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INTODUCTION

In tire manufacturing different types of compounds are used. Different types of compounds such

as rubber (Polymers), Curing agents, Accelerators, Fillers, Anti-degradnts (Antioxidants &

Antiozonants), Peptizers, Activators, Retarders and etc are used to obtain required properties to

meet different requirements.

Out of these, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a

chemical reaction involving the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state. Oxidation

reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When chain

reactions occur in a compound, it can damage the product (tire).

Antioxidants used in tire industry can be divided mainly into two categories; Amine type

antioxidants and phenolic type antioxidants. Amine type antioxidants are more powerful than

phenolic type antioxidants. Amine type antioxidants are staining compounds (gives color to the

product) and phenolic type antioxidants are non-staining products.

BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE

N-(1,3-Dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (6PPD) is the best antioxidant used in dry

rubber compounding, and this has antioxidant and antiozonant both properties. But this is

staining and this material will be banned in near future in Europe and USA under carcinogenic

material category. Figure 01 illustrates the structure of 6PPD N-(1, 3-Dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-

p-phenylenediamine molucule. Tire antioxidants are used in black environment because we use

carbon black as additive. Carbon black is poly nuclei aromatic nature with H and reactive
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functional groups at the edges. Free radicals can be trapped by addition to stable products. If we

select a replacement antioxidant for 6PPD, aging test should be carried out for all samples one by

one after DPPH test.

Figure: 01: Structure of 6PPD antioxidant

OBJECTIVES
MAIN OBJECTIVE

Finding the best replacement for N-(1,3-Dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (6PPD)

antioxidant.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

It should have non-staining properties


Use for both black and non-marking tires
Minimize the health effects (6PPD has carcinogenic effects)

METHODOLOGY

Literature reviews will be conducted to aquire necessary knowledge in order to achieve the

objective. Other available antioxidants used in industries like rubber, plastic, paint will be
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studied to gather knowledge on their properties. The best replacement for 6PPD could be

obtained by blending two or more antioxidants together. By considering following factors,

Number of OH groups in the structure (phenolic antioxidants).


Melting point of the antioxidant molecule (should below 150).
Electron donating groups at ortho position of the benzene ring.
High molecular weight.
Thermal stability at curing temperature.
Compatibility with tire compounding metrix.

Best 10 antioxidants will be selected. Then the antioxidant capacity (activity) of all selected

antioxidants will be measured using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). DPPH is a radical

and it will be reported as percentage of radical scavenge capacity. We can rank all our selected

antioxidants using the DPPH assay. One should be repeated in carbon black environment. Then

we can be reveal the activity of those antioxidants. Finally we can observe synergistic, additive

or antagonistic effects according to their combinations.

SOURCE OF FUNDING

All the elastomers, chemicals, other materials will be provided by Trelleborg Wheel Systems-Sri

Lanka.

1. Elastomers
RSS, SLR, SBR and others

2. Chemicals
Antioxidants, Antiozonants, Curing agent-Sulphur, Accelerators, Activators, Carbon

black, Fillers, Processing aids Pigments and others


DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)

3. Equipment

Lab equipment and facility (flask, beakers etc)

The equipment and facilities needed for identify antioxidant activity would be

provided by the University of Sri Jayewardenepura.

4. Testing for Aging

The equipment and facilities needed to test aging (Tensile strength and Hardness)

would be provided by the Trelleborg Wheel Systems-Sri Lanka.

SUMMARY