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Vol.17 No.

5 September/October 2017
EXPERT
INSIGHT
EVERY I IN
ARC
SSUE
HAEOLO
HER GY
ITAGE
HIST
ORY

Explore
Edinburgh
The Edinburgh Town Guard
Defending the city during the Jacobite risings

Behind the scenes at Edinburgh Castle


Helping millions of visitors enjoy the historic fortress

Exploring the citys history in 101 objects

Kings of the
Clyde
The heyday of the
Royal Clyde Yacht Club The Battle of
Pinkie 1547
Compelling new
evidence on where
the battle took place
4.50
www.historyscotland.com

MARINE NEW ONLINE WHY DIGITAL


ARCHAEOLOGY ATLAS MAPS INTERACTION IS
DISCOVERIES ON 1000s OF RE-INVENTING HOW
THE WEST COAST HILLFORTS WE EXPLORE HISTORY

p01 Cover.indd 13 31/07/2017 10:25


Shining Lives
20 & 21 OCTOBER 2017
NEW LANARK WORLD HERITAGE SITE

NOVAK - Artist Impression

Register for FREE tickets at


www.newlanark.org/shininglives
With the stunning 230 year old buildings acting as the display surface, Shining Lives will bring
historic images and video footage from New Lanark and the surrounding area to life on a grand
scale, augmented by a soundtrack, lighting and living history echoing the life of the mills and the
workers. Through this innovative event, the tangible and intangible heritage of New Lanark will
be combined, capturing imaginations and providing a unique interpretation of this famous site.

Shining Lives is a key part of Scotlands 2017


Year of History, Heritage and Archaeology celebrations.

2 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017

02.indd 2 31/07/2017 10:59


History
SCOTLANDwww.historyscotland.com
PATRONS
David Breeze
Christopher Smout Historiographer Royal
Elizabeth Ewan University of Guelph
history
SCOTLAND
Volume 17, Number 5
September / October 2017

EDITORIAL BOARD FROM THE EDITOR


FIND OUT MORE AT: HTTP://SCOT.SH/HIS-BOARD

Mr Derek Alexander Dr Aonghus Mackechnie This month I would like to begin by congratulating an
Archaeologist, Principal Inspector of occasional contributor to the magazine, Professor Dauvit
National Trust for Scotland Historic Buildings, Historic Broun, upon his election as a Fellow of the British
Scotland (Architecture,
Academy. It is worth stopping to reflect upon Professor Brouns many different
Dr John Atkinson c.1600 - 1750)
Managing Director and important contributions to medieval Scottish (and British) history. I am
GUARD Archaeology Ltd Dr Ann MacSween sure many readers will be familiar with at least some of his research but in
Medieval and post-medieval Principal Inspector, Historic recent years his contribution has spread into the digital humanities with a series
settlement and industry Scotland (Prehistory) of AHRC-funded projects that include People of Medieval Scotland
(www.poms.ac.uk) and The Breaking of Britain (www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk).
Prof Hugh Cheape Dr Colin Martin
Sabhal Mor Ostaig College, Honorary Reader in Each of these are new and important tools for medieval scholars.
University of the Highlands Maritime Archeology As usual this month we have a wide range of material for you, ranging from
and Islands University of St Andrews yachting on the Clyde to a hugely interesting contribution from David Caldwell
on his continuing investigations into the battle of Pinkie. Added to this, are
George Dalgleish Neil McLennan
some excellent archaeology pieces, together with some interesting observations
Keeper, Scottish History Writer, education manager
and Archaeology, National and Past President of the on Heritage. Enjoy!
Museums Scotland, Scottish Association of Dr Alasdair Ross
Edinburgh. Scottish decorative Teachers of History Editor, History Scotland
arts, specifically silver, ceramics editorial@historyscotland.com
& pewter; Jacobite collections Dr Allan Kennedy
Lecturer in history,
Dr Piers Dixon University of Dundee
Operations Manager at
the Royal Commission on Prof Angela McCarthy
MEET THE CONTRIBUTORS
the Ancient and Historical Scottish and Irish History, Dr David Caldwell, prior to retiring from National Museums Scotland in
Monuments of Scotland University of Otago 2012, was Keeper of Scotland and Europe and Keeper of Archaeology. He is
(RCAHMS), (rural settlement currently President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vice-President of
and medieval archaeology) Dr Iain MacInnes
the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology, and a director of Fife Cultural Trust.
Lecturer in Scottish
Mr Andrew Dunwell History, University of the
In this issue (page 18), Dr Caldwell presents his new research on the Battle
Director, CFA Archaeology, Highlands and Islands.
of Pinkie, which explores the evidence for where the battle took place.
Edinburgh (Later prehistory
and Roman) Prof Richard Oram
Scottish Medieval History
Mark A Hall & Environmental History, Starting on page 24, local history researcher David I. Hutchison presents
History Officer (archaeology University of Stirling a history of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club at Hunters Quay, which is part
collections) at Perth of his ongoing research into the history of Robertsons Yard and its
Matt Ritchie
Museum & Art Gallery. contribution to Clyde Yachting. He explores the golden years of this
Archaeologist,
yacht club, which hosted world-class yacht races on the Clyde, with
Forestry Commission
Dr Kevin James members enjoying the facilities of a luxury hotel which the club owned
Dept of History and Scottish on the banks of the river.
Dr Alasdair Ross
Studies Programme,
Reader in Medieval and
University of Guelph, Canada
Environmental History,
University of Stirling Frank Harkness, a retired detective inspector, completed a postgraduate
Prof S Karly Kehoe
Canada Research Chair research MSc at Edinburgh Universitys School of Scottish Studies. He
Mr Geoffrey Stell is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
in Atlantic Canada
Architectural Historian
Communities, Saint Marys
University, Canada. Dr Simon Taylor In this issue (page 32) Frank discovers why, in the 12th century, French
Scottish place-names, monks from Tiron abandoned the construction of David Is Abbey at
Dr Catriona MacDonald University of Glasgow Selkirk and moved to an alternative site at Kelso.
Reader in Late Modern
Scottish History Dr Fiona Watson
University of Glasgow Historian, writer
and broadcaster
Cynthia J. Neville
George Munro Dr Alex Woolf
JOIN THE HISTORY SCOTLAND COMMUNITY
Professor of History Senior lecturer in History, History news and events direct to your inbox Join the history debate
and Political Economy, University of St Andrews Sign up for our free e-newsletter to receive even more Scottish history
Dalhousie University
news, expert articles and more. Sign up at: http://scot.sh/free-e-news

History Scotland was launched in October 2001 at the Royal Museum Join History Scotland, save money and receive every issue direct to History Scotland
in Edinburgh by Professor Christopher Smout, Historiographer Royal,
your home . See page 50 for details, call us on 01778 392463, or on social media
who is now one of the magazines patrons. It is backed by the Scottish
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a variety of different disciplines on the Editorial Board. historyscotlandmagazine
Listen to the History Scotland Hidden Histories
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Articles appearing in this journal are abstracted and indexed in
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podcast at: http://scot.sh/his-podcast
Humanities Index

p03 Eds intro.indd 3 31/07/2017 09:37


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THE SCOTTISH GENEALOGY SOCIETY


THE STRATHMARTINE TRUST Family History Centre
(Scottish Charity Number: SC 028924) All Scotlands OPRs on film census records
Largest M.I. collection in Scotland and free access to
www.ancestry.co.uk and www.findmypast.co.uk
The Strathmartine Trust (Established 1999) is a Open 5 days a week, except Friday & Sunday
charitable trust the primary object of which is to Contact us at 15 Victoria Terrace, Edinburgh EH1 2JL
support research and education in Scottish History. Telephone 0131 220 3677
enquiries@scotsgenealogy.com
www.scotsgenealogy.com

The Trustees seek applications for the following grants:

Strathmartine Awards - up to 5,000 to assist with the


completion of existing projects and to aid publication.

Take a tour of Scotland in 2017 with the...


Sandeman Fund Awards - up to 2,000 for research in
the field of early medieval Scottish History.
HIDDEN HISTORIES PODCAST
Full details and application forms can be The History Scotland Hidden Histories
podcast follows Neil McLennans travels
obtained from The Strathmartine Trust by email to

Listen at:
around the country, as he visits historic
factor@strathmartinetrust.org sites, attractions and museums,
and meets the locals.
or on the Trusts website:
www.strathmartinetrust.org http://scot.sh/his-podcast
or via iTunes and SoundCloud

The closing date for the return of completed


applications in each case is 15 November 2107

HS Podcast.indd 1 01/02/2017 14:43

Strathmartine4trust.indd 1 H I S TO RY SC OT LA19/07/2017
ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
16:27

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CONTENTS 42
48

24

IN-DEPTH FEATURES
18 The Scots defeat at Pinkie in 1547: new light on how and where 32 Selkirk Abbey: Scotlands lost abbey
Dr David Caldwell presents new information on what happened in We discover why the medieval abbey of Selkirk, founded by the
the last battle fought between England and Scotland as separate future King David I, was abandoned after just fifteen years. Did
nations, and reviews the evidence for where the battle took place localised flooding play a part?

24 The Royal Clyde Yacht Club 42 Charles Seton: the reluctant rebel, part II
An exploration of the meteoric rise of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, We continue our study of Setons relations with King Charles I,
in the golden years of organising world-class yacht races followed exploring whether this nobleman, who was arrested after the
by a decline hastened by the outbreak of World War I battle of Edgehill, was the neutral that the king believed him to be

FEATURES REGULARS IN EVERY ISSUE

8 The Engine Shed 48 Edinburgh Castle 50 National Records of Scotland


Opening of a world leading centre for Interview with Nick Finnigan, chief Exploring statutory registers, which
historic building preservation executive of Edinburgh Castle, record the lives of millions of Scots
on managing visitor flow at this
9 Mapping Scotlands hillforts historic attraction 51 Join History Scotland
A new online atlas maps thousands Have the magazine delivered
of hillforts for the first time NEWS and receive a free gift

10 The Edinburgh Town Guard 6 History news 52 Family history news


The men who defended the city New bid for Paisley Museum, repairs Spotlight on West Lothian History &
during a century of strife to Ross Fountain. Plus: RSGS firsts - Amenity Society. Plus, using
new series! official government records for
12 Anchors and adventures family history
A collection of historic posters 60 Hidden history
Neil McLennan visits Edinburgh and 53 Book reviews
31 Style at sea East Lothian The latest Scottish history
A new exhibition explores the golden and archaeology titles
age of Clyde-built liners ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS
13 Isle of Iona finds 58 Diary Dates
36 Who captured Antonine Brennier? 6th-century wooden cell identified Lectures, exhibitions and festivals
New evidence on a popular folk tale taking place in September and
from the Peninsular War 14 Coastal defences October, plus spotlight on
Recording the best preserved length Edinburgh events
39 Doors Open Days of anti-invasion crust in Scotland
Your guide to this annual festival of 62 Final word
history and heritage 16 Maritime archaeology Adam Wilkinson, director of
Report from a project which Edinburgh World Heritage, talks
40 Going digital with our heritage utilised the knowledge of West about a new project which spotlights
New ways to share Scotlands Coast people to explore underwater 101 historic objects around the capital
history with difference audiences wreck sites

Mary, Queen of Scots A study in failure


NEWLY
FREE BOOK WHEN YOU JOIN HISTORY SCOTLAND
RELEASED
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Call: 01778 392463 or see page 51 for more details.


Live outside the UK? See our offer on page 38.

p05 Sep Oct contents.indd 5 31/07/2017 09:38


HISTORY NEWS

Paisley Museum
makes new 4.9m
approach to Heritage
Lottery Fund
Paisley Museum has submitted new funding plans which
would transform the attraction into an international class
destination focusing on Paisleys place in Scotlands history.
The project is a key part of a wider strategy to use Paisleys
unique heritage story to transform its future, including a
shortlisted bid to be UK City of Culture 2021.
Paisley councilors have been asked to approve the new plans, The new plans would see an extension added to the original Victorian building,
which include a proposal to create an extension to the existing which opened in 1871
Victorian building, creating extra space for historic collections.
The new bid follows a recent application for 10M from the disappointed the previous application to HLF was not a success,
Heritage Lottery Fund, when Paisley Museum narrowly missed the feedback made clear the application was of high quality and
out on being selected for funding. The new plans have reduced had no weaknesses. In the end we were extremely unlucky to miss
the cost of the project from 49M to 42M, with plans to out in an unusually-competitive round of funding at a time where
temporarily close the museum in 2018, and reopen in 2022. available money was very tight.
Renfrewshire Council Leader Iain Nicolson said: Our However the important point is we now have a viable set
revised plans for Paisley Museum retain our ambition of an of refreshed funding plans which can still deliver a project
international-class museum for Renfrewshire. While we are meeting the original aims.

Royal Highland Show


makes historic step
onto Land Register
of Scotland

The showground of Scotlands largest agricultural event, the


Royal Highland Show, has been added to the Land Register of
Scotlands digital map register.
The move will help complete the land register, compiled and
maintained by Registers of Scotland, which, in time, will provide a
full picture of who owns what across the country.
The Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland helps with re-financing and succession planning.
has chosen to move its property title for the showground from The Land Register of Scotland is a public record of land
the 400-year-old General Register of Sasines onto the modern and property ownership in Scotland, and is due to replace
map-based land register. the sasine register by 2024. At present, around 62 percent of
Registers of Scotland is encouraging owners of larger property titles, relating to just over 30 percent of Scotlands
landholdings, including agricultural land, to move their titles land mass, are on the register.
to the land register using its voluntary registration process.
Voluntary registration clarifies exact boundaries and makes For more on the Registers of Scotland, visit their website:
buying and selling property easier, faster and cheaper. It also www.ros.gov.uk

6 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p06-07 News.indd 6 31/07/2017 09:39


Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com

Restoration for
the Ross Fountain
Howard Carter (1874-1939)
Jo Woolf launches a new series, looking at
firsts in the history of the Royal Scottish
Geographical Society, beginning with
archaeologist Howard Carter, who discovered
the tomb of Tutankhamen

Archaeologist Howard Carter,


who opened the tomb of
Tutankhamen in 1923

A
rguably the most famous archaeologist of all time,
Howard Carter was first hired for his artistic talents,
as a tracer of wall paintings in Egypt, aged only
seventeen. Eight years later he had risen to become
Chief Inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service.
In 1907, he was appointed by wealthy landowner and Egyptologist
Edinburgh gunsmith Daniel Ross gifted the fountain to Edinburgh after seeing it in Lord Carnarvon to conduct excavations in the Valley of the Kings.
operation in 1862 at the Great Exhibition in London On 4 November, 1922 Carter made a discovery that would
change his life. He cleared away some rubble and found the
Edinburghs famous Ross Fountain is to undergo a major entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamen, an enigmatic boy-king of the
restoration, due to be completed in 2018. Eighteenth Dynasty who had captured public imagination. A few
Crafted in Antione Durennes foundry in France in the weeks later, he was holding a candle into the dark antechamber, as
early 1800s, the structure was gifted to the city by local Lord Carnarvon peered over his shoulder. Can you see anything?
gunsmith Daniel Ross. The year-long restoration project asked his patron. Yes, said Carter, wonderful things.
under the Ross Development Trust will see new foundations Across the world, Carters revelation was greeted with frenzied
and waterworks, enabling the fountain to operate for the first excitement. The tomb consisted of several compartments but
time in years. because of the wealth of artefacts, excavation was necessarily slow.
The conservation will be carried out by Industrial Heritage In February 1923 Carter opened the burial chamber to find the
Consulting Limited, which worked with Lost Art Ltd in 2013 gilded shrine, still sealed and intact; he then closed the site for the
to restore the Grand Central Fountain in Paisley. Engineers summer and returned to London.
will temporarily remove the Fountain over the coming months On 10 September, 1923 Carter gave his first ever lecture about
to renovate the internal structure and return it to full working his discovery to the Royal Scottish Geographical Society at the
condition. Usher Hall in Edinburgh. He showed lantern slides and speculated
Edinburghs Lord Provost, Frank Ross, said: Edinburgh on what he might find when the shrine was opened:
boasts statues and monuments at almost every turn. Yet, out ...he believed that... they would find the King himself unscathed...
of the 200 monuments in our care, the Ross Fountain stands and probably with him would be the crowns of Egypt and other regalia of
out as one of the most timeless. Tutankhamen.
Since being installed in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle in He added that it had given him great pleasure to deliver his first
1872, it has become one of the most recognisable features of lecture on his discoveries in Edinburgh - a magnificent city, which
Princes Street Gardens. We are very grateful to the support of he had never seen before.
the Ross Development Trust. Thanks to this project, Edinburgh In October Carter returned to Egypt, to open the doors of the
can look forward to seeing the fountain back in Spring. shrine and reveal the sarcophagus, which in turn was found to
contain the coffins, the breathtaking golden mask, and ultimately
For more on the work of the Ross Development Trust, visit their the mummified body of Tutankhamen.
website: www.rdtrust.org
For more information about the RSGS, visit: www.rsgs.org

H I S TO RY S COT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017 7

p06-07 News.indd 7 31/07/2017 09:39


ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS

THE ENGINE SHED


OPENS TO THE PUBLIC

A world-leading centre for the historic environment and built heritage has opened in Stirling,
providing the knowledge, skills and material to care for Scotlands 450,000 historic buildings

T
he Engine Shed is an From left: Cabinet incorporating modern technologies supported us in delivering this unique
11m national building Secretary for to enhance the historic buildings facility. In particular, thanks must go
conservation centre which Culture, Tourism energy efficiency. to our partners at Stirling Council
will serve as the national and External Affairs The Engine Shed hopes to inspire for providing us with the building,
conservation hub, using world-leading Fiona Hyslop at the a new generation to be interested which I hope will play a key role in
innovation to bring Scotlands built Engine Shed with in traditional buildings, by sparking continuing to maximise the potential
heritage to life through technology and local school children; interest through interactive exhibits, of heritage-led regeneration through
hands-on activities. the centrepiece of a 4K 3D auditorium and augmented their broader city deal.
The new centre was opened by the Engine Shed reality experiences. This world-class facility is a
Cabinet Secretary for Culture, is a giant map of It will be home to Historic wonderful living classroom with
Tourism and External Affairs Fiona Scotland made up of Environment Scotlands building science and technology at its core,
Hyslop, who toured the facility and satellite images conservation research and education demonstrating that innovation can
invited local school pupils to explore facility, which will share its world be inspired by the past. The Engine
the building, with the large map class expertise with national and Shed is about thinking differently
centrepiece (pictured above right) international partners in building and challenging perceptions, which
proving particularly popular. This conservation. will act as a catalyst and a beacon for
is a large-scale map of Scotland Speaking at the official opening, the historic environment.
compiled from hi-resolution satellite Chair of Historic Environment The Engine Shed is open Monday
images, from which visitors can Scotland Jane Ryder, said: Todays to Saturday, 10am-4pm. Entry is
access additional information opening marks a significant free. The building is also available
using an iPad as an augmented milestone in the journey of to hire as a conference space, with
reality device. Historic Environment Scotland room for up to 200 delegates.
The building, on Stirlings and the Engine Shed is a visible
Forthside Way, is a former Ministry demonstration of our commitment The Engine Shed, Forthside
of Defence munitions store, and to both leading and supporting the Way, Stirling FK8 2BY;
with sustainability at the heart of the TAP HERE vital heritage economy. tel: 01786 234800; e-mail:
buildings conservation, it has has FOR A It is the result of great technicaleducation@hes.scot;
been respectfully adapted, retaining TIMELAPSE collaboration and partnership website: www.engineshed.org
much of the original fabric and VIDEO ON THE working, and thanks must go to
character of the original building, BUILDING OF the Scottish Government, Heritage Look out for an in-depth feature on
while showing how traditional THE ENGINE Lottery Fund, European Regional The Engine Sheds role in preserving
materials can be used in a modern SHED Development Fund and the Historic Scotlands built heritage in Nov/Dec
context in two extensions, as well as Scotland Foundation, who have History Scotland, on sale 7 October.

8 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p8 Engine shed.indd 12 08/08/2017 10:23


TAP HERE TO WATCH
A VIDEO OF THE
WHITE AND BROWN
CATERTHUNS IN
SCOTLAND, FILMED
BY DRONE BY A PHD
RESEARCHER

New resource for exploring


Scotlands hillforts
A new online atlas created with the help of citizen scientists has captured all of the
UK and Irelands hillforts within one database for the first time ever

D
otted across the landscape of the UK and Ireland, Professor Alice Roberts, presenter of TVs Digging for
hillforts have been part of our story for millennia, Britain and professor for Public Engagement with Science,
with a total of 4,147 of these to be found across said Hillforts are an astonishing reminder of the ancient
Britain and Ireland. past; monumental impressions left by our ancestors on the
With the help of citizen scientists from around landscape. But some of them are more obvious, and more
Scotland, England, Ireland, Northern Ireland and Wales, a well-known than others. This new atlas draws on the latest
research team funded by the Arts and Humanities Research research and maps over 4,000 hillforts making this facet of
Council has spent the last five years sifting and recording our ancient heritage accessible to everybody.
information on hillforts around the UK and Ireland. The new data will be made available to the national
The team were drawn from the University of Edinburgh, monuments records of Britain and Ireland and will also help
University of Oxford, and University College Cork. heritage managers, naturalists, archaeologists and policy
Edinburghs Professor Ian Ralston, who led the project with makers to consider how we care for these special places, and
his Oxford colleague Professor Gary Lock, said: Standing address the various environmental and human factors.
on a windswept hillfort with dramatic views across the Dr Martin Poulter, Wikimedian-in-residence for the Bodleian
countryside, you really feel like youre fully immersed in Library, Oxford, will be working on making the research easily
history. This research project is all about sharing the stories available to the public through Wikidata. He said: We are
of the thousands of hillforts across the UK and Ireland in one encouraging researchers to upload photographs of the hillforts
place that is accessible to the public and researchers. to Wikimedia Commons, where they join thousands of images
This new resource will provide free access to information from the public. These freely-reusable data and images will help
about world-famous sites as well as many little-known to improve and create hillfort articles on Wikipedia, with links
hillforts, helping audiences including history enthusiasts, to the main atlas website for further detail. It will also allow
naturalists and walkers to discover the forts and their customised maps looking at a particular type of fort or region of
landscapes in all their variety. the British Isles, or combining hillfort locations with other data.
Mostly built during the Iron Age, the oldest hillforts date There are plans to make the hillforts atlas available as an app
to c.1,000BC and the most recent to c.500AD, and they and a paper atlas is also in development, due to be published in
were central to 1,500 years of ancient living: with numerous summer 2018.
functions some of which are yet to be fully uncovered. The
latest research shows that, intriguingly, not all hillforts are on For more information, visit the project website:
hills nor are they all forts. www.arch.ox.ac.uk/hillforts-atlas.html

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 9

p9 Hillfort atlas 1 pg.indd 9 08/08/2017 10:29


Musket, Axe and Drum
Defending Edinburgh during
a century of strife

Nico Tyack, curator at Museum of Edinburgh, shares the history of Edinburgh Town Guard,
a city guard with a chequered history, whose clashes with the local population led to
them being nicknamed the Town Rats

F
or much of the 18th century, Town Guard was made largely of retired Highlander effectiveness and reputation. Were
Edinburgh had a formalised re-enactors soldiers, of whom the Lowland they the Good Touns Company or
unit of a city guard in Edinburgh people of Edinburgh were nervous the Town Rats?
organised and equipped and apprehensive, with hindsight we Scotland in the 1680s was a very
along military lines whose main duties can see why they were the target of so unhappy place. The country was still
were peacekeeping within the city much abuse and hatred. recovering from civil wars which had
walls. They grew out of an earlier A new exhibition, Musket, Axe torn through the kingdom. There
mix of trained guards and civilian and Drum: The Town Guard in a was so much religious persecution
watches. They had a chequered Time of Unrest, gives an overview in the reigns of King Charles II and
history. Contemporary literary sources of the guards history, but focuses James VII and II that the period
such as Sir Walter Scott and Robert on the middle of the 18th century, was known as the Killing Time.
Fergusson, eyewitness accounts and a period which includes two of the Edinburgh needed an armed force to
anecdotal evidence gives us a mixed most significant events in the guards keep the streets safe and to be ready
picture of a unit where personal gains history: the Porteous Riots of 1736 to defend the City from any threat
or sheer aggression and violence on and the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. from outside.
the part of its officers and privates By showing objects from the Town The solution was a system known
often took precedence over the Guard and their headquarters (a as watching and warding where
Guards main functions. purpose built guard house on the tradesmen such as weavers, bakers
New research into the Guard from High Street and then the Edinburgh and blacksmiths, took it in turns to
the other sources however give us Tolbooth after 1685) alongside keep watch in the City each day and
a more balanced picture of a unit documentary records, the exhibition night. Watching and warding was an
which was never properly funded or aims to bring the Guard to life. ineffective system, so the Kings Privy
equipped, nor given the authority to Visitors will be encouraged to Council gave the City Council an
be more than a deterrent against petty evaluate the evidence and come to ultimatum: either they raised enough
crime. Furthermore, because the unit their own assessment of the Guards money for a well-trained and well-

10 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p10-11 Town guard.indd 10 31/07/2017 09:55


Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com

EDINBURGH TOWN GUARD CHARACTERS


JAMES BURNET Burnet was the last Captain of the Guard. He
was a man of great size and a fiery, unpredictable character to match.
Despite Burnets size, he accepted a challenge to run up Arthurs
Seat in full uniform and fully armed. This he did in an incredible 15
minutes. A modern group of historical re- enactors recreate this feat
every two years.

DUNCAN MCINTYRE, or Duncan Bn nan rain (Fair Duncan


of the Songs) Duncan Bn McIntyre enrolled in the Town Guard later
in life. He had previously been a gamekeeper for the duke of Argyll,
and a soldier, fighting for the Governments army at Falkirk in 1746.
When the Town Guard disbanded he was one of the older members to
be given an allowance for good behaviour. The Town Guard on City safe from petty criminals such
McIntyre is best known as a poet. His work is highly regarded parade, with the ten as pickpockets and thieves.They
among the poetry of the Gaelic revival in the 18th century. He wrote hours drum shown could put people in a cell in the
poems inspired by nature, drawing from his time in the Highlands Guardhouse, or bring them to the
but some of his poems suggest his support for the Jacobites, such as Citys Tolbooth jail.
Ode to Trousers. After the Jacobite Rebellion it was illegal to wear In 1776, Edward Topham, an
the kilt, a symbol of Highland culture. English visitor to Edinburgh wrote:

events outside Edinburgh. During Notice in the The City Guard [..]prevent any
the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and Edinburgh Courant, quarrels or disorders [..] and as they
1745 the Guard was increased to a April 1746, about the are chiefly used as a guard during
much larger size than normal. Jacobite Risings the night time, their heroic deeds are
Officers of the Guard were unfortunately concealed from
appointed by the King, and often public view.
had important roles in the Citys
public life. Recruited men were One gruesome job of the Guard
usually veterans of the British army was policing public executions to help
returning from overseas campaigns, prevent riots. It was usual at such
attracted by the good salaries paid occasions for the crowd to throw stones,
to the Guard. The majority were dung or anything else they could find at
Highlanders. Many spoke Gaelic the Guard and the executioner.
which was still foreign to the people Although the Town Guard was
of Edinburgh and did little to soften often complimented for their
equipped guard, or the Kings troops their image. parading and target practice,
would patrol the streets instead. The Guard patrolled the streets members were frequently fined or
By 1679, a small unit of 40-60 of the Old Town all day and night. removed from office for violence
men was established. In charge of Each evening they announced the or drunkenness.
the Guard was the Lord Provost in curfew, beating their drum known as An attempt in 1704 to introduce
a ceremonial role. Under him, the the ten hours drum, as a signal that regulations for the Guard
officers of the Guard were modelled no-one was to be out in the streets included rules for daily exercise
like the army with sergeants, until morning. on Parliament Square, a strict
corporals, captain-lieutenants and The Town Guard helped keep the The Edinburgh Town uniform, and listed punishments
drummers. By 1747, there were Guard drum, which for any guard found breaking the
three captains in charge of three signalled the hours rules. However, these regulations
squads of about 20 men each. when the night did little to control more rowdy and
In 1690 an Act of Parliament curfew was in place troublesome members.
created a new tax, known as
Watchmoney, to pay for the Town
Guard. The law set a maximum Musket, Axe and Drum; The Town Guard at a Time of
number of 126 men, and only up to Unrest is an exhibition at Museum of Edinburgh, which
15,000 Scots could be raised. This runs until 30 October. Admission is free.
was never enough, and throughout Museum of Edinburgh, 142 Canongate,
its history the Guard was always Edinburgh, EH8 8DD; tel: 0131 529 4143;
poorly funded. website: www.edinburghmuseums.org.uk
The size of the Town Guard varied Opening hours: Monday, Thursday-Saturday 10am-5pm,
depending on how much money Sunday 12pm - 4pm
was available and also in response to

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 11

p10-11 Town guard.indd 11 31/07/2017 09:55


Curators pick

Anchors and adventures


Glasgow Museums collection
of Anchor Line posters
Emily Malcolm, Curator of Transport & Technology, explores a colourful collection of historic
travel posters, which convey the excitement of world travel in years gone by

T
e Anchor Line because they were added to the design Above, from left: surplus vessels active while sailing
was one of the archive of the company and never poster Advertising on shorter trips to Gibraltar,
Glasgows longest- actually used. A fascinating aspect Anchor Line Morocco and the Cornish Riviera.
lived shipping of this is that each poster has a label services through It is also rather poignant
companies. The attached detailing the printer and the the Mediterranean that the final poster in the set,
founders began chartering cargo quantities and dates of each print run. to India, 1926 featuring a beautiful image of a
ships to the Baltic in the 1830s Most of the posters had print runs (T.1982.2.34) girl in traditional North African
and grew from strength to strength of around 2,000, but 15,000 copies dress (second from left above),
in the later part of the 19th of a dramatic highland scene were Poster advertising advertises a cruise that never took
century. By 1900 they had 27 ships ordered for distribution to Anchor Anchor Line cruises, place. Anchor Line offered two
supplying passenger and cargo Line agents in the USA and Canada 1939 (T.1982.2.37) cruises to Portugal, Spain, Algeria
services to America, Canada, the in 1922. It probably played a part in and Morocco in July and August
Mediterranean and through the creating the impression of Scotland Anchor Line Poster, 1939. The second of these voyages
Suez Canal to India. many North American tourists still 1922 (T.1982.2.52) was cancelled at the last minute as
In 1982, Glasgow Museums cherish today! war loomed.
was gifted a collection of posters Other posters reflect the great social Poster advertising You can see more images and buy
produced by the Anchor Line changes that were taking place in the Anchor Line cruises, copies at Glasgow Museums online
between 1914 and 1939. A new early years of the 20th century. There 1933 (T.1982.2.59) Photolibrary: www.csgimages.org.uk
story display featuring twelve of are examples offering cheap assisted
the finest images and digital access passage fares to Canada as low Right: poster for
to the entire collection opened at as 2 per person in 1927, but also distribution in the
Riverside Museum in April 2017. posters encouraging emigrants to pay USA advertising
The evocative advertising images visits to their homelands showing services to
show everything from ships to emigration was no longer the one-way Londonderry, about
elephants and from the Rock of ticket it had been in earlier decades. 1926 (T.1982.2.50)
Gibraltar to the skyline of New The posters also reveal the power
York. Most of the artwork is of advertising it is intriguing that
anonymous but there are designs a particularly jolly set of designs
by several prominent graphic promoting cruises in the 1930s
artists of the 1920s and 1930s actually disguise the fact that
Kenneth Shoesmith and Odin the Anchor Line was struggling
Rosenvinge among them. financially. The Great Depression saw
The posters are in near perfect a disastrous drop in the transatlantic
condition their jewel-bright passenger and cargo trade and
colours have been preserved cruising was an attempt to keep

12 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p12 Curator's pick.indd 12 31/07/2017 09:56


Archaeology news

TAP HERE
FOR A FILM
ABOUT THE IONA
DISCOVERY

Remains of St Columbas
6th-century cell identified

A
rchaeologists from the University they were still in a good condition.
of Glasgow have uncovered Thomas always believed he and his team
conclusive evidence that a had uncovered Columbas original wooden
wooden hut traditionally associated hut, but they could never prove it because the
with St Columba at the monastery on the technology was not there. Radiocarbon dating
island of Iona dates to within his lifetime. was in its infancy, it had only been discovered a
Carbon dating has led to the breakthrough, year earlier in 1956, so there was not a lot they
which categorically proves that samples of could do with the samples.
hazel charcoal, unearthed from an excavation So for us, 60 years later, to be able to send
of a simple wattle and timber structure on Top: ruins of Old Bishops House, Iona the original samples off to the radiocarbon
Iona 60 years ago, dates back to the exact Below: the Columba cell charcoal dating labs and have them come back showing,
period Columba lived and worked at the Inner within the margin of error, as something which
Hebridean monastery. It may be the monks cell where may have been built in the lifetime of St Columba, is
he prayed and studied in isolation. very exciting.
The samples, excavated in 1957 by British This is as close as any archaeologist has come
archaeologist Professor Charles Thomas, were kept to excavating a structure built during the time of
in his garage in Cornwall, preserved in matchboxes, St Columba, and it is a great vindication of the
until 2012 when they were given to Historic Scotland archaeological instincts of Thomas and his team. It is
(now Historic Environment Scotland). A University a remarkable lesson in the value of curating excavation
of Glasgow team of archaeologists identified the archives for as long as it takes, to make sure the
significance of the finds and recently submitted the material is ready for the next wave of technology.
samples for carbon dating.
St Columba, known in Gaelic as Colum Cille the The carbon dating
dove of the Church, is widely revered as a key figure Through the services of the Scottish Universities
who brought Christianity to Scotland from Ireland, Artists impression of Environmental Research Centre, the world-leading
landing on Iona in AD 563. In the Life of St Columba, St Columba in his Iona centre for scientific analysis, the team decided to carbon-
written 100 years after his death by one of his successors, Abbey monks cell date the hazel stakes and the results show the hut dated
Adomnan, described Columba writing in his cell on a back to AD 540-650. Columba died in 597AD.
rocky hillock, called Trr an Aba or the mound of the Altogether, ten radiocarbon dates were returned from
abbot within the monastery, looking out of his door towards the samples from Thomas excavations, all dating to the early medieval
mountains of Mull. period (AD 500-1100). Although the excavators of the hut had
When Professor Thomas team excavated at this site 60 years ago, argued it was likely Columbas cell, the lack of dating technology
the carbonised remains of wattle walls of a small hut were unearthed at the time led many archaeologists to dismiss the findings as
below layers of loose beach pebbles, suggesting the wooden structure speculation and scientifically unproved.
had burned down and the area deliberately filled over. The site was Richard Strachan, Senior Archaeologist at Historic Environment
later marked with a cross. Scotland, said: The results of this recent work are hugely
Until recently, the finds from the site were believed to be missing, significant and really exciting. The radiocarbon dates have
but a project led by University of Glasgow archaeologists Dr confirmed the Trr an Aba structure excavated in the 1950s to be
Ewan Campbell and Dr Adrin Maldonado, funded by Historic consistent with Columbas presence on Iona in the 6th century AD
Environment Scotland, re-located the samples. and provides compelling evidence this was Columbas writing hut,
Commenting on the findings, Dr Adrin Maldonado said: as described by Adomnan.
This discovery is massive. St Columba is a key figure in Western It endorses Thomass meticulous curation of his archive
Christendom. He was the national patron saint of Scotland in the for over 60 years ago and demonstrates the huge value in its
Middle Ages. re-examination. The team at the University of Glasgow has done an
We were granted access to the original finds from Charles amazing job synthesising his extensive excavation, and combined
Thomas, and we could work on his notes and charcoal samples with the considerable other archaeological work of Iona definitely
which were excavated in 1957. Luckily Thomas kept hold of them, add up to more than the sum of the parts. It is a huge regret that
as he knew they were important, and because they were kept dry, Professor Thomas did not live to see these results.

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 13

p13 Archaeology iona.indd 13 08/08/2017 10:31


ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS

Recording the
Lossie Coastal Crust
Matt Ritchie, archaeologist with Forestry Commission Scotland, explores what remains of the
longest and best-preserved length of anti-invasion coastal crust in Scotland

I
n the late summer of 1940, under threat from German At over 8km in length, the coastal defences in Lossie Forest
invasion, sections of the British coast where the enemy comprise the longest and best-preserved length of anti-invasion
could easily land were fortified with a series of defences coastal crust in Scotland.
built along them, forming a crust. The Moray coastal However, conservation management of this historic asset can be
defences ran between Cullen Bay and Findhorn Bay, difficult. While the encroaching scrub vegetation can be removed,
through todays Lossie and Roseisle Forests. structural concrete degrades and steel rusts. Many of the buildings
Within Lossie Forest, you can still discover evidence of the are hazardous and are unsafe to enter.
variety of defences constructed: an unbroken line of anti-tank The coastline itself is dynamic, occasionally burying
blocks interspersed with pillboxes and road blocks; and a coastal blocks and pillboxes in sand and shingle. Recording the
gun battery at Innes Links, complete with Battery Observation structural evidence is an ongoing process, using photography,
Post, generator houses, searchlights and the concrete foundations archaeological measured survey and (in recent years) terrestrial
of the barrack blocks. laser scanning.

Laser scanning allows the creation


of what surveyors call a point cloud
a 3D digital view of the millions of
vertices (or points) recorded during
the survey. These in turn can be
processed into a polygonal mesh,
effectively a surface draped over
the point cloud, which can then be
coloured or shaded to produce the
desired effect. The resulting models
can then be presented in 3D or as a
plan, section or elevation. This view
shows the initial point cloud of a
road block and its associated anti-
tank blocks, artificially coloured by
elevation. The slots were designed to
hold three lengths of steel tram line at
different levels.

By combining new archaeological survey techniques


with an aesthetic illustrative methodology we can
produce detailed site records alongside innovative
and spectacular illustrations, encouraging greater
engagement and understanding. This survey of
the gun emplacement has been presented in an
evocative blueprint style.

14 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

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Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com

Krzystof Madejski describes constructing the anti-tank


cubes along the Lossie coastline in the Kronika of the
1st Polish Engineer Company: [Building the concrete
blocks] is very zmudne (tedious) and unpleasant
because of the continuously blowing wind, which
covers the workers with sand and cement They
return to camp white with dust and complain about
the concrete mixers that regularly break down.

Archaeological measured survey has always been a powerful


illustrative tool, enhancing knowledge, raising awareness and
providing a baseline of information for conservation and
management. This image shows the initial point cloud of a
pillbox and stretch of anti-tank blocks, with real colour captured
at the time of survey. Find out more about the defence of
Scotland during World War II in If Hitler Comes: preparing for
invasion: Scotland 1940 (Dr Gordon Barclay, Birlinn, 2013).

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 15

p14-15 Lossiemouth V2.indd 15 31/07/2017 10:00


ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS

SAMPHIRE
Working with Scottish communities
to preserve local heritage
Lesley Dalgleish and Dan Atkinson of Wessex Archaeology report on a project which
utilised the knowledge of local communities to investigate wrecks along the west coast

A
fascinating and Detailed planning at Wessex Archaeology worked four key phases; preparation and
innovative project that was undertaken with Flinders University in south promotion; community engagement
captured local knowledge before each dive Australia to combine their expertise and fieldwork; site investigation
and helped preserve with the knowledge of local maritime fieldwork; and finally, analysis and
Scottish maritime heritage along communities over the course of two dissemination. Embedded in this
the west coast of Scotland aims One of the Fearnmore years from 2013 to 2015 as part of methodology was the way in which
to provide a blueprint for future wrecks, discovered project SAMPHIRE. communities and individuals were
projects, according to archaeologists by Professor Karen The Project was a great success encouraged to engage with the
from Wessex Archaeology. The team Hardy in 2015 and resulted in over 100 new sites project, and take ownership of their
being revealed and recorded. The local heritage.
innovative approach that Project The first phase established the
SAMPHIRE adopted crowd- community locations that would
sourcing knowledge and engaging be crucial to the other phases. The
with local communities was locations were chosen based on
acknowledged recently by Europa factors such as population size,
Nostra when SAMPHIRE was accessibility and existing contacts.
awarded the prestigious European Members of the SAMPHIRE
Union Prize for Cultural Heritage/ team combined pre-arranged
Europa Nostra Awards 2017 talks and meetings with a more
in the Education, Training and organic approach where they visited
Awareness-raising category. promising areas and engaged with
So how was this innovative the locals to establish contacts
approach achieved? Each year within the maritime community
Project SAMPHIRE underwent and garner local knowledge. It was

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Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com

quickly apparent that these two ensuring the projects success.


approaches were effective, with a One example of a fascinating
wealth of information being supplied find that would never have been
by various members of the local identified had it not been for local
communities such as recreational community involvement were the
divers, fishermen, harbour masters remains of a wreck at Fearnmore
and scallop divers. Alongside near Applecross along the west
this, the team also disseminated Highlands coast.
information about the project to In 2015 Professor Karen Hardy,
the public through tools such as a collaborator with the project and
websites, flyers and a blog. expert in prehistoric archaeology,
The second step was to meet contacted the SAMPHIRE team
the targeted communities through to report some unrecorded wrecks
pre-arranged meetings and she had noticed at Fearnmore. It
organic approaches. Both of these quickly became apparent that the
approaches proved to be hugely team were going to have to call upon
successful as people from the local local knowledge to understand the One of the
communities were keen to share wrecks and so they reached out to Fearnmore wrecks,
their knowledge of sites they had Sheildaig resident Robert Gordon, which was further
seen themselves or heard stories who had been a friend of the project investigated thanks
of over the years. Many sites were since 2013. to the input of
reported to the team with the Harris resident Hamish Taylor members of the
aid of admiralty charts and dive also assisted by getting in touch after local community
logs. Recreational divers proved spotting some pictures that had been
themselves to be an invaluable shared with the West Coast fishing Talks and
asset at this stage and various boat group (Past & Present) on community events
meetings and talks were held with Facebook. Within the remains of the kept members
local sub-aqua clubs along the wrecks two engines are still visible of the public definitively proven. Nonetheless
length of the west coast. and Hamish could identify these as a up to date with these two wrecks represent how
A high level of organisation was 13/15 Kelvin Poppet petrol/paraffin the progress a collaborative approach to
also involved in terms of the follow engine and a 26/30 Poppet where of the project, archaeology can be incredibly
up investigations, with diver safety the smaller engine would have been encouraging people valuable. Had it not been for the
taking precedent for the planning located on the starboard side of the to get involved initial reporting of the finds by
of the operations, as many of the vessel, and the larger engine located Professor Hardy and the combined
locations proposed were remote on the port side. knowledge and efforts of various
and far from emergency services. The information provided by members of the local community,
Sites were considered for further Robert Gordon was extremely these wrecks may never have been
investigation based on several factors valuable and he visited the site recorded at all.
but a desire to target previously to take more pictures. He was The success of the project can be
unknown sites was a key objective. also able to provide a probable measured not just by the number
The investigation fieldwork was identification and brief history of of newly recorded sites, that are
primarily carried out by diver survey the wrecks. He informed the team now shared online through the
of the sites reported, by members of that the locals believed the two website and Canmore database and
both the SAMPHIRE dive team and wrecks to be the Queen and the through the hard copy publications,
wherever possible with input from Sally; Queen having been beached but also in the increased trust
local volunteers who had supplied at the end of World War II and the and positivity shared by the
the initial information. Intertidal Sally having been present on the site communities that were engaged and
survey and aerial survey were also for longer. Another local, Donnie the archaeologists involved.
undertaken to investigate sites that Johnston provided the team with Much of the information gained
were not completely submerged. the information that the Queen had during field survey was also
Finally, the dissemination phase of belonged to a man called Alistair disseminated more widely through
the project consisted of ongoing blog MacDonald and had been put local talks and community events.
and website updates, the addition of ashore in the 1950s. New finds and friends were made
the information gathered in to the The identity of the Sally was not each year. The team hopes that
national database, Canmore, and so clear until fisherman Donald the inclusive model applied during
ultimately the publication of three Livingston contacted the team to tell project SAMPHIRE will provide a
annual reports detailing the finds of them that the mysterious Sally was foundation for similar projects in
each year of the project. in fact the Elizabeth, another skiff the future.
Throughout the course of the thought to have been beached in the
three-year project the information 1930s. There are no recorded losses Information on all the discoveries made
gathered from members of the of vessels going by any of these by SAMPHIRE and its partners can be
local communities was crucial in names so their identities cannot be found at www.wessexarch.co.uk/samphire

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 17

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www.historyscotland.com

THE SCOTS DEFEAT


AT PINKIE IN 1547
NEW LIGHT ON HOW AND WHERE
Pinkie was a major battle; the last fought between the Scots and English as separate
nations. David Caldwell presents some new information on what actually happened in the
battle and reviews the evidence for where the battle took place.

I
n 1579 Thomas Digges had (c.1515 - c.1559), also famous in his Scottish and English main contemporary authority on the
published in London an day as a mathematician and scientist. troop formations battle, William Patten, as having taken
important work in the history The writer consulted this work as overlaid on a modern part in the cavalry attack which was
of science An Arithmeticall it appeared it would provide useful map of the battle site repulsed by the Scottish vanguard.
Militare Treatise named Stratioticos. information on drawing up and moving Digges cites Pinkie (Muscleborough
It was aimed at gunners, military armies, specifically for research he was Fielde) as an example of how
camp masters and other professional undertaking on the battle of Pinkie in an enemy can be defeated by the
soldiers, providing methods of 1547. It did indeed do so. malicious spreading of rumours:
calculating, amongst other things, To his surprise, there was included Some in the line of battle by corrupted
the range of guns, the area of ground in the book a marginal note on why espies or otherwise have caused rumour to
necessary to encamp an army, and the Scots lost at Pinkie, and on delving be spread in the enemies battell, that their
how to draw up units of fighting deeper the author discovered that Generall was slain or some part of them
men.It is clear that much of the work Leonard Digges fought in that battle. defeated or flying away, and thereby so
is derived from his father Leonard He is specifically mentioned by the amazed them in the middest of the flight,

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Military history - battle of Pinkie

that they have swayed and broke: but this else a ditch or a drain. Patten also there is a feature named Colton
must be done in the contrey part of the describes this feature on the battlefield Dean, which could well be the slough
battle, where the general is not to be seen. as a cross ditch, which might mean described by Patten. It is deep and
one that ran at right angles to the wide, positioned right on the margin
What is especially interesting adjacent agricultural rigs except of the lower slopes with the steeper
about this is that Digges appears to be that is not what his plans of the battle slopes of Falside Hill, and would have
reflecting a view that does not come show. They represent a linear feature presented a significant impediment to
through in more official or influential approximately on the same orientation the progress of mounted troops. It is
English reports but perhaps one that as the rigs. It appears to have been a now relatively dry, but that is clearly
was held in the ranks of the English feature with distinct edges, one that due to a substantial piped drain that
army. This opinion about the Scottish could be leapt over by some of the runs its length. The landscape of the
collapse may also underlie a report by English horsemen, but in the bottom Pinkie area has changed enormously
the French ambassador in London, of which others got stuck. Taking since 1547, and we presently do not
Odet de Selve, who wrote that the Pattens plans literally, this was a ditch know to what extent Colton Dean
Scottish defeat was by an unbelievable that defined the south edge of the rig might have been altered in more recent
misfortune which no one could and furrow cultivated zone stretching times, perhaps quarried or otherwise
have had any good reason to have southwards from Inveresk. It may enlarged. In the writers view, however,
predicted. De Selves main source of be surmised that it then marked the it must be a strong candidate to be the
information was the commander of upper limit of cultivation, with pasture slough. This identification helps
the Scottish rear guard, the Earl of and moorland beyond it, including explain how the battle developed on
Huntly, taken prisoner by the English. Falside Hill. 10 September, 1547.
So what is the particular context

A major consideration in locating the


of Digges assertion and is there any
truth in it? The author decided to

battle was the identication of the slough


investigate. In 1991 he published an
account of the battle in a book of
essays on Scotland And War. At that
time he was primarily interested in
the overall political context of the which features largely in the main account
of the ghting
battle, why it happened and what the
consequences were. He concluded
that the battle took place about half
a kilometre to the southeast of the
battle monument which is positioned Patten never describes the slough The English army led by the duke
off Salters Road, Wallyford, at the as a burn or stream, and the Carberry of Somerset, protector of England on
A1 junction. A major consideration Phase 2 of the battle, Burn nowadays does not look much of behalf of the young King Edward VI,
in locating the battle was the as each army begins an obstacle to determined horsemen. had advanced through Berwickshire
identification of the slough which to advance To the east of the Carberry Burn and East Lothian, supported by a
features largely in the main account
of the fighting. In 1991 the author
thought that it might equate with
the Carberry Burn, a tributary of
the River Esk. Now on reviewing all
the evidence again, paying particular
attention to the topographic clues
provided by contemporary and early
accounts of the battle, he is still
inclined to think that the battle took
place well away from the monument,
even further eastwards than he had
previously supposed.
The key reason for thinking this
is a reconsideration of the slough
which features so largely in the
account of the battle by William
Patten. Patten was what we might call
in present day parlance an English
staff officer. He was well placed to
see and understand all that happened
and reflect the views of the English
high command. A slough is a piece
of soft, boggy or muddy ground, or

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www.historyscotland.com

strong fleet. Somerset was intent on do not appear to have any rationale Plan showing Scottish (the contemporary word used for
persuading the Scottish administration for this that can be attributed to the forces encountering battalions) in which the men would
to back down on its refusal to allow Scottish high command as distinct the English Cavalry fight. Even so, it was no small or quick
the marriage of the baby Queen Mary from disparaging explanations from task for the Scottish commanders to
to the English king, and it was part of the English and other detractors of have their men march out of camp,
his strategy to induce this change of the governor. There would be many cross the river, some by the bridge
heart by holding large swathes of the amongst the Scots, however, who at Musselburgh, others by wading,
country from a series of earthwork would recall the battle fought between and draw them up ready to fight. The
forts. Work had already started on two national armies at Flodden in most reliable estimate of the size of the
one of these at Eyemouth. Somerset 1513 when the Scots stayed in their Scottish army is that given by the earl
did not necessarily expect to fight a camp until it was almost too late while of Huntly 22,000 or 23,000 strong.
Scottish army in the field. The night an English army manoeuvred around There were three forces of pikemen,
before the battle he camped his army their position. Facing an English army perhaps each about 6,000 strong.
at Prestonpans. whose main strength was cavalry, there The other forces consisted of light
By then he was aware that the was no option for Arran to withdraw horsemen (prickers in contemporary
Scottish governor, the earl of Arran, and risk being taken in rear. The other parlance) and Irish archers. We might
had gathered a large army and had it side of the Esk there was a piece of high guess about 1,500 for the former and
camped at Monktonhall on the west ground, now largely represented by about 3,000 for the latter.
bank of the river Esk. On 9 September Lewisvale Park in Inveresk, extensive Pikes are very long spears, over
the Scottish horse had been worsted enough for Arran to draw up his army three times the height of an average
and driven off by a superior force in battle array. This is what is referred man, and large units of pikemen had
of English cavalry which allowed to by Patten as the two hillocks because been a major feature of European
Somerset the opportunity to view the so it would have appeared to the battlefields since the late 15th
Scottish camp and make plans for English approaching from the east. century. The Scots had been armed
how to draw closer and bombard it Not far to the east of this high ground as pikemen at Flodden in 1513, and
with his artillery. is Pinkie Cleugh, a gorge or ravine that just as then, the pikes in 1547 may
Rather than stay in their camp, the would have been difficult for either have been issued from the arsenal
Scots moved out first thing on the army to traverse. in Edinburgh Castle rather than
morning of 10 September, crossing It must be supposed that supplied by individuals. We must also
the River Esk and drawing nearer to the Scottish camp was laid out suppose the presence of a number of
the English camp. Unfortunately, we according to the units and battles experienced or professional men who

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Military history - battle of Pinkie

could facilitate the drawing up of the positioned on the right wing of the commentators that they were last
battles and act as officers. We know battle line. in order in the army but first to run
that generals of the period wanted The archers, presumably also armed away; that they were so unsettled
their pike units to be arranged as with axes, were drawn up on the left by English gun fire from the ships
square formations, which meant in wing of the army. They are described that they refused to advance with
practice, in order to give each rank as Irish but were actually men from the rest of the army? Perhaps a more
enough space when marching, that Argyll and the Isles under the overall appropriate image to retain of them
there was a ratio of 7:3, files to ranks, command of the earl of Argyll. comes from the pages of George
with enough space on either side of Perhaps the most substantial element Buchanans History. He describes how
each man for him to use his weapons. amongst them would have been during the rout of the Scottish army
Thus a battle of about 6,000 men contributed by the staunch Campbell the Highlanders formed a circle in
good order and retreated without loss,
unassailed by the English.

The Scots had been armed as pikemen On marching out from their
camp at Prestonpans first thing in

at Flodden in 1513 and just as then, the


the morning the English were soon
aware that the Scottish army was

pikes in 1547 may have been issued from


drawn up ahead of them, on the
far side of Pinkie Cleugh. They had
not anticipated this development,

the arsenal in Edinburgh Castle and there was a pause of some time
as both generals considered their
options. Neither would have wanted
to advance through Pinkie Cleugh
might have had a front face of about ally, Clan Donald South, under the and both would have been aware of
118 men with their pikes and those leadership of James MacDonald the potential danger of turning their
of at least the two rows behind of Dunyvaig and the Glynns. He armies and being taken in flank, even
thrusting forward. The whole unit and Argyll had landed their men though at this point they may have
would have measured about 108m from their galleys near Glasgow. Of been well over a mile apart. Guns were
square. Depending on the gaps all the forces in the Scottish army fired by both sides, including some
between these units, the line of battle these warriors were likely to have from the English ships immediately
they formed at Inveresk might have been the most experienced and off-shore. The effectiveness of this fire,
been in the region of half a kilometre. professional, many no doubt having particularly from shipboard, is seen
The main battle was commanded participated in campaigns in Ireland by many commentators as one of the
by the Governor, the earl of Arran. that had humiliated or scared the The battle lines key events which brought victory to
To his right was the vanguard under English administration there. Does during phase four of the English, but neither side felt able
the earl of Angus and to his left the that explain the jibes by English the battle to crow about hits or regret losses.
rear guard under the earl of Huntly.
All three men had had successful
battle experience. The Scots also
had an artillery train, mostly
relatively light pieces that could be
pulled and manoeuvred speedily by
squads of men. They were probably
positioned in the gaps between the
battles of pikemen.
The presence of horsemen and
archers is often down-played, largely
due to the biased way they are dealt
with by English reporters. It is even
claimed by some commentators
that the horsemen took no part in
the events of 10 September. Are
we really to believe, however, that a
force which, by the admission of the
English themselves, captured three of
their captains on the ninth suffered
more than 50 percent casualties that
day? There is sufficient evidence
to show that the Scottish prickers
were still a force to be reckoned
with on the 10th and were no doubt

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The battle of and needed to stop and reorganise


Pinkie,woodcut themselves, but in any case, with their
illustration by vanguard only about 500m from the
William Patten, 1548 English vanguard, they were aware that
they were about to be attacked by a
force of English horse that had headed
southwards and was about to swing
round and come at their vanguard
down the slopes of Carberry Hill.
Whether by accident or design on the
part of the Scots, they were positioned
in such a way that the English horse
had to negotiate a slough in order to
get at them. If this slough was Colton
Dean, the Scottish units of foot at this
point would have stretched from about
the position of the present day steading
of Crookston NSE for a distance,
perhaps, of about 0.7km, and if badly
bunched up less than that.
The cavalry attack was successfully
seen off by Angus men. The English
suffered a number of casualties
and some of their units were badly
disordered in the retreat. Meanwhile,
Somerset got his baggage train well
away from the likely scene of battle
to the summit of Falside Hill to the
northeast of Falside Castle. He also
pushed ahead some of his artillery, well
up the slope of the hill. The Scottish
horse, which had by accident or design
avoided coming into contact with any
of the English horse units, failed in an
attempt to stop these guns becoming a
threat to their own pikemen.
Somerset, however, did not continue
with the general advance of his
footmen up Falside Hill. Instead he
Perhaps the one recorded casualty men and which he had to protect, used the breathing space given him by
on the Scottish side, the death of the and on the other hand, his cavalry, in the cavalry attack to wheel his battles
Master of Graham, was more in the numbers almost a third of his army of footmen around to form a battle
nature of a lucky strike. of about 17,000 fighting men but by line somewhere between the present
The Scots broke the deadlock by far his main strength, would now be day built-up area of Wallyford and the
moving first. Perhaps gun fire had marching with their own foot units slopes of Falside Hill. The authors
something to do with their decision, between them and the enemy. Not best guess is that it stretched for about
perhaps they saw the advantage of only that, it probably did not take him 400m on a NNW SSE alignment
outflanking the English and gaining too long to realise that the Scots would just to the west of St Clements Wells
the high ground represented by win this race. Drastic action was clearly and to the south of the present day
Falside Hill. Through a combination of required. That took the form of sending A1 dual carriageway. It also consisted
distance, the lie of the land and weather out a force of cavalry, including of three battles, mostly armed with
conditions (not good?) the Scottish Leonard Digges, to stop the Scottish pikes but with significant numbers of
move was not immediately obvious to advance and give time for the rest of archers and men armed with hagbuts
Somerset who had to rely on reports the English army to manoeuvre. (an early type of hand gun). The
brought to him by his horsemen. His The Scottish army had been moving archers and hagbutters were brought
assessment was evidently that he had close enough that its gunners had forward to screen the pikemen and
to gain Falside Hill before the Scots, considered it worthwhile to fire their there was artillery on the left wing. All
and he wheeled his army round to guns at the English. The Scottish horse this manoeuvring was probably done
do so. In this he was clearly at a great may already have been sent ahead to efficiently and quickly. The English
disadvantage. On the one hand, unlike try and take possession of Falside Hill. army had been in enemy territory since
the Scots, he had a large baggage train Possibly in their speed the Scottish 4 September and had daily experience
that had to keep pace with his fighting battles had become a bit disordered since then of being prepared to meet

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Military history - battle of Pinkie

enemy threats. Battle formation: English Army


The English vanguard was only two
flightshot (about 500m) away from
Angus battle, but all the Scottish units
were still in line of march, stretching
away on the line of the present road
from Crookston to West Mains. Each
battle now had to be swung round
counter-clockwise to oppose the
English, a difficult enough task in ideal
circumstances, but now required in
the face of an enemy which could now
effectively target them with artillery
and bring up hagbutters to fire into
their ranks. The English horse had
also been re-grouped and further
cavalry attacks were likely. Also, this
was the very first day that the Scottish
forces had been mustered and moved
together as one army.
At this point let us remind ourselves
of what Leonard Digges had to say
about the reason for the Scots defeat,
that rumours were spread amongst
their ranks about the death or flight
of their general, rumours that so
affected them that they broke and fled.
The author believes that this really
does explain what happened. The
immediate context is that the Scottish
battles were too bunched together and
Arrans was effectively being squeezed
out by Angus and Huntlys. It thus
started to break up. It would have
been difficult for most Scots in the
ranks to see what was happening but
the English with their vantage points
on Falside Hill would understand, and
informed hagbutters and horsemen
would no doubt be only too happy
to jeer and point at their old enemy.
Possibly Angus and Huntly tried to
position their battles alongside each
other, but by that time it was too late.
Rumours of flight were turned into
reality as every man looked to his
own safety. Until that point casualties
on both sides had probably been
relatively light, but in the ensuing rout
many Scots were ridden down by the
English horse, and possibly as many as Battle formation of the French to eject the English and
6,000 were killed. That is the estimate the Scottish Army, sent their young queen for marriage
given by Huntly. showing the numbers to the French Dauphin.
Pinkie was undoubtedly a black and percentage of FURTHER
day for the Scots, and if we believe
Leonard Digges explanation we can
each section Dr David Caldwell, prior to retiring from
National Museums Scotland in 2012, READING
take no pride in how our ancestors was Keeper of Scotland and Europe and
behaved. It was not, however, a Keeper of Archaeology. He is currently Scotland And War AD 79-1918,
knock-out blow. Somerset was to fail President of the Society of Antiquaries of Norman MacDougall (ed.)
in his objectives of achieving a royal Scotland,Vice-President of the Society (Edinburgh 1991), 61-94
English-Scottish marriage alliance. for Post-Medieval Archaeology, and a
The Scots turned to their old allies director of Fife Cultural Trust.

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THE ROYAL CLYDE


Yacht Club
David I Hutchison explores the history of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, from a meteoric rise in
membership to the years of exciting world-class yacht races, followed by a decline hastened
by the outbreak of World War I and subsequent loss of their prestigious clubhouse

W
ith rapid industrial cities, where they developed a great Britannia and burgee: blue background with a red
growth on the passion for yachting. Vigilant at Hunters lion on a yellow shield in the centre.
River Clyde, the The Northern Yacht Club, which Quay in 1894 The term Model, which refers to a
estuary became a was founded in Belfast in 1824, was restriction to yachts of less than eight
popular holiday divided into two sub-sections (Irish tons, was dropped from the title in
and yachting destination. The spread and Scottish). This association became 1864 when the club became known
of yachting was inextricably linked the first yacht club on the Clyde and as the Clyde Yacht Club (CYC).
to the expansion of steamer routes received its Royal Warrant in 1830 James Smith of Jordanhill, the
and piers doon the watter. James to become the Royal Northern Yacht distinguished first Commodore of the
Hunter of Hafton built the first hotel Club (RNYC). The Irish section club, was a merchant, antiquarian,
at Hunters Quay in 1871 and initially petered out and was eventually architect, geologist, biblical critic, and
rented rooms to the prestigious Royal dissolved in 1838. The surviving an authority on ancient shipping &
Clyde Yacht Club. By the end of the Scottish section grew stronger, with navigation. He was famously known
19th century the RCYCs new Royal Largs becoming a centre of activity. as the father of yachting on the
Marine Hotel and Clubhouse had Nevertheless, yachting did not really River Clyde.
become one of the foremost yacht take off on the Clyde until the middle The Hon G. F. Boyle, who later
racing venues in the world. of the 19th century. The Clydes Royal inherited the title earl of Glasgow,
yachting connection was reaffirmed became the second Commodore
Emergence of yacht with Queen Victorias visit aboard the in 1861. During his 26-year
clubs on the Clyde Royal Yacht in 1847. stewardship the club went through
The Industrial Revolution, It was only after the foundation a period of great transformation
shipbuilding and growing overseas of the Glasgow based Clyde Model and membership rose from 85 to
trade brought great prosperity to Yacht Club in September 1856 that 610 persons. As the great industrial
the region. As a result many wealthy regular weekly races took place on wealth of the region increased so
industrialists and merchants bought the Clyde. On 27 January 1857 the too did the size of the club yachts
mansions along the coast, away from Admiralty gave permission for the (from eight tonners to 40 tonners).
all the noise and pollution of the big club to fly the blue ensign with their By 1865 the CYC was well

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The Royal Clyde Yacht Club

Clerk of Works. The three-storey hotel


section contained a ladies coffee room;
several parlours; twelve bedrooms; and
all the facilities associated with a first
class hotel. The two-storey club section
had six rooms for coffee; reading;
billiards; smoking; club master; and
committee meetings. The total cost
of the building when completed and
fully furnished was just under 5,000.
Amazingly after only eight months of
construction James Hunters Royal
Marine Hotel was in operation and the
yacht club was finally able to leave its
rented Glasgow headquarters.
During 1871 the club had been
actively petitioning to gain Royal
Status but it was not until 18
December, 1871 that a formal letter
indicating the Queens approval
was finally received. The new Royal
Clyde Yacht Club flag was proudly
established on the Clyde and had Signal Tower and Service in Bombay for a few years displayed from a massive flagpole in
become quite influential among James Hunters before returning home to Hafton front of the new hotel, but now the
the many yacht clubs which raced original pier, c.1830 House following his marriage in lion on the flag had its royal crown.
there, several of which carried the 1864. James was chairman of the Members proudly met for the first
royal title. However, during the Dunoon & Kilmun School Board time in their new rooms on 30 May,
spring of 1871 members of the club and one of the most popular 1872 to enjoy a celebratory lunch
began to feel that it was no longer landlords in Argyll. At the time of his before embarking on the opening
consistent with the importance death he had built up an extensive cruise of the season. With the new
of the club or the convenience farm and property portfolio which clubhouse facilities and Royal status,
of its members to be without a included Dunoon pier. membership increase rapidly from
headquarters and an address. In 1871 it came to the attention 140 in 1871 to 400 in 1873. As a keen
of the committee of the Clyde Yacht yachtsman and member of the RCYC,
Hunters Quay and the Club (CYC) that James Hunter James Hunter donated the Hafton
original Royal Marine Hotel of Hafton was planning to build a Cup for yachts competing in the
The first James Hunter of Hafton private hotel at Hunters Quay. It was twenty to 40 tons category in 1874.
(1780-1834) was a wealthy Greenock indicated that he might be willing The RCYC went into debt for
businessman. He purchased the Hafton to set aside a modest suite of three the first time in 1875 due to rising
Estate c.1815 and built Hafton House rooms for the exclusive use of the costs and low annual subscription
in 1816. In order to encourage the club for up to ten years at a rent not fees, which were still two guineas.
building of big marine villas on their exceeding 60 per year. By October Notwithstanding, the finances of the
estate the Hunters built a stone quay

The imposing new English


in 1828 which resulted in the name
Hunters Quay.
At the time of James Hunters death
in 1834 he was a partner in a diverse
range of prestigious companies across
styled club yacht-house was
the water, among them: Greenock
Bank; Gourock Ropeworks; Wallace quite unrivalled in the kingdom
& Hunter; Shaws Water; Castles
Steamboat; Monkland Canal, and 1871 the lease arrangement had been club were soon to be stretched even
Robertson & Hunter. These business settled but work on the building had further. James Hunter of Hafton
interests represented a personal not yet commenced. Membership of inquired if the yacht club would like
fortune of 30,000 on his death and the yacht club at this time was 140, to buy the hotel/clubhouse outright
in addition the Hafton Estate was with the annual subscription set at for 4,000. By October 1875 all
bequeathed to his eldest son. just two guineas. the requisite loans, overdrafts and
A later James Hunter (1838-76) The architects of the spacious legal documents were in place for
was involved in further expansion of hotel and clubhouse were Messrs. the club to take over the running of
the estate and in particular building Pilkington and Bell of Edinburgh both their clubhouse and the hotel.
the first hotel at Hunters Quay. He and Mr A Purdie, a surveyor for On 16 November,1875 the sale was
had worked for the East India Civil the Hafton Estate, was appointed concluded and by 1877 the club was

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thriving with 643 members, a fleet had to be removed from the site due to Valkyrie II, one of the Gourock railway line was opened on 1
of 195 yachts and a brand new brass their intoxicated state. finest yachts ever June, 1889. Compared to a three-hour
starters cannon proudly displayed in It was not until January 1889 that built on the Clyde, steamer trip direct from Glasgow,
front of the clubhouse. However, it the Dunoon Police Commissioners was commissioned by Hunters Quay could now be reached
was not until 1878 that the club finally (which were still responsible for Lord Dunraven from a by train/steamer in two hours.
purchased the remaining furnishings Hunters Quay) recommended that prominent member of This made the RCYC and the new
and stock for an additional 1,150 a fire brigade be formed. Mr James the RCYC Royal Marine Hotel a much more
In the early 1880s the RCYC Collie the Burgh Surveyor placed an appealing destination for yachtsmen
patronised a big summer Marine Fete advertisement in the newspaper for and tourists alike.
at Hunters Quay which included four firemen on 30 January and the When the new building was
some rather unusual competitions: Dunoon Fire Brigade was officially opened on 28 December, 1889 it
swimming for yachtsmen with clothes formed on 16 February, 1889. was renamed the Royal Marine
on; swimming with a flag in one Hotel. The imposing new English
hand; and water polo on horseback. The new Royal Marine Hotel styled club yacht-house was quite
The horses were made from ballasted While the new hotel and clubhouse unrivalled in the kingdom. Above
barrels with an assortment of tails were being built the nearby Craigend the spacious public rooms there
and heads attached. The players had Villa was quickly rented for a year were 40 bedrooms, bathrooms and
double paddles to manoeuvre their to provide temporary facilities. changing rooms. A first floor balcony
extremely unstable craft and propel As the hotel was fully insured the provided a fine vantage point for
the polo ball. committee quickly organised an open the yacht racing and the billiards
The club experienced a steady architectural competition for a larger room, with its fine oak roof and
increase in influence and prosperity and more imposing replacement for low-arched windows, also offered
over the next few years and due to the old hotel and clubhouse. By the magnificent views of the Clyde.
the increase in hotel visitors a large end of 1888 Thomas Lennox Watsons The internal decor was designed to
extension was built in 1882. The design had been selected. T L Watson complement the fine carved wood
hotel now boasted 34 bedrooms was the cousin of famous naval work and stained glass windows.
and a dining room which could architect George Lennox Watson The clubs reading room was full
accommodate 100 guests. who was a distinguished member of of model yachts, historical yachting
In 1887 a syndicate from the RCYC the club. The initial estimate for the photographs and paintings of famous
headed by Vice Commodore James work was just over 6,000 so they members. During the rebuilding
Bell built the G L Watson designed quickly began to look at financing the project the small landing pier and
yacht Thistle to challenge the New York project. The list of Trustees appointed access from the road were greatly
Yacht Clubs yacht Volunteer in the in December 1888 read like a Whos improved. However, the big new
7th Americas Cup. Thistle won eleven Who of big business on the Clyde hotel only had one small flagpole
races out of her fifteen starts in home and as a result 8,000 to start the which was attached to the top of the
waters but sadly lost the Americas rebuilding project was quickly raised stone tower.
Cup series in the US later that year. by just 32 of the 643 members.
On 12 July, 1888 a fire broke out However, the final cost including The golden years
in the kitchen and quickly spread to all the luxurious fittings and The opening cruise of 1890 heralded
the rest of the hotel because there furnishings is believed to have the start of the Golden Years of the
were no fire appliances. A telegram been in excess of 18,000. RCYC and the Royal Marine Hotel
was immediately sent to Dunoon Fortuitously, significantly which lasted two decades. Due to the
and the fire hose arrived within 45 improved transportation influence of its members, the club was
minutes. However, it was found to be links materialised in a position to organise some of the
far too short to be of any use so the just in time for the most exciting yacht races the world
damage was much more extensive opening of the new had ever seen: the Americas Cup
than it should have been and the hotel hotel. Following challenge of 1893; the battle between
burnt to the ground. The fire hose extensive the big US yacht Vigilant and the
lay unused on the shore road and tunnelling Royal yacht Britannia in 1894;
provided a great source of amusement work the and the Olympic twelve metre
at the expense of the authorities. Greenock competition in 1908.
Fortunately the fire occurred during to
the day so everybody managed to The Club had rapidly
escape to safety. Much of the furniture grown in influence and
and liquor stock was removed in time power within thirty years of
but tragically the club records and
yachting photographs did not survive.
It appears that many of the
liquid assets found their way
into the hands of the local
volunteers and observers. In
fact, several of the helpers

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The Royal Clyde Yacht Club

its formation.
Quite apart from Royal patrons and
titled Commodores, the membership
included the cream of the industrial
aristocracy of the West - the thread-
making Coats and Clarks of Paisley;
MacIver of Liverpool, Donaldson, Birrell
and Dunlop among the shipowners;
such shipbuilders as Scott, Inglis,
Duncan Hamilton and Connell - with
Professor J.H. Biles of the chair of Naval
Architecture at Glasgow University;
William Beardmore, John Ure,Wylie,
Teacher,Thom in a looser classification;
then Lyles and Neills of the Greenock
sugar refining dynasties.

The imposing new RCYC


clubhouse at Hunters Quay was now
at the very heart of Clyde yachting
with membership over 800. The club
even had its own 40 ton yacht Alcyone,
for the exclusive use of members. The
three leading yacht designers of the day The new Royal Marine be kept alive in the hotels bathtubs, tide and towed to Greenock for
William Fife, George Lennox Watson Hotel, pictured would always be on the menu. inspection. Fortunately, her mast did
and Alfred Mylne were all influential in 1890, the year after 1893 was a very notably year for provide an admirable replacement for
members of this prestigious club. Such the new Greenock both Clyde yachting and the RCYC. the big flagpole at the original hotel.
was the importance of the organisation to Gourock railway The Prince of Wales and Lord This new flagpole remained in the
that the committee was instrumental line opened, allowing Dunraven went to G L Watson to garden of the hotel until 1988 when
in getting a telegraph office built at the Hunters Quay to design two of the finest yachts ever it had to be removed due to safety
entrance of the clubhouse to quickly be reached from built on the Clyde, Britannia and concerns. The mast was then recycled
relay results of yacht races to London Glasgow in two hours Valkyrie II. It was a great honour for and turned into the wooden benches
and allow the captains of industry to one of the clubs most active members that can still be seen at the Lazaretto
remain in contact with their businesses. to be awarded these high-status Point war memorial.
In 1897 the club was asked to bring commissions. In a late season race The skirl of pipes aboard the big
its influence to bear to persuade the organised by the New York Yacht Club steam yachts anchored off Hunters
Post Office authorities to extend the in October 1893 Valkyrie II sadly lost Quay on 9 July, 1894 heralded
Glasgow telephone line to Dunoon. the Americas Cup challenge to US breakfast and the start of one of the
most significant days in the history
It was said that at times you of yacht racing on the Clyde. On
the lawn of the hotel music was

could almost walk between Hunters provided by the brass band from
the sail training ship Empress, which

Quay and Strone Point there were so was based in the Gareloch between
1889 and the 1920s. Out at sea the
band of the 1st Volunteer Battalion of
many yachts anchored offshore the Highland Light Infantry played
aboard the club steamer, which had
The start of each new season was yacht Vigilant, many attributing the been hired for the day.
always a very special occasion. It was unfortunate defeat to her sail problems. Dunselma, which was built as a
said that at times you could almost At the start of the 1894 season sailing lodge for James Coats can also
walk between Hunters Quay and Valkyrie II was tragically hit below be seen in the photograph below, on
Strone Point there were so many the waterline in an accident at the the skyline above Strone Point:
yachts anchored offshore. As carriages start of the Mudhook Regatta race off
drew up to the entrance they would Hunters Quay and sunk in seventeen This house and associated buildings
be greeted by the band of the Argyll fathoms of water in just nine minutes. are the ultimate expression of conspicuous
& Sutherland Highlanders playing After a massive operation to recover wealth of the late 19th century
on the lawn. Morning dress was the yacht she was brought ashore industrialists. .James Coats Junior
prescribed for the opening dinners at Ardnadam to be pumped out, (1841-1912) was the grandson of
and Herr Iffs famous string orchestra having been temporarily patched Sir James Coats, the Paisley cotton
would provide musical entertainment up underwater with canvas. She was millionaire. He was the president of the
in the evenings. Lobsters, which would successfully refloated on the rising Royal ClydeYacht Club and is known to

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have owned 16 yachts. Now that the battles fought and won the establishment was for yachting,
With all eyes and telescopes and the honour of our country restored not golf. There was also a general
focused, two of the worlds most by a Clyde-built yacht....I would suggest prejudice against the use of hired
famous super-yachts were propelled in the interest of the Burgh (of Dunoon) or chartered yachts in any of the
out of the mouth of the Holy Loch that a Cup should be subscribed for by the clubs sailing events. For many years
at speed. His Royal Highnesss yacht community and presented to the Royal membership for ladies was restricted
Britannia and the previous years ClydeYacht Club to be competed for at to certain areas of the club house and
US Americas Cup winner Vigilant the annual regatta next July.I am sure even in 1949 was limited to 50. The
were about to commence battle for that such would be highly appreciated by club even issued detailed guidelines
the magnificent Queens Cup. These the members of the Club, and it would regarding clothing considered
powerful 120 ft. yachts with crews of also go to show that the community were appropriate for club balls, receptions,
around 40 carried over 10,000 sq. ft. not slow to recognise and appreciate the evening wear, and morning dress.
of canvas and with their spinnakers great benefit the Club has bestowed upon Sir Thomas Lipton, the famous
set were capable of reaching close the whole district. grocery store and tea merchant,
to sixteen knots. The first race was built the first of his five Shamrock
closely fought with Britannia taking The Club never seemed to be quite challengers for the Americas Cup in
the honours. More than 100,000 sure whether it wanted women or not. 1899. Although he was an influential
people watched the thrilling contest While they were appreciated in small member of the RCYC his challenges
and crowds were jam-packed along numbers it appears there were limits. were always issued in the name of the
the Hunters Quay to Dunoon road During the summer of 1894 a notice Royal Ulster Yacht Club. Due to a
and between Gourock and the Cloch was posted in the clubhouse informing shared passion for yacht racing with
Lighthouse. All the Clyde steamers members that on regatta days the Prince of Wales and King George
respectfully gave the racing arena a invitations to ladies should not extend V, Lipton was frequently entertained
wide berth but the yachts were still beyond four oclock in the afternoon aboard the royal yacht at Cowes and
pursued by many small craft. and bedroom accommodation, as often took them on his big steam
Three quotes from the Dunoon much as possible, should be for yacht Erin.
Herald and Cowal Advertiser on 13 July yachting men. Nonetheless, it appears At the end of the century the RCYC
1894, sum up the excited mood of the that no such restrictions applied when was thriving with 1,091 members
Clyde on its Big Day: it came to the Club Balls. and 389 yachts by comparison the
The success of the Britannia The RCYC Ball became one of Royal Northern Yacht Club had 520
throughout the (Clyde) Fortnight has Glasgows main social events during members. A total of 308 steamers had
been quite marvellous having beaten the winter. These large functions for been built on Clydeside with 40 of
theYankee flier (Vigilant) six times around 800 guests were held in St them now servicing 60 piers during the
in succession and should make up Andrews Halls at Charing Cross, one peak summer months.Yachting was
for the defeat suffered by this country of the most fashionable places in town. such an important asset to the area that
in American waters last year (in the In 1897 the entire suite of rooms on in 1900 the Burgh of Dunoon (which
Americas Cup). the first floor was requisitioned along still included Hunters Quay) donated
1894 will be memorable in the annals with the main hall which was used the Hundred Guinea Cup to the
of the sport, as it witnessed the struggle for dancing. There was a nautical RCYC, which became known as the
which terminated in the decisive victory theme for the decorations with the Dunoon Burgh Cup.
of a British yacht over the best boat that club trophies proudly on display in the Without doubt, the RCYCs Royal
America could produce and man. reception area. Marine Hotel and Clubhouse at
The club valued its exclusivity and Hunters Quay had become one of the
guarded itself against intrusion. One foremost yachting venues in the world:
poor fellow who made the mistake
of carrying his golf clubs into the By 1899 the Royal ClydeYacht Club
hotel was discretely taken aside by could claim to be the largest yacht club in
the club secretary and reminded that the world in terms of tonnage. James
Hunters Quay c.1910 Meikle, yachting journalist.

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The Royal Clyde Yacht Club

A want which has been long felt by Yachts racing off


yachtsmen visiting the Clyde will be fully Hunters Quay, 1893
provided this season by the erection of a
spacious hotel and clubhouse at Hunters
Quay..the anchorage in the vicinity
being perhaps unequalled anywhere at
any other point on the coast. Hunts
Yachting Magazine.

As a club yacht-house it is quite


unrivalled in the kingdom. .and
cannot fail to strike strangers as the most
picturesque and spacious building on the
Clyde. Dunoon Herald.

.the palatial residence was


without any question the finest building
anywhere dedicated to the sport.
Evening Times.
As one diehard from the club put a subdued affair and got off to a rather
.with the distant view up the Clyde, it, golf, motor-cars and taxation slow start with only nine men turning
obtained from the club-house windows ruined yachting. At the end of 1909 up for the first meeting in March 1919.
or frontage, is not to be surpassed in any the committee took note of the There was a very unpleasant reminder
country in the world. Yachting by Sir serious drop in revenue from the from the past as the water and shores
Edward Sullivan Bart. clubhouse during the year. The threat of the Clyde were heavily polluted by
of increased taxes on the wealthy oil from all the wartime naval activities.
As active members William Fife, G also had a major impact on the By the 1930s the bedrooms in the
L Watson and Alfred Mylne raised the future of the club. Lloyd Georges hotel finally had water laid on and
credit of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club to revolutionary Peoples Budget of were at last fitted with electric lights.
a level of esteem not enjoyed by more 1909-10 introduced unprecedented D Guthrie Dunn, a notable member
than a dozen other yacht clubs in the taxes on the wealthy to fund radical of the RCYC, set off to sail round the
world. These three men had, in effect, social welfare programmes to try and world from the Holy Loch in 1930
within 50 years or so endowed the eliminate poverty. in his Robertson built yacht Southern
Clyde with precisely the same credit in
yachting terms as the Clyde shipbuilders
have earned in those of commercial
construction. Cruise in Company, Due to the influence of its members,
George Blake.

One notable member of the club,


the club was in a position to organise
Thomas Glen-Coats of the Paisley
textile dynasty, prepared his yacht
some of the most exciting yacht races
Hera and a crew from the RCYC
to take part in the 1908 Olympics. the world had ever seen
As only two yachts were entered in
the twelve-metre class the Olympic
committee allowed the race to be held Cross. Tragically he was lost overboard
in one of their home ports rather than War years near St Helena on the return leg but
the main yachting venue at Cowes. By 1914 there were 70 piers on the with a replacement crew the yacht
The owners tossed a coin to decide Clyde with up to thirteen steamers returned to Sandbank and completed
and as a result the race was held on operating during the summer.Yachting the circumnavigation in 1933.
the Clyde. The Hera racing on her on the Clyde effectively came to a It was not until 1937 that the
home waters off Hunters Quay easily close in 1914 when the Navy rigged RNYC, the other leading Clyde
beat the Merseyside based yacht an anti-submarine boom between the yacht club, moved from Rothesay
Mouchette, in the best of three races. Cloch Lighthouse and Dunoon in to its current clubhouse at Rhu,
Sadly, the Golden Years of the RCYC preparation for World War I. which had previously been the
and Royal Marine Hotel at Hunters With the deteriorating economic private house, Ardenvhor. In 1938
Quay were about to come to a close: situation between the wars the big the distinguished RCYC member
racing yachts of the early 1900s were in Herbert Thom, believed by many
The Big Boat was to be a long time decline and smaller yachts had become to be the Clydes best yachtsman,
a-dying, but the red light started to more popular. The resumption of the brought home the Seawanhaka
flicker as early as 1909. RCYCs yachting after World War I was Cup from the US and successfully

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defended it in home waters the


following year. His sleek six-metre
yacht Circe was designed by David
Boyd, another loyal RCYC member,
and built just round the corner at
Robertsons Yard in the Holy Loch.
With the outbreak of World War
II all yachting on the Firth of Clyde
was curtailed. However, contrary
to expectations the hotel showed a
handsome profit during the war as
it was one of the few to escape the
Clydes restricted area and had
become a popular weekend venue
to get some respite from the heavy
bombing on Clydeside. Mirroring option. Consequently, Hunters Quay View from the January, 1978, with their fortunes
the general decline in yachting and became a less viable location as a New Royal Marine reversed, that the two senior yacht
size of yachts, by the end of the tourist destination. Hotel, 1890 clubs in Scotland finally agreed
war the number of Clyde piers had The RCYCs 1956 centenary to a merger after twenty years of
reduced to just 34. regatta was held at Rothesay on tentative discussions. In 1899 RCYC
Saturday 30 June, rather than membership stood at 1,091 with
The move from Hunters Quay Hunters Quay, because there was the RNYC at 520, however, RNYC
There was a slow return to yachting better anchorage for the large numbers had now climbed to 1100
after the war and just sixteen number of international yachts and with the RCYC at just 300:
yachts took part in the opening also the hotel accommodation was It is with pride and considerable
Clyde regatta of 1948. With the considered more appropriate for pleasure that the committees announce
deteriorating economic climate, the Royal visit. After the racing was that Her Majesty the Queen has consented
higher costs, increased taxes and a concluded the yachts took part in to be patron of the Royal Northern and
great reluctance by many members the famous RCYC/RNYC tradition, ClydeYacht Club and his Royal Highness
to accept higher annual fees, the a sailing procession called the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, has
finances of the club started to go cruise in company. Two hundred agreed to become Admiral.
downhill. The club purchased four British, Irish, Italian, German, With the merger the illustrious 122
small Loch Longs for new recruits, to Danish and Norwegian wooden year history of the Royal Clyde Yacht
try and boost membership. yachts took part in one of the most Club came to a close.
At the end of November 1951 the remarkable parades in the history
British Rail Executive announced of Clyde yachting. At the end of David I. Hutchison compiled the history
that no more passenger steamers Clyde Fortnight the Marques and of the Royal ClydeYacht Club at Hunters
would be calling at Hunters Quay as Marchioness of Bute granted the Quay as part of his ongoing research into
the service, along with others on the use of their palatial Mount Stuart the history of RobertsonsYard and its
Clyde, was no longer viable. With the mansion for the grand Centenary contribution to ClydeYachting.
loss of this vital transportation link to Ball held on 12 July.
Gourock and Glasgow the decline of In July 1960 Clyde Week operated
the club was inevitable. At a meeting from the RCYCs headquarters
held in early 1952 the members were at the Royal Marine Hotel at
informed of the serious losses in
running the hotel of around 2,000
Hunters Quay for the last time. FURTHER
The club decided not to hold the
per annum. The following year the 1961 International Regatta at READING
committee indicated that if the club Hunters Quay but at Rothesay,
was to survive they would have to which in effect signalled the end Cruise in Company: History of the
sell or rent. The financial situation of the club at Hunters Quay. The Royal Clyde Yacht Club 1856-1956,
was not helped when in 1954 the hotel/clubhouse was sold to John George Blake & Christopher Small
manager stole 807 from the hotel to MacLaurin on 8 February, 1961 (Royal Clyde Yacht Club, 1959)
cover his gambling debts. for 10,000 and the RCYC moved
The hotel also suffered a major to a series of modest club premises The Clyde, from its source to the sea,
decline in business due to the at Rhu. Due to the lack of space W.J. Millar (London, 1888)
introduction of cheap package holidays in their new facilities a lot of club
to the sun in the 1950s. Advances in memorabilia, cups and paintings The Clyde Passenger Steamer: Its Rise
jet engine design allowed aeroplanes to were stored in members houses for and Progress during the Nineteenth
carry more passengers, longer distances safekeeping. Sadly, not all of the Century: From the Comet of 1812
at less cost. In addition, improvements material found its way back into the to the King Edward of 1901, Captain
to the continental motorway network club archives. James Williamson (Glasgow, 1904)
now made bus holidays an attractive However, it was not until 20

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Style at Sea
Chris Walker introduces a new exhibition which looks back at the golden age of ocean travel,
when Glasgow shipyards were producing some of the worlds finest ocean liners

O
cean travel has ships for Cunard. Above: A 1930s into the Clyde in 1934.
always been perilous, Indeed many famous liners left the Cunard brochure Ironically QE2 suffered similar
yet on the largest yard; Lusitania was launched in 1904, providing a cutaway problems when John Brown built
modern ocean with John Brown spending some view of Queen Mary; her in the 1960s. At a time of fierce
liners you could 75,000 on upgrading the yard to inset: the QE2s Ward competition and falling orders, she
be forgiven for forgetting you were make it ready for construction. Her Room book, with was built almost at cost price by a
even at sea. A new exhibition at the career was tragically cut short after decades-worth of yard desperate to put themselves in
Scottish Maritime Museum, Style she was torpedoed and sunk south of celebrity signatures the shop window.
at Sea, celebrates the grand age of Ireland on 7 May, 1915, with the loss The ship was revolutionary and
ocean liners, their evolution, and of almost 1,200 passengers and crew. foreshadowed many of the features
particularly the links tying Clydebank The event was controversially to be found on modern superliners.
shipbuilder John Brown & Company celebrated in a bronze medallion Unfortunately, John Brown didnt
and liner firm Cunard. designed by Karl Goetz; a survive to see her triumph; the yard
Perhaps the most famous British copy, reproduced by was absorbed into Upper Clyde
monuments of the collaboration department store entrepreneur Shipbuilders before her launch,
between John Brown and Company Harry Selfridge for propaganda ending the hugely successful
and Cunard are the liners Queen Mary purposes, is on display as part of relationship between the two giants
and Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2). These the exhibition. of maritime history.
monolithic ships became icons of their Perhaps most famous of all the Style at Sea runs until 25
age and touched the lives of thousands vessels built by John Brown was September and features artefacts,
of people. The roots of John Brown Queen Mary. Coinciding with the The Goetz Medal: paintings and the QE2 Ward Room
and Cunards relationship can be Great Depression of the 1930s, Death sells tickets Book which was signed by the
traced back much further, though, to her construction was held up and to doomed Cunard liners most famous passengers.
the middle of the 19th century. almost bankrupted both the yard and passengers, beneath Other highlights include costumes
Brothers James and George Cunard. the caption Profit reminiscent of those worn on board,
Thomson formed J&G Thomson It was only through an emergency Over All; a reference courtesy of the Museum of Ayrshire
in 1851 and built their first Cunard loan from the government, in a deal to the repeated Country Life and Costume.
ship, SS Jura, in 1854. By the time which saw Cunard acquire fellow warnings by the
the yard was bought by steelmaker ailing firm White Star, that she was German government Chris Walker is Exhibitions and Events
John Brown and Company in 1899, completed. Such was the impact that liners such as Officer at the Scottish Maritime Museum.
the Clydebank yard already had a on the local community that when Lusitania would
reputation for building high quality construction restarted a pipe band led be targeted Scottish Maritime Museum,
passenger ships. Expansion continued, workers through the shipyard gates Harbour Road, Irvine, North
and John Browns innovation in steam and back to work. Ayrshire KA12 8QE; web: www.
turbines, as well as the yards prime Heralded the wonder ship of scottishmaritimemuseum.org
positioning on the busy Clyde, made the age by the press, she became
them an obvious candidate to build the first vessel to be launched by Open daily, 10am 5pm;
large ships. In fact between 1900 and a reigning monarch, when her exhibition included in the price
1970 the yard would launch sixteen namesake saw her down the slip and of admission to the museum.

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Scotlands Lost Abbey


Selkirk Abbey
In this new study, Frank Harkness discovers how and why Selkirk Abbey was founded
assessing whether the flooding problems which periodically beset the area today played any
part in the decision to abandon the site after just fifteen years

T
he late Professor albeit 900 years ago, should have A modern-day view formation. David was profoundly
Geoffrey Barrow dropped out of Selkirks folk of the land where religious but he also knew the
once stated: memory and that now there is Selkirk might have importance a strong and loyal
apparently nothing left to tell been sited church could play in supporting
.. it is a point where it was or even show that it the cultural and political reforms
worth emphasising that the earliest existed. However, there are clues if he planned. It was against this
settlement anywhere in Britain you know where to look. background that he decided to
of any of the communities of The abbey was founded by establish the abbey at Selkirk.
reformed Benedictines - Cistercians, earl David, later King David I
Tironesians, Savignacs and others (1124-53), who probably did Selkirk and Tiron
- through which the religious life more to shape his home country Why Selkirk and why monks from
of western Europe underwent so than any other Scot. He was Tiron, a relatively obscure and
profound a transformation was the devout, ambitious and astute. recently formed order in France?
abbey of Selkirk in Scotland. He spent time as a youth at David may have visited Tiron in
If Selkirk Abbey was so his brother-in-law, Henry I of the forest of Perche while serving
important, why do we know Englands court and travelled King Henry I of England. He knew
so little about it? When was it in England and France. He that the order had been established
established, where and why? was educated and informed in by Bernard as a breakaway from
Selkirk folk have long memories. politics, warfare and religion. the Benedictines who some felt
The slogan We come frae Although his time at Henrys had strayed from their forming
nothing sma suggests history court likely inspired his thinking, principals were too worldly
is important in Selkirk. The he was his own man. Upon and less devout. The monks of
highlight of Selkirks year, the gaining control over Cumbria Tiron were reclusive, devout and
Common Riding, commemorating and most of southern Scotland, industrious. Every monk was
Selkirks proud and tragic part in David started a programme of expected to learn and practice a
the Battle of Flodden 600 years reforms with the aim of improving skill or trade. But perhaps most
ago confirms this. It is surprising administration and control. To importantly they were independent
then that something as important that end he introduced families of any other established order. At
as the founding of Britains from England and Normandy who a time when the Scottish Church,
first reformed abbey at Selkirk, would support and further state supported by King Alexander I

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Medieval history Selkirk Abbey

and David, was struggling to resist decision to select monks from 1114, although almost certainly there
the authority of the Benedictine Tiron to establish the monastery. would have been an advance party
archbishop of York, the Tiron Again politics and religion play from Tiron surveying and defining its
monks independence may have their part. Around 1070, monks basic requirements at least a year or
been an important factor. from Durham had tried to revive two earlier. By 1126 it was decided
As for the choice of Selkirk, the church at Old Melrose but that Selkirk was not suitable and the
Oram has recently argued that it had moved on after refusing monks of Tiron moved to Kelso to
was in effect a free zone where to take an oath of fealty to the establish their abbey there.
population was small, royal or lordly

The monks who arrived at Selkirk from


authority was remote and largely
ineffective, brigandage was endemic

Tiron knew the need for and had experience


and social and economic structures
were undeveloped. Nearly 200
years later Wallace used the area as
a base from which to carry out his
guerrilla warfare against Edward I of
of creating a water supply for an abbey
England. Selkirk and Ettrick Forest
was a key area for David. It lay on Scottish king. Kelso, at the time Although, from the time of its
the northern boundary between his that David established Selkirk, inception to the withdrawal to
western possessions in Strathclyde came under the diocese of St Kelso was not much more than
and to the east what was to become Andrews and under Alexander fifteen years, it is possible to
the counties of Roxburgh and I who was struggling to resist establish where the monks of Tiron
Berwickshire. It also occupied a key English religious control. Selkirk started their venture and why they
position on one of the major Scottish by contrast was part of the needed to abandon the work they
highways of its day, the Minchmoor diocese of Glasgow which was in already had carried out to build
road, capable of carrying wheeled Davids territory and he could Selkirk Abbey.
transport and providing access to Ruins of Kelso and did resist control by York. Although we know it was in the
the rest of Scotland. Establishing Abbey superimposed vicinity of Selkirk, the Abbeys
a monastery there was therefore onto the authors Selkirk not suitable exact location has been contested,
perhaps critical for Davids aim suggested site The reason we know so little but plans and records exist which
to develop the area socially and for Selkirk Abbey, about Selkirk Abbey was that it indicate to us where the monks
culturally and increase his authority showing the location never really got off the ground. intended to build their abbey.
in a borderline but important area. of the river and burn Davids charter establishing the One of Scotlands oldest surviving
An equally important reason in relation to the abbey and allocating its lands and written records, Davids charter of
to choose Selkirk returns to his monastic complex resources was produced around c.1114, gives a detailed description

River Ettrick

To Lindean Kirk

A7 to Selkirk Batts Burn

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of the lands given to the monks and position of a water supply to a


to build and support the abbey. monastery because it was quickly
Hardie in Roads of Medieval appreciated that an enclosed
Lauderdale made a detailed and community had to have a dependable
credible analysis of the description source of water for drinking, preparing
of the Selkirk lands gifted to the food, ensuring certain basic standards
abbey: The northern boundary of hygiene and for carrying
was the stream which ran down away waste.
from the Crossinemara and into We do not have to look far down
the River Tweed. Both Hardie the Tweed for support of Fawcetts
and Professor Barrow suggest claim that a water supply was
Crossinmera or Crossanesmer essential for an abbey. At Melrose,
refers to the land around just above the cauld, a lade or
Cauldshields and Faldonside Lochs.
The south boundary is the
stream that runs down from the
hills to the Yarrow, now known
One of Scotlands oldest surviving written
at Selkirk, as the Ettrick. Hardie
makes a reasonable argument that records, Davids charter of c.1114, gives a
detailed description of the lands given to the
this stream refers to what is now
known as the Batts Burn. However,

monks to build and support they abbey


the really intriguing evidence from
the charter, and the key to the
mystery of where the Selkirk Abbey
was intended to be, is the inclusion
in the charter of a particula terra, great drain runs off to the Abbey. Board at Tiron Abbey ressource naturelle parfois
beyond the stream, a small portion At Dryburgh, again running from which outlines the justifi le dplacement dun
of land between the River Yarrow the Cauld Pool, the lade runs off importance monastre ou son abandon.
and the road that ran from Selkirk to service the abbey. Kelso too of a reliable water (An Indispensable Resource
castle to the abbey. Convincing has a cauld and although urban supply to a Water affects the implementation
evidence of where this particular development has obliterated where monastic community of the monasteries. This is why
piece of land was can be found in a lade might have been, Hogarths many monasteries were first
19th-century Ordnance Survey, Mill shows the almost certain provisionally installed to utilise
and earlier, maps depicting the presence of a lade up-river from local water resources and produce
Parish of Galashiels. the abbey. the necessary amenities. The
Parishes have played an The monks who arrived at Selkirk inadequacy of this natural resource
important part in Scotlands social from Tiron knew the need for and sometimes justified moving a
and cultural history and defining had experience of creating a water monastery or abandonment.)
them accurately was important. supply for an abbey. The site of I would like to suggest that the
The parish you lived in decided Tiron abbey was a swamp and the particular terra was provided to
which church you payed your teind first thing the monks did was build facilitate a lade or great drain to
or taxes to. In the 13th century the a dam across the river Thiron and service Selkirk Abbey. The cauld,
Scottish parish boundaries were drain the land for their abbey. The necessary to build a head of water
defined and remained largely the dam created a lake which is still would have been built or planned
same until the 1890s. The OS 25 there today and a sluice was built to be built just above where the
inch maps of 1863 for Selkirk and to control water in a canal or lade Shaw Burn would enter the River
Roxburgh show an odd narrow strip designed to run past the abbey Ettrick, well upstream from the
of land extending from the direction kitchens and latrines. Although the important ford giving access to the
of the Batts Burn south towards abbey is no longer standing the lade Minchmoor Road.
Selkirk and stopping at the Shaw is still there running underground The lade coming out of the
Burn. This piece of land may be the past the site of the abbey. A section Ettrick above the cauld would
particular terra included in the from an information board at run down the east side of the
charter, land belonging to Selkirk, Thiron Abbey is significant: Ettrick, fed by the Shaw Burn and
then Kelso Abbeys; becoming part continuing north picking up water
of Roxburghshire; and subsequently Une Resource Indispensable from the Batts Burn and on to
Lindean then Galashiels Parish. Leau conditionne limplantation rejoin the Ettrick after servicing the
This narrow strip of land must have des monastres. Cest pourquoi abbey. Water cannot run uphill, so
been specifically included in the de nombreux monastres se sont the course of the lade was dictated
charter for a good reason. dabord installs provisoirement afin by the contours of the land.
Richard Fawcett provides a dapprcier les ressources hydrauliques An indication of where the lade
likely answer: locales et de raliser les amnagments would have been intended to have
Much depended on the availability ncessaires. Linsuffisance de cette run might be given by the existing

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Medieval history Selkirk Abbey

line of the disused lade, down from Tiron had to wait to find out for Selkirk. In addition, his reasons
river, from the lade system and that the area chosen for the Abbey for establishing the abbey at Selkirk
cauld built in the 18th century to was not suitable, but it is almost had not changed. It remained a vital
provide power for the Selkirk textile certain that in the space of fifteen or area that David needed to control.
mills. This lade began close to so years they would learn through The Minchmoor Road was still an
Bridgeheugh and then, fed by the experience. important artery as demonstrated in
Batts Burn, continued to Lindean Fresh from taming a river at 1234 when Alexander II bestowed
Mill. Interestingly, Lindean and Tiron, the River Ettrick may additional land across the Ettrick to
Lindean Mill were recorded at the just have seemed like a similar build a bridge at the site of the ford
time of the Reformation as being challenge to be overcome, at least near Lindean.
part of the rental of Kelso Abbey.

We do not know how long the monks from


There is still a mill building at
Lindean, close to the Ettrick, which

Tiron had to wait to nd out that the area


was serviced by the lade. If there is
any merit in this suggestion, then

chosen for the Abbey was not suitable, but it is


it is in the flat area, east of the lade
and north of the Batts Burn, that
we can perhaps look for the site
of the intended Abbey. The usual
format would be for the kitchens,
almost certain that in the space of fteen or so
latrines and dormitories to be built
close to the lade or great drain, and years they would learn through experience
then the Abbey nearby.
at first. However, while the Thiron It seems unlikely that, still
The move to Kelso originates a comparatively short motivated by their recently
Anyone who has lived for a while distance from the Abbey and established founding principles,
in Selkirk knows that the area its catchment area is a relatively the devout and reclusive monks
below Lindean church would small area of low lying hills, the would have been tempted to move
not be a good site to build an Ettrick and its major tributary the for purely worldly ambition. It
important and prestigious building. Yarrow each have their origins seems far more likely to me that
A vast area of hill land drains into more than 25 miles distant in a the monks of Tiron experienced
the Ettrick and Yarrow rivers. Not vast area of high hills. Todays the same flooding problems that
every year, but on a fairly regular engineers working on Selkirks exist today and were obliged by the
basis, the Ettrick at Selkirk has Flood Protection Scheme have a forces of nature to abandon their
flooded the lower area of the town very healthy respect for the river. plans for Selkirk Abbey.
and the low lying area between They describe it as dynamic and
Lindean Church and the river. Floor plan of Tiron unpredictable. Even with modern Frank Harkness is a retired Detective
Millions of pounds are currently Abbey in France, the technology, machinery and vast Inspector with a postgraduate masters
being spent on The Selkirk Flood house from which resources, the river is still capable of research degree from Edinburgh
Protection Scheme and maps the monks who springing surprises. Universitys School of Scottish Studies.
derived from computer modelling helped found the It is often suggested that the He is a Fellow of the Society of
show the area to be vulnerable. We monastic community Selkirk site was abandoned in Antiquaries, Scotland.
do not know how long the monks at Selkirk originated favour of a move to Kelso following
Davids accession to the
Scottish crown in 1124; that
the monks moved to Kelso FURTHER
to be near Roxburgh which
became Davids preferred base
READING
in Scotland. Certainly Kelsos link Kingship and Unity:
to S. Andrews became less of a Scotland 1000 -1306, G.W.S. Barrow
problem following a deal with King (Edinburgh University Press, 2015)
Henry I of England in relation to
allegiance to the archbishop of Melrose Abbey, Richard Fawcett &
York. However, I would also like Richard Oram (Tempus, 2004)
to suggest that moving entirely for
material reasons is unlikely. The Roads of Medieval Lauderdale,
Within a few years David was R.P. Hardie (Oliver & Boyd, 1942)
responsible for building a vast
number of religious establishments Domination and Lordship:
throughout Scotland. He clearly Scotland 1070-1230, Richard Oram
had the means to build an abbey at (Edinburgh University Press, 2011)
Kelso without abandoning his plans

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Who captured
Antoine Brennier?

The capture of a French general by a 71st Highlanders soldier at the battle of Vimerio may
actually have been carried out by a young Irish soldier, writes Paul Cowan, who has been
studying contemporary reports of events surrounding the capture

I
t was one of the most John Mackay, was promoted to British and that the injured Brennier, trapped
famous incidents in the the lowest category of officer, Portuguese troops under his dead or dying horse,
Peninsular War(1807-14). ensign, on the orders of the duke face French forces at had instead been captured by
The capture of French of Wellington and posted to the the battle of Vimerio, a nineteen-year-old Irishman
general Antoine Brennier 4th West India Regiment. Pack 21 August, 1808 he identified only as Gaven.
by the 71st Highlanders made was proud, Wellington was proud The young recruit apparently
newspaper headlines back in and the British public was proud. declared: By Jasus! I have taken
Britain and was the subject of But some in the 71st Highlanders the sarjant-major of the French.
several popular prints and at least were not impressed. Mackay was The anonymous author said
one commemorative jug. accused of stealing the credit for Mackay then arrived on the scene
The newspapers back home capturing Brennier from a young but lacked the barefaced cheek
reported Brenniers astonishment Irish recruit. to accept the proffered purse
when his offer of his purse Both the 71st Highlanders and and watch that so many of the
and gold watch as a reward for the 95th Rifles were elite units of Highlanders present knew should
sparing his life was rejected. The the Peninsular War and, as with have gone to the Irishman.
Highlanders commanding officer, todays elite units, a number of Vicissitudes then went onto
Lieutenant Colonel Denis Pack, rank and file members of the 71st lambast those who showered
was said to have told Brennier: We documented their experiences Mackay with honours, including
are soldiers, Sir, not plunderers. after the fighting ended. One of a gold medal from the Highland
Another version gives Packs words those regimental reminiscences, Society in London. What was
as: Do not be surprised, we come Vicissitudes in the Life of a Scottish the cause of this injustice, is
not as robbers. Soldier unashamedly accused the natural question, asked the
The corporal officially credited Mackay of being a fraud. narrator of Vicissitudes in 1827,
with capturing the Frenchman The anonymous Glasgwegian before answering his own question:
at the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808, who authored Vicissitudes claimed I blush to answer: it was because

36 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p36-37 Brennier.indd 36 31/07/2017 10:12


Military history

Mackay was a Scotchman, and and Brennier is both puzzling hero of Vimeiro from the 71st,
further more a Highlander, the latter and suspicious. Perhaps Howells Piper George Clark. Clark was
was an infallible recommendation to informants could not agree on badly wounded in the leg but
a set of old drivellers, who lay, and what happened or maybe the wily nevertheless insisted on playing
lie still, constantly on the watch, to Howell knew better than to rock his comrades into action as he
hunt out and blaze forth to the world the boat. lay on the ground bleeding. A

The young recruit apparently


anything tending to distinguish the
Highland name despite the truth.

declared By Jasus! I have taken


This outburst could perhaps be
dismissed as sour grapes or the
result of a grudge but for what
the regiments other rank and file
chroniclers had to say, or not say,
the sarjant-major of the French
about Brenniers capture.
Former Forfarshire shoemaker The fifth rank and file memoir similar performance in 1897 on
Balfour Kermack served with the is based on a diary kept by the Northwest Frontier of India
71st throughout the Peninsular War Irishman William Gavin. It is would win Piper George Findlater
and produced a brief summary of the only one that follows the of the Gordon Highlanders a
his service sometime in the 1840s. official line. William Gavin is Victoria Cross. Clark had to
In it he also attributed Brenniers not the Gaven credited with settle for a set of bagpipes from
capture to an Irish private, whom capturing Brennier. That was the Highland Society.
he did not name, who referred to most likely 19-year-old Private At the joint presentation in
the general as the Sergeant Major John Gavin who died a year after London Clark made a speech
of the French. But Kermack came Vimeiro. William Gavin, like declaring his new pipes sacred
up with an alternative reason why Mackay, was promoted from and pledging never to surrender
the Irishman was not honoured. the ranks to officer status. The or forget he was a Highlander. He
He claimed that the Irishman duke of Wellington authorised a then treated the societys members
had been prevented by Corporal promotion in recognition of the to an impromptu piping recital.
Mackay from accepting money 71sts fine performance at the When Mackay was called forward
from the Frenchman. Bugler John Battle of Fuentes de Onoro in to receive his medal, he simply
Macfarlane also served with the 1811. He might have expected it bowed and returned to his seat.
71st throughout the conflict and to go to the soldier who fought Modesty or a guilty conscience?
left behind an account of the battle in the battle but it went instead There were those amongst his
of Vimeiro. The Glasgow man to William Gavin, who was in former comrades in the 71st who
chose his words very carefully and Britain at the time. would appear to have had grounds
simply noted that Mackay escorted Mackays own behaviour for suspecting the latter.
Brennier to battalion headquarters. when he was presented with
The most famous first-hand his gold medal by the Highland Canadian-based Scottish writer Paul
account of the battalions part Society in London was also a Cowan recently edited the first full-
in the Peninsular war is Journal little odd. He was honoured text re-issue of Vicissitudes in the Life
of a Soldier of the 71st. Perhaps along with another national of a Scottish Soldier since 1827.
tellingly, it completely ignores this
most famous of the regiments
exploits during the conflict. It has Newspaper readers
long been known that the books eagerly followed
supposed author Thomas never the progress of the
existed. The real author was a Peninsular War,
Glasgow bookbinder called John whose battles were
Howell. He later admitted that he captured by sharp-
got most of his information from witted cartoonists.
two members of the regiment, This 1808 print
James Todd and Archibald Gavin. titled Boney at
But military records show the pair Bayonne blowing
could not have witnessed all the a Spanish bubble
events related in the book. shows Napoleon
Military historian Stuart Reid convincing the
was recently able to add a third Spanish royalty,
soldier to the list of Howells who are enclosed
sources, Joseph Sinclair. Journal of in a bubble, of his
a Soldier was the Bravo Two Zero- friendship as he
style bestseller of the early 1820s fires a cannonball
and its silence as regards Mackay at Madrid

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 37

p36-37 Brennier.indd 37 31/07/2017 10:12


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The Scottish Civic Trust is the National
Coordinator for Doors Open Days 2017.
Every September, Doors Open Days
invites members of the public to explore,
for free, buildings across Scotland, many
not usually open to the public.

D
oors Open Days Open Days is sponsored by the public to nominate their
is Scotlands Aberdeen Asset Management and Favourite Scottish Door.
largest free Festival of Architecture 2017. For fifty consecutive days, we
annual Every region across Scotland will celebrate a favourite door to
festival that coordinates its own programme, a Scottish building. Find out what
celebrates heritage and the built with events held in a different happened behind each door to
environment. It offers free access region for each of the five weekends make it so special in peoples lives:
to over 1,000 venues around of the festival. Get involved in www.doorsopendays.org.uk/
Scotland throughout September. walks, talks, behind the scenes news/
The aim of Doors Open Days tours, exhibitions and archaeology Follow the nominations
is to ensure that Scotlands built digs, to name just a few. on the website, facebook
heritage is made accessible to All events are hosted on (dodscotland), twitter (@
everyone both people living the national website www. DoorsOpenDays), and share your
in and visiting the country on doorsopendays.org.uk so you can photos and stories using hashtags
weekends in September. plan adventures for every weekend #dodscot and #50DODdoors.
Doors Open Days is in September! Follow our Instagram page @
coordinated nationally by the As part of its 50th anniversary doorsopendaysscotland.
Scottish Civic Trust and is part celebration, the Scottish Civic DATES OF WEEKENDS TO
of European Heritage Days. Trust is inviting everyone BE FOUND ON WEBSITE:
It is supported by Historic from celebrities, sports stars www.doorsopendays.org.
Environment Scotland. Doors and politicians, to members of uk/2017-weekends/

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H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 13

www.doorsopendays.org.uk
****Doors open day advo.indd 13 01/08/2017 15:20
www.historyscotland.com

GOING DIGITAL
with Scotlands
History, Heritage,
and Archaeology

With so many history projects and events competing for the publics attention, it can be difficult
to stand out from the crowd. David C. Weinczok offers his thoughts on how creating a digital
presence can transform the reach of even the smallest event or organisation

T
o reach new David at a recent before actually visiting or getting nearly as scary as it sounds. Riveting
audiences you have to shoot for the #RoS400 involved. Websites are well and good information helps, but social media
use new tools, which video series, which and still a crucial part of the package, users want to know the people and
is why I work with celebrates 400 years but they by no means suffice on personalities behind the titles.
Twitter rather than of the Registers their own; the reality is that from the The Caithness Broch Project is a
trowels. Digital content and social of Scotland largest national heritage bodies to fantastic example of this. While not
media has opened up Scotlands past the smallest local trusts, the lack of a a model all organisations can follow,
to the world like never before. If a social media presence can amount to their social media pages abound
schoolchild in Edinburgh wants to virtual invisibility. The good news is with light-hearted insights, broch-
wander the Renaissance-era streets that it does not take too much to help based puns, and just-for-fun posts
of the capital they can, thanks to a projects and places get the attention involving Lego and props galore. All
digital reconstruction by historians and engagement they deserve, this silliness has helped to land them
and computer scientists at St Andrews especially amongst younger audiences. considerable coverage in regional and
University now available as a mobile Existing on at least two social national press, enhancing their public
app. If a Canadian tourist wants to media platforms, most commonly profile and attracting more attention
get a glimpse of some of Scotlands Twitter, Facebook and Instagram, and resources to their core purpose.
countless castles to help decide which is a step in the right direction. Live Their voice stands out from the
ones to visit they can, guided along by broadcasting is also becoming institutional crowd, and the results
YouTube videos from the Registers of incredibly popular. A video I shot are beginning to speak for themselves.
Scotland and Dig It! 2017. at Linlithgow palace with only my This new direction for Scottish
For people who may never have smartphone has been viewed over heritage presents an opportunity not
the chance to visit a place themselves, 170,000 times, and live video is just for organisations but also for
they can still see it in real time if they now a standard part of what I offer young people looking to carve out
follow a live broadcaster on a platform when I take on a digital awareness careers. Permanent, full-time roles in
like Facebook Live or Periscope. campaign like #HistoryHunters or the heritage sector are astonishingly
Millennials in particular but by #JacobiteTrailblazer for Historic scarce, and the number of applicants
no means exclusively will almost Environment Scotland. What for the jobs that do come up often
always seek out information about a makes the difference is developing reaches into triple digits. For
place or organisation of interest online a digital personality, which is not innumerable reasons it is simply

40 H I S TO
H IRY
S TO
SCRY
OTSC
LAOT
NDLA- ND
SE P-TJEUMB
LYE/RAU
/ O
GUC TO
ST B
2015
E R 2017

p40-41 Castle Hunter.indd 40 31/07/2017 10:12


Going digital with Scotlands History, Heritage, and Archaeology
Drummond

not realistic or sustainable for many and Game of Thrones, with the former Bringing history lot of time wondering if any of it
young people in 2017 to wait for jobs responsible for what has become to life in the would go anywhere. I documented
to appear; increasingly we are having widely known as the Outlander effect. battle immersion this all through my personal brand,
to create niches and roles that never A small press release from the Trust theatre at the The Castle Hunter, to a dedicated
existed before. My own experience is combined with several social media Bannockburn Centre audience of over 20,000 across social
something of a case study. posts from the propertys and my media platforms. Many of my first paid
I moved to Scotland six years ago own social media accounts resulted in roles as a guide, blogger, and writer
from Canada to complete a masters newspaper headlines, television and were through contacts and enquiries on
degree in international relations at the radio interviews, and a sold-out event Twitter, which is something that, five
University of Edinburgh. While there I which was brought back for a years ago, I never thought I would be
got my first taste of the heritage sector second round. saying about my career trajectory.
as a volunteer guide at the National I am now taking that talk on From all the tinkering Ive done with
Trust for Scotlands Gladstones the road to Aberdeens Festival of digital content, Ive found that what
Land. This was a vital stepping-stone, Science, Technology, Engineering and matters most is that the audience you
and soon I was working with the Mathematics, as well as to Lincluden cultivate feels invested in your work
Trust to establish student groups at in Dumfries as part of a festival run and uplifted by your enthusiasm for
universities throughout Scotland. by Sleeping Giants meant to engage it. I find it fun and rewarding to take
There was a strong appetite amongst young people from impoverished a group of people from all across the
students for exploring Scotlands areas in Scotlands history, heritage, world through the gates of a castle or
historic sites, yet many could not and archaeology. into a museum exhibition, all via my
afford the transportation costs to If you ask me what I do now, I have phone and a half-decent connection. It
get to them. Financial incentives for yet to find a single phrase for it. Long is the stuff that I, as a kid thousands of
students and young people such as gone is any semblance of a nine to miles away, would have been inspired
reduced memberships or admission five job, and on any given day I could by and made dreams from. That is the
fees help, but awareness is the real be composing an article for The Scots power of digital content. So, while I
issue. That is one instance where Magazine, leading a walking tour of will never shy away from test pits and
social media and digital content can Edinburghs Old Town or prepping hopping sheep fences to reach ruined
make a tangible difference. to shoot a video series at a castle. This castles, that is why my hands more
Lest all this sounds far-removed kind of job-juggling is becoming more often get dirty from wiping smudges off
from concerns about the bottom line, and more typical for young people a screen.
that can get a boost too. In 2016 I seeking careers in heritage, archaeology,
conducted a talk about the myriad conservation and similar fields. DavidWeinczok is a writer, presenter,
connections between Game of Thrones Over three years I built up an heritage consultant and Fellow of the
and Scottish history at Gladstones online presence, got involved Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. His
Land. Historical tourism in Scotland with organisations like Historic video series include Dig It! TV on
has received a tangible boost from pop Environment Scotland whenever YouTube and, most recently, the #RoS400
culture phenomena such as Outlander and however I could, and spent a campaign for the Registers of Scotland.

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 41

p40-41 Castle Hunter.indd 41 31/07/2017 10:12


www.historyscotland.com

Charles Seton,
2nd earl of
Dunfermline
the reluctant rebel?
In part II of our study of the life of Charles Seton,
2nd earl of Dumfermline and his support of King Charles I,
Paul Christensen explores events leading up the earls arrest
after the Battle of Edgehill and asks whether Dunfermline was
Par t the neutral that the king believed him to be
II

T
he Dictionary of second Bishops War. Obverse of the we were born and baptized, and that
National Biography Despite his fighting against the silver duke of if ye be not happy, you may blame not
suggests that, by king, in July 1642, Dunfermline Lauderdale medal, us, but your selves.
1642, Dunfermline was (again) in royal favour, 1672 by J. Roettier.
had been partly as he was sent as the kings This medal was On 23 July, the king wrote
won over by the kings concessions Commissioner to the General in the possession from Leicester to Dunfermline in
to the Covenanters in 1641. In Assembly of the Kirk in St of the third earl of St Andrews; and the first of his
contrast, George Seton suggests Andrews, which convened on the Lauderdale, Charles instructions was:
that it was the earls marriage to 27th of that month. Dunfermline Maitland (died 1691)
Lady Mary Douglas, daughter of presented a letter to the Assembly and thereafter by Right trusty and welbeloved
the seventh earl of Morton and a from the king, who wrote: descent through Cosen and CounsellourYou shall
devoted Royalist, that may have Maitland family until in our name assure the Assembly
been responsible for changing his We have given expresse charge the 21st century that wee desire nothing more than
views. Given the marriage took to our Commissioner to see that all the Reformation of Religion, as it is
place in 1632, such a change things be done there orderly and established by the Acts of the Kirk
apparently took a long time in peaceably, as if we were present in and laws of the country, unto which
coming to fruition; however, what our own person; not doubting but in wee have given our Royall consent,
if Dunfermline was always loyal thankfulnesse for your present estate be preserved in truth and unity, both
to the king? He must have been and condition, you will abstaine against papistry, and against the sects
under suspicion for his fathers from every thing that may make any and divisions. And that no motions
faith as well as the high esteem new disturbance, and that you will shall ever come from us against it, but
and affection he and his father be more wise then to be the enemies that we will use our authority for it.
were held in by Charles I; he of your own peace, which would
would have had to out-covenant but stumble others, and ruine your On 29 July, Charles wrote again,
the Covenanters to overcome their selves.We have also commanded our this time from Beverley:
suspicions-signing the National Commissioner to receive from you
Covenant promptly and raising your just and reasonable desires, for Right trusty and right well beloved
a regiment of foot. Of course, what may further serve for the good cousin and councillor We greet you
there is the usual contradiction in of religion, that, taking them to our well. By the order of our two Houses
that it does appear that the earl consideration, we may omit nothing of Parliament, whereof we have
actually fought in person against which may witnesse us to be indeed a herewith sent a copy, we perceive
the armies of his sovereign in the nursing father of that Kirk, wherein that it is insinuated as if we were

42 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 42 31/07/2017 10:13


Charles Seton and the Civil Wars

not disposed to peace, but inclined to knowing that your Majesty will put as you have begun to discharge the
make war in this our kingdom.We no more, of all that is done, upon trust wee have put into you, and from
have therefore thought good by these my attempts, but that which I assent tyme to tyme acquent us with your
to require you to make known, as well unto in your Majestys name. The proceedings. So wee bid you farewell,
to the Assembly now at St Andrews, Assembly hath made choice of the from our Court at York, the 7th of
as to all our good subjects in that Lord Maitland to be the bearer of August 1642.
our kingdom, the gracious answer their answer of the declaration sent
we gave to that petition, and to let from the Parliament, and of their Again, this suggests Dunfermline
them understand how far our life and supplication to your Majesty, which I was a trusted agent of the king,
practice hath been from using any could not hinder. He is directed first keeping his ear to the ground on
ways tending to the effusion of blood, to come to your Majesty with them, the latters behalf.
that there is no party of Papists and [then] go to the Parliament, of
about us, which is a suggestion feigned which I conceive it to be necessary The Battle of Edgehill took place
merely to render us disgustful to our to give your Majesty timous on 23 October, 1642 and, as was
subjects, and we doubt not but our advertisement, that before his coming stated above, Dunfermline was

The reasons for Dunfermlines arrest may


real actions will have more credit with
our subjects there than the bare words
and assertions of any disaffected to
our person and government.
be found in his own words in the Records
At this time Parliament had
presented a rival declaration, of the Parliament of Scotland
stressing its intention to avoid civil
war, to advance the reformation your Majesty may, in your royal after arrested and imprisoned by
of religion and work toward a wisdom, consider whether it be more Parliament. He was released in
stable union between England and for your Majestys service that he be December the same year and given
Scotland. Dunfermline pressed stayed, or permitted to go forward, permission to return to Scotland
the Assembly not to answer both which (in my weak judgment), via Oxford, where he was allowed
parliaments declaration without have their own inconveniences; for to meet the king. The reason for
the permission of the king, but, his stay may be evil construed here, his arrest may be found in his
according to Baillie, his weeping and his going may prove prejudicial own words in the Records of the
could not obtain this. Strong to your Majestys service there; for Parliament of Scotland, requesting
words indeed, suggesting the certainly if he had no other business, an ordinance which was put before
impression given by Dunfermline they would send another bearer; and the Scottish Parliament on 24
was of the pleading of a loyal I know they have sent it to their July, 1644 and entered into the
servant of the king. Commissioners already.Whatsoever Parliamentary Register on 24 July,
be the impressions your Majesty 1644. This appears broadly to be
The kings trust was well placed: receives of my carriage, I wish at a request for exoneration from
the earl wrote back on 5 August: God I may no longer live than I the Parliament and a remit for the
continue your most sacred Majestys Commissioners then in London to
Most Sacred Sovereign,Whether Obverse of a silver obedient subject, DUMFERMLING. obtain the same from the English
matters please or not, I must, military reward, Parliament:
according to your Majestys trust, 1642, struck to In short, the earl was warning
make a true and timeous relation, honour Robert Charles to be wary of the earls To the honourable estates of the
Devereaux, 3rd earl own nephew, John Maitland, high court of parliament presently
of Essex. The earl the earl of Lauderdale. Such a convened, the humble supplication
of Essex was the warning was given at a time when of Charles, earl of Dunfermline,
Lord General of the England was sliding towards Civil shows that where in July 1642 his
Parliamentarian War. majesty having appointed me to be
army at the start his majestys commissioner for the
of the Civil War. The King sent another letter to general assembly then held at St
This medal is Dunfermline before he received Andrews, and after the dissolving of
unique because of the epistle of 5 August, dated 7 the said assembly I having gone up
its portrait, facing August: to his majesty to render an account
slightly to the left, of the proceedings of the aforesaid
and the inscription, Right trusty and right wel assembly for my exoneration of the
neither of which beloved cosen and counsellour,Wee trust put upon me by his majesty,
feature on other greet you well. And as you have and having carried up with me some
examples, and was hitherto punctually observed our desires to his majesty from the kirk
probably made for directions (whereof wee shall not of this kingdom, when I came to his
an officer be onmyndfull) so wee doubt not majesty I was forced to attend a long
but you will als cairfully continue space before I could get opportunity

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 43

p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 43 31/07/2017 10:14


www.historyscotland.com

with his majesty to give an account of attend.Which supplication being read pamphletts, and employing privat
the proceedings of the said assembly in audience of the parliament and the agents and instruments to give bad
and to represent the desires of the same, with the desire thereof, taken impressions of us and our proceedings,
kirk of this kingdom to his majesty, into consideration by the estates of and under pretence of a danger to
to the which desires his majesty did parliament, they declare that they religion and government) to corrupt
graciously accept and condescend will give a particular instruction to their fidelities and affections, and to
to as is known to your lords; and the commissioners who are to go to ingage them in ane unjust quarrell
before I got dispatch of his majesty, London concerning the supplication against us their King, wee cannot,
it fell out that his majesty and the above-written and desire thereof therefore, but endeavour to remove
parliaments armies rencountered aforesaid, to whom the estates of these jealousies, and secure their
in battle at Renton where there was parliament hereby recommend the feares, from all possibilitie of any
a bloody conflict, and it being my prosecuting of the same. hazard to either of these, from us.Wee
fortune to be by his majestys person have, therefor, thought fit to require
at the aforesaid conflict, within two Kineton having become Kentone you to call together your friends,
days thereafter I got my dispatch and and now Renton. The key phrase vassalls, tenents, and such others
pass for Scotland, and being upon my here is: as have any dependencie upon you,
journey home was taken by some of his majesty having appointed me and in our name to shew them our
the parliaments forces and carried to be his majestys commissioner for willingness to give all the assurances
to Northampton, where I was kept
prisoner two nights, and from there
was carried to London with a guard
and kept there by the space of eight Fighting against the king at the Battle
weeks, where I could never get hearing
of the parliament nor access to them of Marston Moor was contrary to all the
previous actions of Dunfermline since the
to have known upon what grounds I
was taken and detained; and during

Second Bishops War


the time of my arrestment there was
some malicious papers emitted and
put to the press against me, declaring
me an enemy to my country and
the religion professed there, albeit I the general assembly then held at St they can desire, or wee possibly grant
am confident that my actions and Andrews, and after the dissolving of (if more can be given then alreadie
carriage from the beginning of these the said assembly I having gone up is), of preserving inviolably all those
troubles may sufficiently vindicate to his majesty to render an account graces and favours which wee have
me from any imputation of that of the proceedings of the aforesaid of late granted to that our Kingdom,
kind, to which your lords I hope assembly for my exoneration of the and that wee doe faithfullie promise
and this whole kingdom may justly trust put upon me by his majesty, never to goe to the contrarie of any
give testimony; and seeing that the and having carried up with me some thing there established, either in the
aforesaid declarations so emitted desires to his majesty from the kirk of ecclesiasticall or civill government,
against me are yet unrecalled by the this kingdom... but that wee will inviolably keep the
parliament of England, whereby my same, according to the lawes of that
honour and reputation does heavily Clearly, as the Assembly our Kingdome; and wee doe wish
suffer, therefore I humbly beseech your closed on 6 August 1642, the God so to blisse our proceedings and
lords to take the premises into your earl had been kept waiting some posteritie, as wee doe reallie make
consideration and to take such course considerable time for an audience gude and performe this promise.
as the parliament of England may with the king, well over a month
be moved to recall and annul these allowing for his travel time from This may be one of the letters
declarations emitted and dispersed Scotland, presumably having to to various Scottish nobles sent
against me to my prejudice, as is follow the king on his trek across via kings secretary, the earl of
above-written, whereby my honour England. Clearly, the English Lanark, to counteract the negative
and reputation which suffers thereby Parliament had not been satisfied impression Charles had created
may be vindicated to that kingdom with his explanation, to have by his treatment of the Scottish
who may justly retain jealousies detained him ex communicado for commissioners request to be
concerning me if the said declarations so long. allowed to mediate between him
shall stand unrecalled; and for the Subsequently, on 21 April 1643, and Parliament.
way and manner thereof, I humbly the king wrote to Dunfermline On 10 May, 1643, at the earl
submit the same to your honours from Oxford: of Argyles instigation, there was
judgement, being confident your lords a gathering of the Scottish Privy
will take such an honourable course Right trustie and right welbeloved Council, the Conservators of
as I may not lie any longer under cosen and counsellour, wee greet you the Peace (set up originally to
the said imputations emitted against well. But knowing what industrie ensure the conditions of the Treaty
me, and your lords answer I humbly is used (by scattering seditious of London were kept) and the

44 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

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Charles Seton and the Civil Wars

Scottish Commissioners who had


been sent to London to negotiate
between the Scottish and English
Parliaments. On 11 May, it was
proposed that a Convention of
the Estates be called to consider
the state of the Scottish army in
Ireland (sent over following the
rebellion in November 1641): the
calling of the Estates was usually
employed as a means of enacting
specific policies when the king
had not authorised the calling of a
Parliament. The duke of Hamilton,
as the Kings Commissioner, first
tried to delay this, then on 12 May
stated that the Estates could not be
called without the kings consent.
Despite strong support from
various Scottish lords including
Dunfermline and Callander, he
was defeated. Of the sixteen nobles
present, six refused to sign the
letter to the king announcing the
calling of the convention, one of
whom was Dunfermline.

The earl of Dunfermline thus


appears to be continuing in his
loyalty to King Charles. However,
in January 1644, the Scottish
army again crossed the Tweed
under the command of Alexander
Leslie, this time in overt alliance
with the English Parliament,
and Dunfermline apparently
accompanied the army with his
Fife Regiment of Foot. According
to Furgol, Dunfermline received
his commission as Colonel of Foot
from the Estates on 26 August Dunfermline attended the opening Lyon King, it is unlikely that
1643, and recruiting continued Plaque on a of the Scottish Parliament on 4 he would mistake Dunfermline
up to 24 December 1643. The building on June, 1644 when his regiment was being present at the opening of
regiment served with Leslie in Lloyds Bank in besieging York: parliament. Further, Dunfermline
Northumberland, in Durham and Market Street in is named on a committee
at the siege of York. At the Battle Newcastle upon The noblemen and comissioners considering propositions of peace
of Marston Moor, the Fife Foot Tyne recording the of the barrons and borowes of the on 11 June, another on 19 June,
were part of the Scottish reserve captivity of King kingdome mett in the Vpper Exeter and on 24 July he presented in
which were routed by the Royalist Charles I by the Chamber aboute 9 a clocke, and person the Bill asking parliament
cavalry. Again, according to Furgol, Scots 1646-47 ther the nobility putt one all ther to free him of the imputations
on 19 October 1644 the Foot were parliament robes, and came doune arising from his arrest after
directly under the joint command the staires to the sessione chamber, Edgehill. During the period 1644-
of Dunfermline and another and beinng called by the Lyone K. 45 when Montrose was winning his
officer. of Armes, they arrived in order, with miraculous victories in Scotland
Fighting against the king in sound of trumpett, to ther setts in the against the Covenanting army,
that conflict was contrary to all parliament housse, wich was weill Napier wrote of Montrose:
the previous actions of the earl fitted with hangings, and a clothe
since the Second Bishops War. and chaire of estait first day ther The other, that, though all else
Again, however, there is conflicting was present of the nobility, E. should prove deceptive, there were
evidence. Sir James Balfour, the Dumfermling. certain noblemen in Scotland who
Lyon King at Arms, records in his never could.Was it possible for him,
Historical Works (pp 165-166) that Given Sir James position as when so commissioned, to doubt

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 45

p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 45 31/07/2017 10:14


www.historyscotland.com

on 5 May, having been misled by


Montreuil of the treatment he
could expect from the Scots. The
king ordered the Newark garrison
to surrender one day later, and the
Scottish army withdrew, leaving for
Newcastle on 7 May, arriving there
six days later.
Despite all of Dunfermlines
efforts on his behalf, the kings
perception of Dunfermline seems
to have changed in 1646 when
he wrote from his captivity in
Newcastle on 16 June to Queen
Henrietta Maria:

DEAR HEART,. Absolute


necessity made me admit Dumferling
to wait in my bedchamber; but he is
not, nor shall be sworn without thy
free consent, which I desire to know.

In a letter dated the following


day, he expands upon his view of
Dunfermline:

Dear Heart, I think it fit, for


change, to give thee a particular
account of the several humours
of the Scots. I divide them into 4
factions; Mountroses, the neutralls,
the Hamiltons, and the Campbells.
The second hath no declared head,
but Calander may be said to be
chief of them; as for the other, it is
ignorance to ask who were theirs.
...Dumfermling, who is a neutral,
makes me believe that I govern him,
and I verily think he tells me all he
knows. So, longing to hear from thee,
and that Pr. Charles is safe with thee,
I rest eternally thine, Charles R.
the instant, ardent, and constant charged with the return to power Sir James Balfour
co-operation of Huntly, Crawford, of King Charles with Scottish help, (c.1600-c.1658) Read the concluding part of
Traquair, and Dunfermline? arrived in Oxford and commenced Lyon King at Arms, this article in our November/
secret negotiations with the king who recorded December issue, on sale
Apart from the clear statement on the Scots behalf. In April, Dunfermlines 7 October. Missed part I? Get
that the Fife Foot were under the lord Loudoun met with the earl attendance at the a copy from our website: scot.
command of its Colonel on 19 of Balcarres and Dunfermline opening of the sh/2r5syKW
October, 1644, Furgol does not (by then two of the Scottish Scottish Parliament
explicitly state that the earl of commissioners with the Scottish in 1644 Paul Christensen is the Professor of
Dunfermline was actually leading army besieging Newark) and it Pure and Applied Electrochemistry at
his men during the campaigns was agreed that the army would Newcastle University. He has been an
of 1644 and 1645. Given his welcome the king providing it was Electrochemist for thirty one years. He
attendance at the Scottish done in such a way that the English has over 200 papers in international
Parliament, it may have been the Parliament was not offended; i.e. Chemistry/Electrochemistry journals
case that the earl did not fight in the king was to drop in on his and one textbook: more importantly, he
person against his sovereign. way to Scotland. On 27 March, has two articles on English Civil War
On 23 March 1646, Jean de the king left Oxford disguised as coins in Spinks Numismatic Circular,
Montreuil, appointed French a servant and surrendered to the was a contributor to the Platts recent
resident in Scotland and secretly Scottish army outside Newark book on English Civil War medals, which

46 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 46 31/07/2017 10:14


Vol 17.6
In the
Charles next
Seton and the Civil On
Wars
sale:
Nov/Dec 2017

issue of 7 October

he also reviewed for the Numismatic


Circular and published his first article
in History Scotland in the November/
December 2016 issue. He first became
then, his sympathy with the kings
views on predestination, and his
amateur research into the modus
operandi of John Pym et al have
history
SCOTLAND
interested in the era of King Charles (almost) convinced him to overlook
Rewriting history:
1 in 1997, at which time he was a Charles Stuarts (many) faults and
the childhood and youth of
confirmed Parliamentarian: since cross to the dark side.
folklorist Alexander Carmichael
Exploring the childhood and youth of Isle of
Lismore folklorist Alexander Carmichael, as we
examine his original notebooks to untangle the
myths he wove about his early life. Far from
The reverse of the Peace
being proud of his crofting roots, Carmichael
or War medal, 1643, by
went to great lengths to hide his origins, fooling
Thomas Rawlins. The
the public into believing he was descended from
medal commemorates
a distinguished landed family. What were the
the views of Charles I
motives for this long-running deception?
after the defeat of
the Parliamentarian
General Sir
William Waller
at the Battle of
Roundway Down
by Lord Hopton
on 13 July, 1643,
and the reduction
of Bristol on 26
July, 1643 by
Prince Rupert, The Glenkens Rising
when he summoned The dread and horror of the Glenkens Rising of
a council to consider 1666, when a Borders community shattered by
how these great the burden of quartering government soldiers
blessings in war might be took matters into its own hands, with far-reaching
applied to procuring a consequences. We discover to what extent
happy peace government atrocities impacted on the character
and attitude of the glens inhabitants, both before
the Rising and in the years that followed.

Tea and Empire:


FURTHER READING James Taylor in Victorian Ceylon
To mark the 150th
A large number of manuscript and published sources were used.
anniversary of the
These include:
Ceylon tea empire,
we tell the story of
Venice: April 1640, in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English
James Taylor, the son
Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 25, 1640-1642, ed. Allen B
of a wheelwright who
Hinds (London, 1924), pp. 32-40 http://scot.sh/HSvenice [accessed 9
became known as the
March 2015]
father of Ceylon tea.
Taylors early efforts in
Pamphlett E242[3], Thomason Collection, British Library. A Continuation
the tea trade helped to
of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages, no. 17, 31st October - 3rd
create the foundations
November 1642
for the transformation of
Sri Lankas economy and
George Seton, Memoir of Alexander Seton, Earl of Dunfermline
in the process, began to
(Edinburgh and London, 1882)
shape the worlds drinking habits.

Charles 1 Volume 420: May 1 -14, 1639 in Calendar of State Papers Plus: Glimpses of 17th-century St Andrews with
Domestic: Charles I, 1639, 143; Ed. William Douglas Hamilton (London, the Burnwynd Project; spotlight on the Glasgow
1873), pp103 -167. http://scot.sh/HScharlesI. [Accessed 9 March 2015] Police Museum; cutting edge building conservation
at The Engine Shed, and much more
House of Lords Journal Volume 9: 5 June 1647, in Journal of the
House of Lords: Volume 9, 1646 (London, 1767-1830), pp. 239-243 GUARANTEE YOUR COPY
http://scot.sh/HSlords [accessed 15 March 2015] Subscribe and never miss an issue of History
Scotland. Turn to page 51 for our latest subscription
offer or find more offers on the History Scotland
website: http://scot.sh/his-subs
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 47

p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 47 31/07/2017 10:14


EDINBURGH CASTLE
Nick Finnigan, executive manager of Edinburgh Castle, talks to History Scotland about the challenges
of meeting the expectations of visitors whilst protecting the fabric of a historic site which attracts
1.8 million visitors a year

N
ick Finnigan and his Edinburgh Castle those many visitors altered over the that people appreciate their
team welcome around was built to keep out years? For Nick, the biggest change complaint has been taken seriously
150,000 visitors to unwanted visitors, has been over the last decade or so: they want a more rounded visit
Edinburgh Castle meaning that the By and large, fifteen years ago, in and what weve done is respond to
every month; people of design of the building terms of consumerism people got this expectation.
different ages, nationalities and with presents challenges what they got and it was a take it So how does this work in practice?
differing expectations. So what are for managing visitor or leave it situation. But now the One example, says Nick, is the
the main challenges of managing flow nowadays public is incredibly discerning and situation at the Scottish National
such large numbers of people in heavily critical. But I dont have a War Memorial within the castle. We
this ancient building? problem with that because it does manage this memorial on behalf of
The castle was actually designed give us an opportunity to make the the trustees of the memorial and
to keep people out, says Nick, and visitor experience better. because its regarded as a shrine to
so the main challenge is the design Were not a domestic visitor the war dead, theres always been a
of the building. Id sum it up that attraction, were an international no photography rule.
you have a building at the top of a one, and one of the biggest Because of visitor feedback
hill with a narrow entrance, which decisions I made when I took on weve actually adopted a more
was built over various centuries the job of executive manager of relaxed regime and have asked
and wasnt perfectly designed to Edinburgh Castle back in 2011 our incredibly passionate and
accommodate thousands of people was that I would answer every knowledgeable guides to adopt
at once. single e-mail or letter of complaint a slightly lighter touch. We still
And how have the perceptions of personally. We then tend to find police the situation, and the site

48 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p48-49 Edinburgh interview.indd 48 31/07/2017 10:16


Edinburgh Castle

is signposted beyond belief, around easily, and where food, hotels


but were dealing with this in a and visitor attractions can all be
smarter way. found in cone ompact area.
Another example of visitor Of course, despite its huge
feedback is from people with numbers of international visitors,
disabilities, who often say Edinburgh Castle is well-loved by
that weve exceeded their the locals too. So how does the castle
expectations. People might retain this audience? For Nick, this
think Edinburgh Castle would is via the Historic Environment
be a tricky site for someone Scotland membership scheme. Our
with disabilities to visit but we membership scheme is phenomenal
have a mobility vehicle to take and very important to us. Were
visitors from the esplanade up a conservation organisation and
to the top of the castle, a lift to encourage people to really embrace
take them to the Crown Jewels, our heritage, and the best way we
and wheelchair access to St can to this is to price the scheme
Margarets Chapel. With 1.8 attractively, which is effectively
million visitors a year were not nurturing the next generation.
going to please everyone but Our events programme also
thats not to say that we dont try reaches out to people who might
our utmost. not ordinarily visit a historic
In terms of visitor profile, attraction. Something exciting
this too is an ever-changing like the prospect of seeing knights
challenge, as Nick explains: on horseback widens our visitor
Edinburgh Castle has 70 base to families. I think Historic
percent international visitors, As executive manager busy Great Hall, we now take Environment Scotland used to
20 percent visitors from England of Edinburgh Castle, some of these performances down have a reputation of being dry and
and 10 percent from within Nick oversees the to Hospital Square which is a dusty but now were aiming to give
Scotland, and so England is our visitor experience natural ampitheatre and can still people fantastic value and they in
biggest single market. A big growth of some 1.8 million accommodate around 100 people. turn are making an investment in
market is visitors from Brazil, India, visitors every year A further challenge in managing our heritage.
Russia and China, and this will the visitor experience comes from Looking after Edinburgh Castle
only continue over the years when the Scottish weather, which actually, is a phenomenal responsibility, but I
Edinburgh International Airport has says Nick, doesnt cause as much know that I have a team working with
a direct route from China, which is as a problem as people might think: me who are passionate about making
reflected in the current China Ready Where were fortunate is that sure that the people who come here
initiative, which challenges the city were actually both an indoor and have the best time. Because Historic
to prepare for this time. an outdoor attraction. Youve got Environment Scotland isnt profit
With visitor numbers which look the internal apartments and also making, any money we generate pays
set to continue to grow strongly over the outside sections of the castle, for conservation and makes sure that
the next decade, how do Nick and whereas a hugely popular and these buildings are still here long
his team manage the flow of visitors interesting attraction like National after were gone, and I think that the
around the castle? Theres a general Museum of Scotland, which is public understand and buy into that.
spine of the castle, where people nearby, might see far fewer visitors Looking to the future, Nick has
would usually come in through the on a sunny day because people want one final thought: One thing Ive
entrance, then go to the esplanade to to be outside enjoying the views. tried to do is to ensure that the
look at the views, and move up the The people I feel sorry for, castle has contemporary relevance.
spine from there, says Nick. Nick laughs, are those who have So for example, the Olympic torch
To create a better experience obviously looked out of their hotel arrived here and 9,000 folk turned
for our visitors, what weve done window before visiting the castle, up to watch, we also have the
is things like moving the entrance seen a lovely sunny day, and then Edinburgh Tattoo and various pop
to our prisoners of war exhibition, are at the castle in the afternoon concerts each year which have the
which is very popular, closer to wearing a t-shirt, shorts and flip castle as their backdrop. This means
the exit, to ease pressure on the flops, but the weathers changed for the castle isnt just a time capsule
spine area. This exhibition area the worse. Having said that, people but has relevance today. In 50 years
still gets a 70 percent footfall, but who come to Scotland do in the time, people will be able to look
it does relieve crowd pressure. main understand that the weathers back and remember that something
I was also very keen to increase variable; visitors come here for fantastic happened here.
our living history presence in the historical architecture and the For more on Edinburgh
the castle and so whilst once we scenery. Edinburgh is regarded as a Castle and its membership and
were having performances in the safe destination which you can walk events programme, visit:
www.edinburghcastle.gov.uk
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 49

p48-49 Edinburgh interview.indd 49 31/07/2017 10:15


Inside the National Records of Scotland

Famous and
not-so-famous Scots
Dr Tristram Clarke explores statutory registers
and the information they can give family historians

W
ith its circular records mainly consist of entries
tiers of registers from the pre-1855 parish registers,
recording every statutory registers from 1855,
birth, death or censuses and testaments. Many of
marriage in Scotland since 1855, the the wills and testaments are available
rotunda at the heart of New Register as transcripts as well as images,
House has been described as a well thus making it easier to read, for
of souls. While this may strike some example, the will of the poet William
as a touch too poetic, the room has a Drummond of Hawthornden, who
special quality appropriate for a space died in 1649.
in which the beginnings, middles and There are plenty of Scots from
ends of millions of lives are recorded. all walks of life who are noteworthy
They are the lives of Jock in some way. They range from the
Tamsons bairns, and no distinction pioneering physicist James Clerk
is made in their functional details Maxwell (1831-79), whose genius
between the ordinary person and Albert Einstein acknowledged, to
those who have become celebrated. John Broadwood (1732-1812),
This is what makes these records, the Berwickshire-born craftsman
and the Old Parish Registers, such whose pianos were sought after by
a happy hunting ground for family musicians in Britain and abroad.
historians, and indeed for anyone Among female subjects are Mary,
looking for authentic biographical Queen of Scots and Dr Elsie Inglis,
information or a vital clue that will the courageous physician and
help them discover more about surgeon who died in 1917. The
someones parents or children, their latest additions bring the total so
job, where they lived, whom they far to about 160 entries, and the
married and how they died. subjects could be a quiz question.
Other records available through Who were the only three Scottish
our ScotlandsPeople service can archbishops of Canterbury?
reveal who were their neighbours, (Answer: Randall Davidson, 1848-
whether they owned or rented their 1930, Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1864-
dwelling, and what they bequeathed 1945, and Archibald Campbell Tait,
at their death. And there are many 1811-82.)
more historical records in National There is no shortage of important
Records of Scotland that can shed and interesting people who might
light on the lives of Scots through be included. In the words of the late
the ages. Colin Matthew of the Oxford DNB, Statutory registers William Arrol, the Scottish engineer
Some historical figures feature the great and the good, the bad and line the rotunda best known for constructing the
in our online Hall of Fame. By the exotic can find their place. Being in New Register Forth Bridge.
drawing together various records of good character or doing good House, Edinburgh. Continuing to celebrate the
from our holdings about well-known for humanity are not necessary for lives of Scots is part of our aim of
Scots, we offer people across the inclusion. Among the infamous will preserving the past, recording the
globe the chance to see images of be Madeleine Smith (1835-1928), present and informing the future.
original documents at a glance. who in 1857 underwent a sensational
Nowadays biographical information trial for murder by poisoning, and Visit the NRS Hall of Fame:
is widely and easily available, so we escaped with a famous not proven http://scot.sh/HShall
aim to complement online resources verdict. This August she is being
such as the Oxford Dictionary of featured in a special free exhibition Learn more about the Famous
National Biography and Wikipedia by in Register House, Famous Scots Scots from the Past exhibition,
offering uniquely authentic images from the Past. The others include until 1 September 2017:
and information. At present the Mary, Queen of Scots, and Sir http://scot.sh/HSfamous

50 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p50 NRSC.indd 50 31/07/2017 10:17


A REMARKABLE NEW
Charity SC045925

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND IN
TWENTY-FIVE BUILDINGS
Out Now 20

2 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017

HES_Who
64.indd 2Built Scotland Advert HistoryScotland.indd 1 31/07/2017
31/07/2017 10:05
11:07
SPOTLIGHT ON

Spotlight on...
West Lothian History
& Amenity Society
Founded in 1965, the West Lothian History & Amenity
Society exists to promote the study of the history of the
West Lothian region, and an appreciation of its historical
buildings and sites.
Society meetings are held between September and
May at venues around the area, including Ecclesmachan
Village Hall, Boness Library, Acredale House in Bathgate
and Chalmers Hall at Linlithgow Bridge. Visitors are very
welcome and can apply to join the society at any of its
meetings, or by contacting the membership secretary,
whose details are below.
The Societys syllabus for 2017/18 has just been published
and as always, includes talks on a range of topics from both
society members and visiting speakers. The September
meeting will comprise a visit from TV presenter and
historian Fiona Watson, who will give a talk entitled The
master carpenter and the female engineer: oppression and
opportunity in Edward Is Scotland, followed by a visit from
Dr Fraser Hunter of National Museums Scotland (on 18
October) for a talk on the impact of the Romans in Scotland.
Over the years, the society has published a number of
books and booklets about the history of the area. Topics
range from the murder of Regent Moray through to West
Lothian in wartime, and from West Lothian people through to
transport history. These publications are listed on the website
www.wlhas.org.uk and can be purchased through the society.
New members are always welcome and annual From top: Preceptory of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem at
membership is 10 adult/ 15 family, or 75 for life Torphichen; Blackness Castle. Blackness was in West Lothian
membership. For more information, or to join, contact until 1975, but is now in the Falkirk local authority area. These
membership secretary Jane Bennie, e-mail: jane.bennie46@ two aerial images were taken by Club member John Wells
gmail.com; website: www.wlhas.org.uk

Official government records


Discover more about family history
at: www.family-tree.co.uk the online
home of Family Tree magazine

Ken Nisbet explores a category of records which is often overlooked by historians, yet can add much to our
understanding of how our ancestors lived

A resource that is much population of each parish. of Morayshire and Nairn have been
underutilised by many family Other reports cover the employment transcribed and can be seen on the
and local historians, is official of women and children in factories Moray and Nairn Family History Society
government reports. Whilst and coal mines and the application of website: www.morayandnairnfhs.co.uk
they may not mention your outdoor relief. In some cases the names
relative by name, they can be useful for of the witnesses or informants to those
adding to the back story of what life was compiling the reports is given. In order Ken Nisbet is
like for Scots in years gone by. to access the records you need to sign up Secretary of the
One such example is the reports of through the subscription services offered Scottish Genealogy
the House of Commons committees, by major libraries. Society and of
in this case A Digest of Parochial If you live in Scotland you can sign the Scottish Association of Family History
Returns Made to the Select Committee up at no cost for the National Library Societies and is on the user group for the
Appointed to Inquire into the Education of Scotland Digital Collection: https:// Family History Centre in Edinburgh. He
of The Poor 1818. auth.nls.uk/eresources which includes is a regular lecturer to Scotlands family
The report covered the whole of the above named resource under the title history societies. He has written a number
Scotland and showed the name of the of Parliamentary Papers. of books, all of which are published by the
parish and the name of the minister The reports of the committee Scottish Genealogy Society, and tutors some
signing the return, as well as the mentioned above for the counties of the classes the society runs.

52 H I S TO RY S C OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p52 Spotlight.indd 52 31/07/2017 10:17


BOOKREVIEWS Edited by Dr Allan Kennedy
reviews@historyscotland.com

Hunting the Bowhead


Dr Ross Crawford appreciates a detailed reconstruction of an under-appreciated Scottish
industry which, from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries, saw hundreds of Scots make the
long and dangerous journey to the Arctic in pursuit of bowhead whales
Scottish Arctic Whaling
Chesley W. Sanger
Birlinn, 2016
240 pages
Paperback, 30
ISBN: 9781906566777

In this book, Chelsey W.


Sanger brings to life a
near-forgotten Scottish
industry by drawing
upon a rich and largely
untapped supply of
archive material. From
the late 18th century
until the eve of World
War I, hundreds of Scots sailed from
east coast ports to hunt bowhead whales
around East Greenland, and latterly Davis
Strait and Baffin Bay.
Although the Scots were relatively late
to jump on the Arctic whaling bandwagon,
they made up for lost time by investing
considerable money and manpower into
the venture, eventually outstripping Whale being flensed alongside the Eclipse. After being secured by a harpoon shot from the gun mounted on the
Englands involvement. Rewards were not bow of the whaleboat, the bowhead was killed with lances and towed to the vessel for flensing. The baleen was
always commensurate to this investment: removed from the carcass and hoisted on board for cleaning and storage. The blubber was then cut into strips for
the whalers had a perilously small window transport back to the home port for rendering into oil. (Courtesy of Birlinn Ltd.)
of time within which to hunt and harvest
their quarry before their passage home with the English experience, which helps focuses on this era, is by far the richest
was blocked by ice. the reader to appreciate the sheer extent in terms of both analysis and evidence. It
The author does delve into the ethics of of the later Scottish domination over fulfils the promise of the book, offering a
an industry that still provokes controversy, the activity. Sanger does still presume a vivid insight into the industry at its height
and by his own admission his sympathies reasonable level of knowledge about the and its most deadly.
lie firmly with the whalers, rather than practice of whaling on the part of the Sanger shows how the intensive hunting
the whales. That said, the whalers are reader. In addition, he quotes extensively at Davis Strait and Baffin Bay led to
largely kept at arms-length throughout the from the archive sources he has dwindling numbers of whales, which in
book beyond a brief introduction which uncovered, yet often does not offer much turn encouraged the whalers to take more
contextualises some basic details we do analysis of the cited material, leaving the risks and hunt for longer periods of time.
not glean much insight into the everyday reader guessing as to its significance. This inevitably led to more casualties,
experience of the men aboard the whaling An important turning point in the reaching a high point in 1835-36 when
vessels. Why did these men choose to history of Scottish Arctic whaling was the disaster struck two ships, the Dee and the
undertake such arduous voyages to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary Thomas. From their combined crew of
Arctic? What were the conditions like on War in 1775. The entire enterprise was 124 men, only 22 survived the voyage and
board these ships? Sangers sympathies almost scuppered as the Scottish fleet was returned to Scotland.
may well lie with the men, but his primary reduced by more than half. The return to Attempts were made to slow the decline
interest is in the processes and systems of peace in 1783 heralded a rapid growth in of the industry towards the end of the
an industry. the industry, culminating in the so-called 19th century. To subsidise bowhead
The early chapters contrast the growth Golden Age of Scottish Arctic whaling whaling, some ventures began to branch
of Scottish involvement in Arctic whaling between 1802 and 1840. Chapter 8, which out by hunting seals; a more inventive

H I S TO RY S COT L A ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 53

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approach was to offer a prototype version
of adventure-tourism hunting. These
efforts were in vain, and by World War I the
industry had come to a conclusive end.
Readers expecting lively tales of
Melvillian adventures on the high
seas may come away from this book
disappointed, but those looking for a
sober analysis of the rise and fall of an
important Scottish industry will find
much to appreciate.

Dr Ross Crawford received his PhD from the


University of Glasgow in 2016 for a thesis on
warfare in the west Highlands of Scotland in
the 16th and 17th centuries.

Arctic whaling, c.1828. The Harmony of Hull in foreground and (l to r) the Margaret, London, Eliza Swan, Montrose, and Industry, London. Oil painting by W.J. Huggins engraved
and published in 1829 by E. Duncan. The Eliza Swan, one of Scotlands most successful Northern whalers, made 54 voyages as a member of the Montrose fleet between 1786 and
1839. Under eleven different masters she brought back 375.5 bowheads and 1,551 harp seals from both Davis Strait and East Greenland. (Courtesy of Birlinn Ltd.)

Adventures of a Hebridean crofter


Dr Bob Chambers is captivated by the remarkable autobiography of South Uist
crofter Donald MacDonald, who takes his readers on an astonishing and eye-opening
journey from the wind-swept Outer Hebrides to the trenches of World War I and across
the Atlantic to the Great Lakes
From Small Lochs to Great as well as events in his own lifes journey. There are endless examples:
Lakes: The Remarkable Story The portrait of life in a typical Western When thatching a roof, the thatch had to be
of a First World War Soldier, Isles crofting community starts to be tied down securely and as wire and wire netting
Sailor, and South Uist Crofter revealed on the very first page of the book: were unknown to us, it was rope that was used.
D. MacDonald My father was a crofter and fisherman [...] Rope to buy was beyond our means[...] we had
For the Right Reasons Community Print, he owned part of a croft between himself and to manufacture our own from heather. The long
2016; 290 pages his brother [...] There were nine of us in our winter nights were passed in making the rope.
Paperback, 15.95 family though only six lived to full maturity School (at Garrynamonie) was over three
ISBN: 9781910205822 [...] Our house was very old [...] it had one miles from his house and Donald had to walk
distinction in that it was the only house which there and back daily with a whole drove of
On the face of it this had a glass window [...] about a foot square [other] children from his township. Who
could well be a worthy [...] Inside, apart from my fathers chest there today could imagine having to undertake
but rather run-of- was very little in the way of furniture. My that twice-daily school journey on foot over
the-mill 20th-century mother also had a chest [...] although all she remote hilly terrain? Apart from anything else,
autobiography of an possessed only half filled it [...] The remaining it simply would not be allowed.
ordinary and quite furniture consisted of a bench, three beds, one His headmaster (Frederick G. Rea,
unremarkable South Uist chair and a few stools arranged around the fire, the author of A School in South Uist:
crofter. But none of it. Donald MacDonald which was built in the centre of the floor. Reminiscences of a Hebridean School Master
of South Lochboisdale born 1897 and died The reader is immediately transported 1890-1913, first published in 1964 well after
1985 lived a remarkable life. to and drawn into this simple, hard, now his death) was English and at that time did
The book ends with Donald, in his eighties, lost way of life. Who, these days, could own not speak Gaelic. Needless to say, the young
writing It is far too late to say had I been so few possessions? But Donalds brilliant Donald had little English.
better educated my telling of this story could descriptions make it utterly and totally real The school was small, consisting of only
be more interesting. This readers response and tangible. We can see and breathe in two rooms. Neither of Donalds parents
to Donalds statement is an emphatic No. and almost touch and feel the scenes he could read or write typical for that
He has written a superb and compelling describes throughout the book. period. Donald left school at fourteen,
autobiography. Its particular strength lies in He has the knack of making us feel joined the army before sixteen and was
the first hand insights it provides into the life of present, as an onlooker, no matter what he wounded three times during World War I.
Hebridean crofting communities of the period, is describing. He was not yet 21 when the war ended.

54 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

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Buy books at discounted prices with the History
Scotland Book Shop at: http://scot.sh/his-bookshop

What must so young a person have


experienced and endured during those
four years? The war scenes he describes
The reader is immediately transported
are harrowing and authentic.
In 1921, like so many of his
to and drawn into this simple, hard,
contemporaries, he emigrated to Canada
on the much written about Metagama first now lost way of life. Who, these days,
could own so few possessions?
trying farming, then moving to the USA
doing a variety of manual jobs and sailing on
the Great Lakes.
He even had a stint in the diamond trade
as a diamond cutter. Eventually, though, he young children, is no less dramatic. It is South Uist, the Hebrides or authentic crofting
moved back to South Uist and married at compelling and crammed with information life this book is an absolute must read.
the age of 45. that casts much light on the workings of
By 1953 he had six children. Sadly, typical Highlands and Islands Dr Bob Chambers is the first History PhD
however, after only twelve years of married crofting communities. graduate of the University of the Highlands
life, his wife died. The next phase of For anyone (including academics and and Islands. He has a special interest in
Donalds life, as a widower bringing up his students alike) with even a passing interest in crofting and land settlement in the Hebrides.

Projecting power
Dr Katy Jack enjoys a rich and varied collection of essays exploring the wide range of
strategies used by those in authority in medieval and early modern Britain and Ireland
to both advertise and reinforce their power
Representation of Authority in Persuasive and direct, David Simpkins moments in the first twelve years of the
Scotland and the British Isles chapter explores a court on the move, focusing reign of Robert I (infused as they were
K. Buchanan, L.H.S Dean and M. on the aesthetic visualisation of English royal with both secular and liturgical elements)
Penman (eds.) authority during the military campaigns to provides a striking example of the utility of
Routledge, 2016 Scotland between 1296 and 1336. Particular such public displays in advancing Roberts
284 pages attention is paid to the appropriation of right to rule in a period fraught with
Hardback, 95 Scottish power centres, and the use of tents challenges to his authority.
ISBN: 9781472423388 and banners to overawe the Scots with the James Hillsons account of the changing
majesty of the English court (p.20). depiction of royal authority during the
Borne from two This attention to visual authority is reign of Edward III (focusing on two
workshops and a continued in Richard Orams commanding royal decorative programmes undertaken
conference exploring analysis of regality jurisdictions, and at St Stephens chapel between 1330
representations of how enhanced fortification of monastic and 1364, and the domestic unrest and
authority, this edited gatehouses represented the secular power changing fortunes which shaped them)
collection is a triumphal of these communities as franchisees of complements Penmans conclusions,
demonstration the Scottish crown. The judicial theme highlighting the importance of these
of the benefits of continues in Kate Buchanans thought- innovative programmes to the development
interdisciplinary provoking assessment of the physical of self-imaging strategies employed by the
scholarship. Architecture, landscapes, saints structures associated with the rights to English monarchy (p.107). Tom Turpies
cults, lordship, ceremonial displays, literature milling and fishing in 16th-century Angus, fascinating assessment of the engagement
and music are all used to full effect here in exploring how their proximity to core noble with and symbolism of the cult of St
revealing the variety of ways in which those residences demonstrated a lords control Ninian in late-medieval Scotland provides
in power demonstrated their authority in the over a given landscape. Changing tack, a fitting conclusion to the section, not only
medieval and early modern periods. Divided Kirsteen MacKenzie concludes this section highlighting how the popularity of this
into fourteen chapters across four sections, with an astute analysis of the politics of Scottish saint was tied to the ebb and flow
the editors are to be commended for contested spaces in Glasgow between 1650 of domestic politics, but also exploring the
anticipating the challenges associated with and 1653, highlighting the complex nature ability of some saints to transcend issues of
such topical diversity through their effective of transitional authority and the competitive political hostility. The patronage of the cult
identification of complimentary themes interests which shaped its success or failure. of St Ninian by Richard III Englands last
across each of the fourteen chapters, imbuing The volumes second section (undoubtedly Plantagenet monarch is used effectively
each section with a crucial sense of unity. the most cohesive) considers public here to underpin Turpies conclusions.
The first of the four sections explores the demonstrations of pious devotion and the The penultimate section in this edited
use of internal and external spaces by royal, effectiveness of artistic display. Michael collection explores the challenges faced
noble, ecclesiastic and social authorities. Penmans discussion of three key ceremonial by royal women and Highland elites in

H I S TO RY S COT L A ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 55

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representing their authority. Employing
a similar approach to Penman in his
biographical nature of the text provides
a fascinating insight into the perceived RECENTLY
assessment of Robert I, Lucy Dean provides
an authoritative analysis of the challenges
authority of James I, while also representing
the existence of what Murray deems a
PUBLISHED
faced by Marie de Guise (mother of Mary lively literary culture which continued Scottish Legal
Queen of Scots) between 1543 and 1558, beyond the reigns of James I and II (p.230). History, 1000-
and the importance of public display and Jamie Reid-Baxters penultimate chapter 1707, volume one
ceremony to the demonstration of her considers how the music of Robert by Andrew
absent daughters authority in a complex, Carver was used to accompany James IVs Simpson & Adelyn
male-dominated arena (p.146). investiture with Scotlands Sword of State on Wilson Edinburgh
This issue is also given a platform by Easter Sunday 1507 (a gift from Pope Julius University Press,
Estelle Paranque, whose treatment of the II). Reid-Baxters masterful analysis provides 40
female kingship of Elizabeth I provides a fascinating insight into the difficulty we The roots of
a fascinating account of her dual role as face as an increasingly secularised society to Scots law can be traced to the
both king and queen, and the difficulties understand the importance of such an event, 1100s. How and why did that
faced in protecting her kingdom and its while the nature of papal gifts to encourage law come into being? How was it
subjects when warfare was deemed to be crusade and the honour associated used in dispute resolution during
the concern of men. Paranques assessment with receiving these gifts provides the medieval and early modern
of Elizabeths use of textual imagery to understanding of the authority James IV periods? And how did its authority
invoke her military authority provides a vital both held, and wished to claim. develop over the centuries? This
counterbalance to previous discussions of Stephen Bowman closes proceedings by volume explores such questions.
physical expressions of power. highlighting that the dominant focus on
Mary Queen of
Scots: A Study
Architecture, landscapes, saints cults, in Failure
By Jenny Wormald
lordship, ceremonial displays, literature Birlinn, 14.99
A new edition of

and music are all used to full effect here Jenny Wormalds
classic and
acclaimed biography of Mary Queen
Moving away from female authority, the authority of ruling elites has detracted of Scots, with a new foreword and
Allan Kennedys concluding chapter seeks from an understanding of the variety of afterword by Anna Groundwater.
to challenge the common perception of contexts in which power could have been Unlike biographies of Mary predating
lordly culture in the Highlands in the represented. To combat this, Bowman this work, this masterly study set
17th century as backward or convention- draws attention to the striking commercial out to show the real Mary not a
bound (p.177), highlighting the willingness and social authority of early modern urban romantic heroine, but the ruler of a
of Highland elites to engage in similar craft incorporations, specifically focusing on European kingdom with far greater
activities to their counterparts in the the hammermen craft in Scotland. economic and political importance
Lowlands (such as public office-holding) to The old adage theres something for than its size or location would
project their authority. everyone is particularly pertinent to this indicate. Get your free copy when you
The final section looks to the importance volume. Varied in both scope and focus, join, History Scotland see page 51.
of more subtle expressions of power, this collection provides a fascinating insight
such as poetry, music and material into the myriad ways in which individuals St Andrews
culture. Elizabeth FitzPatricks impressive or social groups sought to convey their History Tour
assessment of material expressions of authority to an audience. Although the By Helen Cook
Gaelic lordship during the 14th and early concept of authority is relatively abstract, Amberley
15th centuries explores the refurbishment the volume never strays too far into the Publishing, 6.99
of book shrines and the rise of the pails realm of theory. Indeed, the chapters Local author
(palace or palisaded enclosure). Such retain an energy that makes this volume Helen Cook
expressions, FitzPatrick argues, are both readable and commanding, while guides readers
representative of the status anxiety of the inclusion of a wealth of colour images through this historic town, showing
Gaelic Irish dynastic families in the wake to support the authors conclusions is a how its famous landmarks once
of English determination to disable the welcome addition, allowing us to fully looked and how theyve changed
authority of all Gaelic kings (p.197). comprehend the means through which the over the years, as well as exploring
This is followed by Kylie Murrays authority of their chosen subjects was and the areas lesser-known sights and
exploration of royal authority as expressed still is represented. hidden corners. With the help of a
in the courtly literature of the 15th century, location map, readers are invited
focusing specifically on the Kingis Quair, Dr Katy Jack recently received her PhD to follow a timeline of events
Bowers Scotichronicon and the anonymous from the University of Stirling for a thesis and discover for themselves the
Lancelot of the Laik. Though the authorship discussing the lordship of the Earls of Mar changing face of St Andrews.
of the Kingis Quair is debated, the in 15th-century Scotland

56 H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017

p53-56 book reviews.indd 56 31/07/2017 10:19


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H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 57
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H IS TO RY SC OTL AN D - SE P TE M B E R / O C TO B E R 2017 9

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kilda advertorial.indd 9 31/07/2017 12:55
10/07/2017
19/07/2017 11:05
13:52
Add your organisation or
societys event to our website:

DIARY DATES
http://scot.sh/events-diary

FESTIVAL

Highland Archaeology Festival,


30 September to 15 October
A two-week celebration of the history and
heritage of the Highlands with events suitable
for everyone from novice to professional
archaeologist. The programme includes
walks, talks, tours, workshops and exhibitions
focusing on Highland heritage from
prehistoric times through to the 20th century.
Tel: 07788 835466; e-mail:
highlandarchaeologyfestival@gmail.com;
website: www.highlandarchaeologyfestival.org

EXHIBITION

Rough Wooing, until 17 October


This exhibition on the Rough Wooing in East
Lothian centres on the Battle of Pinkie, the
Siege of Haddington and the Abbey of St
Mary. A companion Personal View exhibit
explores the Seton familys links with Mary
Queen of Scots. The exhibition features
interactive displays, replica costumes and
weapons, as well as rarely seen items drawn
from public and private collections.
John Gray Centre, 15 Lodge Street,
Haddington EH41 3DX; tel: 01620 820680;
website: www.johngraycentre.org

Enjoy Edinburgh
FESTIVAL

Doors Open Days, throughout September


An annual festival offering free access to
hundreds of fascinating buildings around The city of Edinburgh plays host to four great events this autumn,
the country, many of which are not usually focusing on different aspects of the history of the city
open to the public. Events take place around
Scotland and include guided tours, talks and Edinburgh Alphabet (runs until 8 Reverend Dr Georgiana Cameron-
themed visits. October) is an exhibition at the City Art Gaiduschek, a scholar of Celtic and
To view the full programme, visit: Centre which spans 60,000 years and Scottish Studies, explores different
www.doorsopendays.org.uk explores an alphabet of Edinburgh items aspects of Cramonds past in a lecture
across four different floors. at Lauriston Castle on 7 Septmber.
Shadows of War at Palace of Tickets are 9 and include a tour of the
FESTIVAL Holyroodhouse (until 26 November) is castle. Tel: 0131 228 1155.
the first exhibition to focus exclusively
The Mackintosh Festival, 1 to 31 October on Roger Fentons photographs of the
Every October, this Glasgow-based festival Crimea in 1855. These Victorian photos
focuses on the life and legacy of architect show troops and battlefields, and
Charles Rennie Mackintosh through a demonstrated the harsh reality of war to
programme of events, exhibitions, lectures, readers of British newspapers.
workshops and tours at venues around the Take a whistle-stop journey through
city. This is the sixth such festival and visitors Scotlands past with Age of Leisure and
and locals alike are welcome to join in the Pleasure, a lecture at Longmore House
celebrations. Website: on 19 October. The theme of the evening
www.glasgowmackintosh.com/festival is The practice of visitation: from
peeking at the gentry to social inclusion.
For tickets, tel: 0131 668 8763 or visit
www.historicenvironment.scot

58

p58-59 events.indd 58 31/07/2017 10:19


Subscribe to History Scotland save money
and receive a free Mary Queen of Scots
book, see page 51 for more details

EVENTS SPOTLIGHT
EXHIBITION

Stories in Stone, until 31 October


EXHIBITION Uncover the stories behind key historic
Looking Good: The male gaze from Van buildings of Innerleithen and its surroundings,
Dyck to Lucian Freud, until 1 October as the towns parish church celebrates
its 150th anniversary and the local school
This free exhibition considers the theme celebrates its sixtieth year.
of male identity, image and appearance St Ronans Wells Visitor Centre, Wells Brae,
from the 16th century to the present Innerleithen EH44 6JL; tel: 01896 833583;
day. Portraits from the National Galleries website: http://scot.sh/HSronans
of Scotland and National Portrait Gallery
in London explore changing fashions in EVENT
hairstyles, fashions and male grooming.
Archaeology at Tantallon, 10 September
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Join a Historic Environment Scotland
1 Queen Street, Edinburgh archaeologist to discover what the latest
EH2 1JD; tel: 0131 624 6200; research can tell us about the imposing
website: www.nationalgalleries.org stronghold of Tantallon.Tantallon Castle
was built in the mid 1300s by nobleman
Portrait of a Man, Francois-Xavier Fabre William Douglas, and designed to withstand
instruments of medieval warfare including
trebuchets, bows & arrows and battering rams.
Starts 11am, booking essential. Tel: 0131 668
8774; website: http://scot.sh/HStantallon

EVENT

Tales from the battlefield, dates between


2 September and 1 October
Travel back in time to one of the most
dramatic times in Scotlands history with this
living history performance featuring costumed
actors. The story centres around the aftermath
of the battle of Stirling Bridge, as a lost soldier
meets a fellow combatant.
Performances between 11.15am and 4pm on
selected dates check the website for details.
National Wallace Monument, Abbey Craig,
Stirling FK9 5LF; tel: 01786 472140; website:
www.nationalwallacemonument.com

FESTIVAL

Midwinter dinner aboard the Endurance The Endurance frozen in the ice. Largs Viking Festival, 2 to 10 September
The town of Largs in Ayrshire is the home
EXHIBITION of this living history festival which centres
Enduring Eye: The Antarctic legacy of Sir Ernest Shackleton and Frank Hurley, around events which took place in 1263 when
until 12 November Norse King Haakon was overwhelmed by the
forces of King Alexander III. Explore the living
One of the greatest ever photographic records of human survival, Enduring Eye history Viking village, enjoy Scottish food and
honours the achievements of Sir Ernest Shackleton and the men of the Endurance crafts, and watch a spectacular torchlight
expedition of 1914-17. The exhibition showcases the powerful images of Shackletons procession on 9 September, which culminates
official expedition photographer, Frank Hurley, alongside items from the Librarys in the burning of a Viking longship.
polar collections, to tell the fascinating story of the expedition. Website: www.largsvikingfestival.com
Enduring Eye has been researched, written and curated for the Royal Geographical
Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) by Meredith Hooper, with Library
collection items selected by Paula Williams.
National Library of Scotland, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh EH1 1EW;
tel: 0131 623 3700; website: www.nls.uk

59

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www.historyscotland.com

Hidden
history Exploring

Edinburgh
LISTEN
NOW
Follow Neils travels
around the country with
our free podcast, available
to stream or download at:
http://scot.sh/his-podcast

This month, Neil McLennan explores heritage attractions in Edinburgh and East Lothian,
spanning hundreds of years of history and looking at the origins of the Saltire flag

I
recently took scholars from moved to the Scottish American War The Royal Scot Greys lens. And Scotland offers so many
the Alliance of Literary memorial, recently covered by History memorial in Princes trails, the recent Jacobite Trail
Societies on a World War I Scotland (May/June 2017 issue) and Street Gardens, being another innovative addition
War Poets Walk through one with strong war poetry links with Edinburgh to Scottish tourist attractions.
Edinburgh. Starting at with Seaforth Highlander Alan Castle beyond Everywhere we turn there are
The North British Hotel (now the Ewart Mackintoshs words around possible hidden histories. Edinburgh
Balmoral) where Wilfred Owen the memorial. has perhaps more than any place in
breakfasted in late June 1917 on his Going back onto Princes the country, with simply layer upon
arrival into Edinburgh for recovery Street we gave a passing nod to layer of history and links aplenty.
from shell shock, we moved on to the Edinburgh educator Thomas Further World War I trails in
Scott Monument and then Princes Guthrie before arriving at the Edinburgh could include the War
Street, by Allan Ramsays statue. Caledonian hotel where war poet Poets Collection at Edinburgh
Just as Owen was inspired by the Owen met with the good, the great Napiers Craiglockhart Campus or
Pentland Hills, so was Ramsay. I and enlightened bohemian set of indeed taking in the Royal College
shared a little story about Outlook early 20th century Edinburgh. of Physicians on Queen Street and
Tower and the driving force of From here we looked west, its magnificent resources on Great
polymath Sir Patrick Geddes. By talking about Owens teaching War doctors. Both also have easily
strange coincidence I was to meet at Tynecastle High and noting navigated websites with gems of
a friend that night at Dishoom the Haymarket War Memorial. information held on them. Outside
Restaurant, inspired by Geddes Southwards up Lothian Road, the city a new Military Museum
work in Bombay. The Edinburgh- McCraes Place and the Usher Scotland has opened at Wilkieston
based Dundee University professors Hall link closely to the history and another new museum at
influence spread as far as India and of the 16th Royal Scots in the Tynecastle Park hosts not only
Israel. Seen by many as a crank in his Great War. We closed the walk by the football history of Heart of
own time, it just shows the challenges passing around the castle and its Midlothian FC, but also a bit more
of being a prophet in your own Napoleonic prison that features in about McCraes Battalion and the
land. Moreover, a polymath is often Stevensons St Ives which Owen players and fans who left for the
scorned by those less broad minded taught Tynecastle students. Western Front, leaving their maroon
and unable to see the genius. The war poets trail through jerseys and scarfs behind.
We moved from there to the Royal Edinburgh is just one way to Everywhere we turn, there is
Scots Greys memorial and then unearth the past through a different another angle. One final place that

60 H I S TO
H IRY
S TO
SCRY
OTSC
LAOT
NDLA- ND
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LYE/RAU
/ O
GUC TO
ST B
2015
E R 2017

p60 Hidden histories.indd 60 31/07/2017 10:22


Hidden history - Perthshire & Drummond
St Andrews

Newhailes, here it was an olive green colour


Musselburgh, one of as the background. It was not until
the locations for the around 1460 that the white cross
2017 film Churchill against blue appears as part of the
Blue Blanket of the incorporate
trades of Edinburgh.
Keeping with sky gazing, a
trip not far from Archerfield and
Athlestaneford would take you to
the National Museum of Flight.
And if it is transport that takes
remains a firm favourite of mine up from the battlefield in 832AD your fancy, the Myreton Motor
in the capital is the free of charge they saw the formation of a white Museum founded by Willie Dale
Peoples Story museum at the cloud saltire against the blue in 1966 is on your doorstep. For
bottom of the High Street. Charting sky; the diagonal cross on which me, Athlestanford contains one of
Edinburghs social history through St Andrew had been martyred. the loveliest libraries, contained
the ages it offers something for Despite this, the blue and white flag in an old red phone box. It is the
everyone. The last time I was there was not used for some time. sharing of knowledge in both
I noticed the flag of the Edinburgh Whilst the symbol appeared in large museums and in the small
incorporated trades was no longer the Seal of Guardians in 1286, the hidden gems that keeps our interest
on display. This blue saltire might first record of it committed to cloth alive and the layers of Scottish
have been the first time we saw the came in 1386 as Scots preparing history accessible and ready to be
blue and white colours on an actual to invade southern neighbours interpreted and reinterpreted.
flag. A trip further down the east painted white crosses against
coast helps to shed more light on their black cloth. The next outing Listen to the latest episode of the
that symbol of Scotland for the symbol appeared on the History Scotland Hidden Histories
Douglas Standard carried into the podcast, featuring Neils travels, at:
1388 Battle of Otterburn, however
East Lothian
http://scot.sh/his-podcast

East Lothian has featured in


history minds more than most
recently, given its scenic sets
gave the backdrop to the new
Churchill movie. Newhailes House,
Historic hotels & houses
Yellowcraigs and other venues In Edinburgh there are historic hotels holds many special memories for me.
played host to the film crews aplenty. However a real favourite of The fact it is full of history adds to the
charting Churchills pre D-Day mine has to be Prestonfield House. enjoyment of this magnificent 17th-
activity. Archerfield House itself James Thompsons vision to restore century mansion house. Mary Queen
might have been a venue given this house is to be highly commended of Scots, Robert Louis Stevenson and
it was rumoured, although never and I would recommend enjoying the Sir Winston Churchill all wandered
confirmed, that Roosevelt and splendour and luxury it offers. The the magnificent grounds along the
Churchill made final plans here. Priestfield lands it sits on had been River Forth. Nearby Dirleton Castle
East Lothian offers many more ceded to a Cistercian monastery and is worth a visit and on a recent visit an
hidden history trails. Indeed later confiscated and given to the Earl archaeological dig added to the heritage
Archerfield acts as an indicator of of Carrick, son of King Robert III. enjoyment of this historic area.
that depth, with Mary Queen of A stay here demands a visit to the The Open Arms and Castle Inn
Scots also visiting the land and the atmospheric Rhubarb restaurant, in Dirleton also offer warm hospitality
houses name coming from Edwards named such as the house was the second near to the 13th century castle and
feared archers camping here on place in the UK to grow rhubarb. An quiet village green. Another place
route to the Battle of Bannockburn. article in the Royal College of Physicians oozing with a rich tapestry of History is
And whilst Bannockburn defined of Edinburgh journal shared the story of Greywalls House. Sir Edwin Lutyens
a nation in one way, the flag of Alexander Dick and John Hope growing 1901 dignified holiday home has
Scotland is the outward symbol of it at Prestonfield and Edinburgh Botanic entertained Edward VII and World War
nationhood. And yet the origins Garden, leading to its eventual use in II fighter pilots. Lutyens also designed
of the usage of the blue and white medicine across the UK. For those the Cenotaph.
saltire are not what one might think. staying here, other types of medicine Nearby Gilmerton House is
Tradition has it that King can be found with a visit to the nearby another splendid mansion house. For
Anguss army of Picts and Scots Sheep Heid, one of Edinburghs oldest larger groups, the Kinloch family home
army invading Northumbrian surviving watering holes. for twelve generations could offer you a
held Lothian were surrounded by Archerfield House in East Lothian country house retreat with a difference.
Saxons led by Athelstan. Looking

H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017 61 61

p60 Hidden histories.indd 61 31/07/2017 10:21


Volume 17, Number 4
September/October 2017
www.historyscotland.com
FINAL WORD
EDITORIAL
Editor: Dr Alasdair Ross
School of Arts and Humanities
University of Stirling, FK9 4LA
Edinburgh in 101 objects
editorial@historyscotland.com
Adam Wilkinson, director of Edinburgh World Heritage,
Reviews Editor: Dr Allan Kennedy
reviews@historyscotland.com spoke to History Scotland about the launch of a major
new project to spotlight the history of Edinburgh and
News Editor: Rachel Bellerby
rachelb@warnersgroup.co.uk encourage locals and visitors to see the city in a new way
Tel: 0113 200 2922

ADMINISTRATION To celebrate the Year of History, Heritage & a volcanic intrusion named after James
Warners Group Publications Archaeology, Edinburgh World Heritage has Hutton, the father of geology. Hutton
Fifth Floor, 31-32 Park Row, been working with partners around the city to observed that this rock formation wasnt
Leeds, LS1 5JD select 100 objects based around seven themes just laid down over time but that greater
Publisher: Collette Smith
arts & performance; books, words & ideas; forces were at work. This observation was
Associate Publisher: Matthew Hill building a city; city of innovation; everyday part of a way of thinking which concluded
Senior Designer: Nathan Ward living; faith & nation; and on the dark side. that the Biblical narrative of time was
Designers: Mary Ward, Rajneet Gill The 101st object will be chosen by public vote completely wrong.
later in the year. This was part of a long line of thought
Advertising: Sarah Hopton
beginning with Gallileo which questioned
sarah.hopton@warnersgroup.co.uk
Tel: 0113 200 2925 How were the seven themes chosen? orthodox beliefs. Hutton carried on the
We pulled together a panel of experts from grand tradition of questioning established
Marketing: Lauren Beharrell different disciplines, as well as people thought and he had a tremendous
lauren.beharrell@warnersgroup.co.uk from the community, and came up with an correspondence with Charles Darwin, as the
Tel: 0113 200 2916
enormous list of around 250 objects. Then two were working on big questions such as
History Scotland Subscriptions there were lots of discussions along the lines how the human race came to be here. And
Warners Group Publications of what constitutes an object?, because, for happily, Huttons Section is also part of
The Maltings, Bourne, PE10 9PH example, a street cant really be classed as my daily life, as I visit every day for a
subscriptions@warnersgroup.co.uk an object. lunchtime walk!
Tel: 01778 392 463
Then off we went again and narrowed the Another favourite is Deacon Brodies
Subscription details on page 51 (UK) options down to a much smaller list and Cabinet, an 18th-century red wood cabinet
and page 38 (outside UK) then discussed whether each of the potential made by William Brodie, which is often
Join History Scotland and save! objects was accessible and whether it would thought of in gruesome terms because of
be possible to make each object tell its its association with The Strange Case of Dr
Nov/Dec issue: on sale 7 October, 2017
own story. Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
History Scotland is published bi-monthly by
Warners Group Publications ISSN: 1475-5270
However, many people dont realise
Printed by Warners (Midlands) plc, What is it about Edinburgh and its that the Brodies were respected cabinet
The Maltings, Bourne, Lincs PE10 9PH history which particularly lends itself to makers in Edinburgh and along with
Distribution by Warners Group Publications plc this type of project? people like William Mathie, made some of
The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
Edinburgh has a deep and rich history the finest furniture of the day. So to me,
publisher. Every care is taken to ensure that the contents of the magazine
are accurate, but the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors.
which has had, and has, so many amazing with an interest in furniture, this history
While reasonable care is taken when accepting advertisements, the
publisher cannot accept responsibility for any resulting unsatisfactory
people and the city has not only shaped takes us beyond Jekyll and Hyde and into
transactions, but will immediately investigate any written complaints.
Copyright: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
the history of Scotland and of the UK, but the reality of people making money in a
retrieval system or transmitted without the prior written permission of
the publisher. WARNERS GROUP PUBLICATIONS PLC 2017
also of Europe. Edinburgh seems to have it city which produced items of furniture
IMAGE CREDITS: Cover: Half Moon Battery, all, with history in a compact space, and it for grand houses around the country,
Edinburgh Castle by T M Baynes, 1822 Capital is easy to get around and explore on foot, alongside well-known makers from further
Collections; p6-7 Tony Hisgett Paisley Museum
Thomas Nugent, Ross Fountain p8 Historic
which would not always be the case in a city south, such as Thomas Chippendale and
Environment Scotland; p10 The Alan Brecks such as Paris. Thomas Sheraton.
Regiment; p11 City of Edinburgh Council Museums
& Galleries; p12 CSG CIC Glasgow Museums
We were quite keen to get people to Edinburgh in 101 Objects is not just the
Collection; p14-15 Lossie Forest aerial FCS by explore the areas away from the Old Town work of Edinburgh World Heritage, there
Caledonian Air Surveys; creative visualisation,
Lossie pillbox and Lossie roadblock FCS by AOC
and New Town, places which perhaps get is a group of 44 different partners who
Archaeology; Lossie pillbox; p24 Britannia painting less attention from visitors. So whilst all of have worked together as a city to make this
courtesy of Martyn Mackrill; p25 signal tower courtesy
of Ann Galliard; p26 Valkyrie II Library of Congress,
the objects are within the boundaries of the project happen and have really got on board
reproduction number LC-DIG-det-4a05016; p27 Royal city, there are some great sites to see in the with the idea. It has been over a year in the
Marine Hotel Library of Congress reproduction
number LC-DIG-ppmsc-07608; p28 Hunters Quay
suburbs too. preparation and now I would encourage
McClean Museum Collection, Inverclyde Archives; p30 everyone to take a look at our website,
Strone from Hunters Quay Library of Congress,
reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsc-07683; p32-35
And can you tell us about one or two of decide what they would like to see and then
Frank Harkness, with the exception of p35 UTCHA; your favourites from the project? start exploring.
p37 Library of Congress, reproduction number
LC-DIG-ds-00628; p40 Registers of Scotland p47
A personal favourite is Huttons Section,
Glenkens memorial Padeapix; p49 Nick Finnigan which is part of Salisbury Crags. This is Website: http://edinburgh.org/101
Historic Environment Scotland; p50 National
Records of Scotland; p52 aerial images images John
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - NOV E MB E R/D E C E MB E R 2013
__________________
Wells; p60 Scott memorial Tony Hisgett, Royal Scot
Greys Vanbug28, Newhailes Kim Traynor 62

p62 Final word.indd 62 31/07/2017 10:22


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p57 Competition advert.indd 8 31/07/2017 11:06