7 views

Uploaded by Gabriel Sandoval

- PlanformStatisticsTools v. 2.0 (for ArcGIS 10)
- Non Euclidian Geometry
- A DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO FLUID MECHANICS
- Factorization Algebras
- application of radius of curvature in building roads in hills
- tmp435C
- Topics in Differential Geometry - Michor
- Bach Tensor in EW geometry
- On Lorentzian concircular structure manifolds satidfying certain conditions
- Warped Products
- Nicholas of Cusa Metaphysical Speculations
- Apresentation Msc Buenos
- Extremal Bounded Holomorphic Functions and an Embedding Theorem for Arithmetic Varieties of Rank
- Einstein Gravity Lagrange Finsler Geometry and Nonsymmetric Metrics.pdf
- M&M LFRD Curved Steel Girders
- Sebastian05.pdf
- B-spline Basis Functions_RM
- A Tale of Two Circles
- AP.calc.Exam1
- 32-linearization

You are on page 1of 36

James Emery

5/29/2015

Contents

1 Introduction 2

3 Frame Vectors 6

6 Curve Examples 8

6.1 The Circular Involute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9 Normal Curvature 16

10 Bilinear Forms 17

11 Quadratic Approximation 20

13 Envelope Surfaces 23

1

14 The Covariant Derivative On a Surface 25

15 Christoffel Symbols 25

18 The Bracket 30

19 Differential Manifolds 31

20 Riemannian Geometry 32

or semi-Riemannian Metric 33

22 Bibliography 33

1 Introduction

Differential Geometry is the study of curves and surfaces and their abstract

generalization: the differential manifold. More generally it is the study of

the calculus of curves and surfaces and involves definitions of curve tangents,

normals, and curvature. In higher dimensions we study surfaces and man-

ifolds and various kinds of curvature and so on. Some related subjects are

Vector Analysis, Algebraic Geometry, Tensor Analysis, Differential Topology,

Metrics and metric spaces, Riemanian Geometry, Differential Manifolds, and

General Manifold Theory, and so on. Areas of physics that use differential

geometry include General Relativity Theory, various subjects in Theoretical

Physics, Mechanics, Particle theory, and String Theory.

etry

Curvature is the ratio of the change in turning to the distance traveled.

Consider the circular path. As a point on the circle moves through an angle

2

change , it moves a distance s = r. The ratio is a measure of the

curvature

1

= = .

s r r

The angle change of the tangent is here equal to the angle change , so

we can use the tangent angle in our definition of the curvature. So suppose

we are given a general curve in the plane

r = x(t)i + y(t)j.

" #

dy/dt

= tan1 .

dx/dt

Let us write

dx

= x,

dt

dy

= y,

dt

d2 x

= x,

dt2

d2 y

= y.

dt2

Then we have

d 1 y x yx

=

dt 1 + (y/x)2 x2

y x yx

= .

x2 + y 2

We have

ds q q

= (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = x2 + y 2

dt

So the curvature is

d d/dt

= =

ds ds/dt

y x yx 1

= 2 2

2 .

x + y x + y 2

3

y x yx

= .

(x2 + y 2 )3/2

We excluded the case where dx/dt = 0. However, we can just as well

define the tangent angle as

" #

1 dx/dt

= cot .

dy/dt

If we carry out a similure derivation to the one above we shall find that we

get the same formula for the curvature. Hence as long as at least one of

dx/dt or dy/dt is not zero, the formula holds.

Suppose we have a function y = f (x). This is a curve with t = x as the

parameter. Then x = 1, x = 0, and the curvature formula reduces to

d y

= = ,

ds (1 + y 2)3/2

where

d2 y

y = ,

dx2

and

dy

y = .

dx

Notice that in this formula the curvature can be either positive or negative. In

the case of a 1-dimensional function the curvature determines if the function

is concave up or down. In the more general definition in three space, the

curvature is always positive. So the new curvature will be defined to be the

absolute value of the 2d curvature defined above.

In three dimensional space there is no obvious tangent angle. So we must

define curvature using another approch. Let

The velocity is

dr

v= = dx/dt(t)i + dy/dt(t)j + dz/dt(t)k.

dt

The magnitude of the velocity is

q ds

v= x2 + y 2 + z 2 = .

dt

4

The unit tangent vector T is defined as

v dr/dt dr

T= = = .

v ds/dt ds

T is a unit vector so

T T = 1.

We have

d(T T)

= dT/ds T + T dT/ds = 0,

ds

which implies that

2T dT/ds = 0.

So T and it derivative are orthogonal. Thus dT/ds is a vector normal to the

curve. The unit normal vector N is defined as

dT/ds

N= .

kdT/dsk

Thus

dT/ds = kdT/dskN.

We can define the curvature as

= kdT/dsk,

because we can show that for a two dimensional curve this agrees with the

two dimensional curvature.

Indeed, in two dimensions the unit tangent vector T can be written as

T = cos()i + sin()j,

So q

kdT/dsk = |d/ds| sin2 () + cos2 () = |d/ds| = .

Notice that here the curvature is always nonnegative. We can therefore

write

dT/ds = N.

5

3 Frame Vectors

Let the curve R(s) in Euclidean 3-space be parameterized by arc length.

Define the tangent vector by

dR

T= ,

ds

and the curvature by

dT

= .

ds

The normal vector is defined to be

1 dT

N= ,

ds

and the binormal vector is defined by

B = T N.

There are a set of formulas relating the frame vectors T, N, and B and their

derivatives.

The derivatives of the frame vectors with respect to arc length s are equal

to linear combinations of the frame vectors themselves.

These are called the Serret-Frenet formulas. The Serret-Frenet formulas

are derived from the facts that the frame vectors are mutually perpendicular,

and that they have unit length. The dot product of any pair of frame vectors

is zero. So the derivative of their dot product is also zero. Unit vectors are

perpendicular to their derivatives, and N is a unit vector. So dN/ds is per-

pendicular to N. Consequently dN/ds can be written as a linear combination

of T and B only. Thus

dN

= a1 T + a3 B.

ds

Because T is perpendicular to N,

dN dT

a1 = T = N .

ds ds

6

By definition the right hand expression is equal to . So we conclude that

a1 is equal to the curvature .

Define the torsion to be a3 . Thus

dN

= T + B.

ds

Let

dB

= b1 T + b2 N.

ds

dB dT

b1 = T = B = B N = 0.

ds ds

Then

dB dN

N = B = B (T + B) = .

ds ds

Thus

dB

= N.

ds

Therefore we have the Serret-Frenet transformation,

T0 0 0 T

N 0

=

0

N

B0 0 0 B

Notice that the matrix of the transformation is antisymmetric, and that the

top right element of the matrix is zero. An antisymmetric matrix has a zero

diagonal. The lower triangular part has negative elements. These facts might

aid one in remembering the formula.

Tangent Plane

Suppose the ray intersects the surface at a point p. Let n be a unit normal

to the tangent plane at point p. Then n is a second unit normal to the

plane. It does not matter which of these normals we choose. Let the ray be

represented by vector a. The component of a in the direction of n is

b = (n a)n.

7

Notice that if we use the other normal we get the same vector b,

(n a)(n) = (n a)n = b.

the tangent plane.

We subtract this component from a, getting

c = a b,

a = b + c.

For the reflected ray, the component in the direction of n is the negative of the

original component, but the orthogonal component is in the same direction

as the original orthogonal component. Therefore the reflected ray is

d = b + c = c b.

That is

d = (a b) b = a 2b.

As a check we see that

n d = n a 2n b = n a.

6 Curve Examples

6.1 The Circular Involute

The involute of a curve C is a curve generated by unwinding a string wrapped

around C.

In the case of a circle of radius a centered at the origin, let t be the

angle at the string tangent point on the circle, as the string is unwrapped to

generate the involute. Then we find the parametric equation of the involute

to be

x = a(cos(t) + t sin(t))

y = a(sin(t) t cos(t)).

8

Figure 1: Two caustics (envelope curves of reflected rays) from the involute

curve. The two curves are formed from two sets of parallel rays, the first

making a zero angle with the horizontal, and the second making a twenty

degree angle with the horizontal. The smaller caustic comes from the zero

angle rays.

9

Figure 2: A caustic (envelope curve of reflected rays) from the involute curve.

This curve is produced from reflections from a set of parallel rays making an

angle of zero degrees with the horizontal axis. Notice that the cusp point

occurs at a height equal to the height of the circle.

10

Figure 3: Reflections of parallel rays from the right at zero degrees from an

involute curve.

11

The position vector of the curve is

R(t) = xi + yj.

We have the derivatives

dx

x = = r( sin(t) + sin(t) + t cos(t)) = rt cos(t)

dt

dy

y = = r(cos(t) cos(t) + t sin(t)) = rt sin(t)

dt

d2 x

x = 2 = r(cos(t) t sin(t))

dt

d2 y

y = 2 = r(sin(t) + t cos(t)),

dt

and the derivative of the arclength

ds q 2

= x + y 2 = rt

dt

The tangent vector is

dR dR dt

T= =

ds dt ds

= cos(t)i + sin(t)j

The normal vector is

dT dT dt

N= =

ds dt ds

= sin(t)i + cos(t)j.

c from involute.ftn

c+ function fx definition

real*8 function fx(t)

implicit real*8(a-h,o-z)

a=1.

c=1.

fx=a*(cos(t) + c*t*sin(t))

return

end

c+ function fy definition

real*8 function fy(t)

implicit real*8(a-h,o-z)

a=1.

c=1.

fy=a*(sin(t) - c*t*cos(t))

return

end

12

7 The Covariant Derivative in Rn

Given any curve in Rn with P = (0) and

d

(0) = X,

dt

the covariant derivative of the vector field Y in the direction X at the point

P is

d

X Y (P ) = Y ()(0).

dt

The chain rule may be used to show that the definition does not depend on

the curve .

This definition may be applied to a two dimensional surface patch em-

bedded in R3 . Let be a surface patch mapping an open set in R2 to R3 .

Suppose is a curve in the domain of so that (t) = ((t)). Then

d

X Y (P ) = Y () =

dt

dY (((t)))

=

dt

Y ((+ )) Y (( ))

.

4t

This is a central difference approximation where

= (4t/2),

and

+ = (4t/2).

The tangent vector X is

d((t))

X=

dt

(+ ) ( )

.

4t

Richardson extrapolation can be applied to these central difference approx-

imations. An intrinsic covariant derivative may be defined on the patch,

which is derived from the covariant derivative in R3 . This is accomplished

by subtracting the normal component of the R3 covariant derivative (see

Hicks, p26).

13

8 The Weingarten Map, The Shape Operator

Let N be a unit normal vector field on the surface. The Weingarten map,

sometimes called the shape operator, is the mapping from the tangent space

at P to itself, defined by

W (X) = X N(P ),

symmetric. To prove that it is symmetric, let (u, v) be a coordinate patch.

Then u and v are linearly independent tangent vectors and so a basis for

the tangent space. We have

W (u ) v = u N() v

N()

= v

u

N()

=

u dv

= N() ( )

u dv

= N() ( )

v du

N()

=

v du

= W (v ) u .

We have used the fact that N is perpendicular to the tangent space and

hence to tangent vectors

,

v

and

.

u

We will present a method for determining W numerically when surface

patch values are available, but derivatives values are not. In addition we

suppose that the surface normal is available (although it could be computed

numerically from patch values).

14

Let 1 be a curve in the uv coordinate space defined by

be the curve (1 (t)). Let

d1 (0)

X1 = .

dt

Similarly define

d2 (0)

X2 = ,

dt

where the uv tangent vector is T2 = (0, 1). If has nonzero Jacobian then

X1 and X2 are independent vectors in the tangent space. X1 and X2 are not

necessarily perpendicular to one another.

Let Z1 and Z2 be orthogonal vectors in the tangent space, which means

that Z1 and Z2 are in R3 , and are perpendicular to N at P . Z1 and Z2 are

a basis of the tangent space, so there exists bij so that

X1 = b11 Z1 + b12 Z2

and

X2 = b21 Z1 + b22 Z2 .

We have

Xi Z j

bij = .

kZi k2

Then using the linearity of W we get the vector equations

and

W (X2 ) = b21 W (Z1 ) + b22 W (Z2 ).

We may solve these equations for the x, y and z components of W (Z1) and

W (Z2 ). Then let

W (Z1 ) = c11 Z1 + c12 Z2

and

W (Z2) = c21 Z1 + c22 Z2 .

Z1 and Z2 are perpendicular, so we have

15

Zi W (Zj )

cij = .

kZi k2

The matrix representation of the Weingarten transformation in this basis is.

" #

c11 c21

c12 c22

9 Normal Curvature

Define the normal curvature of a surface in the direction of a curve , at a

point p, by

n = W (0 ) 0 ,

where a(0) = p, and 0 = 0 (0). This turns out to be the component of the

curvature of the curve in the direction of the surface normal, when is

parameterized by arc length. Let N be the surface normal restricted to .

Then N is a curve, and

dN()

W (0 ) = 0 N = = N 0.

ds

We have

0 N = 0.

So

00 N = 0 N 0 .

But

d0 dt

00 = = = n.

ds ds

So

n = N 0 0 = 00 N = n N = cos(),

where is the angle between the surface normal N and the curve normal n.

From the definition one sees that the normal curvature depends only upon

the direction of the unit vector t = 0 . Hence notice that given two curves

that pass through a given point p and have the same direction at that point

have the same surface normal component of their curvature vector. Also if

the curve lies in a plane which contains the surface normal, then the curve

16

normal coincides with the surface normal so the normal curvature is the same

as the curvature of the curve. If is an eigenvalue of W with eigenvector t

then the normal curvature is

n = W (t) t = t t = .

formation so the eigenvalues are real and the eigenvectors are orthogonal.

The principal directions are well defined except at an umbilic point where

the eigenvalues are equal and every vector is an eigenvector. The normal

curvature is a quadratic form and the maximum and minimum values of the

form occur at the eigenvalues of W . Thus the principal curvatures are the

maximum and the minimum normal curvatures.

10 Bilinear Forms

The classical fundamental bilinear forms defined on pairs of tangent vectors

include the first fundamental form

B1 (T1 , T2 ) = T1 T2 ,

B2 (T1 , T2 ) = W (T1 ) T2 .

Q1 (T ) = T T.

In classical differential geometry a tangent vector is written as

n

X X

T = ds = dui.

i=1 ui

n X

n

gij duiduj .

X

Q1 (ds) = ds ds =

i=1 j=1

17

g is called the metric tensor. Suppose X(u, v) is a coordinate patch, then we

have

ds2 = Q1 (ds) = Xu Xu du2 + 2Xu Xv dudv + Xv Xv dv 2 .

= Edu2 + 2F dudv + Gdv 2.

As an example, consider a spherical patch of radius a,

Then

Xu (u, v) = (a cos(v) cos(u), a sin(v) cos(u), a sin(u)).

and

Xv (u, v) = (a sin(v) sin(u), a cos(v) sin(u), 0).

Thus

E = Xu Xu = a2

F = Xu Xv = 0

and

G = Xv Xv = a2 sin2 (u).

The second fundamental quadratic form is

Let N be a unit normal. Then

0 = Xu N = Xv N,

so

e = W (Xu ) Xu = Xu Nu = Xuu N,

f = W (Xv ) Xu = Xu Nv = Xuv N,

and

g = W (Xv ) Xv = Xv Nv = Xvv N.

The normal curvature in the direction of T is

W (T ) T Q2 (T )

n = W (T /kT k) T /kT k = = .

T T Q1 (T )

18

Proposition. The Gaussian curvature is given by

eg f 2

K(X) = ,

EG F 2

and the mean curvature by

Ge Eg 2F f

H(X) = ,

2(EG F 2 )

coefficient matrix of W with respect to this basis. Write

W (Ti ) = aji Tj

Then

W (T1 ) W (T2 ) = Det(a)T1 T2 = KT1 T2 .

and

These equations can be solved for the Gaussian curvature K and the mean

curvature H by dotting each equation by

T1 T2 .

We have

(W1 W2 ) (T1 T2 ) = K(T1 T2 ) (T1 T2 ).

The left side is

= (W1 T1 )(W2 T2 ) (W1 T2 )(W2 T1 )

= (W1 T1 )(W2 T2 ) (W1 T2 )2 .

We have used the BAC CAB rule. Similarly

19

Thus

(W1 T1 )(W2 T2 ) (W1 T2 )2

K=

(T1 T1 )(T2 T2 ) (T1 T2 )2

If

T1 = Xu

and

T2 = Xv ,

then

eg f 2

K(X) = .

EG F 2

The mean curvature equation is proved similarly.

11 Quadratic Approximation

Let p be a point on the surface. We may assume a coordinate system in

which p is the origin and the normal is in the z direction. Thus we may write

the surface as

z = f (x, y).

We expand f in a Taylor series. Keeping only second order terms we obtain

a quadratic approximation to the surface. Now we could fit local data to

a quadric of this form using least squares and then obtain approximations

to the principal curvatures. However, the least squares quadratic goes to

the quadratic approximation only as the data approaches p. In effect we are

approximating second derivatives, while the previous technique requires only

covariant derivatives of the first order.

Let c be a curve with parameter t. A tangent to the curve is v = dc/dt. Let

f be a function. We define

df (c(t)) dc

Dv (f ) = = f = f v.

dt dt

This defines a functional Dv mapping functions to real numbers. It depends

only on the tangent vector v, not specifically on the curve c. It does not

20

depend on the coordinate system because

df (c(t))

dt

is coordinate independent. From the theory of differential equations, given a

tangent vector v at a point p, there exists a curve c so that

dc(0)

= v,

dt

and c(0) = p. Thus for every tangent vector there is a functional Dv . The

functional has the obvious properties

Dv (f + g) = Dv (f ) + Dv (g)

and

Dv (ag) = aDv (f ),

where a is a scalar. Dv is a linear functional. We have

df (c)g(c) dg(c) df (c)

Dv (f g) = = f (c) + g(c) =

dt dt dt

f (c)Dv (g) + Dv (f )g(c).

Functionals satisfying these properties are called derivations. Consider the

example of the x coordinate curve in Cartesian three space. We have c(t) =

tux where ux is the unit coordinate vector in the x direction. Then

dc

v= = ux

dt

and

f

Dv (f ) = f ux = .

x

We have shown that

Dv = .

x

Similarly if i is a local surface coordinate, then

,

i

21

is the derivation corresponding to its tangent vector. We have

(i ) = ji .

j

Hence

A={ : 1 i n}

i

is a linearly independent set of derivations. We shall show that tangent

vectors and derivations can be identified. So A is a basis of the tangent

space. Let v1 and v2 be tangent vectors ,then

f v1 + f v2 = Dv1 f + Dv2 f

If a is a scalar, then

Dav1 = aDv1 .

Therefore the mapping

v 7 Dv

is a homomorphism. Since the tangent space of an n-dimensional manifold

is n-dimensional, and there are tangent vectors mapping to A, the mapping

v 7 Dv is actually an isomorphism.

Now we no longer have to rely on a coordinate system in the embedding

space, in which the surface lies, to define a tangent vector. Given any curve

in the surface c, and a parameter point t0 , there is a derivation defined by

df (c)

Dc f = (t0 ).

dt

This is independent of the embedding. A local surface coordinate system can

be used to find the components of Dc with respect to the local tangent basis.

The covariant derivative X Y can be given as the action of the derivation

X on the vector field Y . Indeed let

X = x1 + x2 + x3

u1 u2 u3

and

Y = y1 + y2 + y3

u1 u2 u3

22

be tangent vectors in R3 and let X act as a derivation. Then

Y (c(t))

X Y = =

dt

y1 (c(t)) y2 (c(t)) y3 (c(t))

( , , ) = (X(y1 ), X(y2 ), X(y3)).

dt dt dt

Reference Abraham Goetz, Introduction to Differential Geometry, Addison-

Wesley 1970.

13 Envelope Surfaces

Given a one parameter family of surfaces

f (x, y, z, t) = 0,

f (x, y, z, t) = 0

and

f (x, y, z, t)

=0

t

(see Goetz p125). To establish this, let the envelope surface have parametric

equation

r(u1 , u2 ) = (x(u1 , u2 ), y(u1, u2 ), z(u1 , u2 )).

Given the coordinates of a point u1 u2 of a point p on the envelope, there is

an element of the family of surfaces that is tangent to the envelope at this

point. Let the corresponding parameter of this tangent surface be t(u1 , u2 ).

Now f is normal to this tangent surface. Hence

dr

f = 0.

du1

But let

23

g(u1, u2 ) = f ((x(u1 , u2 ), y(u1, u2 ), z(u1 , u2 ), t(u1 , u2)).

Then g = 0, so

dg dr f (x, y, z, t) dt

0= = f + .

du1 du1 t du1

Thus

f (x, y, z, t) dt

= 0.

t du1

Similarly

f (x, y, z, t) dt

= 0.

t du2

We shall assume that

dt

du1

and

dt

du2

do not vanish simultaneously. Thus

f (x, y, z, t)

= 0.

t

A canal surface is the envelope of a family of spheres. For example the

torus is a canal surface, and Dupin cyclides are also canal surfaces. A spheri-

cal Milling cutter produces a canal surface, other cutter shapes produce other

envelope surfaces. A rather general milling cutter may be considered the en-

velope of a family of flat disk like ellipsoids. Then a milled surface may be

considered the envelope of a two parameter family of surfaces

f (x, y, x, s, t) = 0.

The envelope surface is found by eliminating t and s from

f (x, y, z, s, t) = 0, ft (x, y, z, s, t) = 0, fs (x, y, z, s, t) = 0.

See Goetz.

The milled internal screw thread is an envelope of surfaces generated by

swept disks. It can also be considered a the envelope of a two parameter

family of algebraic surfaces and is thus algebraic.

An envelope of a one-parameter set of planes is called a developable sur-

face.

24

14 The Covariant Derivative On a Surface

Define the covariant derivative on the surface by

DX Y = X Y + < X N, Y > N.

We will show that this is the projection of the R3 covariant derivative to the

tangent space. For if we take the dot product with the normal N, we get

the right is a differential operator operating on an inner product, and Y is

orthogonal to N, so it is zero. Then we have

Then we have

DX Y = X Y < X Y, N > N,

which shows that DX Y is the projection of X Y to the tangent space.

The covariant derivative has an explicit coordinate representation, given

in terms of the soon to be introduced Christoffel symbols.

15 Christoffel Symbols

Let (u1, u2 ) be a surface patch (an inverse coordinate system). Write

2

ij = .

ui uj

We may express these derivatives in the moving basis

{1 , 2 , N}

We have

ij = kij k + ij N.

The kij are called the Christoffel symbols of the second kind. Taking inner

products we find that the ij are the coefficients bij of the second fundamental

form. Thus

ij =< ij , n >= bij , .

25

where

b11 = E, b12 = b21 = F, b22 = G.

Let us write the derivative of the normal as

ni = bki k .

Then we get

< ni , j >= bki gkj .

By differentiating

< n, j >= 0,

we get

< ni , j >= < n, ij >= bij

Thus

bij = bki gkj .

Then

bij g kj = bki gkj g kj = bki kl = bli ,

where

{g ij } = {gij }1 .

The Christoffel symbols are symmetric. In fact ij and bij are symmetric,

so

kij k = ij bij n = ji bji n = kji k .

Then

kij = kji,

because the i are linearly independent.

The Christoffel symbols of the first kind are defined by

ijl =< ij , l >=< kij k + bij n, l >= kij < k , l >= kij gkl .

They are symmetric in the first two indices because of the symmetry of ij .

It follows that

kij = ilj g lk .

Theorem

1 gjk gki gij

ijk = ( + ),

2 ui uj uk

26

and

g kl gjl gli gij

kij = ( + ).

2 ui uj ul

Proof. We have

gij < i , j >

k

= =< ik , j > + < i , jk >=

u uk

ikj + jki.

The permutation

i k, j i, k j

gives

gki

= kji + ijk = jki + ijk ,

uk

and the permutation

i j, j k, k i

gives

gjk

= jik + kij = ijk + ikj .

ui

Adding the last two equations and subtracting the first, we obtain the result

which was to be proved.

Let (u1 , u2) be a coordinate patch. Let X be the tangent to curve c(t) =

(u1 (t), u2(t)). Let

Y = y 1 1 + y 2 2 = y i i

Then the covariant derivative is

dY (c) dy i i duj

X Y = = i + y ij

dt dt dt

We may substitute the expressions involving the Christoffel symbols for the

second derivatives, obtaining a linear combination of the basis vectors

{1 , 2 , N}.

27

Taking the projection into the tangent space, (deleting terms involving N),

we get an expression for the surface covariant derivative

dy i dy j

DX Y = i + yi kij k =

dt dt

dy k i k duj

k + y ij k =

dt dt

dy k duj

( + y ikij )k

dt dt

which involves the basis vectors

{1 , 2 },

and the Christoffel symbols. The Christoffel symbols involve only the coef-

ficients of the first fundamental form and their derivatives. So the surface

covariant derivative is intrinsic, and depends only on the metric gij .

Let X = m and Y = n . Then

dy k

=0

dt

and

y i = ni ,

and

duj j

= m .

dt

Then

Dm n = kmn k .

Geometry

In Hicks, the covariant derivative of vector field Y with respect to vector field

X is written as

DX Y.

28

We shall continue to write it as

X Y.

tion D is a linear functional on a manifold that has the properties:

(2)D(af ) = aD(f ),

(3)D(f g) = f (c)D(g) + D(f )g(c).

The derivations play the roll of tangent vectors. The set of derivations con-

stitute the tangent space. A derivation may also be defined as a parametric

derivative along a curve.

In the Euclidean case suppose we have a vector

X = (a1 , a2 , ...., an )

and the operation on a function f is given by

n

X f

Xf = ai .

i=1 ui

In this case it is easy to see that property (3) of the derivation follows from

the rule for diferentiating the product of functions. Further in this Euclidean

case one can show that every derivation is of this form. If Y is a vector field

in this Euclidean space with ith coordinate yi, then a covarient derivative is

given by

X Y = (Xy1, ...., Xyn ).

Covariant derivatives have the following four characteristic properties:

(1)X (Y + Z) = X Y + X Z

(2)X+W Y = X Y + W Z

(3)f (p)X Y = f (p)X Y

(4)X f (p)Y = (Xf )Y + f (p)X Y

Property (4) follows from the property (3) of derivations.

29

Given a curve and a vector field Y defined along the curve, if T is the

curve tangent and

T Y = 0,

then the vector Y (0) is said to be parallel translated along .

If

T T = 0,

then the curve tangent is parallel translated along the curve and the

curve is a geodesic, a shortest path connecting the starting point and the

ending point.

Consider the case of translating a tangent vector around a path on a

sphere, say the earth. Say one starts at the north pole and suppose we

translate a vector along the zero degree meridian. Let the vector Y be per-

pendicular to the meridian as it is translated, that is it is always pointing

east, always making the same angle with the meridian, i.e. the geodesic

curve.

When we reach the equator the vector points east in the direction of the

equator, which is another geodesic. We keep it in the direction of the equator

until we get to say the 30thth degree meridian. The vector makes a 90 degree

angle with the 30th degree meridian as we translate it back up to the north

pole. When we reach the north pole we find that the translated vector is

pointing in a different direction from the starting direction. So on the earth

we have traveled along a spherical triagle path, always keeping our vector

pointing in the same direction with respect to what we consider locally as

straight lines. But when we return to our starting point we see that the

vector has been turned. So this tells us that our surface is curved. Because

on a flat surface this would not occur.

The geodesics are the paths of particles when they do not experience any

force. Their motion is the analogue of classical uniform motion.

18 The Bracket

If X and Y are C vector fields, their bracket is a C vector field (Hicks

P8) defined by

[X, Y ]f = X(Y f ) Y (Xf ).

The bracket has the following properties:

[X, Y ] = [Y, X].

30

[X, X] = 0.

[X1 + X2 , Y ] = [X1 , Y ] + [X2 , Y ]

and

[f X, gY ] = f (Xg)Y g(Y f )X + f g[X, Y ].

At a fixed point p on the manifold,

[X, Y ]p f

[X, Y ]p f

maps two vectors from the product tangent space to a real number. If it were

multilinear with respect to X and Y , then it would be a second rank tensor.

But property

The bracket satisfies the Jacoby identity

The bracket comes from the Poisson bracket of mechanics, and was intro-

duced by Sophus Lie in his work on Lie Groups (originally called continuous

groups of transformations) and Lie Algebras in solving partial differential

equations.

19 Differential Manifolds

A differential manifold is a topological space M and a set of charts, where

each chart is a one to one mapping from an open neighborhood of M to

an open connected neighborhood in Rn . If 1 and 2 are overlapping charts,

then 1

1 2 is a C

map. M is covered by the domains of the set of charts.

The charts specify a set of local coordinates for the manifold. For example

on the spherical earth, the mapping of a point on the earth to its latitude

and longitude is a chart. It takes more than one chart to cover the earth.

Let us take the example of a 2d unit sphere embedded in R3 . The use of

31

spherical coordinates constitutes a chart. That is a point on the sphere is

mapped to the , coordinates. The inverse of this chart is the mapping

x = sin() cos()

y = sin() sin()

z = cos()

Tangent vectors in these coordinate directions are the functionals (deriva-

tions)

, and .

20 Riemannian Geometry

A Riemannian Space is a differential manifold with a Riemannian metric. A

Riemannian Metric is a function < X, Y >, where X and Y are elements of

a tangent space. This is the distance between X and Y . In classical notation

this is written as g(X,Y), and has tensor components gij . The Riemannian

metric is real valued, bilinear, symmetric, and positive definite. The metric is

a quadratic form and is represented by a symmetric matrix. Positive definite

means that if X is not zero, then g(X, X) > 0. The eigenvalues of the matrix

are all positive.

A Semi-Riemannian metric is real valued, bilinear, and symmetric. But

is not necessarily positive definite, but must be nonsingular. The eigenval-

ues must be nonzero, but not necessarily positive. This is the case for the

Minkowski metric of relativity theory. A positive definite matrix is clearly

nonsinglular, so a Riemannian metric is a Semi-Riemannian metric. Clearly,

there can be a nonsingular matrix that is not positive definite, namely a diag-

onal matrix. A Riemannian metric tensor is given classically as a symmetric

quadratic form

n X

n

ds2 =

X

gij dxi dxj .

i=1 j=1

32

21 The Unique Riemannian Connexion De-

fined by the Riemannian or semi-Riemannian

Metric

The properties 1-6 of the standard connexion on Rn (Hicks pp19-20) are

satisfied by this Riemannian connection properties 5 and 6 are additional

properties not necessarily satisfied by a covariant derivative or connexion

that is not Riemannian.

There exists a unique Riemannian connexion (pp 69-70) on a Riemannian

or semi-Riemannian manifold. The Christoffel symbols are given in terms of

the metric tensor. We have by definition

n

ijk Xi .

X

Xk (Xj ) =

i=1

Christoffel symbols in terms of the metric

1 X 1 grj gri gij

kij = (g )kr ( + ).

2 r xi xj xr

The symbol g 1 is the inverse of the symmetric matrix of the metric quadratic

form. This is where the nonsingularity of the semi-Riemannian metric is

needed. This defines the connexion, because it has been defined for the basis

vector fields Xi .

22 Bibliography

[1] Auslander Louis, MacKenzie Robert E, Introduction to Differential

Manifolds, 1963, 1977 Dover.

and Lie Algebras with Applications and Computational Methods,

1972, SIAM.

33

[5] Bishop Richard L, Goldberg Samuel L, Tensor Analysis on Manifolds,

1968.

Wiley, 1968.

Analysis, Manifolds, and Physics, North-Holland, 1982.

of Curves and Surfaces, 1909, 1960 Dover.

1933, 1961 Dover.

1964, Princeton.

[11] Emery J. D., Physics, JDEU Press, 1996, (See the chapter on Mechan-

ics.)

2007.

Physical Sciences, 1963,1989 Dover.

Wesley, 1970.

34

[19] Helgason Sigurdur, Differential Geometry, Lie Groups, and Sym-

metric Spaces, Academic Press, 1978.

1959.

Verlag, 1999.

[25] Lovelock David, Rund Hanno, Tensors, Differential Forms and vari-

ational Principles, 1977,1989 Dover.

Academic Press, 1970.

to Relativity, Academic Press, 1983.

1966.

Cambridge 1980.

Wiley 1951.

folds, Gordon and Breach, 1969.

Geometry, Volumes I and II, 2nd Edition, Publish or Perish, 1979.

35

[33] Spivak Michael, Calculus on Manifolds, W A Benjamin 1965.

1961 Dover.

36

- PlanformStatisticsTools v. 2.0 (for ArcGIS 10)Uploaded byJoc Joc
- Non Euclidian GeometryUploaded byriazimath
- A DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO FLUID MECHANICSUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Factorization AlgebrasUploaded byJason Payne
- application of radius of curvature in building roads in hillsUploaded byAman Khera
- tmp435CUploaded byFrontiers
- Topics in Differential Geometry - MichorUploaded byJama Hana
- Bach Tensor in EW geometryUploaded byAnonymous m2CeejKk
- On Lorentzian concircular structure manifolds satidfying certain conditionsUploaded bySunil Yadav
- Warped ProductsUploaded byChandan Kumar Mondal
- Nicholas of Cusa Metaphysical SpeculationsUploaded byJackeline Cristina
- Apresentation Msc BuenosUploaded bycleisond
- Extremal Bounded Holomorphic Functions and an Embedding Theorem for Arithmetic Varieties of RankUploaded byscribd8885708
- Einstein Gravity Lagrange Finsler Geometry and Nonsymmetric Metrics.pdfUploaded byHugonovich
- M&M LFRD Curved Steel GirdersUploaded byjairoculqui
- Sebastian05.pdfUploaded byMampiononiarivoFrançoisTafara
- B-spline Basis Functions_RMUploaded byFrancisco Javier Cisneros Ruiz
- A Tale of Two CirclesUploaded byMeng Wang
- AP.calc.Exam1Uploaded byJordan Miles
- 32-linearizationUploaded byilayyinan
- Maths CET-2012 Answer KeyUploaded bypacesoft321
- EN(338)Uploaded byreacharunk
- Análisis Estructural (S-01) - Análisis ClásicoUploaded byJorge Lecona
- FelteyUploaded byEpic Win
- TakeHome ELUploaded byali199013279254
- 09Uploaded bySeanGoonShengTang
- Vens a BitchUploaded byJennifer Marshall
- Robust Control for a Delta RobotUploaded byjuanpereza21
- 1932AEinsteinWdeSitter PNAS 18 213 RelationBewtweenExpansionMeanDensityUniverseUploaded byYoshuaR
- Planning Smooth and Obstacle-Avoiding B-Spline Paths for Autonomous Mining Vehicles-TPpUploaded byinstreng

- Mecanica Parcial 3Uploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- Lecture 07Uploaded byAlaa Mohyeldin
- v7n1a06.pdfUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- Teoria de grupos para fisicos Rodolfo Alexander DiazUploaded byGerman Chiappe
- störmer_verlet_crivelliUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- QFTUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- LagrangianUploaded byPino Bigbird
- Methods_for_studying_coincidences.pdfUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- Lecture Notes Classical MechanicsUploaded bysuudfiin
- Noether Theorm and Gauge SymmetryUploaded byABHINANDAN YADAV
- [9783110409475 - Mathematics for the Physical Sciences] 12 Non-Homogeneous Boundary Value Problems Greens FunctionsUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- MainUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- Solution Manual Elements of Electromagnetics 4th Edition SadikuUploaded byArnnor Henrique Rocha
- lec20-21_compressed SCATTER.pdfUploaded byBobby Ward
- Heck Man Whitehouse December 2014Uploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- diffgeom.pdfUploaded byGabriel Sandoval
- Gregory L. Baker, Jerry P. Gollub Chaotic Dynamics- An Introduction.pdfUploaded bymonsieur_adgv
- Elements of Classical Thermodynamics by a.B.pippardUploaded byumar naeem

- LinearizationUploaded byb0rna
- GTnotes2.pdfUploaded bySuperheavy Rockshow Go't
- Linear Algebra Jin Ho KwakUploaded byRafael Solano Martinez
- C1.pdfUploaded byRahul Sharma
- PAPER 7Uploaded byHansc Condori
- trigo.docxUploaded byjv
- Tutorial 2Uploaded bySeedy B Fofana
- Digital ElectronicsUploaded byRatan
- WHAT TO STUDY STPM MATHEMATICS T/S PAPER 1Uploaded bySK
- Maxima and Minima of Functions of Two Variables Calculus 3Uploaded byMark Angelo Policios
- Khaled El Dika and Luc Molinet- Stability of multipeakonsUploaded by23213m
- DCinv_V6_rev2_cleanUploaded byyasirarafat91
- A Detailed Comparison of Symmetric Sparse Matrix Reordering HeuristicsUploaded byjodyschechter
- Hadamard Matrices and WeavingUploaded byEduardo Perez Careta
- 3. Linear Programming- FormulationUploaded byTunisha Bhadauria
- Form 4 QuadraticUploaded bySharvinder Singh
- math 8 unit 1 3 unit studyUploaded byapi-270891801
- Apps Truc t MechUploaded bymoljaime1326
- degree of freedom.pdfUploaded bydhanusiya balamurugan
- Problem Set 8 Solutions.pdfUploaded byfrancis_tsk1
- 05Uploaded byAmar Kadic
- abraham.pdfUploaded by58926
- Diff FormsUploaded byNikolai
- The Exponential Function of MatricesUploaded bySelcuk Zengin
- Problem set on OpticsUploaded byJumar Cadondon
- The Inverse of a MatrixUploaded byDaniel Kozakevich
- NNTDM-20-2-20-28Uploaded byhappymark2
- Trigonometric IdentitiesUploaded byНеизвестный Нечитаемый
- compound inequalitiesUploaded byapi-368121935
- HWsUploaded byLinhHoàngTrương