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Cape Point is one of the countrys most popular tourist sites, but many people who visit

here are unaware of the secrets and fascinating facts that have helped to make this
unique rocky promontory what it is today.
Here are 12 surprising facts you may not have known about Cape Point:

1. The Cape of Good Hope Name


The name Cape of Good Hope dates back to the 15th century, when Portuguese
sailor Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to view Cape Point while in
search of the southern tip of the African continent. According to historical
records, Dias first named the region Cape of Storms, owing to the tumultuous
weather and treacherous waters, but later, after a suggestion by King John II of
Portugal, it changed to the more optimistic Cape of Good Hope.

2. Plant Life at Cape Point


The Cape Peninsulas rich and diverse plant life has earned it eight World
Heritage Site accolades from UNESCO. The Cape Floral Region makes up only
0.5% of Africa, and yet it is home to more than 20% of the continents plants. In
fact, there are more floral species in the Table Mountain National Park region
than all of the United Kingdom. Youll find many of these while at Cape Point
recent estimates suggest that there are over 1000 species of plants in the Cape
Point region, of which at least 14 are endemic.

3. The Old Lighthouse


There are two lighthouses at Cape Point, only one of which is still in operation as
a nautical guide. While still a popular tourist attraction, the old lighthouse built in
the 1850s no longer functions it sits too high above the ocean and is often
covered by cloud. Ships approaching from the east could also see the light too
easily, often causing them to approach too closely. Because of this, they often
wrecked on the rocks before rounding the peninsula. In fact, it was the wreck of
the Lusitania, on Bellows Rock below the lighthouse in 1911, which prompted the
construction of a new, more effective structure.

4. The New Lighthouse


The new lighthouse at Cape Point is one of the most powerful on the South
African coast. Its lights have a range of 60 kilometres and each flash has an
intensity of 10 million candelas.

5. Table Mountain National Park


Cape Point actually lies within the same national park as the famous Table
Mountain aptly named Table Mountain National Park. The Cape Point section
of Table Mountain National Park covers approximately 20% of the national park,
and on a clear day you can see the back of Table Mountain from various vantage
points.

6. Climate Research
The air at Cape Point is among the purest in the world, and thus it is home to one
of Global Research Watchs (GAW) atmospheric research stations. GAW is a
global network established by the World Meteorological Organisation to monitor
trends and changes in the Earths atmosphere.

7. Icebergs Spotted off Cape Point


While rumours about iceberg sightings at Cape Point are mostly untrue or a case
of mistaken identity, according to Dr John Rogers, the British Navy officially
recorded an iceberg sighting off the coast of Cape Point in the 1800s. It was just
60 nautical miles away from the peninsula.

8. Nearest Landmass to the South


Even though on a clear day you feel as if you could see to Antarctica from Cape
Point, it is at least 6,000 kilometres away.

9. Bird Life
Cape Point is home to a large number of species of birds. According to Africa
Geographic, twitchers have recorded over 270 species in the region, ranging
from tiny sunbirds through to the sizeable ostriches. The coastal plant life at
Cape Point supports warblers, canaries, and shrikes, and it is common to see an
array of seabirds. You may also be lucky enough to spot a Verrauxs eagle, or
the rare Western reef heron and Bairds sandpiper both of which have been
spotted at Cape Point but not seen before in South Africa.

10. Dias Cross


The Portuguese government erected two prominent crosses at Cape Point that
serve as a navigational aid when lined up, the crosses point to Whittle Rock
which was a major shipping hazard in False Bay. There are two other beacons in
nearby Simons Town that provide the intersection point.

11. World War II Radar Listening Stations


With shipping losses on the increase in 1942, the South African military erected
two small aerials that projected a narrow radar beam capable of detecting
German U-Boats rounding the peninsula. Remnants of these and other military
structures including a canon on Kanonkop used to warn Simons Town of
approaching vessels are still visible at locations throughout Cape Point.

12. The Flying Dutchman


Legend has it that ghost ship the Flying Dutchman haunts the oceans
surrounding Cape Point, unable to make port and doomed to sail the turbulent
seas for eternity. One of the earliest reported sightings of the Flying Dutchman
Funicular came from King George V in 1881, but several Simons Town residents
claim to have seen the ship in more recent years. While the myth likely has its
roots in 17th-century nautical folklore, these days you can sail to the foot of the
old lighthouse in the funicular of the same name.
The Legacy of Ferdinand Magellan
Besides the strait, Ferdinand Magellan also has a rail car (Ferdinand Magellan Railcar), lunar
craters (Magelhaens and Magelhaens A), and even a penguin species (Magellanic penguin)
named after him.
On October 21, 1520, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his fleet of ships reached
Cape Virgenes, the southeastern tip of continental Argentina. Based on the geography of the
region, Magellan came to the conclusion that he had found the passage into the Pacific that he
was looking for.

As they traveled through it on November 1, which is All Saints' Day, Magellan called this
passage Estrecho de Todos los Santos (All Saints' Channel). His assistant Antonio Pigafetta, on
the other hand, called it the Pantagonian Strait. Then there were other crew members who
called it the Victoria Strait, after the first ship to enter the passage, Victoria. Eventually, it was
named Estrecho de Magallanes, or the Strait of Magellan, in the honor of Ferdinand Magellan.
Strait of Magellan Facts
The Strait of Magellan, also known as Straits of Magellan, or the Magellan Strait, is a navigable
waterway in South America which separates the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego from the
continental mainland, and connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It lies in Chilean
territorial waters for the most part. The government of Chile took possession of the strait on May
23, 1843, fearing its occupation by Great Britain or France.

A map of the Strait of Magellan in South America.


The Strait of Magellan is 350 miles (310 nautical miles) long. It took Magellan's fleet 38 days
to cross the strait. At its narrowest point, it has a width of 1.2 miles (1.1 miles nautical miles).

While Magellan became the first European to navigate the Strait of Magellan in 1520, its
coasts were only explored in detail by the British survey vessel HMS Adventurethen under the
command of Phillip Parker Kingwith HMS Beagle accompanying it, in 1820s. The report of
this survey was presented to the Royal Geographical Society in 1831.
In 1840, the Pacific Steam Navigation Companya commercial shipping company that
operated in the Pacific coastbegan the first use of steamships for commercial traffic through
the strait. Incidentally, the said company also had the distinction of being the first to use steam
ships for commercial traffic in the Pacific.

The city of Punta Arenas overlooking the Strait of Magellan.


The Strait of Magellan is curvy and relatively narrow, with several islands along the way, and
has rather unpredictable weather. Sudden changes of wind and sea conditions are not rare in
this part of the world. Showers can be expected even on an otherwise fair day in summer. The
strait is also famous for a geographic phenomenon known as 'williwaw', which refers to a
sudden blast of wind descending from the mountainous coast.

Despite its geography and climate, the Strait of Magellan was the main sea route for steam
ships plying between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans until the opening of the Panama Canal in
1914. It was considered safer than the Drake Passage, separating the Cape Hornthe
southern tip of South Americafrom Antarctica, which was the preferred route for sailing ships.

The lighthouse of Magdalena Island is one of the many lighthouses along the strait.
This strait has become one of the most-visited tourist destinations in the region, with several
cruise companies sprouting around here. Among the places of tourist interest are the beautiful
lighthouses found along the strait, including the famous Evangelistas Lighthouse on the
Evangelistas Islets at the Pacific side of the strait, and the lighthouse on the Magdalena Island.
In 1976, American long-distance open-water swimmer Lynne Cox became the first person to
swim the Strait of Magellan. On January 17, 2014, 17-year-old Hunter Wright from California
became the youngest person to swim across this strait.
In June 2004, the 1,092-ft long USS Ronald Reagan became the first nuclear-powered
aircraft carrier to travel through the strait.
Whether Ferdinand Magellan was the first person to circumnavigate the world or not is an issue
of contention, but there is no doubt about the fact that it was Magellan who discovered the Strait
of Magellan during his pursuit of the Spice Islands.
Read more at Buzzle: https://www.buzzle.com/articles/facts-about-the-strait-of-magellan.html

Cape of Good Hope

By Cris | September 20, 2015 | Structures, History and Countries

You better have a lot of hope when travelling the seas of the Cape of Good Hope.

The Cape of Good Hope is a narrow, rocky piece of land that juts out into the South Atlantic Ocean,
found in South Africas Cape Peninsula.

The Cape of Good Hope is part of the Table Mountain National Park, and contrary to popular belief, is
not actually the southernmost point of Africa, as that title goes to Cape Agulhas.

The Cape of Good Hope is also known simply as The Cape and is known in Afrikaans as Kaap die Goeie
Hoop.

The Cape of Good Hope is regarded as particularly important by many sailors, as it is used as a reference
point when sailing to Australia or East Asia.

Bartolomeu Dias, an explorer from Portugal, was the first known person from Europe to discover the
Cape of Good Hope, doing so in 1488, and named it Cape of Storms.

Cape of Good Hope, Water, Africa, Rocks, Trivia, Ten Random Facts, Place, Head

Cape of Good Hope

Image courtesy of Iryna Kuchma/Flickr


The Da Gama and the Dias Crosses are situated on the Cape of Good Hope as beacons, and when the
two are aligned they point towards a major water vehicle hazard known as Whittle Rock.

Despite the bad weather that Bartolomeu Dias experienced at the Cape of Good Hope, John II of
Portugal, the king who commissioned the initial expedition, renamed it as such to portray a more
positive perspective on sailing to India.

There are around 250 bird species, including penguins, that are found in the Cape of Good Hope vicinity,
while other animals from zebras, deer, reptiles, antelopes, otters and rodents are also found in the area.

Approximately 1100 native plant species populate the Cape of Good Hope, and includes large quantities
of shrubby vegetation known as fynbos, like proteas, cone bushes and tree pincushions.

By legend, the Cape of Good Hope is the haunted location of the ghostly ship The Flying Dutchman,
which is said to be cursed so that it can never reach land.

Bibliography:

HISTORY STORIES

10 Surprising Facts
About Magellans
Circumnavigation of
the Globe
B Y E V AN AN D R E W S / / D E C E M B E R 4 , 2 0 1 2
PRINT
CITE
We all know Ferdinand Magellan as the leader of the first voyage to
circumnavigate the globe, but thats not the only fascinating aspect of the
famed Portuguese explorers journey. Launched in 1519, Magellans odyssey
lasted three long years, claimed the lives of hundreds of people and forever
changed Europes understanding of world geography. Nearly five centuries
after Magellans fleet first left Europe, explore 10 little-known facts about one
of naval historys most legendaryand deadlyvoyages.

Magellans expedition had a multinational crew.


Although it was a Spanish expedition, Magellans fleet featured a culturally diverse crew.
Spaniards and Portuguese made up the vast majority of the sailors, but the voyage also included
mariners from Greece, Sicily, England, France, Germany and even North Africa.

Magellans voyage was sparked by a treaty between


Spain and Portugal.
Magellan originally launched his expedition as a means of finding a western route to the
Moluccas, a small archipelago in Indonesia known for its stores of precious spices like cloves,
cinnamon and nutmeg. The Spanish were desperate to discover this alternate path because of
1494s Treaty of Tordesillas, a decree from Pope Alexander VI that had essentially divided the
world in half between the Spanish and the Portuguese. This agreement placed the more practical
eastern route to the Spice Islands under Portuguese control, forcing the Spanish to find a new
passage by sailing west around South America.

Magellan was considered a traitor to his home country


of Portugal.
While Ferdinand Magellan was originally from Portugal, King Charles I of Spain ultimately
sponsored his voyage. This outraged the King Manuel I of Portugal, who sent operatives to
disrupt Magellans preparations, ordered that his family properties be vandalized and may have
made an attempt to assassinate him. Once the expedition sailed, Manuel I even ordered two
groups of Portuguese caravels to pursue Magellans fleet in the hopes of capturing the navigator
and returning him to his homeland in chains.

Many of Magellans crew mutinied or deserted the


expedition.
Magellans mostly Spanish crew resented the idea of being led by a Portuguese captain, and the
expedition was forced to weather two mutinies before it had even reached the Pacific. The first
of these failed revolts was easily unraveled, but the second proved more elaborate. Worried that
Magellans obsession with finding passage to the Pacific was going to doom the expedition, in
April 1520 three of his five ships turned against him. Magellan and his supporters ultimately
thwarted the revolt, and he even marooned two men on an island when he found they were
planning a third mutiny. The rebellions continued later that year when the vessel San Antonio
deserted the fleet and prematurely returned to Spain.

Magellans expedition claimed to have encountered


giants in South America.
While anchored near modern-day Argentina, Magellans men reported encountering 8-foot-tall
men on the beaches of Patagonia. After befriending these giants, Magellan supposedly tricked
them into boarding his ship and took one of the men captive. The giant was later baptized and
named Paul, but died during the fleets long crossing of the Pacific Ocean. Historians have
surmised that Magellans giants were in actuality members of the Tehuelche, a naturally tall
tribe of Indians native to southern Chile and Argentina. While Magellans men almost certainly
exaggerated the height of the Tehuelche, the myth of Patagonian giants would persist for many
years.

Magellan gave the Pacific Ocean its name.


After weathering horrific storms near southern South America and losing one of his ships to
rough seas, Magellan finally entered what is now known as the Strait of Magellan in November
1520. Crossing into a calm and gentle ocean, he named it Mar Pacifico, which means
peaceful sea in Portuguese. Magellan believed that he would quickly reach the Spice Islands,
but his beleaguered fleet would sail the Pacific Ocean for 98 days before reaching any habitable
land.

Magellan was a staunch Christian evangelistand this


may have cost him his life.
Although it was never an official part of his mission, Magellan took great pains to convert all
the indigenous peoples he encountered to Christianity. The most notable example came in April
1521 in the Philippines, where he baptized King Humabon of Cebu along with thousands of his
subjects. Magellans religious fervor was so strong that he threatened to kill those chieftains that
resisted converting to Christianity, and this harsh decree ultimately proved to be his downfall.
When a king named Lapu-Lapu refused to convert, Magellans men burned his village on the
island of Mactan. Magellan later returned to Mactan with 49 men and demanded that Lapu-
Lapu yield to his authority. The king refused, and in the ensuing battle Magellan was killed
after he was struck by a spear and then repeatedly stabbed by the islanders cutlasses and
scimitars. In the Philippines, where Magellan is remembered as a tyrant rather than a hero, the
Battle of Mactan is reenacted every April 27, with a well-known Filipino actor playing the role
of Lapu-Lapu.
Magellans slave may have been the first person to truly
circumnavigate the globe.
One of the most important members of Magellans voyage was his personal slave Enrique, who
had been with the captain since an earlier voyage to Malacca in 1511. A native of the East
Indies, Enrique reportedly spoke a Malay dialect and acted as the expeditions interpreter during
their time in the Philippines. As many historians have noted, if Enrique was originally from that
part of the world, then by the time the expedition reached the Philippines he would have already
circled the earth and returned to his homeland. If true, this would mean the slave Enrique
rather than any of the European marinerswas the first person to circumnavigate the globe.

Magellan only deserves partial credit for the


circumnavigation.
Magellan is often cited as the first explorer to have circumnavigated the globe, but this is not
technically true. While he organized the voyage and negotiated the treacherous South American
strait and the crossing of the Pacific, Magellan was killed before the mission ever reached the
Spice Islands. Credit for the successful circumnavigation of the globe should also go to the
Basque mariner Juan Sebastian Elcano, who commanded the return voyage of Victoriathe
only surviving vesselfrom late 1521 until its arrival in Spain in September 1522.

The next circumnavigation of the globe took place


nearly 60 years after the return of Magellans
expedition.
When the lone vessel Victoria returned to Spain in September 1522, only 18 men remained out
of the expeditions original crew of about 260. Circumnavigating the globe ultimately proved to
be such a herculean featand the Magellan expeditions success so improbablethat it was 58
years before it was repeated. Led by the English navigator Sir Francis Drake, this second
circumnavigation of the globe first sailed in 1577 and largely followed the same route as
Magellan. Like Magellans armada, Drakes fleet was also ravaged by the long journey, and
only his flagship Golden Hind remained when he returned to England in 1580.
Ang
Dakila
na
Nabigato
r
God, Gold, Glory
Ferdinand Magellan
Quote | Posted onFebruary 11, 2016 by magellantheearthisround
The sea is dangerous and its storms terrible, but these obstacles have never
been sufficient reason to remain ashore
-Ferdinand Magellan

Synopsis
Si Ferdinand Magellan (1480 27 Abril 1521) ay isang eksplorador na Portuges
nanaglayag para sa Kaharian ng Espanya. Siya ang kauna-unahang nakapaglayag
mula sa Europa pakanluran tungo sa Asya, ang unang Europeo na nakatawid ng
Karagatang Pasipiko,at angnamuno ng unang ekspedisyon para sa
sirkumnabegasyon ng daigdig. Bagaman nasawi siya laban sa pwersa ni Lapu-
Lapu sa pulo ng Mactan sa Pilipinas,labinwalo sa kanyang mga tripulante at isang
barko ang nakabalik sa Espanya noong 1522, at natupad ang pangarap na
paglibot sa buong mundo.

Ang Kanyang Buhay


Early Life:
Isinilang si Ferdinand Magellan sa Sabrosa, Portugal noong taong 1480.
Pumanaw ang kanyang magulang nung sya ay sampung taong gulang pa lamang.
Sa edad na dose, naging pahe siya ng Haring Joo II at Reyna Eleonora sa
kanilang kaharian sa kabisera ng Lisboa, kung saan naroon din ang kanyang
kuya. Ito ang naging daan upang malaman niya ang ginagawang mga ekspedisyon
ng bansa upang makatuklas ng ibat ibang lugar at mga bagay. Dito rin nya
nakilala si Enrique ang taga-sumatra na gagamitin nyang interpreter sa balak
nyang pagtuklas sa Maluku (moluccas, spice island). Kasama ang pinsang si
Francisco Serrano, ipinagpatuloy ni Magellan ang pag-aaral at nakahiligan ang
heograpiya at astronomiya. Tinataya ng ilan na maaaring naging guro niya si
Martin Behaim. Sa edad na bente, nagsimulang maglayag si Magellan.

Ikinasal si Magellan kay Maria Caldera Beatriz Barbosa at nagkaroon ng


dalawang anak na sina Rodrigo de Magalhes at Carlos de Magalhes na
parehong namatay sa batang edad.

Galing sa Portugal Papunta sa Spain


Sa 15th century mas mahalaga ang mga spices kaysa sa ginto. Dahil hindi kaya
tumubo ng mga spices sa malamig na klima, ang mga Europeans ay madalas
makikipagkalakan. Naglalayag sila sa silangan upang makapunta sa Spice island,
(doon sila nakikipag kalakalan) pero wala pa ang nakakalayag sa kanluran galling
sa Europe para maabot ang kabilang bahagi ng mundo. Si Ferdinand Magellan ay
determinado na gawin iyon.
Noon naniniwala ang mga ibang tao na ang mundo ay pantay (flat), subalit na
niniwala si Ferdinand Magellan na ang mundo ay bilog. Malimit siya alimuharin
ng mga tao dahil sa kanyang paniniwala. Sa halip na magalit siya sa mga tao na
inaalimuharin siya, ginamit niyang motibasion iyon. Mas nagging determado si
Ferdinand Magellan na patunayan na bilog ang mundo.

Humingi ng tulong si Ferdinand Magellan kay king Manuel, hari ng Portugal, para
sa kanyang Westward Voyage papuntang Spice island. Ngunit hindi
sinuportahan ng hari ang kanyang gusto. Noong 1517 tinakwil ni Ferdinand
Magellan ang kanyang nasyonalidad at humingi ng tulong sa Espanya.

Sinuportahan ni King Charles I, hari ng Spain, ang Westward Voyage ni


Ferdinand Magellan. Kumuha ng Sampung barko, La Trinidad, San Antonio,
Conception and Victoria, si Ferdinand Magellan. Ang kanyang mga tripulante ay
mga dating kriminal dahil walang Espanyol na gusto makitrabaho ang isang
Portuguese.

The church says the earth is flat; but I have seen its shadow on the moon, and I
have more confidence even in a shadow than in the church.
-Ferdinand Magellan
Ang Kanyang Paglalakbay
September 20,1519 Ferdinand Magellan kasama ang mga barko naglayag sa
brazil papuntang South America. Nagkaroon ng pag-aalsa sa barko, isa sa mga
barko ay lumubog. Sa kabila ng pag-aalsa ng tao, patuloy pa din ang lakbay.

Nakahanap si Ferdinand Magellan ng ruta papuntang Pacific, ngayon ang tawag


ruta na iyon ay Magellans Strait. Dahil sa hirap ng paglalakbay, pagkulang ng
pagkain, at sakit, isa sa mga barko ay bumalik sa Spain. Tatlong barko nalang ang
natira sa Expedition.

Sa Marso 1521 nakaating si Ferdinand Magellan sa Homonhon island,


Philippines. Nakipag kalakal si Magellan kay Rajah Humabon, ang pinuno ng
island. Ibinahagi ni Ferdinand Magellan ang salita ng Diyos sa mga tao na nakitira
sa island. Naging magkaibigan si Magellan at si Rajah Humabon, at dahil doon
napasama si Ferdinand Magellan sa digmaan ng Humahon at Matan.

Sinubukan sakupin ni Ferdinand Magellan ang Mactan, subalit nung nalaman yon
ni Lapu Lapu, ang pinuno ng Mactan, pinulo niya ang kanyang hukbo. Gumamit
sila ng sandata para kalabanin si Ferdinand Magellan at ang kanyang kawal. Sa
huli namatay si Ferdinand Magellan sa laban. Matugumpay na natalo ni Lapu lapu
at ang kanyang kawal ang kawal ni Ferdinand Magellan, ang laban na ito ay isa sa
mga kilala na kwento sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas, ang tawag sa laban na ito ay
The Battle of Mactan.

Nang namatay si Ferdinand Magellan, ang mga natirang tripulante (crew) ay


bumalik sa Spain. Ang kapitan ng barkong Victoria ay nakabalik sa Spain noong
Septembre 18,1522. Dahil doon napatunayan na ang mundo ay bilog.

Mga Kontribusyon
Isa sa mga pinakamahalagang kontribusyon na ginawa ni Ferdinand
Magellan ay ang pagdiskobre na ang mundo ay bilog. Binago ni Ferdinand
Magellan ang paraan kung paano magnavigate.Nadiskubre at pinangalanan
ni Ferdinand Magellan ang bansang PilipinasNaduskubre ni Ferdinand
Magellan ang Guam noong 1521. Pinangalanan niya isla na ito na The
Islands of Sails dahil madami siyang nakitang bangka doon. Pero noong
ninakaw ang ilan sa mga maliliit na Bangka niya, pinangalan niya ito na
Island of Thieves
Si Ferdinand Magellan ang nagbigay ng pangalan sa Pacific Ocean.
Pinangalanan niya ito na Mar Pacifico, ibig sabihin ay Peaceful Sea sa
Portugese, dahil ang mahinahon ang dagat noong nilayag niya ito.

Katulad ng Strait of Magellan pinahiram ni Ferdinand Magellan ang


kanyang pangalan sa mga Magellanic Penguins.

Ang unang nakatuklas ng Megallanic Clouds ay walang iba kung di si


Ferdinand Magellan, kaya pinangalanan yon na Magellanic Clouds.

Tularaan si Ferdinand Magellan


Para sa akin si Ferdinand Magellan ay isa sa mga pinakamahusay at
pinakamatapang na explorer sa panahon noon. Kaya ko siya napili na gawan ng
blog dahil hanga ako sa kanyang determinasyon at passion sa pag explore. Kahit
wala na silang pagkain, madindi ang bagyo, o etc hindi siya sumusko. Hindi siya
sumuko kahit walang naniniwala at sumusuporta sa kanya. Isa sa mga aral na
natutunan ko ay ang wag sumuko. Katulad ni Magellan, kahit madaming tao ang
nagsasabi na Hindi mo yan kaya, Hindi yan totoo, Sumuko ka nalang wag na
wag ka susuko. Walang mapapala ang mga taong mabilis sumuko.

www.ducksters.com
Because silk was the major trade product which traveled on this road, it was named
the Silk Road in 1877 by Ferdinand von Richthofen a well-known German
geographer. This ancient route not only circulated goods, but also exchanged the
splendid cultures of China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome.
Besides silk, the Chinese also exported (sold) teas, salt, sugar, porcelain, and spices. Most of
what was traded was expensive luxury goods. This was because it was a long trip and
merchants didn't have a lot of room for goods. They imported, or bought, goods like cotton,
ivory, wool, gold, and silver.
The Silk Road was a network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of
China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce.
While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in
silk (and horses) carried out along its length, beginning during theHan dynasty (207 BCE 220
CE).
Rome received spices, fragrances, jewels, ivory, and sugar and sent European pictures and
luxury goods. Eastern Europe imported rice, cotton, woolen and silk fabrics from Central Asia
and exported considerable volumes of skins, furs, fur animals, bark for skin processing, cattle
and slaves to Khoresm.
Cultural bridge between East and West. The Silk Road did not only promote commodity
exchange but also cultural. For example, Buddhism as one of thereligions of the
Kushan kingdom reached China. Together with merchant caravans Buddhist monks went from
India to Central Asia and China, preaching the newreligion.
Because silk was the major trade product which traveled on this road, it was named the Silk
Road in 1877 by Ferdinand von Richthofen a well-known German geographer. This ancient
route not only circulated goods, but also exchanged the splendid cultures of China, India,
Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome.
The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and
the Mediterranean. Because China silk comprised a large proportion of the trade along this
ancient road, in 1877, it was named the 'Silk Road' by Ferdinand von Richthofen, an eminent
German geographer.
The discovery of a sea route from Europe to Asia in the late 15th century dealt a damaging blow
to the Silk Road trade again. With less cost, harassment and danger, many goods and
materials that the Silk Road could not transfer were conveyed through the sea route.
The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were
central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and
East by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers
from China and India to the Mediterranean ...
The main route of the Silk Road traveled through China along the Gan-Su corridor, then
through the Tarima basin, and the highlands of the Pamir and Tian-Shan ranges, into Central
Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and still further along to
the trading centers of the Near East, ...
Silk Road was an online black market and the first modern darknet market, best known as a
platform for selling illegal drugs. As part of the dark web, it was operated as a Tor hidden
service, such that online users were able to browse it anonymously and securely without
potential traffic monitoring.
What are the Spice Routes?
Maritime II.jpg

Maritime II.jpg

The Spice Routes, also known as Maritime Silk Roads, is the name given to the network of sea routes that link the East
with the West. They stretch from the west coast of Japan, through the islands of Indonesia, around India to the lands
of the Middle East - and from there, across the Mediterranean to Europe. It is a distance of over 15,000 kilometres and,
even today, is not an easy journey. From our very earliest history, people have travelled the Spice Routes. At first, they
probably ventured only short distances from their home ports but over the centuries their ships sailed further and further
across seas and oceans. They braved treacherous seas and eventual hostile reception on arrival in an unknown land.
These journeys were not undertaken purely in the spirit of adventure - the driving force behind them was trade. The
Spice Routes were, and still are, first and foremost trade routes. Since ancient times, trade has had an important role
in human life. When we buy something we are trading, exchanging one item (usually money) for another. However, our
purchase is the final link in a long chain of buyers and sellers: from the supplier of raw materials, to the manufacturer,
to the wholesaler, to the shop - and if the goods we buy come from abroad there may be several other stages in
between.

The journey of the goods between all these links in the chain is what is called a trade route. In the case of the Spice
Routes the links were formed by traders buying and selling goods from port to port. The principal and most profitable
goods they traded in were spices - giving the routes their name. As early as 2000 BC, spices such as cinnamon from
Sri Lanka and cassia from China found their way along the Spice Routes to the Middle East. Other goods were
exchanged too - cargoes of ivory, silk, porcelain, metals and dazzling gemstones brought great profits to the traders
who were prepared to risk the dangerous sea journeys. But precious goods were not the only points of exchange
between the traders. Perhaps more important was the exchange of knowledge: knowledge of new peoples and their
religions, languages, expertise, artistic and scientific skills. The ports along the Maritime Silk Roads (Spice Routes)
acted as melting pots for ideas and information. With every ship that swept out with a cargo of valuables on board,
fresh knowledge was carried over the seas to the ship's next port of call.

Today, it may seem strange


that the demand for spices was the main reason for such large-scale trade across such long distances. One probably
thinks of them simply as flavouring for food. Yet, the word spice comes from the Latin species, which means an item
of special value, as compared to ordinary articles of trade. Travelling these long distances becomes understandable if
one considers the fact that many of the important spices had ritual and medical values and could only grow in the
tropical East, from South of China to Indonesia as well as southern India and Sri Lanka. In particular, they grew in the
Moluccas or, as they are better known, the Spice Islands. These are a chain of mountainous islands strung out in the
Pacific Ocean between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea. From here came the fragrant spices of cloves and nutmeg
which grew nowhere else in the world. To reach the spice markets found across Asia and Europe, the spices had to be
transported thousands of kilometres over the seas.

One may never discover how people came to know and value these spices which grew so far away. As trading links
from Indonesia fanned out through south and central Asia, they met with links that spread from the Middle East and the
north. Goods were exchanged and traders would return to their homeland carrying the beautifully scented, exotic
spices. Perhaps it was their strangeness and rarity that led great medicinal and spiritual values to be attributed to them.
From ancient times, spices were burned as incense in religious ceremonies, purifying the air and carrying the prayers
of the people heavenward to their gods. They were also added to healing ointments and to potions drunk as antidotes
to poisons. To hide the many household smells, people burned spices daily in their homes. They were used as cooking
ingredients very early on - not only to add flavour but also to make the food, which was often far from fresh, palatable,
particularly in hot climates.

Myths and legends were woven around these exotic substances. They were linked to strange beasts like the phoenix,
giant eagles, serpents and dragons. In the Fifth Century BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote how the spice cassia
grew in a lake infested by winged creatures like bats, which screeched alarmingly and were very pugnacious. Some
of these stories were probably created by the traders who, wishing to protect their profits, tried to hide the sources of
the spices.

The profits to be made from spices were considerable. They were small and dried, and consequently could be
transported easily. The wealth of the spice trade brought great power and influence and, over the centuries, bloody
battles were fought to win control of it and the routes along which it took place.

Why spice trade is important?

In the Middle Ages, Europeans lacked refrigeration and general hygiene, leading to food
spoiling quickly. Spices were so important because they helped mask the flavor of not-so-
fresh food. ... India is the top spice-producing country in the world.Apr 7
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and
Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were
known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World.
Most famously used for the transportation of spices, the maritime trade routes have also been
known as the Spice Roads, supplying markets across the world
withcinnamon, pepper, ginger, cloves and nutmeg from the Moluccas islands in Indonesia
(known as the Spice Islands), as well as a wide range of other goods.
The Spice Routes, also known as Maritime Silk Roads, is the name given to the network of
sea routes that link the East with the West. They stretch from the west coast of Japan, through
the islands of Indonesia, around India to the lands of the Middle East - and from there, across
the Mediterranean to Europe.
Christopher Columbus went westwards from Europe in 1492 to find a sea route to the lands of
spices but found the Americas. In 1497 the Portuguese navigatorVasco da Gama discovered a
sea route around the southern tip of Africa, eventually reaching Kozhikode on the southwest
coast of India in 1498.

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By Ann Tran on Tuesday, April 07, 2015
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How often do you use pepper or salt when youre cooking? Do you sprinkle
cinnamon on top of your oatmeal in the morning? Why does everyone go nuts
for a Pumpkin Spice Latte when October arrives?
After cruising the ancient Spice Route Azamara Club Cruises, Im realizing
how much we take these spices we use every day for granted. As Im learning
more about the spices used in these different regions, Im also learning about
their importance in the worlds history. Here are some fascinating facts:

1. Kerala, my fourth stop on the trip, was a major spice trade center as early
as 3,000 B. C.
2. Arab traders controlled the spice trade between Europe and the East, like
China, Indonesia, India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka, my third stop), for almost
5,000 years until Europeans started looking for a new route to the Far East.
3. Christopher Columbus found America by accident, on his way to finding a new route
to India. He found Jamaica instead, which has many spices of its own, like allspice.

4. It was Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama who was the first to finally reach India in
1497, successfully navigating the southern tip of Africa. He returned from his landing
spot on the southwest coast of India with his ships laden with nutmeg, cloves,
cinnamon, ginger and peppercorns.
5. In the Middle Ages, Europeans lacked refrigeration and general hygiene,
leading to food spoiling quickly. Spices were so important because they
helped mask the flavor of not-so-fresh food.
6. The Netherlands really, really wanted a small Indonesian island called Run for its
high volume of nutmeg, so it traded a few colonies across the Atlantic. One is now
called Manhattan.

7. Wars over those Spice Islands in Indonesia, like Run, lasted for about 200 years,
between the 15th and 17th centuries.
8. Piracy was rampant on the seas, especially off the coast of Portugual, preying on the
ships that were carrying spices back to Europe from the Far East.

9. India is the top spice-producing country in the world.

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