical system will allow the pilot
to bring the aircraft to within mile of the runway and less than 200ft above the
runway without external visual reference. At these heights (Decision Height), the
pilot must have visual on the runway and surrounding environment in order to
continue the landing process. If the runway cannot be identified then a missed
approach procedure is carried out. Aircraft will then be flown around the circuit
for another attempt at landing.

Aircraft are fitted with ILS in three categories, these are:

Cat I - Operation down to a minimum of 200ft-decision height and runway visual


range of 800m with a high probability of approach success.

Cat II - Operation down to a minimum below 200ft decision height and runway
visual range of 800m, and to as low as 100ft decision height and runway visual
range of 400m with a high probability of approach success.

Cat III - Three options A, B and C.

A - Operation down to and along the surface of the runway,


with external reference during final phase of the landing
down to runway visual range minimum of 200m.

B - Operation to and along the surface of the runway and


taxiways, with external reference during final phase of the
landing down to runway visual range minimum of 50m.

C - Operation to and along the surface of the runway and


taxiways without external visual reference.

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Figure 67 shows the different ILS categories.

CAT 1
200

CAT 2 A B C

100

CAT 3

800 600 400 200 50 0

RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (METRES)

ILS Categories
Figure 67

2.44.1 ILS Operation

The ILS gives horizontal and vertical guidance in the approach to a runway. The
system uses two radio signals:

1. The localizer for lateral guidance.

2. The Glideslope for vertical guidance.

The localizer signal comes from a transmitter located at the end of the runway
that operates in the frequency range from 108.000 - 111.95 MHz. The localizer
transmits two beams one on the right side of the runway centerline and one on
the left side of the runway centerline.

The beam on the right side has a 150 Hz modulation; the one on the left side has
a 90 Hz modulation. When the aircraft flies over the extended centerline to the
runway it receives both signals with an equal strength. When the aircraft deviates
from the centerline there is a difference in signal strength. The system measures
the deviation from the center line by comparing the strength of these 90 Hz and
150 Hz modulation signals.

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The Glideslope signal comes from a transmitter at the beginning of the runway
that operates in the frequency range from 329.3 MHz to 335 MHz. The
Glideslope transmits two beams to give vertical guidance over the glidepath. The
glidepath has an angle of approximately 3.

The Glideslope beams are just like the localizer, modulated with 90 Hz and 150
Hz. The 90 Hz modulated beam is above and the 150 Hz modulated beam is
below the 3 glidepath. The system measures the deviation from the difference in
signal strength between the 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulation signals.

Figures 67 and 68 show the localizer and Glideslope principles respectively.

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DOTS ON HSI

DEVIATION
LATERAL
2 DOT ENVELOPE
(COURSE WIDTH)

AT THRESHOLD
700 ft WIDE

5 ON SHORT RUNWAY
4 ON LONG RUNWAY
LOC
TX

Localizer Principle
Figure 67

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3,000 ft
COURSE WIDTH 1.4
2 DOT ENVELOPE

1,000 ft
28 ft

3
14 ft

1,000 ft
100 ft

50 ft

Glideslope Principle
Figure 68

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2.44.2 Antennas

Figure 69 shows the location of the antennas.

VOR/LOC AERIAL

LOCATED ON THE
VOR/LOC No 2

OTHER SIDE

GLIDESLOPE
GLIDESLOPE
No 1 & No 2
LOCATED ON THE
VOR/LOC No 2

OTHER SIDE
VOR/LOC AERIAL

ILS Antenna Location (BAe 146 & F50 aircraft)


Figure 69

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2.44.3 LOC/GS Operation

Figure 70 shows a diagram for the LOC signal detection and display.

RF AMP
WARNING
FLAG
IF AMP

SUM
DETECTOR 90Hz FILTER
250mV OUT
OF VIEW

150Hz FILTER

DIFFERENCE

DEVIATION
BAR

LOC Signal detection and Display


Figure 70

The receiver of the Glideslope and Localiser operate in the same manner and
include conventional Radio Frequency (RF), Intermediate Frequency (IF) and
Audio Frequency (AF) stages. The output of the AF detector stage is the 90Hz
and 150Hz signals. These are separated in there respective filters.

The two signals are 180 out of phase and so oppose each other. The two
signals are first summed together, and if the result is more than 250mV, the
LOC/GS flag will be out of view (ILS valid). If the result of the summing is less
than 250mV, the LOC/GS flags will remain in view (ILS invalid).

If the 90Hz and 150Hz signals have the same amplitude, they cancel each other
out in the difference circuit. This produces a 0V output to the deviation bar that is
basically a centre reading dc voltmeter. With the output 0V the deviation bar will
be central indicating the aircraft is positioned on the extended runway centerline
(LOC) or on the glideslope.

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If the aircraft is positioned in the 90Hz signal lobe, then the amplitude of the 90Hz
signal will be strongest. This will give a fly right signal (LOC) or fly down signal
(G/S). If the difference is -75mV, the deviation bar will be located on the first dot
right, if the difference is -150mV or more, then the deviation bar will be located on
the second dot right. If the 150Hz is the stronger signal, then the voltage
produced will be positive. This will give either fly left (LOC) or fly up (G/S).

Because the result of the difference circuit is either a +dc half-cycle or dc half-
cycle, the signals are condensed using the capacitor, which will produce a steady
dc signal. These condenser capacitors also damp the deviation bar movement.

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2.45 MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS)

In order to inform the pilot as to the aircraft's progress, during an ILS approach,
along the centerline and Glideslope, there is a marker system. The markers are
normally annotated as follows:

1. Outer marker.

2. Middle Marker.

3. Inner marker.

Note: With Category II & III, ILS the inner marker is virtually non existent.

The marker beacons transmit at a certain frequency to identify it and in a fan


shaped pattern. They will also illuminate certain colour warning lamps within the
flightdeck to inform the pilot of reaching the marker. Figure 71 shows the layout
of the marker system for an ILS approach.

3000 Hz
WHITE
400 Hz
INDICATOR
BLUE
1300 Hz INDICATOR
AMBER
INDICATOR

MORSE MORSE
MORSE

INNER MIDDLE OUTER


MARKER MARKER MARKER

Marker Beacon System


Figure 71

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The inner marker is not normally used with ILS, but is now used as an Airways
marker, used for enroute navigation or as holding points above an airport.
Airways markers are identified when the white light comes on and a 3,000Hz tone
is heard.

Outer and Middle markers are associated with the ILS. The outer marker is
usually located directly below the point where an aircraft on a localizer course
should intersect the Glideslope and start descending. An outer marker is
identified when the blue light comes on and a 400 Hz tone is heard. The middle
marker is located near the runway, usually under a point on the glidepath where a
descent could be discontinued. The middle marker is identified when the amber
light comes on and a 1,300 Hz tone is heard. A 75MHz carrier modulates all
marker frequencies. Figure 72 shows the system layout.

MARKER BEACON
SYSTEM AUDIO AUDIO
75 MHz AMPLIFIER (MORSE)
FILTER

RF AMP & 3000 Hz


DETECTOR FILTER AMP INNER

1300 Hz
MARKER FILTER AMP MIDDLE
HIGH

400 Hz
FILTER AMP OUTER
LOW

SENSITIVITY
SWITCH

Marker Beacon System Layout


Figure 72

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2.46 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)

The ADF system detects the direction to a Non Directional Beacon (NDB) and
receives audio identification from the NDB. The ADF system shows the direction
to the NDB on the instruments with the bearing pointer. The ADF system
operates in the frequency range of 190 to 1750 KHz.

The NDB ground station transmits an AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal in circular


pattern in all directions. The radio energy induces RF (Radio Frequency) signals
in a combined loop and sense antenna. The receiver antenna signals are
measured in an ADF receiver and calculated to give relative station bearing.
Figure 73 shows the operation of ADF.

MAGNETIC
NORTH
ADF2
ADF 1
300 HEADING 60
RF 30
S
AD IGN
F 2 AL M
ST S F F RO
AT RO S N
IO M N AL TIO
A
N SIG ST
RF DF1
A

RELATIVE
BEARINGS

ADF Operation
Figure 73

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2.46.1 Loop Aerial

A 'loop aerial', is very sensitive to its directional position, meaning that when it is
pointing towards the transmitter, it receives a null signal but when pointing away
from the transmitter, it receives a strong signal. This ability is used to
automatically find the direction of the transmitter, relative to the aircraft heading
and is displayed on the Radio Magnetic Indicator, RMI.

Figure 74 shows the operation of a loop antenna.

LOOP AERIAL
AT 90 TO SIGNAL

NO INCREASING NO INCREASING NO
CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT

RADIO TRANSMITTER

Loop Antenna
Figure 74

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2.46.2 Station Line

By turning the loop aerial to either of its two null positions the directions of a line
joining the receiver with the transmitting station can be determined. This is called
the Station Line and is shown in Figure 75.

Station Line
Figure 75

As there are two nulls, 180 apart, the transmitter could be towards A or B in
figure 75, causing ambiguity. To resolve this ambiguity it is necessary to change
the directional properties of the aerial system. This is achieved by introducing a
second aerial which combines its horizontal polar diagram with that of the loop
aerial which produces a new heart shaped polar diagram called a Cardioid.
Figure 76 shows the resultant Cardioid polar diagram from the loop and sense
aerials.

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LOOP
POLAR
DIAGRAMS

SENSE CARDIOID
POLAR POLAR
DIAGRAM DIAGRAM

Cardioid Polar Diagram


Figure 76

2.46.3 Sensing the Correct Null

The signal from the ADF transmitter induces a voltage into the loop using the
magnetic component of the signal. The sense aerial has a voltage induced by
the electric component of the signal. This produces 90 phase shift between the
loop and sense aerial voltages. Whether the sense voltage leads or lags the loop
voltage depends on which side of the station line the signal is coming from.

Given a means of rotating the loop and switching the sense aerial into and out of
the receiver input and a means of reversing the polarity of the loop signal to
produce a Cardioid either to the right or left of a relative bearing pointer, aural
sensing can be carried out. The bearing pointer is positioned along the loop axis
in one direction as shown if figure 77.

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BEARING POINTER
ALONG LOOP AXIS IN
ONE DIRECTION

LEFT CARDIOID RIGHT CARDIOID

ADF AERIAL

Bearing Point and Cardiods


Figure 77

On tuning to the ADF beacon and listening to the audio signal, the loop is turned
until a minimum signal is received. The loop is then offset in one direction by 15
- 20. The sense aerial is now switched in for the right Cardioid and the loudness
of the audio noted. The loop is then reversed to give a left Cardioid, again the
loudness is noted. The sense aerial is now switched out and the loop is tuned in
the direction of the Cardiods, which gave the loudest signal. The first null the
loop aerial reaches will be the correct one and the pointer will now be pointing the
ADF transmitter the system is tuned to. Figure 78 shows this operation.

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ADF
BEACON ADF
BEACON

RIGHT IS
LOUDEST

LEFT IS
NOT AS
LOUD
POINTING TO
WRONG NULL

TURN TOWARDS
LOUDEST FOR
CORRECT NULL LOOP OFFSET
BY 15 - 20

Calculating the Correct Null


Figure 78

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In modern aircraft, the loop aerials are more streamlined and do not physically
rotate (rotated electronically).

Figure 79 shows the location of the ADF antenna.

NO 2 SENSE
ANTENNA & NO 2 LOOP
COUPLER ANTENNA

NO 1 SENSE NO 1 LOOP
ANTENNA & ANTENNA
COUPLER

ADF Antenna Location


Figure 79

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Figure 80 shows a block schematic of the ADF system.

SENSE
ANTENNA AUDIO
FWD

90 BALANCED AUDIO
MIXER
SHIFT MODULATOR DETECTOR

A
RS 47Hz 47Hz
OSC FILTER
B

ADF PHASE DETECTOR 47Hz


TX M & MODULATOR
ANTENNA or

ADF RECEIVER

AC SUPPLY
TR
RMI

ADF System
Figure 80

The fixed loop antenna is preferred because it is more trouble free, due to fewer
moving parts. The fixed loop consists of two loops orientated at 90 to each
other. Each loop is connected to an individual stator of a receiving resolver within
the ADF receiver.

If the received station is directly ahead of the aircraft, loop A will have maximum
signal and the B loop will have a null signal. In this case the resolver will see a
null signal due to the orientation of the resolver rotor. If the aircraft is positioned
to the right of the station, then the A will see a null and the B will see maximum
signal. Intermediate positions of the received station would result in intermediate
positions of the resultant filed in the stator of the resolver.

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Figure 81 shows a typical ADF control panel.

ADF ANT

ADF 1 OFF TEST ADF 2

191. 5 ADF 2 1231.5


BFO
1 2
NORM

ADF ANT
OFF TEST

ADF 1

ADF Control panel


Figure 81

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2.47 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

2.47.1 Transponders

Transponders are not exactly navigation equipment, but are a "Means of


Identification". In the past, a radar controller watching his scope, would only know
if the 'blip' that he saw on his screen was the aircraft he was 'working', (handling),
if it identified itself by carrying out a turn at the controller's request. With the ATC
system, the controller can identify the aircraft by interrogating it.

The ground control has two types of radar with which to control air traffic:

1. Primary Radar.

2. Secondary Radar.

The primary radar provides the ground station operator with a symbol on his
surveillance radarscope for every aircraft in his area. It is a reflection type of
radar system not requiring any response from the aircraft.

The secondary radar system uses what is called an ATC Transponder in the
aircraft. The transponder is a transmitter/receiver, which transmits in response to
an interrogation from the ground station secondary surveillance radar system.
The primary and secondary radar antennas are mounted on the same rotating
mounting, and therefore both always look in the same direction at the same time.

The aircrafts transponder reply can also include a special code, which identifies
that particular aircraft on the scope. If the pilot receives instructions from the
ground station to do so he presses his Ident button on his control panel. This
causes the display on the radarscope to change thus identifying the aircraft to the
controller. The transponder can also transmit the aircrafts altitude, which can be
displayed to the ground controller.

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Figure 82 shows the operation of the ATCRBS.

GROUND SURVEILLANCE
RADAR

ATC RADAR
ANTENNAS

ATC RADAR
TRANSMITTER/
RECEIVER

ATCRBS Operation
Figure 82

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2.47.2 ATCRBS Control Panel

The ATCRBS control panel allows the flight crew to select ATC 1 or 2, mode of
operation and ident code select. Figure 83 shows a typical ATCRBS control
panel.

STBY MODE
A B
1 2
2567
ALT RPTG
ALT
IDENT
1 2
OFF
SOURCE

ATCRBS Control Panel


Figure 83

The ground station transmits its interrogation pulse on 1030 MHz as a three-pulse
signal. The space between the first and third pulse signifies the mode reply
required. The system operates in four modes, these are:

1. Mode A - Identify.

2. Mode B - Obsolete.

3. Mode C - Pressure Altitude.

4. Mode D Unassigned.

2.47.3 Mode A

Operating mode for normal operation. The transponder is ready to respond to


ATC any interrogations and replying with a unique identification code. The pulse
spacing is 8sec.

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2.47.4 Mode C

Altitude reporting capability of the transponder. The aircraft's Air Data System
will supply altitude information for use in Mode C replies. This allows the ground
controller, to not only identify an aircraft but also to ascertain its altitude, so he
can guide it safely through his allocated airspace. The pulse spacing is 21sec.
Figure 84 shows the interrogation pulses for mode A & C.

8 SEC
P1 P3
P2

MODE A IDENTITY ONLY

21 SEC
P1 P3
P2

MODE C IDENTITY & ALTITUDE

Mode A & C Interrogation Pulses


Figure 84

Once the aircrafts transponder has received an interrogation, it will reply with
either Mode A or C (1090 MHz). One problem to overcome with this system is an
aircraft replying to interrogations when not being illuminated by the primary radar.
To overcome this, a suppression pulse is transmitted (P2). If the amplitude of this
pulse is equal/greater than P1, the aircraft will not reply to the interrogation.
Figure 85 shows the operation of the suppression signal.

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BEAM (P1, P2 & P3)


ANTENNA MAIN
P3

DIRECTIONAL
REPLY
P2

ROTATION
P1

SIDELOBES
P3
NO REPLY
P2

ANTENNA (P2)
DIRECTIONAL
OMNI
P1

ATCRBS Suppression
Figure 85

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Figure 86 shows the basic layouts of the ATCRBS.

R EP LY A N D FA U LT LIGH T C ON TR OL

A IR D A TA
A LT R PTG ON
C O M P U TE R
NO 1 N O 1 A TC
T RA N S P O N DE R
N0 1
A TC AE R IAL

N O 1 EN A B LE

A TC R BS M OD E, 40 9 6, ID EN T
D UA L SU P P
N O 2 EN A B LE
C O N TR O L

N0 2
A TC AE R IAL
N O 2 A TC
A IR D A TA T RA N S P O N DE R

A LT R PTG ON
C O M P U TE R
NO 2

R EP LY A N D FA U LT LIGH T C ON TR OL

A TC R BS V ID E O C O M P A RA T O R
T RA N S P O N DE R SU PP P1 - P2

D IP LE X E R R E CE IV E R
D E CO DE R
1 0 3 0 M Hz M O D E A or C

M OD E SW
SEL F T EST
S E L FT E S T
C IRC U ITS
4096 ID E NT

T RA N S M ITT E R M O D U LA TO R
E N CO DE R
1 0 9 0 M Hz 1 0 9 0 M Hz

E N CO DE D
H E IG H T

ATCRBS Block Schematic


Figure 86

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2.48 MODE S TRANSPONDERS

After 1989, a completely new type of ATC system was introduced. This system is
called mode S (mode select). The new interrogators and transponders are called
ATCRBS/mode S because they are capable of working with the old ATCRBS
equipment or with new mode S equipment.

For the present time, there will be ATCRBS only equipped aircraft sharing
airspace with ATCRBS/mode S equipped aircraft. On the ground, most of the
stations are ATCRBS-only, but there will be a gradual phasing in of
ATCRBS/mode S ground stations. Both types of station can interrogate either
type of transponder, and both types of transponder can respond to either type of
ground station. TCAS-equipped aircraft interrogate both ATCRBS and
ATCRBS/mode S equipped aircraft just as an ATCRBS/mode S ground station
would do.

At some point in the future, all ATCRBS-only equipment will be phased out for
commercial aviation. All ground stations and aircraft will then operate in mode S
only.

The mode S ATC system enables ground stations to interrogate aircraft as to


identification code and altitude just as the ATCRBS system does. These
interrogations, however, are only part of a larger list of (up-link and downlink)
formats comprising the mode S data link capacity. One of the most important
aspects of mode S is the ability to discretely address one aircraft so that only the
specific aircraft being interrogated responds, instead of all transponder-equipped
aircraft within the range of the interrogator.

2.48.1 Mode S Interrogation & Replies

The ATCRBS/Mode S system operates in a way similar to ATCRBS. As a


transponder equipped aircraft enters the airspace, it receives either a Mode S
only all-call interrogation or an ATCRBS/Mode S all-call interrogation which can
be identified by both ATCRBS and Mode S transponders. ATCRBS transponders
reply in Mode A and Mode C, while the Mode S transponder replies with a Mode
S format that includes that aircraft's unique discrete 24-bit Mode S address. The
Mode S only all-call is used by the interrogators if Mode S targets are to be
acquired without interrogating ATCRBS targets.

2.48.2 Discrete Addressing

The address and the Location of the Mode S aircraft is entered into a roll-call file
by the Mode S ground station. On the next scan, the Mode S aircraft is discretely
addressed. The discrete interrogations of a Mode S aircraft contain a command
field that may desensitise the Mode S transponder to further Mode S all-call
interrogations. This is called Mode S lockout. ATCRBS interrogations (from
ATCRBS only interrogators) are not affected by this lockout. Mode S
transponders reply to the interrogations of an ATCRBS interrogator under all
circumstances.

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TCAS separately interrogates ATCRBS transponders and Mode S transponders.


During the Mode S segment of the surveillance update period, TCAS commences
to interrogate Mode S intruders on its own roll-call list.

Because of the selective address features of the Mode S system, TCAS


surveillance of Mode S- equipped aircraft is straightforward.

Figure 87 shows Mode S operation.

TRANSPONDER
PRIMARY
RADAR
REPLY INTERROGATION
1090MHz 1030MHz
ECHO
PRIMARY
SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE
SURVEILLANCE RADAR (PSR)
RADAR (SSR)

ATC
RADAR
SCOPE

ROLL CALL
NEIGHBORING
GROUND LINK AIRSPACE
AIRPLANE 1
CONTROLLER
AIRPALNE 2
(MODE S)
AIRPLANE 3

Mode S Operation
Figure 87

2.48.3 Operation

As a Mode S aircraft flies into the airspace served by another Mode S


interrogator, the first Mode S interrogator may send position information and the
aircraft's discrete address to the second interrogator by way of ground lines.
Thus the need to remove the lockout may be eliminated, and the second
interrogator may schedule discrete roll-call interrogations for the aircraft.
Because of the discrete addressing feature of Mode S, the interrogators may
work at a lower rate (or handle more aircraft).

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In areas where Mode S interrogators are not connected by way of ground lines,
the protocol for the transponder is for it to be in the lockout state for only those
interrogators that have the aircraft on the roll-call. If the aircraft enters airspace
served by a different Mode S interrogator, the new interrogator may acquire the
aircraft via the replay to an all-call interrogation. Also, if the aircraft does not
receive an interrogation for 16 seconds, the transponder automatically cancels
the lockout. Figure 88 shows the different types of interrogation pulses for
ATCRBS and Mode S systems

(UNLESS LOCKED

(UNLESS LOCKED
REPLY MODE S

REPLY MODE S
TRANSPONDERS
ATCRBS/MODE S

ONLY MODE S
DISCREETLY
ADDRESSED
NO REPLY

REPLIES
ATCRBS
REPLY

OUT)

OUT)
TRANSPONDERS
ATCRBS

NO REPLY

NO REPLY
REPLY

REPLY

REPLY
P4
P4

P6

P6
P3
P3
P3

P5

P5
INTERROGATION PULSE

P2

P2
P2
P2
P2

P1

P1
P1
P1
P1

ATCRBS & Mode S Interrogation Signals


Figure 88

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2.49 TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

2.49.1 TCAS Introduction

TCAS is an airborne traffic alert and collision avoidance advisory system, which
operates without support from ATC, ground stations. TCAS detects the presence
of nearby intruder aircraft equipped with transponders that reply to Air Traffic
Control Radar Beacon Systems (ATCRBS) Mode C or Mode S interrogations.
TCAS tracks and continuously evaluates the threat potential of intruder aircraft to
its own aircraft and provides a display of the nearby transponder-equipped
aircraft on a traffic display. During threat situations TCAS provides traffic
advisory alerts and vertical maneuvering resolution advisories to assist the flight
crew in avoiding mid-air collisions.

TCAS I provides proximity warning only to assist the pilot in the visual acquisition
of intruder aircraft. It is intended for use by smaller commuter and general
aviation aircraft.

TCAS II provides traffic advisories and resolution advisories (recommended


escape maneuvers) in a vertical direction to avoid conflicting traffic. Airline, larger
commuter and business aircraft will use TCAS II equipment.

TCAS III Still under development, will provide traffic advisories and resolution
advisories in the horizontal as well as the vertical direction to avoid conflicting
traffic.

The level of protection provided by TCAS equipment depends on the type of


transponder the target aircraft is carrying. It should be noted that TCAS provides
no protection against aircraft that do not have an operating transponder.

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Table 1 shows levels of protection offered by the transponder carried by


individual aircraft.

OWN AIRCRAFT
TCAS I TCAS II TCAS III

Mode A
XPDR Only TA TA TA

Mode C TA
Or Mode S TA TA VRA
XPDR VRA HRA
TARGET AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT

TA TA
TCAS I TA VRA VRA
HRA

TA TA
TCAS II TA VRA VRA
TTC HRA
TTC

TA TA
TCAS III TA VRA VRA
TTC HRA
TTC

TA TRAFFIC ADVISORY
VRA - VERTICAL RESOLUTION ADVISORY
HRA - HORIZONTAL RESOLUTION ADVISORY
TTC - TCAS TCAS COORDINATION

Table 1

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2.49.2 The TCAS II System

TCAS II provides a traffic display and two types of advisories to the pilot. One
type of advisory, called a traffic advisory (TA) informs the pilot that there are
aircraft in the area, which are potential threats to his own aircraft. The other type
of advisory is called a resolution advisory (RA), which advises the pilot that a
vertical corrective or preventative action is required to avoid a threat aircraft.
TCAS II also provides aural alerts to the pilot. Figure 89 shows TCAS protection
area.

TCAS Protection Area

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Figure 89
When a Mode S or Mode C intruder is acquired, TCAS begins tracking the
intruder. Tracking is performed by repetitious TCAS interrogations in Mode S and
Mode C. When interrogated transponders reply after a fixed delay. Measurement
of the time between interrogation transmission and reply reception allows TCAS
to calculate the range of the intruder. If the intruder's transponder is providing
altitude in its reply, TCAS is able to determine the relative altitude of the intruder.

Figure 90 shows a block schematic diagram of the TCAS system

DIRECTIONAL
DIRECTIONAL

ANTENNA
ANTENNA

OMNI
OMNI

TRANSPONDER

MODE S/TCAS
CONTROLLER
MODE S

UNIT

AURAL
ALERT
DATA BUS
BAROMETRIC
ALTIMETER

TA/RA
ALTIMETER
RADAR

COMPUTER
TCAS

UNIT

TA/RA
DIRECTIONAL

DIRECTIONAL
ANTENNA

ANTENNA
OMNI

TCAS System Block Schematic


Figure 90

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Transmission and reception techniques used on TCAS directional aerials allows


TCAS to calculate the bearing of the intruder. Based on closure rates and
relative position computed from the reply data, TCAS will classify the intruders as
non-threat, proximity, TA, or RA threat category aircraft.

If an intruder is being tracked, TCAS displays the intruder aircraft symbol on an


electronic VSI or joint-use weather radar and traffic display. Alternatively in some
aircraft the TCAS display will be on the EFIS system.

The position on the display shows the range and relative bearing of the intruder.
The range of TCAS is about 30 NM in the forward direction. Figure 91 shows
TCAS TA and RA calculations.

SURVEILLANCE

OWN TRACK & BEARING & TARGET


TRACKING
AIRCRAFT SPEED CLOSING PEED AIRCRAFT

TRAFFIC
ADVISORY
(TA)
RANGE ALTITUDE
TEST TEST
THREAT
DETECTION
(RA)

RA
SENSE CLIMB RATE OF STRENGTH
TCAS/TCAS
SELECTION DECENT CLIMB/DECENT SELECTION
CO-ORDINATION
RA

ADVISORY
TA ANNUNCIATION
(TA/RA)

AIR GROUND
COMMUNICATION ATC

TCAS RA and TA Calculations


Figure 91

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2.49.3 Aural Annunciation

Displayed traffic and resolution advisories are supplemented by synthetic voice


advisories generated by the TCAS computer. The words "Traffic, Traffic" are
annunciated at the time of the traffic advisory, which directs the pilot to look at the
TA display to locate the intruding aircraft. If the encounter does not resolve itself,
a resolution advisory is annunciated, e.g., "Climb, Climb, Climb". At this point the
pilot adjusts or maintains the vertical rate of the aircraft to keep the VSI needle
out of the red segments.

Figure 92 gives an overview of TCAS air-to-air operation.

AIRCRAFT 2
TCAS AIRCRAFT 2 TRANSMITS
ATCRBS ALL CALL
AIRCRAFT 2 RECIEVES SQUITTER
(1030 MHz) AIRCRAFT 3
AND ADDS AIRCRAFT 1 TO
RESPONDS MODE C
ITS ROLL CALL, THEN INTERROGATES
(1090 MHz)
AIRCRAFT 1 (TCAS 1030 MHz)

AIRCRAFT 3
ATCRBS ONLY
AIRCRAFT 1
MODE S ONLY

AIRCRAFT 1 TRANSMITS
OMNIDIRECTIONAL
SQUITTER SIGNALS
(MODE S 1090 MHz)

ALL 3 AIRCRAFT REPLY


TO INTERROGATIONS FROM
GROUND STATION
(1090 MHz)

GROUND STATION
TRANSMITS
INTERROGATIONS
AT (1030MHz)

TCAS OPERATION IS COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT


NOTE: OF GROUND STATION OPERATION

TCAS Air-to-Air Operation


Figure 92

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Figure 93 shows typical Electronic VSI - TCAS indications.

Honeywell

2
1 4

.5
+03 6
-05

0
-03

6
.5

1 4
2

Electronic VSI - TCAS indications


Figure 93

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Figure 94 shows examples of TCAS warnings as displayed on EADI.

HOLD LNAV VNAV


LOC G/S

110.90 DH150 VERTICAL


142 DME 25.3 2400 SPEED LINE
CMD 5200

180

5000 6

2
160 10 10
1

14 4800

1
REF
120 10 10 4600 2

6
MDA
CRS 123
4700
100
FLY OUT
OF AREA STD
29.86IN
117 MAG 750

RA FLIGHT
BOUNDARY
(RED)

6
2
GREEN
1
SEGMENT

1
RED
SEGMENT 2
6

VERTICAL SPEED
LINE

TCAS Warnings EADI Display


Figure 94

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Displayed traffic and resolution advisories are supplemented by synthetic voice


advisories generated by the TCAS computer. The words "Traffic, Traffic" are
annunciated at the time of the traffic advisory, which directs the pilot to look at the
TA display to locate the traffic. If the encounter does not resolve itself, a
resolution advisory is annunciated. The aural annunciations listed in Table 2
have been adopted as aviation industry standards.

The single announcement "Clear of Conflict" indicates that the encounter has
ended (range has started to increase), and the pilot should promptly but smoothly
return to the previous clearance.

Traffic Advisory: TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC


Resolution Advisories:
Preventative:
MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED, MONITOR VERTICAL SPEED. Ensure
that the VSI needle is kept out of the lighted segments.
Corrective:
CLIMB-CLIMB-CLIMB. Climb at the rate shown on the RA indicator:
normally 1500 fpm.
CLIMB.CROSSING CLIMB-CLIMB, CROSSING CLIMB. As above except
that it further indicates that own flightpath will cross through that of the
threat.
DESCEND-DESCEND-DESCEND. Descend at the rate shown on the RA
indicator: normally 1500 fpm.
DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND-DESCEND, CROSSING DESCEND.
As above except that it further indicates that own flight path will cross
through that of the threat.
REDUCE CLIMB-REDUCE CLIMB. Reduce vertical speed to that shown
on the RA indicator.
INCREASE CLIMB-INCREASE CLIMB. Follows a "Climb" advisory. The
vertical speed of the climb should be increased to that shown on the RA
indicator nominally 2500 fpm.
INCREASE DESCENT-INCREASE DESCENT. Follows a "Descend"
advisory. The vertical speed of the descent should be increased to that
shown on the RA indicator: nominally 2500 fpm.
CLIMB, CLIMB NOW-CLIMB, CLIMB NOW. Follows a "Descend"
advisory when it has been determined that a reversal of vertical speed is
needed to provide adequate separation.
DESCEND, DESCEND NOW-DESCEND. DESCEND NOW. Follows a
"Climb" advisory when it has been determined that a reversal of vertical
speed is needed to provide adequate separation.

Table 2

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2.49.4 Performance Monitoring

It is important for the pilot to know that TCAS is operating properly. For this
reason a self-test system is incorporated. Self-test can be initiated at any time,
on the ground or in flight, by momentarily pressing the control unit TEST button.
If TA's or RAs occur while the self-test is activated in flight, the test will abort and
the advisories will be processed and displayed.

When self-test is activated an aural annunciation "TCAS TEST" is heard and a


test pattern with fixed traffic and advisory symbols appears on the display for
eight seconds.

After eight seconds "TCAS TEST PASS" or "TCAS TEST FAIL" is aurally
announced to indicate the system status.

2.49.5 TCAS Units

Figure 95 shows a typical Mode S/TCAS control unit.

TA DSPLY XPDR FAIL


XPDR
AUTO ON
TA
TC

OFF ON STBY
AS

IDENT
7777 TA
/RA

ATC
C
A
S ALT RPTG
TCAS XPDR
OFF TEST 1 2
1 2

Dual Mode S Control Unit


Figure 95

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The controls operate as follows:

(1) Transponder Code Display

This shows the ATC code selected by the two dual concentric knobs below
the display. The system select switch (XPDR 1-2) controls input to the
display.

Certain fault indications are also indicated on the display. "PASS" will
show after a successful functional test and "FAIL" will show if a high level
failure is detected under normal operating conditions.

Also shown is the active transponder by displaying ATC 1 or 2.

(2) Mode Control Selector Switch

This is a rotary switch labeled STBY-ALT RPTG OFF-XPNDR-TA-TA/RA.


The TCAS system is activated by selecting traffic advisory (TA) or traffic
and resolution advisory (TA/RA). When STBY is selected both
transponders are inactive. In the ALT RPTG OFF position the altitude data
sources are interrupted preventing the transmission of altitude.

(3) ABV-N-BLW Switch

This selects the altitude range for the TCAS traffic displays. In the ABV
mode the range limits are 7,000 feet above and 2,700 feet below the
aircraft. In the BLW mode the limits are 2,700 feet above and 7,000 feet
below. When normal (N) is selected the displayed range is 2,700 feet
above and below the aircraft.

(4) Traffic Display Switch

When AUTO is selected the TCAS computer sets the displays to "pop-up"
mode under a traffic/resolution advisory condition. In MAN the TCAS
displays are constantly activated advising of any near by traffic.

(5) Range Switch

This selects different nautical mile traffic advisory horizontal range


displays.

(6) IDENT Push-button

When pushed causes the transponder to transmit a special identifier pulse


(SPI) in its replies to the ground.

(7) Flight Level Push-button (FL)

This is used to select between relative and absolute attitude information.

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Figure 96 shows a TCAS & Mode S computers.

ATC TPR/MODE S BENDIX/KING

RT-950
Honeywell TCAS
COMPUTER UNIT
TPR

"SELF TEST" TCAS TA


PASS DISP ALT
Replace TCAS CU if ONLY the red TCAS Fail
lamp is on during any status display (following TCAS RA
the lamp test). When additional lamps are on,
DATA IN
FAIL DISP
correct indicated subsystem PRIOR to
replacement of TCAS CU. TOP RAD TOP
ANT ALT
BOT XPDR BOT
ANT BUS
TCAS
HDG ATT
MAINT
DATA LOADER PUSH
TO
TEST RESERVED

RESERVED

BITE

TEST

TCAS COMPUTER

MODE S COMPUTER

Honeywell TCAS & Mode S Computers


Figure 96

2.49.6 Self Test

If the test button is momentarily pressed fault data for the current and previous
flight legs can be displayed on the front panel annunciators.

When the TEST is initially activated all annunciators are on for 3 seconds and
then current fault data is displayed for 10 seconds, after which the test terminates
and all annunciators are extinguished.

If the test button is pressed again during the 10-second fault display period the
display is aborted and a 2-second lamp test is carried out. The fault data
recorded for the previous flight leg is then displayed for 10 seconds.

This procedure can be repeated to obtain recorded data from the previous 10
flight legs.

If the test button is pressed to display fault data after the last recorded data all
annunciators will flash for 3 seconds and then extinguish.

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2.49.7 Data Loader Interface

Software updates can be incorporated into the computer via a set of ARINC 429
busses and discrete inputs. These allow an interface to either an Airborne Data
Loader (ADL) through pins on the unit's rear connector or to a Portable Data
Loader (PDL) through the front panel "DATA LOADER" connector.

The computer works with either ARINC 603 data loader low speed bus or ARINC
615 high-speed bus.

A personal computer (PC) can be connected to the front panel "DATA LOADER"
connector. This allows the maintenance log and RA event log to be downloaded
to the PC via an RS 232 interface.

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2.50 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)

The modern inertial navigation system is the only self-contained single source for
all navigation data. After being supplied with initial position information, it is
capable of continuously updating extremely accurate displays of the aircrafts:

1. Position.

2. Ground Speed.

3. Attitude.

4. Heading.

It can also provide guidance and steering information for the auto pilot and flight
instruments. Figure 97 shows a representation of Inertial Navigation principal.
Navigation Triangle

WIND SPEED & DIRECTION


PRESENT
POSITION
DC G
(A DIN
)
ED EA

CK
RA ED
PE S H

T
S E VELOCITY NORTH/SOUTH (VN)
RS T

FT DSP
AI F

A
& CRA

R N
RC O U
AI G R
R

&
AI

TRK DRIFT

HDG

EAST/WEST VELOCITY (VE)

Basic Navigation triangle


Figure 97

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2.50.1 General Principle

In order to understand an inertial navigation system we must consider both the


definition of Inertia and the basic laws of motion as described by Sir Isaac
Newton. Inertia can be described as follows:

1. Newtons first law of motion states:

A body continues in a state of rest, or uniform motion in a straight line, unless


acted upon by an external force.

2. Newtons second law of motion states:

The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the sum of the forces acting
on the body.

3. Newtons third law states:

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

With these laws we can mechanise a device which is able to detect minute
changes in acceleration and velocity, ability necessary in the development of
inertial systems. Velocity and distance are computed from sensed acceleration
by the application of basic calculus. The relationship between acceleration,
velocity and displacement are shown in figure 98.

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FEET PER SECOND


ACCELERATION

VELOCITY FEET
PER SECOND

PER SECOND

DISTANCE IN
FEET

TIME

Acceleration, Velocity and Distance Graphs.


Figure 98

Note; Velocity changes whenever acceleration exists and remains constant when
acceleration is zero.

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2.50.2 INS Operation

The basic measuring instrument of the inertial navigation system is the


accelerometer. Two accelerometers are mounted in the system. One will
measure the aircrafts accelerations in the north-south direction and the other will
measure the aircrafts accelerations in the east-west direction. When the aircraft
accelerates, the accelerometer detects the motion and a signal is produced
proportional to the amount of acceleration. This signal is amplified, current from
the amplifier is sent back to the accelerometer to a torque motor, which restores
the accelerometer to its null position.

The acceleration signal from the amplifier is also sent to an integrator, which is a
time multiplication device. It starts with acceleration, which is in feet per second
squared (feet per sec per sec) and end up after multiplication by time with velocity
(feet per second).

The velocity signal is then fed through another integrator, which again is a time
multiplier, which gives a result in distance in feet. So from an accelerometer we
can derive:

1. Ground Speed.

2. Distance Flown.

If the computer associated with the INS knows the latitude and longitude of the
starting point and calculates the aircraft has travelled a certain distance
north/south and east/west it can calculate the aircrafts present position.

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Figure 99 shows INS Operation.

DISTANCE
DESTINATION

POSITION
PRESENT
GROUNDSPEED
VELOCITY

2ND

DISTANCE FLOWN
INTERGRATORS
1ST
PRESENT POSITION

COMPUTER
RECENTRING (FEEDBACK)

MASS

ACCELEROMETER

POSITION
START
POSITION
START

INS Operation
Figure 99

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To accurately compute the aircrafts present position, the accelerometer must be


maintained about their sensing axes. To maintain the correct axes, the
accelerometers are mounted on a gimbal assembly commonly referred to as the
platform. The platform is nothing more than a mechanical device, which allows
the aircraft to go through any attitude change at the same time maintaining the
accelerometers level. The inner element of the platform contains the
accelerometers as well as gyroscopes to stabilize the platform. The gyros
provide signals to motors, which in turn control the gimbals of the platform.
Figure 100 shows an Inertial Platform (IP).

AZIMUTH
AXIS

ROLL
AXIS

PITCH
AXIS

Inertial Platform
Figure 100

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We can also measure the angular distance between the aircraft and the platform
in the three axes, giving us the aircrafts pitch, roll and heading angles. These
can be used in the navigation computations and also give heading and attitude
information to the relative systems.

The gyro and accelerometer are mounted on a common gimbal. When this
gimbal tips off the level position, the spin axis of the gyro remains fixed. The
case of the gyro moves with the gimbal, and the movement is detected by a
signal pick-off within the gyro. This signal is amplified and sent to the gimbal
motor, which restores the gimbal back to the level position. Figure 101 shows the
operation of gyro stabilization.

INPUT AXIS

RATE
GYROSCOPE
OUTPUT
AXIS

PLATFORM

GEARS AMPLIFIER

MOTOR

TACHO
GEN

Gyro Stabilization
Figure 101

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2.50.3 Earth Rate Compensation

The INS gyro operates on the principle of gyroscopic inertia, which is the
characteristic of a rotating mass to resist any forces, which tend to change the
direction of its spin axis. Because the earth rotates in space, the space-
orientated gyro appears to rotate with respect to an earth bound observer. This
makes the gyro unsuitable for use as an earth-fixed reference unless the gyro is
deliberately torqued to rotate at a rate proportional to the earths rotational rate
(earth rate = 15/hour). When torqued in this manner, the spin axis appears
stationary, and the gyro is effectively slaved to the earths co-ordinate system.
Figure 102 shows the calculations of earth rate for the north and vertical gyros.

E A RT H RA TE = (1 5 /H R ) X C O S LA TIT UD E

E A R TH R AT E
9 0
C O M P E N S A T IO N = 15 D EG /H R
A T 0 L A T IT U D E
N O R TH G Y R O

E A R TH R AT E
C O M P E N S A T IO N = 0 D E G /HR 4 5
A T 9 0 L A T IT U D E

E A R TH R AT E

C O M P E N S A T IO N = 1 0 . 6 /H R 0
A T 4 5 L A T IT U D E

E A RT H RA TE = (1 5 /H R ) X S IN L AT ITU D E

E A R TH R AT E 9 0
C O M P E N S A T IO N = 0 D E G /HR
A T 0 L A T IT U D E

V E RT ICA L G Y R O

E A R TH R AT E
C O M P E N S A T IO N = 15 D EG /H R 4 5
A T 9 0 L A T IT U D E

E A R TH R AT E
C O M P E N S A T IO N = 1 0 . 6 /H R 0
A T 4 5 L A T IT U D E

North Gyro Earth Rate Calculation


Figure 102

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2.50.4 Vehicle Rate Compensation

These corrections are used to keep the platform horizontal and pointing to north.
The aim is to cancel out the apparent movement of the gyro as the aircraft moves
over the earths surface. These corrections are applied to all three gyros as
torque to the gyro torque motor, the amount of torque being dependant on the
direction of the aircraft movement over the earths surface.

Aircraft Moving North

This will cause the platform to move away from its horizontal attitude. This effect
is corrected by applying a signal to the East gyros torque motor. The strength of
the signal is dependant on the angular rate of change which is found out by the
following formula:

= AIRCRAFTS VELOCITY
EARTHS RADIUS

Figure 103 shows the vehicle rate corrections for an aircraft travelling North.

Aircraft Travelling North


Figure 103

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Aircraft Moving East

This again causes the platform to move away from its horizontal attitude. This is
corrected by applying a signal to th torque motor of the North gyro. Figure 104
shows the vehicle rate corrections for an aircraft travelling East with the North
axis rotated.

Aircraft Travelling East (North Axis Rotated)


Figure 104

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When moving east at any latitude other than the equator, the movement also
causes the platform to move away from pointing north. To correct this, we apply
a signal to the torque motor on the vertical gyro. The size of the signal is
dependant on the latitude and the sped of the aircraft. Figure 105 shows the
vehicle rate corrections for an aircraft travelling East with the vertical axis rotated.

Aircraft Travelling East (Vertical Axis Rotated)


Figure 105

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Page 2-134
P T (EARTH RATE CORRECTION)
N
/ / N = (15/Hr + RATE OF CHANGE LONG) COS LAT
GYRO
O M (VEHICLE RATE CORRECTION)

P T (EARTH RATE CORRECTION)


V
/ / V = (15/Hr + RATE OF CHANGE LONG) SIN LAT
GYRO
O M (VEHICLE RATE CORRECTION)
PART 2

Figure 106
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Earth & Vehicle Rate Corrections


Figure 106 shows the Earth rate & Vehicle rate corrections.

P T
E
/ / (VEHICLE RATE CORRECTION) E = (RATE OF CHANGE LAT)
GYRO
O M

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2.50.5 Alignment

The accuracy of an INS is dependent on the precise alignment of the inertial


platform to a known reference (True North), with respect to the latitude and
longitude of the ground starting position at the time of Starting Up the system.
The inertial system computer carries out a self-alignment calibration procedure
over a given period of time before the system is ready to navigate the aircraft.

The computer requires the following information prior to alignment so that it can
calculate the position of True North:

1. Aircrafts Latitude Position.

2. Aircrafts Longitude Position.

3. Aircrafts Magnetic Heading (from Mag Heading System).

The alignment procedure can only be carried out on the ground, during which the
aircraft must not be moved. Once started the alignment procedure is automatic

2.50.6 The Navigation Mode

In the navigation mode the pitch, roll attitude and the magnetic heading
information is updated mainly with the attitude changes sensed by gyros.
Because the IRS is aligned to true north a variation angle is used to calculate the
direction to magnetic north. Each location on earth has its own variation angle.
All variation angles between the 73 North and 60 South latitude are stored in the
IRS.

The present position is updated mainly with accelerations sensed by the


accelerometers. The accelerations are corrected for the pitch and roll attitude
and calculated with respect to the true north direction.

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2.50.7 Strapdown Inertial Navigation

As already discussed, inertial navigation is the process of determining an


aircrafts location using internal inertial sensors. Unlike in the gimballed system,
in a strapdown system the accelerometers and gyros are mounted solidly to the
aircrafts axis. There are no gimbals to keep the sensors level with the earths
surface, so that one sensor is always on the aircrafts longitudinal axis, one on
the lateral axis and one on the vertical axis. Likewise the gyros are mounted
such that one will detect the aircrafts pitch, another the roll and the third the
aircrafts heading.

The accelerometer produces an output that is proportional to the acceleration


applied along the sensors input axis. A microprocessor integrates the
acceleration signal to calculate a velocity and position. Although it is used to
calculate velocity and position, acceleration is meaningless to the system without
additional information.

Example: Consider the acceleration signal from the accelerometer strapped to


the aircrafts longitudinal axis. It is measuring the forward acceleration of the
aircraft, however, is the aircraft accelerating north, south, east, west, up or down?
In order to navigate over the surface of the earth, the system must know how its
acceleration is related to the earths surface.

Because the accelerometers are mounted on the aircrafts longitudinal, Lateral


and vertical axes of the aircraft, the IRS must know the relationship of each of
these axes to the surface of the earth. The Laser Ring Gyros (LRGs) in the
strapdown system make measurements necessary to describe this relationship in
terms of pitch, roll and heading angles. These angles are calculated from angular
rates measured by the gyros through integration e.g. Gyro measures an angular
rate of 3/sec for 30 seconds in the yaw axes. Through integration, the
microprocessor calculates that the heading has changed by 90 after 30 seconds.

Given the knowledge of pitch, roll and heading that the gyros provide, the
microprocessor resolves the acceleration signals into earth-related accelerations,
and then performs the horizontal and vertical navigation calculations. Under
normal conditions, all six sensors sense motion simultaneously and continuously,
thereby entailing calculations that are substantially more complex than a normal
INS. Therefore a powerful, high-speed microprocessor is required in the IRS in
order to rapidly and accurately handle the additional complexity.

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Figure 107 shows the block schematic of the Strap-Down inertial Navigation
system.

COMPUTER
ALTIMETER

POSITION

VECTOR
SOLVER
ACCELEROMETERS

COORDINATE
CONVERTER

LONGITUDE
LATITUDE
B MATRIX
GYROS

PITCH
ROLL
YAW

Strap-Down Inertial Navigation System


Figure 107

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2.50.8 Laser Ring Gyro (LRG) Operation

Laser Ring Gyros (LRG) are not in fact gyros, but sensors of angular rate of
rotation about a single axis. They are made of a triangular block of temperature
stable glass. Very small tunnels are precisely drilled parallel to the perimeter of
the triangle, and reflecting mirrors are placed in each corner. A small charge of
Helium-neon gas is inserted and sealed into an aperture in the glass at the base
of the triangle.

When a high voltage is run between the anodes and the cathode, the gas is
ionized, and two beams of light are generated, each travelling around the cavity
in opposite directions.

Since both contrarotating beams travel at the same speed (speed of light), it
takes the exact same time to complete a circuit. However, if the gyro were
rotated on its axis, the path length of one beam would be shortened, while the
other would be lengthened. A laser beam adjusts its wavelength for the length of
the path it travels, so the beam that travelled the shortest distance would rise in
frequency, while the beam that travelled the longer distance would have a
frequency decrease.

The frequency difference between the two beams is directly proportional to the
angular rate of turn about the gyros axis. Thus the frequency difference
becomes a measure of rotation rate. If the gyro doesnt move about its axis, both
frequencies remain the same and the angular rate is zero.

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Figure 108 shows a Laser Ring Gyro.

FRINGE
PATTERN

CORNER
PRISM

Laser Ring Gyro (LRG)


Figure 107

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2.50.9 Mode Select Unit (MSU)

The mode select unit controls the mode of operation of the IRS. There are two
types in common use:

1. Six Annunciator MSU.

2. Triple-Channel MSU.

The six-annunciator MSU provides mode selection, status indication and test
initiation for one Inertial Reference Unit (IRU). Figure 109 shows six-annunciator
MSU and Figure 110 shows a triple-channel MSU.

LASEREF NAV
ATT
ALIGN ALIGN FAULT
NAV RDY NO AIR
OFF
ON BATT BATT FAIL
TEST

IRS Six-Annunciator MSU


Figure 109

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NAV NAV NAV


ATT ATT ATT
ALIGN ALIGN ALIGN

OFF OFF OFF

SYS 1 SYS 2 SYS 3

ALIGN ALIGN ALIGN

ON BATT ON BATT ON BATT TEST

BATT FAIL BATT FAIL BATT FAIL

FAULT FAULT FAULT

IRS Triple-Channel MSU


Figure 110

2.50.10 Mode Select Unit Modes

IRS Modes or set by setting the MSU mode select switch as follows:

OFF-TO-ALIGN

The IRU enters the power-on/built-in test equipment (BITE) submode. When
BITE is complete after approximately 13 seconds, the IRU enters the alignment
mode. The IRU remains in the alignment mode until the mode select switch is set
to OFF, NAV or ATT. The NAV RDY annunciator illuminates upon completion of
the alignment.

OFF-TO-NAV

The IRU enters the power-on/built-in test equipment (BITE) submode. When
BITE is complete after approximately 13 seconds, the IRU enters the alignment
mode. Upon completion of the alignment mode the system enters the navigation
mode.

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ALIGN-TO-NAV

The IRU enters navigate mode from alignment mode upon completion of
alignment.

NAV-TO-ALIGN

The IRU enters the align downmode from the navigate mode.

NAV-TO-ALIGN-TO-NAV

The IRU enters the align downmode and after 30 seconds, automatically re-
enters the navigate mode.

ALIGN-TO-ATT or NAV-TO-ATT

The IRU enters the erect attitude submode for 20 seconds, during which the MSU
ALIGN annunciator illuminates. The IRU then enters the attitude mode.

2.50.11 MSU Annunciators

ALIGN Indicates that the IRU is in the alignment mode. A flashing ALIGN
annunciator indicates in-correct LAT/LONG entry, excessive aircraft movement
during align.

NAV RDY

Indicates that the alignment is complete.

FAULT

Indicates an IRS fault.

ON BATT

Indicates that the back-up battery power is being used.

BATT FAIL

Indicates that the back-up battery power is inadequate to sustain IRS operation
during back-up battery operation (less than 21 volts).

NO AIR

Indicates that cooling airflow is inadequate to cool the IRU.

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2.50.12 Inertial System Display Unit (ISDU)

The ISDU selects data from any one of three IRUs for display and provides initial
position or heading data to the IRUs. Figure 111 shows an ISDU.

Honeywell LASEREF

DSPL SEL
P/POS N
TK/GS WIND 1 3
2
HDG/STS
TEST
BRT W H E
4
1 5
N
36
2
S
SYS DSPL 7
W H E9
8
2 4 5 6
1 3
ENT CLR
S0
7 8
9
OFF

Inertial System Display Unit (ISDU)


Figure 111

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2.50.13 Keyboard

The keyboard is used to enter latitude and longitude in the alignment mode or
magnetic heading in the attitude mode. The ISDU then sends the entered data
simultaneously to all IRUs when ENT pressed.

The keyboard contains 12 keys, five of the 12 keys are dual function: N/2, W/4,
H/5,E/6 AND S/8. A dual function key is used to select either the type of data
(latitude, longitude or heading) or numerical data to be entered. Single function
keys are used to select only numerical data.

The CLR (clear) and ENT (enter) keys contain green cue lights which, when lit
indicate that the operator action is required. CLR is used to remove data
erroneously entered onto the display; ENT is used to send data to the IRU.

2.50.14 Display

The 13-digit alphanumeric spilt display shows two types of navigation data at the
same time. The display is separated into one group of 6 digits (position 1 through
6) and one group of 7 digits (positions 7 through 13). Punctuation marks (located
in positions 3,5,6,10,12,and 13) light when necessary to indicate degrees,
decimal points, and minutes.

2.50.15 System Display Switch (SYS DSPL)

The SYS DSPL switch is used to select the IRU (position 1,2 or 3) from which the
displayed data originates. If the switch is set to OFF, the ISDU cannot send or
receive data from any of the 3 IRUs.

2.50.16 Display Selector Switch (DSPL SEL)

The DSPL SEL switch has five positions to select data displayed on the ISDU.

TEST Selects a display test that illuminates all display elements and keyboard
cue lights to allow inspection for possible malfunctions. The DSPL SEL switch is
spring loaded and must be help in this position.

TK/GS Selects track angle in degrees on the left display and ground speed in
knots on the right.

PPOS Selects the aircrafts present position as latitude on the left display and
longitude on the right. Both latitude and longitude are displayed in degrees,
minutes, and tenths of a minute.

WIND Selects wind direction in degrees on the left display and wind speed in
knots on the right display.

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HDG/STS Selects heading or alignment status for display, depending upon the
current IRU mode. Heading is displayed in degrees and tenths of degrees, and
time-to-alignment completion is displayed in minutes and tenths of minutes. In
the alignment mode, the ISDU displays alignment status (time to NAV ready) in
the right display. In the NAV mode, the ISDU displays true heading in the left
display. In the attitude mode, the ISDU displays magnetic heading in the left
display and ATT in the right display.

2.50.17 Dimmer Knob

The dimmer knob is mounted on, on operates independently of, the DSPL SEL
switch. As the dimmer knob is rotated clockwise, the display brightens.

2.50.18 Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)

The IRU is the main electronic assembly of the IRS. The IRU contains an inertial
sensor assembly, microprocessors, and power supplies and aircraft electronic
interface. Accelerometers and LRG in the inertial sensor assembly measure
acceleration and angular rates of the aircraft.

The IRU microprocessors performs computations required for:

1.Primary Attitude.

2.Present Position.

3.Inertial Velocity Vectors.

4.Magnetic and True North Reference.

5.Sensor Error Compensation.

The power supplies receive a.c. and d.c. power from the aircraft and back-up
battery. It supplies power to the IRS, and provides switching to primary a.c. and
d.c. or backup battery power

The aircraft electronic interface converts ARINC inputs for use by the IRS. The
electronic interface also provides IRS outputs in ARINC formats for use by
associated aircraft equipment.

A fault ball indicator and a manual Interface Test switch are mounted on the
front of the IRU and are visible when the IRU is mounted in an avionics rack.

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Figure 112 shows an IRU

Inertial Reference Unit

INTERFACE
TEST

Inertial Reference Unit


Figure 112

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2.50.19 IRS Alignment Mode

During alignment the inertial reference system determines the local vertical and
the direction of true north.

2.50.20 Gyro Compass Process

Inside the inertial reference unit, the three gyros sense angular rate of the aircraft.
Since the aircraft is stationary during alignment, the angular rate is due to earth
rotation. The IRU computer uses this angular rate to determine the direction of
true north.

2.50.21 Initial Latitude

During the alignment period, the IRU computer has determined true north by
sensing the direction of the earths rotation. The magnitude of the earth rotation
vector allows the IRU computer to estimate latitude of the initial present position.
This calculated latitude is compared with the latitude entered by the operator
during initialization.

2.50.22 Alignment Mode

For the IRU to enter ALIGN mode, the mode select switch is set to either the
ALIGN or NAV position. The systems software performs a vertical levelling and
determines aircraft true heading and latitude.

The levelling operations bring the pitch and roll attitudes to within 1 accuracy
(course levelling), followed by fine levelling and heading determination. Initial
latitude and longitude data must be entered manually either via the IRS CDU or
the Flight Management System CDU.

Upon ALIGN completion, the IRS will enter NAV mode automatically if the mode
select switch was set to NAV during align. If the mode select switch was set to
ALIGN, the system will remain in align until NAV mode is selected. The
alignment time is approximately 10 minutes.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11 Page 2-147


Honeywell LASEREF

Page 2-148
Inertial Reference Unit

DSPL SEL
P/POS N
TK/GS WIND 1 3
2
HDG/STS
A TEST
BRT W H E
4 N
5 6
INTERFACE
1 2 3
I TEST
S
SYS DSPL 7
W H E9
8
2 4 5 6
R 1 3
ENT CLR
S
0
OFF
7 8 9
C IRU 2
R
A INERTIAL SYSTEM
F Inertial Reference Unit
DISPLAY UNIT
T

S
INTERFACE
PART 2

TEST

Figure 113
Y
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,

IRS Block Schematic


MODULE 11 BOOK 2
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

T IRU 3 NAV NAV NAV


STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

ATT ATT ATT


ALIGN ALIGN ALIGN
E
OFF OFF OFF
M
Inertial Reference Unit SYS 1 SYS 2 SYS 3

S ALIGN ALIGN ALIGN

ON BATT ON BATT ON BATT TEST


Figure 113 shows a block schematic of a three IRU inertial system.

BATT FAIL BATT FAIL BATT FAIL

FAULT FAULT FAULT


INTERFACE
TEST

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Figure 114 shows a block schematic of the interface of the IRS with the aircrafts
avionics systems.

COMPUTERS
CONTROL

DAMPER
FLIGHT

YAW

MANAGEMENT
COMPUTER
THRUST
PROXIMITY
WARNING
GROUND
MANAGEMENT

REFERENCE
COMPUTER

INERTIAL
FLIGHT

PANEL
MODE
UNIT

IR
WEATHER
RADAR

COMPUTER
AUTOBRAKE

ACQN UNIT
AIR DATA
ANTI-SKID

FLIGHT
SYSTEM

DATA
EHSI/EADI

RDMI
VSI

IRS Interface Block Schematic


Figure 114

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2.51 RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI)

The radio magnetic indicator is a very useful navigation tool due to its ability to
display several different pieces of information simultaneously. Primarily, the
circular rotating 'card' is a self- correcting compass which is much more accurate
that the older, floating magnet type of compass. Secondly, the displays from the
ADF or VOR units can be displayed on top of the card, using two pointers, one
single and one double. This allows the pilot to see, in one instrument, his
heading and the orientation of up to two ground stations, relative to the aircraft,
using two different navigation systems. Figure 115 shows an RMI display and
aircraft position with respect to an ADF and VOR station.

AIRCRAFT HEADING
MAGNETIC NORTH
BEARING TO
VOR 2
BEACON

BEARING TO
ADF 1
BEACON

N
33 3
30

6
W

A A
24

12

D D
F 21 15 F
S

VOR VOR

RMI Display
Figure 115

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2.51.1 Dual Distance Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI)

The Dual-Distance Radio-Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) is an instrument that gives


indications for various navigation systems:

1. Magnetic heading from Compass system.

2. Bearings from VORs or ADFs.

3. Distances from the DMEs.

2.51.2 DDRMI Principle

Figure 116 shows the principle operation of the DDRMI system.

VOR NO 2
NM

BEARING TO
.5
75

VOR NO 2 = 30
=
CE
AN
IST
ED
DM

65.5 NM
TANCE =
DME DIS

BEARING TO VOR NO 1
VOR NO 1 = 87

DDRMI Operation
Figure 116

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Figure 111 shows a DDRMI indications resulting from the situation in figure 117.

65.5 75.5
DME - 1 DME - 2

N 3
33
30

6
W

V V
24

12

O O
R 15 R
21 S

ADF ADF

DDRMI Indication
Figure 117

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Figure 118 shows a block schematic of the DDRMI system and the source of all
displayed data.

DDRMI
F/OS
SYSTEM

COMPASS
SYSTEM
DME

NO 2

NO 1
SYSTEM

SYSTEM
VOR

NO 2

NO 2
ADF
SYSTEM

SYSTEM
VOR

NO 1

NO 1
ADF
COMPASS
SYSTEM
SYSTEM

NO2
DME

NO 1

CAPTS
DDRMI

DDRMI Schematic
Figure 118

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2.52 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

GPS is a space based radio navigation system, which provides worldwide, highly
accurate three-dimensional position, velocity and time information. The overall
system is divided into three parts.

1.Space Segment.

2.Control Segment.

3.User Segment.

2.52.1 Space Segment

Consists of 24 satellites (21 active + 3 spare), in six orbital planes with 4 satellites
in each orbit. They are orbiting the earth every 12 hours at an approximate
altitude of between 11,000nm 12,500nm. The orbits are such that a minimum
of 6 satellites are in view from any point on the earth. This provides redundancy,
as only 4 satellites are required for three-dimensional position. Figure 119 shows
the Space Segment.

GPS Space Segment


Figure 119

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2.52.2 Control Segment

This is a ground station that controls all satellites and is made up of:

1. Master Control Station.

2. Monitor Stations.

The Master Control Station is located at Colorado, USA, and is responsible for
processing satellite-tracking information received from the five Monitor Stations.
The Control Segments monitor the total system performance, corrects satellite
position and re-calibrates the on-board atomic time standards as necessary. The
Monitor Stations are located to provide continuous "ground" visibility of every
satellite. Three of the five monitor stations have ground antennas, which are
used to upload data to the satellites. Figure 120 shows the location of the Control
Segment.

COLORADO
SPRINGS

HAWAII

KWAJALIEN

ASCENSION

DIEGO
GARCIA

MASTER CONTROL MONITOR STATION GROUND ANTENNA

GPS Control Segment


Figure 120

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2.52.3 Operation

GPS operates by measuring the time it takes a signal to travel from a satellite to a
receiver on-board the aircraft. This time is multiplied by the speed of light to
obtain the distance measurement. This distance results in a Line Of Position
(LOP). Figure 121 shows GPS LOP.

LINE OF
POSITION
(LOP)

GPS Line of Sight (LOP)


Figure 121

The satellites transmit a signal pattern, which is computer generated, in a


repeatable random code. The receiver on the aircraft also generates the same
code and the first step in the process of using GPS data is to synchronies these
two codes. The receiver will receive the LOPs from three different satellites and
uses this information to establish synchronization. The receiver is programmed
to receive signals that intersect the same point, if they dont, then the two codes
are not synchronized. The receiver will now add or subtract time from its code to
establish the LOPs intersecting the same point and thus synchronize its code with
the one from the satellite.

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Figure 122 shows the principle of code synchronisation.

R EC EIV ER C OD E N OT
SY NC H R ON ISE D
W IT H T HE SA T ELL IT E CO DE
W ILL GIV E T W O/T H R EE
PO SSI BLE POS IT ION S

R EC EIV ER AD D S/ SU BT R AC T S
T IM E F R OM I TS C OD E T O
ES T ABL ISH T H E LOP S
IN T ER SE CT I NG T H E SA ME PO IN T

Code Synchronisation
Figure 122

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2.52.4 Signal Structure

GPS satellites transmit on 2 frequencies in 2 modes in the UHF band. The 2


modes are:

1. Precision Mode (P).

2. Coarse/Acquisition Mode (C/A).

The P code is for military use only. Both codes transmit signals in a "Pseudo
Random Code" at a certain rate.

2.52.5 Time Measurements

Once the GPS receiver has synchronized with the satellite code, it can then
measure the elapsed time since transmission by comparing the phase shift
between the two codes. The larger the phase shift, the longer the length of time
since transmission. The length of time since transmission times the speed of light
equals distance.

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Figure 123 shows code synchronization and time measurements.

SIGNAL RECEIVED
FROM SATELLITE
SIGNAL TRANSMITTED
FROM SATELLITE

TIME DELAY = RANGE

Code synchronization and Time measurement


Figure 123

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2.52.6 Position Fixing

If we know our distance from a specific point in space (satellite), then it follows
that we are located somewhere on the surface of a sphere, with its radius of that
distance. The addition of a second satellite and a second distance measurement
further refines the position calculation as the two LOPs intersect each other. The
addition of a third distance measurement from a third satellite further refines the
position calculation as we now have three LOPs intersecting at a specific point in
space. This point in space represents the distance measured between the
aircraft and the three satellites. Figure 124 shows the process of position fixing.

AIRCRAFTS
VERTICAL
POSITION

AIRCRAFTS
HORIZONTAL
POSITION

GPS Position Fixing


Figure 124

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2.52.7 Ionospheric Propagation Error

The ionosphere refracts UHF satellite transmission in the same way it refracts
VLF, L.MF and HF transmissions, only to a lesser degree. Since a refracted
signal has a greater distance to travel than a straight signal, it will arrive later in
time, causing an error in the distance measurement. The ionosphere refracts
signals in an amount inversely proportional to the square of their frequencies.
This means that the higher the frequency, the less the refraction and hence the
less error induced in the distance measurement.

Since the GPS satellites transmit two different UHF frequencies (1575.42 MHz
and 1227.60 MHz), each frequency will be affected by the ionosphere differently.
By comparing the phase shift between the two frequencies, the amount of
ionosphere distortion can be measured directly. By knowing the amount of
distortion that is induced, the exact correction factor can be entered into the
computer and effectively cancel ionosphere propagation error. Figure 125 shows
the principle of Ionospheric Propagation Errors.

Ionospheric Propagation Errors


Figure 125

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2.52.8 Derived Information

Although the GPS is primarily a position determining system, it is possible to


derive certain data by taking into account the change in position over time.
Actual track can be obtained by looking at several position fixes. Ground speed
can be calculated by measuring the distance between two fixes. Drift angle can
be obtained by comparing the aircrafts heading, with the actual track of the
aircraft. GPS is able to produce all the derived data commonly associated with
existing long-range navigation systems such as INS.

2.52.9 Navigation Management

A typical GPS provides Great Circle navigation from its present Position direct to
any waypoint or via a prescribed flight plan. When necessary, a new route can
be quickly programmed in flight.

Up to 999 waypoints and up to 56 flight plans are retained by the GNS-X when
power is turned off or interrupted. Selection of waypoints or of the leg to be flown
is not necessary to determine aircraft position; however, when these are
provided, the GNS-X computes and displays on the Colour Control Display Unit
all pertinent navigation data including:

Greenwich Date and Mean Time. Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA).


Present Position Coordinates. Wind Direction and Speed.
Magnetic Variation. Desired Track.
Stored Waypoint Coordinates. Drift Angle.
Stored Flight Plans. Ground Speed.
Departure Time/Time at last Waypoint. Track Angle.
Bearing to Waypoint. Crosstrack Distance.
Distance to Waypoint. HSI/CDI/RMI Course Display.
Estimated Time to Waypoint (ETE).

The computer determines the composite position based on sensor


position/velocity. Plotting multiple moving position points allows determination of
Track Angle and the rate of change of position equals groundspeed. Drift Angle
becomes available with the Heading input, and with a True Airspeed (TAS) input
allows calculation of the Wind direction and speed.

The computer is constantly processing all available inputs. The displays of


Present Position, Distance-to-Go, and Crosstrack as well as the displays of Track
Angle, Drift Angle, Groundspeed, Wind, and Estimated Time Enroute are updated
at periodic intervals.

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Figure 126 shows the block schematic of a GNS-X system.

GP S
A N TE N NA
E FIS

N AV I G A TIO N
A DC PR OC ESSOR A UT O P IL O T
U NI T

C OM PA SS
A UT O P IL O T
M O D E S E L E CT

M U LT IF U N C T I O N
C O N TR O L
D IS P L A Y U N IT

D EP
R TE LE GS ARR H OLD PR OG VN A V A TC

T IT L E F IEL D

L EF T R IGH T
F IE LD F IE LD

SC R A T CH PA D

BRT
D IM
C LR / PR E V N EX T M EN U D A TA EX EC

1 2 3 A B C D E F G

4 5 6 H I J K L M N

7 8 9 O P Q R S T U
+
0 / V W X Y Z SP

GNS-X CONTROL & DISPLY UNIT

GNS-X System
Figure 126

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2.52.10 Boeing 777 GPS

The Boeing 777 has two independent GPS, which are used to calculate the
following:

1. Aircrafts Latitude.

2. Aircrafts Longitude.

3. Aircrafts Altitude.

4. Aircrafts Groundspeed.

5. Accurate Time.

Figure 127 shows the system layout.

LEFT GPS RIGHT GPS


SENSOR UNIT SENSOR UNIT

LEFT GPS
ANTENNA
GPWC RIGHT GPS
ANTENNA

CHR DATE

AIR DATA 60
DAY. MON . YR
INERTIAL 50 23 : 59 10
REFERENCE GMT
DIGITAL
UNIT ET/CHR
CLOCK X2 45
ADIRU X 3 99 : 59 20

RUN 30 RUN
HLD HLD
ET
SS MT
G
M

RESET FS D

629 DATA BUS X 3


AIMS CABINET X 2

Boeing 777 GPS


Figure 127

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The two sensor units receive GPS satellite signals from their respective antennas
and calculate the aircrafts position and accurate time. This data is sent to the
Aircraft Information Management System (AIMS) cabinets and the Ground
Proximity Warning Computer (GPWC). The Flight Management Computing
system uses the AIMS GPS data to calculate the aircrafts position for use in its
navigation calculations.

The AIMS cabinets also send GPS data to the Air Data Inertial Reference Units
(ADIRU) which is used to calibrate the inertial sensors, thus decreasing any
inertial reference drift.

GPS time goes to the Universal Time Co-ordinated function (UTCF) within the
AIMS, the AIMS also outputs time data to the flight deck clocks.

2.52.11 GPS Modes of Operation

The Boeing 777 GPS operates in the following modes:

1. Acquisition Mode.

2. Navigation Mode.

3. Altitude Aided Mode.

4. Aided Mode.

2.52.12 Acquisition Mode

The GPS sensor units look for and lock onto the satellite signals. The sensors
must find at least 4 satellites before it can start to calculate GPS data. Whilst the
sensor is in the acquisition mode, itreceives the following data from the Flight
Management system:

1. Aircrafts Present Position.

2. Aircrafts Velocity.

3. Time & Date.

The GPS sensor unit uses this data to calculate which satellites are available at
the current aircrafts position, allowing the sensor unit to receive the signals from
those satellites available and which ones may be used for navigation calculations.

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2.52.13 Navigation Mode

Once the GPS sensor has acquired and locked onto at least 4 satellites it will
enter the navigation mode. In this mode the sensor unit it will compute the GPAS
data. If during the Navigation mode the GPS accuracy is not within 16NM of the
actual aircrafts position, the sensor output will go into None Computed Data
(NCD).

2.52.14 Altitude Aided Mode

With 4 satellites available, the GPS sensor stores the difference between the Air
Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) altitude and the GPS altitude. When the
GPS sensor is only receiving signals from 3 satellites, it will use this stored data
so that it can estimate the GPS altitude. During this phase the GPS sensor will
use the aircrafts altitude from the ADIRU and the length of the earths radius as
the fourth range required for GPS altitude calculations. Figure 128 shows the
Altitude Aided Mode.

Altitude Aided Mode


Figure 128

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2.52.15 Aided Mode

The GPS sensor enters the Aided Mode during short periods (Less than 30
seconds) of bad satellite coverage. An example of bad satellite coverage is poor
satellite geometry, where at least 4 satellites are available but they are not spread
out far enough so the GPS sensor unit can make an accurate position fix.

In the aided mode, the GPS sensor unit receives altitude, heading and
groundspeed from the Flight Management System (FMS). The GPS sensor unit
uses this data to go back into Navigation mode when there is good satellite
coverage again. During the Aided Mode the GPS sensor unit output is once
again Non Computed Data (NCD)

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Figure 129 shows the Boeing 777 GPS modes of operation.

YES
COVERAGE?

NO

AVAIL?
SATS
BAD
SAT

ARE
4
A

C
YES

YES

NO
ALTITUDE AIDED
PASSED?
NO
AVAIL?
SATS
AIDED
MODE

MODE
ARE

SEC
30
4

NO

YES
YES
A
ACQUISITION

COVERAGE?
NAVIGATION
POWER-UP

YES
AVAIL?

ONLY 3

AVAIL?
THERE
MODE
MODE

SATS

SATS
BAD
SAT
ARE

ARE
4

NO
C

NO
NO
B

GPS Modes of Operation


Figure 129

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2.52.16 Receiver Autonomous Integrity (RAIM)

The purpose of the RAIM is to monitor the status of the satellites that the GPS
sensor unit is using for its navigation calculations. The output of the RAIM
function is an estimate of the GPS position error. The RAIM value goes to the
Flight Management System (FMS) and is used by the FMS to determine if the
GPS data can be used for navigation. Figure 130 shows the operation of RAIM.

5
SATELLITE 2
CURRENTLY
MONITORED

4
3

RAIM Operation
Figure 130

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2.52.17 Differential GPS

The accuracy of the GPS is typically 15 25 metres in 95% of the position fixes
available. The USA Department of Defence degrades this accuracy for security
reasons to 100 metres in 95% of the position fixes. However, this error can be
further reduced to almost zero by the use of Differential GPS.

If GPS receivers are placed on the ground in known locations (Latitude


Longitude), the exact errors of the GPS satellites can then be calculated by
comparing the known position of the receivers against the GPS satellites
calculated position. This error is then transmitted to other receivers who use it to
correct the GPS errors and thus have a more accurate position fix. Figure 131
shows the operation of differential GPS.

ERROR CALCULATION

ERROR TRANSMISSION

Differential GPS
Figure 131

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2.53 COMPASS SYSTEMS

2.53.1 Direct Reading Compass

This type of compass comprises a magnet system in a liquid filled bowl. In this
type the compass card is attached to single angular cobalt steel magnet which is
suspended in a sapphire cup by an iridium tipped pivot. Figure 132 shows a
common type of direct reading compass.

MOUNTING
PLATE
HORIZONTAL
(B & C)
CORRECTORS

FILLER
PLUG

BELLOWS

BOWL

STEM & BRACKET MAGNET


ASSEMBLY SYSTEM

Direct Reading Compass


Figure 132

Damping is achieved by filling the compass bowl with a mineral liquid or alcohol,
which has a low viscosity, low freezing point, high resistance to corrosion and
does not discolour. The compass is also given buoyancy by the liquid and this
reduces wear on the pivots. The compass liquid expands and retracts with
changes in temperature and this has undesirable effects. To compensate for this,
a bellows or corrugated diaphragm is fitted.

Note: B and C correctors are for East-West, North-South errors respectively.

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On some modern aircraft the direct reading compass is stowed on the center
windscreen strut, only being used in an emergency. They also have to have
some sort of lighting; this lighting is operated by dc and does not effect the
compass operation. Figure 134 shows two types of compass fitted to modern
aircraft.

FIXED
COMPASS

HINGED
COMPASS

Direct reading Compass


Figure 134

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2.53.2 Remote Reading Compass (Magnet Gyro)

The (magnetic gyro) compass system provides the flight crew with magnetic
heading information. A compass card in the radio magnetic indicators (RMI's) on
the instrument panel displays the heading, which must be read against a
reference point or a lubber line.

The compass heading is controlled by a directional gyro, which has a stable


direction. For proper orientation of the system with the earths magnetic field and
to correct for gyro drift, a flux valve is used. The flux valve senses the direction of
the earth magnetic field. Figure 135 shows the layout of a basic system.

115v 400 Hz

B C

+ _ + _

N 3
33
0

6
W 3

A A
24

12

D D
F 21 15 F
S

VOR VOR

SLAVED

DG SYNC
VOR/ADF

Remote Reading Compass System


Figure 135

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2.53.3 Flux valve (Detector Unit)

A flux valve, or detector unit, senses the angle of the horizontal component of the
Earth's magnetic field with respect to the aircraft's heading, and gives a long-term
stable signal to monitor the gyro controlled master shaft. The detector unit can
best be described as a North sensing device which is capable of detecting the
direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's field and transmitting it to
other components. It is similar to a CX in a synchro control system.

Figure 136 shows a Detector Unit and internal circuit.

SIDE
VIEW

LAMINATED
COLLECTOR A
HORNS
A
AC POWER

EXCITER B
COIL

C B
TOP SECONDARY
C
VIEW PICK-OFF
COILS

DETECTOR UNIT CIRCUIT

Flux Valve Construction


Figure 136

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2.53.4 Control Panel

The control panel consists of the following:

1. Synchronisation Annunciator.

2. Synchronisation Knob.

3. Slaved/DG Switch.

2.53.5 Synchronisation Annunciator

This indicates the synchronisation between the DU heading and the gyro
heading. If there is a discrepancy between the two headings then the indicator
will show either a DOT or a CROSS.

2.53.6 Synchronisation Knob

This allows for manual synchronisation of the DU/gyro headings. The


Synchronisation Knob has two directions (DOT & CROSS), moving the
synchronisation knob in the direction indicated by the synchronisation indicator
will ensure the system will indicate the correct heading.

2.53.7 Slaved/DG Switch

The compass systems normal operation mode is the slaved mode, where the
DU/gyro headings are slaved together (DU will precess the gyro when an error
occurs between the two detected headings. In the DG mode, the DU is removed
from the system and the compass operates as a Directional Gyro. This mode is
used more in maintenance when aircraft heading is required. If used in flight
there is a possibility that the heading indication will drift due to gyro drift.

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Figure 137 shows the Compass Control Panel.

SYNCHRONISATION
SLAVED/DG ANNUNCIATOR
SWITCH

COMPASS

DG

HDG
SLEW

COMPASS
SLAVE

SLAVED

SYNCHRONISATION
SWITCH

Compass Control Panel


Figure 137

The synchro transmitters in the RMI and in the directional gyro unit are used to
"transmit" the heading information to the following systems:

1. Autopilot.

2. Flight director system (if installed).

3. Horizontal situation indicators (HSI's).

4. Flight data recorder system (if installed).

5. VHF NAV receivers.

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2.53.8 System Test

Three items can be tested in the compass system:

The sensitivity of the cross-dot annunciator. When the card is moved 5 away
from the synchronised position with the manual synchronisation knob the cross or
the dot must be completely visible.

The slaving speed when the card is moved 10 away from the synchronised
position the automatic slaving system should move the card to the synchronised
position within 10 minutes (min. slaving speed 1/min).

The directional gyro drift with the slaving cut-out switch in DG the gyro drift should
not exceed (3.75 x sine attitude + 1.75 per 15 minutes).

2.53.9 Gyro Unit

The basic element of this compass system is a directional gyro. When the
system is supplied with 115-V AC the gyro starts to rotate and becomes a stable
element, which means that its direction (heading) in space is fixed.

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2.53.10 Servo System

A servo loop between the gyro and the compass card in the RMI ensures that any
change of aircraft heading causes a corresponding rotation of the compass card,
but in the opposite direction. The servo loop comprises a synchro transmitter
(Tx), a control transformer (CT), a servo amplifier and a servomotor.

The rotor of the synchro transmitter points in the same direction as the gyro.

The error signal is applied via the servo amplifier to the motor. The motor in its
turn drives the compass card and the rotor of the control transformer. When the
latter rotates, the error signal reduces to zero and the motor stops rotating.

The rotor is powered with a 400-Hz signal, which causes a 400-Hz magnetic field.
This magnetic field produces 3 voltages in the stator windings of the synchro
transmitter. The 3 voltages in the control transformer cause a resulting magnetic
field.

The rotor of the control transformer produces an error signal any time the rotor of
the control transformer is not perpendicular with the direction of the resulting
magnetic field.

The error signal is applied via the servo amplifier to the motor. The motor in its
turn drives the compass card and the rotor of the control transformer. When the
latter rotates, the error signal reduces to zero and the motor stops rotating.

If the aircraft changes heading, the direction of the 400-Hz magnetic field in the
synchro transmitter changes with respect of the stator windings and therefore the
direction of the resulting magnetic field in the control transformer changes too.
An error signal is now present and after amplification the "heading" of the
compass card and the rotor of the control transformer changes accordingly and
the compass card reads the new aircraft heading.

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Figure 138 shows the Compass System Schematic.

26V AC

INNER
400 Hz

RING
CX

GYRO

OUTER
RING
GYRO CASE

TORQUE
MOTOR
TM
GENERATOR
TACHO
TG

COMPASS
ANNUNCIATOR

CARD
VELOCITY FEEDBACK

M
SERVO

HEADING SHAFT
AMP

SLAVING
AMP

EXCITATION
(AC)
DU
CT

CT

(FLUX VALVE)
DETECTOR
UNIT
SYNCH
KNOB

Compass System Schematic


Figure 138

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2.53.11 Slaving loop

To obtain a common reference for all aircraft, use is made of the earth magnetic
field the direction of which is detected by a flux valve. A second control
transformer in the RMI compares the compass card reading with the direction of
the earth magnetic field.

Any difference between these two causes an error signal at the output of the rotor
of the control transformer. The error signal is amplified in a slaving amplifier and
this signal drives a torque motor in the directional gyro unit. The torque motor
changes the position of the stable element and of the rotor of the synchro
transmitter. As described for the servo loop, the compass card and rotors of both
control transformers rotate accordingly until the error signals have been reduced
to zero.

The amplified error signal at the output of the slaving amplifier also drives a
cross-dot annunciator. Either a cross or a dot indicates any unsynchronised
condition of the compass system. The cross-dot annunciator can be used to
manually synchronise the compass system by turning the manual synchronising
knob on the control panel in the cross or dot direction until the cross or dot has
disappeared.

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2.54 RADIO ALTIMETER

Radio altimeters are carried in virtually all aircraft outside the general aviation
sector. The outputs from the system play a vital role in the operation of automatic
landing and ground proximity warning systems. Because the radio altimeter
comes into play at a critical part of the flight, when the aircraft is close to the
ground, the serviceability and accuracy are perhaps more important than with any
other radio system.

Barometric altitude is the altitude of the aircraft as a function of change in air


pressure. Since it involves a measure of the change in pressure it is the altitude
of the aircraft above the level at which a certain air pressure exists. For aircraft
flying above about 3000 feet the usual reference pressure is 1013.25 millibars
(mb) or 29.92 inches of mercury (in Hg). This is known as the mean sea level
(msl) pressure. The actual pressure at sea level is unlikely to be exactly 1013.25
mb; hence the altimeter will not be reading the aircraft's height above sea level,
let alone the ground.

Radio altitude, on the other hand, is always the height above the ground
regardless of air pressure or indeed the terrain the aircraft is flying over. It follows
that radio altitude is more useful at low levels, in particular when in the landing
phase or to give ground collision warning.

2.54.1 Basic Principles

Radio altimeters are primary radar systems that transmit RF energy and time how
long it takes before an echo is received.

The radio altimeter target is always the ground immediately below the aircraft.
The transmitted beam is broadly directional, pointing straight down, so for
moderate bank and pitch angles part of the beam will be vertical. Figure 139
illustrates the idea showing dual aerial working.

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MODULATOR BEAT FREQUENCY


COUNTER

INDICATOR

TRANSMITTER RECEIVER/MIXER

Radio Altimeter Operation


Figure 139

The system transmits a continuous wave, constant amplitude; frequency


modulated carrier at 4,300 MHz. The depth of modulation is 50 MHz, so the
transmission is continuously varied between 4,250 MHz and 4,350 MHz. With an
aircraft flying over the ground, there is a difference in the frequency of the
reflected signals seen by the receiver and the transmitted frequency at the same
instant. This difference is due to the distance the radio wave has had to travel
from the transmitter antenna to the ground and back to the receiver antenna.

For each foot of transmitted distance, there is a frequency change of


approximately 10 cycles. Since the transmission must travel to the ground and
back again to the receiver, the frequency change per foot of aircraft altitude is
approximately 20 cycles. For example, if the aircraft is 1,000ft above the ground,
there will be 20,000 cycles of frequency difference between the transmitter
frequency and the received frequency.

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In the receiver mixer, the transmitted and received frequencies are mixed and the
beat frequency (difference) is counted in the counter. The beat counter converts
the frequency difference to an analog dc voltage whose amplitude is a function of
aircraft altitude above the ground. A servo system in the indicator drives the
indication to a position corresponding to the amplitude of the dc voltage received
from the beat counter.

Figure 140 shows two types of indicator used.

DIAL
INDICATOR

RIBBON
INDICATOR

Radio Altimeters
Figure 140

On the ribbon type indicator, the aircraft reference symbol remains fixed in the
centre while the tape is driven behind it. Different tape colours are used to give
an instant indication of the approximate height. The flag, when activated, partially
obscures the aircraft symbol.

A manually set altitude trip (decision height) is provided. By means of a DH Index


control a marker or bug can be set to any desired height. If the aircraft is flying
below the DH bug setting the DH lamp will be illuminated to give a warning.

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2.54.2 Radio Altimeter Antenna

The antennas are so designed so that as long as the roll angle does not exceed
30, and the pitch attitude is not more than 20, the altitude indication remains
correct. If these limits are exceeded, then the altitude indications would be
excessive. These high values would not be maintained very long, so do not
present a problem. Figure 141 shows the effects of aircraft roll on the operation
of the Radio Altimeter system.

FAN BEAM
30 30
TRANSMISSION
SHORTEST
RETURN PATH

30

SHORTEST
RETURN PATH

Roll Angle Effect on Radio Altimeter System


Figure 141

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Radio Altimeter systems are called Low Range because they are not intended
to operate at aircraft altitudes above the ground greater than 2,500ft. It is used
mostly during final approach. When making a CAT II approach, the radio
altimeter notifies the crew when the aircraft is 100 feet above the extended
runway. This is the point at which the flight crew must be able to see the runway
to land and is called the Decision Height. The decision height may be selected
above 100ft as required.

Figure 142 shows a Radio Altimeter antenna and its location.

TX
ANTENNAS
RX
ANTENNAS
HORN ANTENNA

Radio Altimeter Antenna & Location


Figure 142

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2.54.3 Testing

The Radio Altimeter system may be tested from the transceiver or other areas
depending on aircraft type. When the test switch on the transmitter/receiver is
operated, the integral test lights are tested. A test altitude of 40 ft is given and
lights displayed, 'SYS OK' for serviceable, 'RT' or 'ANT' for a fault, give test
results. Figure 143 shows a radio Altimeter Transceiver.

TEST

SYSTEM OK

R/T UNIT

ANT

IND

Radio Altimeter Transceiver


Figure 143

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2.55 WEATHER RADAR

Weather Radar is designed to detect turbulent conditions so as to allow the pilot


to avoid areas, which could cause an uncomfortable flight for the passengers and
even the possibility of structural damage to the aircraft. At present there is no
direct method of detecting turbulence. The Weather Radar, therefore, relies on
detecting the conditions associated with turbulence. A vast amount of water
exists in the air in one of three forms: vapour, liquid or solid, the form taken
depending, most importantly, on the temperature, and the number of microscopic
particles in the air.

Calm conditions mean that the water droplets in the air are very small and float
gently around, their weight being balanced by air resistance so that they do not
fall to the ground. In turbulent conditions the water droplets or ice particles are
thrown around, collide and stick together. Eventually they become large and
heavy enough to fall to earth.

The more violent the turbulence the larger the droplets will become before falling,
particularly so where there is an updraft of air. If a water droplet is large enough
it will scatter incident electro-magnetic waves, with some of the scattered energy
being in the direction of the transmitter-receiver.

Primary radar, therefore, can be used to detect water droplets and ice particles.
The smaller the wavelength of the incident waves the smaller the water droplets
that will scatter energy.

This also applies to ice particles but the situation is complicated by the form of the
ice i.e.: snowflakes, hailstones or sleet. The larger the droplet, the more energy
is scattered and a cloud mass with large droplets will give rise to strong signals.
Strong signals from a cloud, therefore, suggest turbulent conditions.
Sometimes strong signals are received from one region of a cloud and small
signals from an adjacent region. In this case a high rainfall gradient exists with
strong clearly defined updrafts in the region of the strong signals.

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Figure 144 shows the operation of weather radar.

RFLECTED
ENERGY

SCAN ANGLE
TRANSMITTED
ENERGY
SELECTED
RANGE

Weather Radar Operation


Figure 144

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The part of a cloud, which gives the strong radar returns, is known as the storm
cell. The closer the storm cell is to the edge of the detected cloud, the higher the
rainfall gradient and the worse the conditions are likely to be.

The function of Weather Radar is to detect and display conditions involving storm
cells and rainfall gradients in such a way as to allow the operator to assess the
probability of turbulence associated with such conditions. Figure 145 shows a
typical weather radar scanner.

AZIMUTH
REFLECTOR GEAR

ELEVATION
GEAR
AERIAL

GIMBAL

WAVEGUIDE

Weather Radar Scanner


Figure 145

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2.55.1 Principle Of Operation

The radar antenna is installed in the nose of the aircraft behind a radome. The
radar transmitter/receiver transmits high-energy pulses via the antenna to the
area in front of the aircraft. The weather radar system moves the antenna from
the left to the right and back again so pulses are transmitted in a wide area in
front of the aircraft.

The weather circumstances in front of the aircraft (rain density in the clouds)
reflect the transmitted pulses back to the weather radar system. The weather
radar antenna receives the reflected pulses. The weather radar receiver converts
the received pulses into a picture, which represents the weather circumstances.

To produce this picture the weather radar system makes use of:

The strength of the reflected pulses which depends on the amount of rain in the
clouds. (The weather radar system converts the strength of the reflected pulses
into a colour).

The time delay between the transmission and reception of the pulses. (The
weather radar system converts the time delay into the distance between the
aircraft and the weather circumstances).

The azimuth angle of the antenna. (The weather radar system uses the azimuth
angle of the antenna to position the weather information on the display.

A secondary function of the weather radar system is to show a ground terrain


map of the area ahead of the aircraft. Therefore the crew tilts the antenna down
with help of the tilt knob on the weather radar control panel. Because the cloud
returns are different from the ground returns the weather radar system is
switched over to the MAP mode for the correct interpretation of the ground
returns.

The radar must display three things: the range, the bearing and the signal
intensity of the cloud.

The display device best suited to showing all three of the above in an easily
assimilated form is the cathode ray tube (CRT) used as a plan position indicator
(PPI).

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 146 shows a typical weather radar display unit.

GAIN TILT
UP
SB/T WX WX/T RCT GCR MAP
DWN
MIN MAX

VAR 10 20 40 80 160 320 SEC

DISPLAY MARKER

OFF MAX OFF MAX

FRZ FRZ

LEFT RIGHT

INOP ALRT

Weather Radar Display Unit


Figure 146

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2.55.2 Scanner Stabilization

As the aircraft pitches and rolls, the scanner will also pitch and roll. The weather
radar is designed to scan directly in front of the aircraft, so as the aircraft pitches
and roll; the scanner must pitch and roll in the opposite direction to that of the
aircraft. The scanner is therefore mounted on a stabilized platform, which is
maintained at a constant attitude with respect to the horizon. Stabilization is
derived from the Inertial Reference System (IRS).

The pitch and roll stabilization is completely independent system. Each having a
separate motor, giving freedom of rotary movement in both pitch and roll. There
must also be a freedom of movement in azimuth for scanning to port and
starboard. Therefore three rotating joints are required in the scanner waveguide
assembly. Figure 147 shows stabilization for pitch and roll.

ROLL
ANGLE
PITCH
ANGLE

AZIMUTH ANGLE 0
AZIMUTH ANGLE 90
NO STABILIZATION REQUIRED
NO STABILIZATION REQUIRED

ROLL PITCH
ANGLE ANGLE

AZIMUTH ANGLE 90
AZIMUTH ANGLE 90
WITH NO STABILIZATION
WITH NO STABILIZATION

ROLL
PITCH
ANGLE
ANGLE

AZIMUTH ANGLE 90 AZIMUTH ANGLE 90

STABILIZED STABILIZED

Roll/Pitch Stabilization
Figure 147

Page 2-192 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


IRS

ANTENNA
PITCH ROLL ASSEMBLY
115V A.C.
POWER
SUPPLIES 28V D.C.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


WAVEGUIDE

POWER
PART 2

TRANSMITTER
AEROPLANE

Figure 148
GAIN TILT -RECEIVER
UP
CONTROL STAB
AERODYNAMICS,

SB/T WX WX/T RCT GCR MAP


DWN
MODULE 11 BOOK 2

MIN MAX
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

VAR 10 20 40 80 160 320 SEC


STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

POWER

Radar System Schematic


DISPLAY MARKER
Figure 148 shows a block schematic of a radar system.

OFF MAX OFF MAX


VIDEO
FRZ FRZ

LEFT RIGHT

INOP ALRT

SWEEP

Page 2-193
INDICATOR
CONTROL
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
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PART 2

AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
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2.55.3 Weather Radar Installation

Figure 149 shows the type of weather radar fitted to modern aircraft.

WAVEGUIDE
SECTION 3

RX/TX
WX
WAVEGUIDE
SECTION 1

WAVEGUIDE
PEDESTAL
ANTENNA

SECTION 2

ANTENNA
30" FLAT
PLATE

Weather Radar Installation (B737)


Figure 149

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AERODYNAMICS,
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The weather radar system has a dedicated control panel for selection of the
required mode of operation. This type of system uses the EFIS ND to display the
weather information. Figure 150 shows the weather display on the EFIS ND on a
Boeing 737 aircraft.

WX
WEATHER +10
RETURN MODE
14 ANNUNCIATION

13

40 TILT ANGLE

1/2 RANGE
INDICATION

EFIS ND Weather Display (B737 Aircraft)


Figure 150

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The display is controlled via the EFIS control panel. Figures 151 and 152 shows
an EFIS control panel and a weather radar control panel.

HSI RANGE
EXP
ADI VOR/ 80 160 320
NAV
DH REF ILS 40
VOR/
ILS MAP
20
150 FULL
CTR
NAV MAP 10
PLAN WXR

RST ON

MAP
BRT VOR/ADF NAV AID ARPT RTE DATA WPT

ON ON ON ON ON

EFIS Control Panel


Figure 152

MODE
TEST WX WX+T MAP

-7 -6 10
MIN -5 5 15

-4 UP
GAIN 0 TILT
-3 DN

CAL -2 5 15
MAX -1 10
IDNT STAB

Weather Radar Control Panel


Figure 153

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AERODYNAMICS,
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2.55.4 Test Mode

With the mode selector on the control panel in the TEST position the transmitter
is on for 1 second for a transmitter test. For the remainder of the test the
transmitter is off. A test picture is 'painted' on the EFIS.

A test sweep of + 15 up and -15 down is carried out by the antenna. At the end
of the test the antenna centralizes at 0.

The following precautions are to be observed for Boeing 737 weather radar
ground operation:

If the radar system is to be operated while the aircraft is on the ground, direct the
nose of the aircraft such that a 240-degree forward sector is free of large metallic
objects (hangars, other aircraft).

Tilt the antenna upward 15 degrees and prevent personnel from standing closer
than 10 feet to the 240-degree forward section of the aircraft. The receiver may
be damaged as a result of strong returns from nearby metallic objects.

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Figure 154 shows safety areas and boundary marks to be displayed during
ground operation of weather radar.

WARNING
SIGN
RED/WHITE ROPE

120

120
R = 6 MTRS

Safety Areas and Boundary Marks


Figure 154

Page 2-198 MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 2 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11


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PART 2

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AERODYNAMICS,
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2.55.5 Radome

The radome is an aerodynamically shaped nose cone made of a dielectric


material, which can have an overriding effect on the weather radar systems
performance. The radome should transmit 90% of the incident energy, posses
structural strength, protect against erosion, prevent spark discharge of static and
protect against lightning strikes.

Structural strength comes from how the radome is constructed. Normally they
are of the sandwich type, consisting of a honeycomb structure supported on each
side by a thin skin of laminated glass fibre.

Anti static/erosion is overcome by coating the nose area with a polyurethane


material. This material is bonded onto the radome, but must not be too thick so
as to effect the transmission of energy. The radome is also coated with an anti
static paint containing small graphite particles.

Lightning strike protection takes the form of metal strips bonded to the surface of
the radome and painted over. The strips run from the nose of the radome to the
bulkhead, where good electrical bonding must be achieved so that any lightning
strikes are dissipated in the airframe with minimum damage. Figure 155 shows
the construction of a radome.

Radome Construction
Figure 155

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2.56 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM

The purpose of the Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) is to alert the
flight crew to the existence of an unsafe condition due to terrain proximity. The
various hazardous conditions that may be encountered are divided into 7 Modes.
These are:

1. Mode 1 - Excessive Descent Rate.

2. Mode 2 - Excessive Closure Rate (with respect to rising terrain).

3. Mode 3 - Excessive Altitude Loss (during climb-out after take-off).

4. Mode 4 - Insufficient Terrain Clearance (when not in landing


configuration).

5. Mode 5 - Excessive Deviation below the Glideslope (ILS Landing).

6. Mode 6 - Descent Below selected Decision Height.

7. Mode 7 Windshear.

Figures 156 - 162 show schematics of each of the above modes.

SINK RATE

WHOOP!
WHOOP!
PULL-UP

GPWS Mode 1
Figure 156

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TERRAIN
TERRAIN

WHOOP!
TERRAIN WHOOP!
TERRAIN PULL-UP

GPWS Mode 2
Figure 157

DONT SINK

GPWS Mode 3
Figure 158

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TOO LOW
GEAR...

GPWS Mode 4
Figure 159

GLIDESLOPE
GLIDESLOPE

GPWS Mode 5
Figure 160

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MINIMUMS
MINIMUMS

DECISION HEIGHT

GPWS Mode 6
Figure 161

STRONG DOWNDRAFT

HEADWIND TAILWIND
WINDSHEAR
WINDSHEAR

GPWS Mode 7
Figure 162

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2.56.1 System Operation

The main component of the system is the GPWS computer. It receives


information from other aircraft systems (Baro/Rad Alt Ht, speed, etc.). From
these inputs, the computer makes calculations to determine if the aircraft is in
danger of contacting the terrain below. GPWS only operates within the Rad Alt
range (50' to 2,500'). Figure 163 shows a block schematic diagram of a typical
GPWS.

EFIS
SYMBOL
GENERATORS

PULL UP
EADI EADI
PFD PFD
DATA &
LOGIC GROUND
INPUTS BELOW G/S CAPT F/O
PROXIMITY
P - INHIBIT
WARNING
SYSTEM COMPUTER
TEST
GPWS
INOP CONTROL
PANEL

RADIO
ELECTRONICS
UNIT

GPWS Block Schematic


Figure 163

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AERODYNAMICS,
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2.56.2 Ground Proximity Warning Computer

The GPWC establishes the limits for the GPWS modes and compares the
aircrafts flight and terrain clearance status against established mode limits. If the
aircraft is found to have entered a GPWS mode, the computer issues appropriate
warning or alerting signals. The computer also stores failure data in a non-
volatile memory for display on a front panel window on the GPWC.

Figure 164 shows a GPWC and Control panel.

STATUS/HISTORY GROUND PROXIMITY


PRESENT FLIGHT
STATUS HISTORY

INOP FLAP/GEAR
INHIBIT

CAUTION
OBSERVE PRECAUTIONS NORMAL
FOR HANDLING
ELECTROSTATIC SYS TEST
SENSITIVE
DEVICES

CONTROL PANEL

GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING


COMPUTER

GPWC and GPWS Control Panel


Figure 164

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

2.56.3 GPWS Control Panel

The GPWS control panel provides the flight crew with visual indications of GPWS
operation; self-test capability and flap/gear inhibit capability.

INOP Light

Amber INOP light is illuminated when a computer or input signal malfunction is


detected, or a GPWS self-test is being performed.

Flap/Gear Inhibit

This switch is a two-position toggle switch; guarded and safety-wired in the


NORMAL position. When it is placed in the INHIBIT position, Modes 2,3 and 4
are inhibited.

Self Test Switch

This switch is used to initiate a GPWS self-test. A self-test can be conducted on


the ground or in-flight.

2.56.4 Warning Lights

Two warning lights are provided to give visual indication of ground proximity
warnings. These are:

1. PULL-UP.

2. BELOW G/S.

A WINDSHEAR warning message (displayed on the EFIS PFD) provides visual


indication of a Windshear condition.

The red PULL-UP light illuminates when Mode 1,2,3 or 4 flight path is detected.
The amber BELOW G/S warning light illuminates when glide slope deviation
becomes excessive. Pressing the BELOW G/S switch inhibits the warning.

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Figure 165 shows a PFD with Windshear annunciation.

MCP SPD CLMB HDG SEL V NAV

10
180 10

160
150
140
10
10
120

WINDSHEAR DH 350
GS RA 1620
173

Primary Flight Display (Windshear)


Figure 165

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AERODYNAMICS,
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2.56.5 GPWS Bite Operation

The purpose of the BITE is to perform an internal check of the GPWC functions,
to record past faults that occur during the last ten flights, and to annunciate
system status information.

2.56.6 BITE Tests

The BITE function carries out three BITE tests:

Continuous Test Performed during each program loop. This checks the CPU
operation and data input integrity for shorts to ground or open circuits. The ADC,
IRS, ILS and RAD ALT systems and internal power supplies are also monitored
for valid data.

Periodic Test Tests requiring excessive processing time are subdivided into
small segments. Tests on the individual segments are performed sequentially,
one segment during each program loop. Periodic tests include checks on the
processor instruction sets, program memory contents, RAM addressing and
storage functions, voice memory addressing and contents, parity of received data
and the ability to read the data.

Event-Initiated Tests These are performed during or after a specific event has
occurred. They include resetting the program a fraction of a second prior to a
power supply failure. Checksumming the data stored in the non-volatile fault
memory at power up. Checksumming the data written after entering data and
sampling and storing program pin status at power up. Restarting the CPU at a
known location in the program after loss of CPU.

2.56.7 Fault Recording

Faults are recorded in a non-volatile fault memory by flight segments. The


beginning and the end of each flight segment are identified using radio