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By: Msc. Roxana de Trigueros

May 4, 2017


If you are looking for the exact way to carry out and write scientific research
papers let me tell you that such a thing does not exist at all. However, there are steps
that can guide you in your research process. The American Psychological Association
(2017), APA style, is very useful when it comes to this matter. Since it unifies the format
or style you use for scientific research. Here are some useful steps to follow in a
Scientific Research Project.

Margins, paper size and indentation

The recommended margins for a scientific research project are: top margin 3 cm.;
left margin 4 cm.; lower margin 2.5 cm.; right margin 2.5 cm. The document must be
letter size. You can also use front and back of the page to print; however in the
University of El Salvador, Western Multidisciplinary Campus, English Language
Department only front is used. Keep in mind that there is no law that prevents you from
using both sides of the page and that if you do so you are recycling paper. Indentation
is also important. According to APS style you must leave 5 spaces (1/2 inches or 1.27
cm.) in the first line of each paragraph. Finally number your scientific research pages.

Cover page
The cover page has the name of the institution (UNIVERSITY OF EL
DEPARTMENT), the logo of the institution, the topic of the research (undergraduate
work), submitted to obtain the degree of, name of persons who present the research

project (Presented by), the name of the advisor and the date and place (Santa Ana, El
Salvador, Centroamrica).
In the index the chapters go in bold and capital tellers and the subtopic first letter
is written in Capital letters and the rest in small letters without using bold letters. Never
the less, in the written work the chapters and subtopics go both in bold letters, with the
only difference that chapters go in capital letters and subtopics in small letters.

In the abstract you must state what you are investigating, the objective of the
investigation, the methodology to carry out the research and the results you expect to
find. It must not be longer than 250 words or so (Grijalva, 2015).


The introduction is a brief presentation of the content of the index. As a matter

of fact, in the introduction you must establish the reasons of your research, motivation
and essential aspects which will be developed in the process (Grijalva, 2015). The
reader must clearly identify the problem of the research, the objectives and the main
results you are expecting to get.

The introduction must always briefly explain:

a) The title of the research and the type of research you are going to carryout.

b) The purpose of the research and the significance of it.

c) The statement of the problem and the research objectives of it.

d) A brief explanation of the methodology used in the research.

e) Each single part that is included in the index or main sections of the project.

f) And finally a closing sentences of the introduction and a connecting sentence to
the rest of the work.


1.1 Description of the problem

Here remember to delimit the research problem to make it possible to investigate.

It is not so important the order of the content but the content itself. On the other hand,
in this chapter, no matter if it is a qualitative or quantitative research or the type of
problem you are about to investigate or the writing style you have, you may usually
include the following content:

Include other studies related with the studied the phenomenon, since and from when
it has been investigated and the spatial and temporary delimitation of the research
(Flores Godoy & Colocho Borja, 2014).

Include the research questions and sub research questions you have.

Present and past data that justifies or evidences the existence of the problem. Say
how the problem is now (the baseline).

The problem must express the relationship among variables (Navas Hurtado, 2014)
or concepts that guide the research, as well as theories which guide, explain and
clarify those variables or concepts.

Include the importance of the research and remember that any data or reference
you include must be scientifically proved.

You may also state the main research question in this part.

1.2 Research question(s)

The research questions are related with the objectives, with the topic or
problematic situation, and with the hypothesis. The research question(s) guides the
research to the expected results. It questions the existing relationship between the
variables in the hypothesis. A simple way of writing a research question is to change
the objectives into questions (Flores Godoy & Colocho Borja, 2014).

1.3 Research objectives

The objectives make you have a clear idea of what you pretend through the
research. They must be written in a direct, clear and feasible infinitive form to a sure
their development and achievement (Villeda de Trigueros, 2015).

They are divided in general objective and specific one. The general objective
must have the same elements or variables from the topic or problem, from the
justification, from the research question and from the hypothesis. You cannot have a
topic very different from your research question, general objective or hypothesis. In
this manner the general objective will agree with the statement of the problem, main
research question, and hypothesis if there is one; and the specific objectives will go in
harmony with the research questions (Navas Hurtado, 2014).

1.4 Hypothesis

If your research is quantitative or if it is a mixmethod research you certainly will

need a hypothesis; if it is an action research you will need a hypothesis of change or
action. The hypothesis is related with the topic or research problem, research objectives,
and research questions (One of the simplest forms of writing a hypothesis or hypothesis
of change is to transform the general objective into a hypothesis. Remember that a
hypothesis is accepted when it is a solution to the problem, and they are based in the
theoretical framework or state of art, and they are related to the objectives (Grijalva,

2015). The hypotheses are not necessary true, they can be false too. Moreover, they
can be or not be proved with scientific facts (Zacaras Ortez, 2001).

1.5 Justification

To justify a problem is to expose what motivates the researcher to investigate the

problem. That means, the important to establish the convenience of the study, its social
relevance, the practical implications and its theoretical value (Flores Godoy & Colocho
Borja, 2014). In other words, to justify means to argument and convince the public of the
importance of the study and its relevance.

You may also want to answer the following questions in your justification: Why it
is so useful, which are the goals you will achieve with it? Is it useful for the community
or for the researchers? Who will be the benefited? In what way? What is its social
projection? Will it help to solve any real problem from any institution, community or
society? Will it enrich any existing theory? Will the methodology help you establish how
to study certain type of population? Will you need to invent any instrument to observe
the population (Zacaras Ortez, 2001)?

To make it simple remember to describe the importance of the study with the
institutional policies, expected findings, who get benefits from the study, possible impact
on the studied population, society or persons involved, and possible scientific
contributions it might give to the existing knowledge there is on the topic (Grijalva, 2015).
In other words this is the scope of the work. Include the ideal answer to the problem and
compare it to the reality you have (baseline).


You may ask yourself if there is a difference between a State of Art and a
Theoretical Framework. Well as a matter of fact, there is. A State of Art is used in
qualitative and mixed research. A Theoretical Framework is used in a quantitative study
and deals with scientific proved theories and scientific readings related with the topic.

On the other hand, a State of Art includes all the new and old information related to the
topic. They can be resent studies and experience from other serious authors as related
readings from books, magazines, websites and other resources that deal with the
problem you are trying to figure out and state as a thesis work. Other authors state that
the difference between them is that in the state of art you state your own theory, your
own ideas referencing them with other readings. However in the Theoretical Framework
you just write an essay about other theories that can help you answer your research
question, or that can help you achieve your objectives and state if your hypothesis is
true or false.

The Theoretical Framework or State of Art is an explanation of the problem

through previous studies found in bibliography or through websites, magazines and
other resources which will help the researcher to observe the problem objectively
through appropriate instruments and to analyze the findings according to the objectives
established and explained in the theory.

The topics and subtopics used in this part go along with the research topic,
research question, research objectives and research hypothesis. It also includes
etymology and scientific meaning of the variables used in the research work and a deep
scientific research theory of them.

As a matter of fact, a history background of the problems is important in this kind

of work. Here, include all the previous studies on the topic or related scientific or serious
readings that different author have done.

You might also consider including the actual situation of the problem, how
people face and manage the problem up to now. Here you could state your hypothesis,
research question or main objective and include information dealing with possible
solutions to the problem. Write it as you were having a dialogue between you and the
reader. Remember to include references whenever necessary. Finally, always end your
chapters with a concluding phrase, sentence or paragraph.
This chapter deals with a very well detailed description of the materials, methods,
procedures and instruments used in your research, and it is divided as follows:

3.1 Paradigm and type of study

Paradigm and design (type of study): In this section you just mention the type of
study and describe the characteristics is has. Keep in mind that the paradigm can be
qualitative, quantitative or mixmethod research. The type of study and paradigm and
design are also related with the research objective, that is what you intend to achieve
through the research. In quantitative research Hernndez Sampieri, Fernndez Collado,
& Baptista Lucio (1998) divide it in four types: exploratory, descriptive, correlational and
explicative. On the other hand, in qualitative and quantitative research, Zacaras Ortez
(2001) adds the retrospective and prospective study, as well as the experimental study.
Conversely, Grijalva ( 2015) prefers to divide them into four categories: a) according to
the researchers intervention (observational and experimental); b) according to the of
data collection plan (retrospective and prospective); c) according to the number of times
each variable was observed (transversal and longitudinal) ; and d) according to the
number of research variables involved (descriptive and analytical).

A. Quantitative research

In quantitative research there are different types of study to do your research study.
The most common are mentioned as follows:

The observational type

The researcher does not get involved. He is just an observer of the natural
environment where the research problem is taking place. In other words, he observes,
classifies and consignees the events that are taking place according to a guide or plan
already established as in quantitative research or it might not be planned or figured out
as in qualitative research.

It is usually used in quantitative research and the researcher manipulates and
controls any changes in any variables. Therefore, the results are casual explanations
(Grijalva, 2015).

Retrospective and prospective type

In the retrospective type the researcher investigates events that have occurred in
the past: In contrast, in the prospective type the events are recorded as they occur.

Transversal type and longitudinal type: These types of researches are due to the
period and sequence of the study. The transversal type is when the researcher studies
the variables simultaneously, making cut in the period of time. The time is not so
important in relation to the form or manner when or where the events take place.
However, the longitudinal type is when the researcher studies one or more variables in a
period of time which changes along with the studied problem and characteristics of the
verbal is taking place in the field of study (Pineda, Alvarado, & de Canales, 1994).

Descriptive, analytic or explanatory and experimental type

In the descriptive type of study, the researcher only establishes in what situation
the studied variables are in a population, the absence or presence of an event ,
frequency in which the phenomenons take place, whom, where and when they are
being observed. This type of study can also be transversal and longitudinal,
retrospective and prospective or both at the same time (Pineda, Alvarado, & de Canales,
1994). This can generate possible hypothesis for future studies.

According to Pineda, Alvarado, & de Cnales (1994) the descriptive studies can
also be exploratory since the researcher only intends to familiarize himself/herself with
problematic situation. In those cases where there is not enough theory related to the
problem being studied, the type of research can also be considered as a descriptive one.

If it is a descriptive study you might consider to answer the following questions:

What are you investigating, which are its the characteristics, which results are you

expecting to find? And which are the boarders you might find? (Pineda, Alvarado, & de
Canales, 1994).

An analytic or explanatory type of study tries to answer the question why does
certain phenomenon occurs, its cause and risk or cause and effect. In other words they
look for the relationship between variables. In general a change in one variables makes
a change in another one. In other words the dependence that one variables has among
the other one and a hypothesis is certainly needed in this type of research.

In the experimental type of study you can manipulate the variables for cause to
determine possible effects. For this you need to establish two groups: one for the
experimental group and the other one for the controlled group. In the experimental one
you apply the independent variable or the risk factor to measure later the dependent
variable. In the controlled group you just measure its the effect without applying the
independent variable.

B. Qualitative research

In qualitative research the most common types of study are as follows:

Participatory research and action research

Through participatory research the researchers pretend to help the studied population in
the identification, in the critical analysis of their own problems and needs and in the
search of possible solutions that the researchers pretend to study and solve. Through
this type of study researchers also pretend to generate knowledge and the researchers
and the studied population are the ones who empower this knowledge through the whole
educational research study and action (Hernndez Sampieri, Fernndez Collado, &
Baptista Lucio, 1998).

The difference between this type of study and action research is that here researchers
present the project already made to the studied population: on the contrary in action
research the research problem and project is born and built with the studied population.

Also action research was born to serve educational purposes, to have a change in
peoples attitudes and behavior.

Ethnographic Research

This type of study has its principles in the anthropology tradition and it is oriented
to the study of social problems which objective is to describe then and understand them
in the research process. It presents to study social process and dynamic and
dimensional history. It pretends to know why people behave in certain manner in an
apparent and non-apparent way. While observing the reality, the researcher writes a
hypothesis. It gives importance to past events to build the present and the future that
goes alone the social process.

Holistic research

There are also other types of research as the holistic research which is very wide.
This type of research can be quantitative and qualitative. I will just name one which is
the projective research which is related in writing down a project to answer a research
question. This project can and cannot be executed.

3.2 Description of the environment

It is as simple as it sounds; here you just describe the environment where the
research problem is taking place, country, geographical zone, urban or rural area,
location, size of the population and institution where the research will take place.
However the researcher is free to write any other detail that he considers important for
the type of research he will carry out, research problem, environment or conditions
where its taking place.

3.3 Units of observation (population)

First of all lets define what units of observation are, and according to Zacaras
Ortez (2001) it is the amount of individuals or elements which represent certain
characteristics susceptible of any research study. In that manner, you might consider to
talk about the inclusion and exclusion criteria you used to observe the phenomenon or
population and say why you took those criteria into account (Grijalva, 2015).

3.4 Sampling procedure

If the population is too big to be studied you might consider using a sampling
procedure. Then a sample is certain part of the units of observation which will be
studied and analyzed. In that way the results from your research can later be
generalized. To do this you must have in mind the universe you are planning to study
and the sampling must really represent the population to be studied for the
generalizations to be valid (Zacaras Ortez, 2001).
According to, (2009) there are three steps to determine the
appropriate samples size:

The Level of Precision

Also called sampling error, the level of precision, is the range in which the true value
of the population is estimated to be. This is range is expressed in percentage points.
Thus, if a researcher finds that 70% of farmers in the sample have adopted a
recommend technology with a precision rate of 5%, then the researcher can conclude
that between 65% and 75% of farmers in the population have adopted the new

The Confidence Level

The confidence interval is the statistical measure of the number of times out of 100
that results can be expected to be within a specified range.

For example, a confidence interval of 90% means that results of an action will
probably meet expectations 90% of the time.

The basic idea described in Central Limit Theorem is that when a population is
repeatedly sampled, the average value of an attribute obtained is equal to the true
population value. In other words, if a confidence interval is 95%, it means 95 out of 100
samples will have the true population value within range of precision (M.K. Trochim,

Degree of Variability

Depending upon the target population and attributes under consideration, the
degree of variability] varies considerably. The more heterogeneous a population is, the
larger the sample size is required to get an optimum level of precision. Note that a
proportion of 55% indicates a high level of variability than either 10% or 80%. This is
because 10% and 80% means that a large majority does not or does, respectively, have
the attribute under consideration. There are number of approaches to determine the
sample size including: using a census for smaller populations, using published tables,
imitating a sample size of similar studies, and applying formulas to calculate a sample
size (, 2009) .

There are different designs to select the sample size and as M.K. Trochim ( 2006)
states you can use: probability sampling, simple random sampling, stratified random
sampling, systematic random sampling, cluster (area) random sampling, multi-stage
sampling, nonprobability sampling, accidental haphazard or convenience sampling,
purposive sampling, modal instance sampling, expert sampling, quota sampling,
heterogeneity sampling and the snowball sampling (M.K. Trochim, 2006). .

3.5 Operationalization of variables

The operationalization of variables depends on the State of Art or Theoretical Frame Work you have. Since this gives
you the clues on what to observe from the variables, objectives or research question you have. When you do not have a
hypothesis you can get the criteria to observe from your research objectives or research question. You can add other
structural elements as hypothesis, and operational definitions if necessary.
Example of operationalization of variables chart:
Criteria to Definition of
observe if it is a variables
qualitative Variables
General Specific research and (Depentent and
Indicators Instruments Time
objective Objectives hypothesis if it is Independent
a quantitative, variables)
mixmethod or
action research

3.6 Research techniques (data collection instruments)

In this section you must name and describe the research techniques. Make
emphasis in the variables and indicators of the research study. You may want to
consider writing and instrument per objective or per variable. This helps you at the
moment of ordering and analyzing the information.

According to Navas Hurtado (2014), there are four types of qualitative techniques:

Focus groups, projective techniques, individual in-depth interviews, and finally the
survive technique.
Focus groups are used to discuss or to motivate. The group is a sample of
the population being studied. One of the researchers or facilitators coordinates
and orients the participation of the members of the group to observe and achieve
the research objectives.

3.7 Approaching the field of study

To approach the field of study means to describe how you will approach the
population to diagnose the phenomenon. What steps or procedures you need to
follow to get the information you are looking for. What methods, approaches,
techniques or activities you will carry out to observe the phenomenon and to apply
your research instruments.

3.8 Methods to analyze the information

There are electronic tools to help researchers analyze the information. If it is

a quantitative research you may want to use Microsoft Excel to make graphs since
they are nice and colorful. For me and my students it has been much better to use
the SPSS software or Google drive when it comes to survives on line.

On the other hand, if it is a qualitative research, for the analysis and
interpretation of data, you may consider using NVIVO software or may consider
reading Valles (2002).

Even though, this software helps to order the information in graphs or

according to research questions it does not interpret the information. That is your
part as a researcher. You may also order the information according to the specific
objectives, then according to the indicators. This process helps researcher
organize the information gotten from the research.

3.9 Validity and reliability of data collection instruments

Validation of data collection instruments

As Kimberlin (2008) says, validity is often defined as the extent to which an

instrument measures what it purports to measure. That is why it is common to
have three experts on the field of your research problem check the instruments you
will use to gather the information you are looking for. This is due to the fact that
we need experts on the field to see if we are going to measure what we pretend to
in our research objectives. To do this, it is necessary to give to the experts the
operationalization of the variables and the instruments to be used. This guides
them in our research to certify if we are using the proper instruments well
developed to observe the target population.

There are research problems that do not need that experts to validate your
instruments as in operative research and action research. What you do here is
that you look for a similar situation and you applied them there and observe the
results of the variables. This may tell you if you are really measuring what you
pretend to in the objectives. In action research, you can also observe the variables
with a small sample of the target population and see their behavior and possible
changes or you may want to validate the instruments on the field of action and go
along with the natural cycle that the triangulation provides.

In other types of research as in qualitative research or action research you
may also consider the following types of validity that Boggino & Rosekrans, (2004)

Descriptive validity

This is when two or more researchers perceive similar information of the

variables being studied. For example, if two or more researcher are observing a
phenomenon both of them should be describing similar facts.

Interpretative validity

On the contrary, interpretative validity evaluates the levels of subjectivity that

the researcher might have (Boggino & Rosekrans, 2004). In every single
investigation you will always fight against the researchers subjectivity. That
means that the researchers must be aware of the prejudice, paradigms and the
researchers own conceptions about the research problem, analyzing at the same
time how this can affect the research itself. For this Boggino & Rosekrans ( 2004)
recommend to take a personal diary or to make up group of reflexion to analyze the
perceived data. Here, every single person involved can say their own point of view
of how they perceive or see the problem and finally end with the subjectivity that
might exist. In this way you give more importance to participants interpretation of
the research problem and diminish the subjectivity that might be present.


This type of validity is when you describe the event before any intervention
and then after the intervention took place to see if there has occurred any change
in the research problem. In other words, it is like describing and taking a picture
before and after the intervention.


It is also used by Boggino & Rosekrans (2004) as criteria to validate the

results. It can be changing according to the needs you find in your research
problem. Its objective is to validate and understand the interpreted data.


Validity helps to construct research instruments focusing on minimizing

measurement errors.

Then reliability estimates are used to evaluate the stability of measures

administered at different times to the same individuals or using the same standard
(test-retest reliability) or the equivalence of sets of items from the same test
(internal consistency) or of different observing the same instrument (interpreter
reliability) or of different observers scoring a behavior or event using the same
instrument (interpreter reliability).

Stability of measurement, or test-retest reliability

It is determined by administering a test at two different points in time to the

same individuals and determining the correlation or strength of association of the
two sets of scores.

Internal consistency

It gives an estimate of the equivalence of sets of items from the same test
(e.g., a set of questions aimed at assessing quality of life or disease severity). The
coefficient of internal consistency provides an estimate of the reliability of
measurement and is based on the assumption that items measuring the same
construct should correlate. Perhaps the most widely used method for estimating
internal consistency reliability is Cronbachs alpha (1951).

Internal reliability (also called inter observer agreement)

It establishes the equivalence of ratings obtained with an instrument when

used by different observers. If a measurement process involves judgments or
ratings by observers, a reliable measurement will require consistency between
different raters. Interpreter reliability requires completely independent ratings for
the same event by more than one rater. No discussion or collaboration can occur
when reliability is being tested. Reliability is determined by the correlation of the
scores from two or more independent rates (for rating on a continuum) or the
coefficient of agreement of the judgments of the raters (Kimberlin, 2008).

3.10 Ethical aspects

Ethics plays an important role in research. No matter if it is qualitative or

quantitative research you must respect peoples identity and integrity. You must
also be careful with the objective of the research, with the instruments to be used,
with the goal of the data gotten in the research process and with the conclusions
that the data can generate. Ethics also implies respect to society, culture, ethnics,
gender, age, sex, nature and plagiarism.

Informed Consent is a process is a dialogue of the studys purpose, duration,

experimental procedures, alternatives, risks, and benefits. This dialogue enables
the persons to voluntarily decide whether or not to participate as a research subject.
Informed consent process must be a dialogue of the studys purpose, duration
(Shahnazarian, Hagemann, Aburto, & Rose, 2013). The persons have the right to
withdraw or opt out of the study at any time. Take into account the location and
physical emotional and psychological capability of the persons into account when
consenting a human subject. Participants in a research study need to be given
enough information about the research as:

Purpose of the research

Procedures involved in the research
Alternatives to participation
All foreseeable risks and discomforts to the subject. Note: that these
include not only physical injury but also possible psychological, social, or
economic harm, discomfort, or inconvenience.
Benefits of the research to society and possibly to the individual human
Length of time the subject is expected to participate
Person to contact for answers to questions or in the event of a research-
related injury or emergency
Statement indicating that participation is voluntary and that refusal to
participate will not result in any consequences or any loss of benefits
that the subject is otherwise entitled to receive
Statement regarding the subjects right to confidentiality and right to
withdraw from the study at any time without any consequences
Certificate of Confidentiality (if any)/limitations of certification protection
Payment for participation (if applicable)
Circumstances for investigator withdrawing the subject o Additional
costs from participation
Early withdrawal consequences o Statement regarding how significant
new findings will be communicated
Number of subjects participating (Shahnazarian, Hagemann, Aburto, &
Rose, 2013)

3.11 Time line

The time line is a chart where you include all the activities related to your
research perfectly dated and timed. You may also include the place where each
activity will take place and the persons that will be involved. This goes from
planning the project to its execution and final work.

3.12 Budget

The budget is usually divided in human resources, supplies, and services.

You may name the human resource, supplies or services with its corresponding
cost per item if necessary, number of items, detail and total. This is written
according to your needs.


There is no exact index proposal for your thesis presentation. This goes
according to your research.


According to APA style the bibliographical references may

include: a. Books


Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by Principles. New York: Pearson

Longman Education.

b. Magazines


Sun, R.C., & Shek, D.T. (2012). Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes
of Students: A Qualitative Study. The Scientific World Journal, 1-8. c.

Steinmayr, R., Meibner, A. Weidinger, A.F., & Wirthwein, L. (July 30,

2015). Oxford Bibliographies Your Best Research Starts Now.
Retrieved April 27, 2015, from d. Interviews


Bonilla, C.L. (April 24, 2015). Effectiveness of Basic English and

Students Strategies to Acquire the Target Language. (P.G.E.,
Interviewer) Santa Ana, El Salvador.


All the vocabulary which you consider needs specific consideration may be
included here. Write down the definition as it is used in your research paper and
as any glossary it is written in alphabetical order.


Appendix are documents you have done and used in the research as
questionnaires, graphs, pictures, interviews and more.


Annex are documents you have gotten from other authors and you have
used them in your research as information gotten from newspapers, magazines,
images, pictures and more.



Here are some useful steps to follow in a scientific research thesis report.



The back cover page has the same information as the cover page.


Here you must write the authorities of the University of El Salvador main
campus as rector, academic vice-rector, administrative vice-rector, secretary-
general, and prosecutor general.


The back cover stars with authorities of the University of El Salvador,

Western Multidisciplinary Campus: dean, vice-dean, secretary, and head of the
English Language Department


Acknowledgement are written expressions to thank your supporters, or team

members of a scientific research project. You may also thank teachers or any
other persons or source who supported you during your research. Only include
peoples name who is of great value for this project like boss, teacher, real
business or personalities. Never include name of your friends and colleagues in
you acknowledgement, otherwise it will spoil your project (PANDEY, 2013).
Acknowledgement are short, just half a page or a few lines more (PANDEY, 2013).



1.3 Description of the problem
1.2 Research question(s)
1.3 Research objectives
1.4 Hypothesis
1.5 Justification: The scope of the work is include in the justification.



3.1 Paradigm and type of study
3.2 Description of the environment
3.3 Units of observation (population)
3.4 Sampling procedure
3.5 Operationalization of variables
3.6 Research techniques (data collection instruments)
3.7 Approaching the field of study
3.8 Validity and reliability of data collection instruments
3.9 Ethical aspects


1) To begin to analyse and interprete quantitative data you need to order the
information you have. Order the graphs according to the objectives you
have. See which of them belong to the genral objective, which to the first
specific objective and so on. Now you can discriminate the information
according to variables and latter according to the indicators you observed.
2) Since you already have the information in order you may begin with the
analysis and interpretation of it; however, instead of using all the statement
that the objective has you may lable each objective. For example if the
objective is To have basic English students group 6 pronounce properly the
fricative sounds /s/ and /z/ through the application of pronunciation activities
you would consider in using the following lable when refering to it Fricative
sounds /s/ and /z/.
3) Now you may continue Introducing the analysis and interpretation of data.
Keep in mind that you must lable each objective and that the information of
the data goes along with the variables and indicators you used.
4) Go over the general objective(s) and compare all the information gotten
from the graphs with the theory related with the general objective(s). This

helps you to achieve the lexicum and knowledge you need to present your
analysis and interpretation. It also provides you with ideas that you might
consider necesarry in the interpretation. Do the same with the other
objectives and indicators.
5) The Chapter: Analysis and Interpretation of Data contains only the most
significante graphs from each objective (One, two or three graphs as an
6) Remember that each graph is properly order, labled and referenced. Since
the order goes along with the objectives Lable and order each graph
according to the alphabet. Use capital letters in the first letter and
correlative numbers, example: Graph k1.
7) Some researchers believe that if it is a graph that came up from your
research in the source you must reference the instrument you got it from, for
example: source: Artistic competence sourve, may 2, 2016; however, I
prefer to write authors own creation if you have done it yourselfe and if it
came from your resent research.
8) Here is an example of how a graph goes properly order, labeled and

4.2 Artistic Competence

Graph F1: Creativity

1 semester
2 semester

source: modified from Villeda de Trigueros & Hidalgo Sandoval (2017)

9) When refering to the appendix you might consider doing as follows: If you
ues it as extra information: (Appendix P1 page 2); (for further information

see appendix E2-E4; P1 pages 1.3 for further information) or if you will need
to referent to it as soon as possible : as showned in graph E1
includes, as said before, examples of the graphs that illustrate better your
research. It is ordered along with the objectives. In the analysis and
interpretation of the data from each objective you must talk about and
reference to the data included in the appendix. It is not a matter of just to
talk about the graphs used as an example. It is a matter of analysis and
interpreting all the data that refers to that objective. To give a complete idea
of the interpretation of the information gotten from those variables, indicators
or units of observation.

Qualitative data

Qualitative data is ordered the same way as quantitative data. The

difference is that it takes more time to order and that you do not use any type of
graphs. Some software as Nvivo help to order the data to be analyzed and
interpret. In qualitative data we may use the following instruments to obtain data:
Observation guide (participative and non-participative observation), in depth
interviews, history and life stories, discussion groups, focus groups, diaries, videos,
recordings and more.
The steps to analyze qualitative data gotten from these instruments are the
1. No matter what type of qualitative instrument you use, you have to
transcribe the information as genuine as possible without changing any
2. After transcribing all the information from any of the qualitative
instrument you may continue to discriminate and order the information
according to the objectives, units of observation or indicators you might

3. As soon as you have ordered it, you may start with the analysis and
interpretation of your data. Remember to label each objective and below
each label you will write the analysis and interpretation of the unit of
observation or indicator from observed.
4. Compare your findings from each objective, units of observation and
indicator with the theory you have in the state of art. This helps you with
the lexicon and possible ideas you might find useful in the interpretation.
5. As in the quantitative analysis, in the qualitative one you must reference
to your data already ordered, for example, if you write an example of
what someone said and you think it is important you may consider doing
it in this way; They do not let us copy and paste from any document on
line (appendix P1 page 16). If you do not need to give a clear example
but are referring to it you may consider writing the reference in
parenthesis, example, (appendix P4 pages 16-20).
6. Also keep in mind that in chapter of analysis and interpretation of data
each objective, unit of observation and indicator must be well illustrated
and referenced according to the data you have.

The following chart may help you to order and analyze the information
gotten from an interview or observation:
Questions Answers or Indicators Objective
observation notes
Write the question Write all the Write the Write the
you have in your answers to this units of research
interview. question. observation objective
related to this related to this
question. question.


5.1 Conclusions

This section is presented in numeric order. Here you must already know the
answer to you research question. Then, you may begin answering your research
question and analyzing your general objective illustrating the main observations,
you got from them. Continue doing the same for your specific objectives, naming
the most important and general findings you got from them in your data analysis
and interpretation. Finally, if you have a hypothesis, end your conclusions telling
the readers why your hypothesis is true or false. Do this giving strong reasons and
referring to crucial information gotten from the analysis and interpretation of your

5.2 Recommendations

Some researchers manage the idea of why to recommend. However, have

in mind that your research can be improved or continued. Like the conclusions,
this section is also presented in numeric order. The recommendations come from
the conclusions and remember that you conclude according to your objective.
You may recommend the population, institutions, teachers or future researchers
involved with the project. It is not an obligation to recommend, but it helps to give
importance to your research. It makes the research essential to the reality where it
has taken place. Be realistic when recommending. Recommend something
possible and give examples when doing so. Here is an example of how a schema
of a recommendation should look:
5.2 Recommendations
Students should:

Teachers should:

Future researchers should


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