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ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1.2.1 Program Outcomes (POs) addressed by the Activity

b. ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
d. ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
e. ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems
g. ability to communicate effectively

1.2.2 Activitys Intended Learning Outcomes (AILOs)

At the end of this activity, the student shall be able to:
a. identify a parallel connected resistors
b. calculate the total resistance of resistors in parallel
c. evaluate the characteristics of a parallel resistors

1.2.3 Objectives of the Activity

The objectives of this activity are to:
1. determine the total resistance of parallel resistive circuit.
2. verify the results with a multimeter.

1.2.4 Principle of the Activity

In electronic circuits, there is often a need to determine the amount of current flow. The amount
of current passing through a load depends upon the source voltage (VA) and the resistance of the
load. In series circuit, we found that the equivalent circuit resistance equalled the sum of the
individual resistance. In a parallel circuit, the equivalent resistance is less than the resistance of
the lowest branch, and the total current is larger than the current through any single branch.

Resistance in a parallel circuit can be reduced to a single total resistance, or equivalent

resistance (RE), applied across the voltage source. Once you determine RE, you can find the total
circuit current.

One way to find the equivalent resistance of a two-resistor parallel circuit is the product-
over-sum method. For example, in Figure 1.2-1, R1 and R2 are connected in parallel. With the
product-over-sum method, RE can be found as shown below.

ACTIVITY 1: SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF LINEAR RESISTORS

R1 xR2
RE
R! R2
500 x1000
RE
500 1000
500 ,000
RE
1,500
RE 333

When more than two resistors are in parallel, use the reciprocal method to find the equivalent
resistance. The reciprocal of resistance is conductance. If resistance represents an opposition to
current flow, then conductance represents a lack of opposition to current flow. (The unit of
resistance is the ohm, ; the unit of conductance is the Siemens, S). Resistance is a measure of
how much opposition is present; conductance is a measure of how little opposition is present.
With respect to current flow, a higher resistance means less current, but a higher conductance
means more current. With the reciprocal method, you use conductance to find equivalent
resistance.

A reciprocal is a mathematical term in which a given value is used as a denominator under the
numerator 1. The reciprocal of a 500 resistor is expressed as follows.

1 1
Reciprocal : G
R 500
Conductance : G 0.002S

You can use one of the two following formulas to find the equivalent of a number of resistors in
parallel, where RN is the last resistor in the circuit.

1 1 1 1 1
Equation 1 : ...
RE R1 R2 R3 RN
1
Equation 2 : RE
1 1 1 1
...
R1 R2 R3 RN

Figure 1.2-2 has a parallel resistive circuit with three resistors. Using the reciprocal method, you
can find the equivalent resistance.

ACTIVITY 1: SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF LINEAR RESISTORS

Notice that the equivalent resistance (RE) is less than the lowest resistance value in the parallel
branch (R1 at 500 ).

1.2.5 Materials/Equipment

1- F.A.C.E.T Base Unit

1- DC FUNDAMENTALS Circuit Board
2- 15 Vdc Power Supply
1- Multimeter

1.2.6 Procedure/s

1. Turn off the power sources. Insert the DC FUNDAMENTALS circuit board into the base
unit. Do not turn on the power sources at this time.
2. Using the resistor color code, record the value of R1, R2, and R3 in the PARALLEL
CIRCUIT circuit block.

3. Measure and record the value of R1, R2, and R3.

NOTE: Make individual resistance measurements without two-post connectors in place.

R1 =9940 R2 =2148 R3 =4620

4. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 1.2-3. Note the placement of the two post
connectors. Calculate the equivalent resistance (RE) in the parallel circuit consisting of R1
and R2 by using the productoversum method.
RE = 1760

Figure 1.2-3 Two branch parallel circuit

5. Measure and record RE. Verify that your measured value is the same as your calculated
value.
RE = 1767

ACTIVITY 1: SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF LINEAR RESISTORS

6. Place CM switch 6 in the ON position. Measure and record the value of R1, R2 and RE.
R1 = 9940 R2 =2148 RE =1766

NOTE: Add or remove two-post connectors as required to measure R1 and R2.

7. Did R1 and R2 increase, decrease, or remain the same? remained the same________

8. How did the change in the circuit affect the equivalent resistance? No change. Or simply,
it did not affect the equivalent resistance

9. Is the equivalent resistance less than the lowest resistor value in either branch? __Yes___

10. Place CM switch 6 in the OFF position, then connect the circuit shown in Figure 1.2-4.

Figure 1.2-4 Parallel resistive circuit

11. When more than two resistors are parallel circuit, use the reciprocal method to find RE.
Calculate RE.
RE = 1277

12. Confirm your calculation by measuring and recording RE. Your calculated and measured
value may not be equal but should be nearly the same.
RE = 1279

13. Place CM switch 5 in the ON position. Measure and record RE, R1, R2, and R3.
RE = 921 R1 = 2474 R2 =2148 R3 = 4620

14. One resistance value (not including RE) has changed. Which one, and has it increased or
decreased? ___It is the R1 and it has increased__________________________________

15. How did this change affect the equivalent resistance of the circuit (measured in step 13)?
________It has decreased the equivalent resistance of the circuit because of high
resistance.____________________

16. Is the equivalent resistance less than the lowest resistor value of any branch? _____It is
less than the lowest resistor value of any branch._________________________________

ACTIVITY 1: SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF LINEAR RESISTORS

17. Place CM switch 5 in the OFF position.

CONCLUSION:

The equivalent resistance was computed by reciprocating the algebraic sum of the
reciprocal values of the parallel resistors.
In, addition, turning the circuit modification switch could give us a lesser value for
resistor.
Turning on the switch modification no. 15 to have an open circuit on the third
resistor.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. With two resistances connected in parallel,

a. The current through each is always the same
b. The voltage across each is always the same
c. Their combined resistance is less than the individual resistor values
d. Their combined resistance is more than the individual resistor values.
2. If one 5000 ohms and two 10000 ohms resistors are connected in parallel, what is the
equivalent resistance of the circuit?
a. 1.5kOhms
b. 2.5kOhms
c. 5 kOhms
d. 10 kOhms
3. The product over sum method is used to find Re in
a. Any resistive circuit
b. Any series circuit
c. A parallel circuit with two branches
d. A parallel circuit with more than two branches.
4. Refer to figure 2.2-5 and the PARALLEL CIRCUIT circuit block on the DC
FUNDAMENTALS board. Place CM switch 7 in the ON position. By using resistance
measurements, determine what modification was made to the circuit
a. The modification cannot be determined
b. The value of R1 increased
c. The value of R2 increased
d. The value of R3 increased

ACTIVITY 1: SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF LINEAR RESISTORS

5. With 20V dc applied across five 30 ohms resistors that are connected parallel, the
equivalent resistance equals.
a. 6 Ohms
b. 10 Ohms
c. 30 Ohms
d. 150 Ohms
1.2.7 Activity Report

Section: T31 Date Performed: September 5, 2017

Course Code: CIRCUITS1L Date Submitted: September 19, 2017
Course Title: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 1
Instructor: Engr. Mark Anthony Teodoro
Group No.: 1 Activity No.: 2

Group Members: Signature:

1. Aquino, Don Juan R.
2. Comedido, Marvin Eric F.
3. Cruz, Anne Margaret G.
4.
5.