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Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 92

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


KNR 182

Lecture Packet for Unit V


Respiratory System

Professor:
Dale D. Brown, Ph.D.
5120 Dept of KNR
Horton Fieldhouse
Illinois State University
Normal, IL 61790-5120

(309) 438-7545
dbrown@ilstu.edu
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 93

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (KNR 182)


Study Guide for Respiratory System

Anatomical structures to know (location and functions):

respiration
nasal, oral cavities
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar duct
alveoli (Type I & Type II cells) and air sac
right and left lung
pleurae (visceral and parietal)
surfactant
Understand these concepts:
Respiratory and non-respiratory functions of the lungs.
Understand what is meant be each of the three components of respiration (ventilation, gas exchange,
and oxygen utilization).
Physical aspects of ventilation.
Surface tension

Questions:
1.) What are the different phases of ventilation?
2.) Which muscles are associated with inspiration and expiration? How are pressure differences
produced; thereby, allowing for air flow?
3.) What is the difference between a static and dynamic pulmonary function test? What is an obstructive
respiratory disease? What is a restrictive respiratory disease?
4.) What is the difference between ventilation and respiration?
5.) What is the difference between internal and external respiration?
6.) What is alveolar, dead space and minute ventilation?
7.) What is tidal volume? What is respiratory frequency?
8.) What is hemoglobin? How does it function?
9.) How is oxygen transported throughout the body?
10.) How is carbon dioxide transported in the body?
11.) What happens to oxygen levels in the environmental air as altitude increases?
12.) How does deep breathing affect alveolar ventilation? Dead space ventilation?
13.) How does shallow breathing affect alveolar ventilation? Dead space ventilation?
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 94

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
I.) FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:

A.) Respiratory Functions:


1) Ventilation.
2) Gas exchange - internal and external.
3) Oxygen utilization.

B.) Non-Respiratory Functions:


1) Elimination of volatile substances.
- alcohol, garlic, acetone, DMSO.
2) Detoxification of the blood.
- hormones; bradykinin, prostaglandin, seratonin.
3) Synthesis of various types of molecules.
- carbohydrates.
- lipids.
- proteins.
4) Endocrine functions.
5) Immunology.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 95

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
I.) FUNCTIONS.
Functions of the respiratory system can be divided into two
primary types of functions.

A.) Respiratory Functions.


1) Ventilation. - the mechanical act of bring air into and out of the
lungs.
- average adult:
@ rest: 9-12 breaths/min ==> respiratory rate.
5-6 liters/min ==> minute ventilation.

@ exercise: 35-40 breaths/min ==> respiratory rate.


100-150 liters/min ==> minute ventilation.

2) Gas Exchange. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide


within the the body. Gas exchange occurs at two primary
locations.
- external respiration - gas exchange between the air/lungs
(alveoli) and the pulmonary blood flow.
- internal respiration - gas exchange between the blood and the
tissues (cells).
Composition of normal room air (atmospheric air).
oxygen - 20.93%
carbon dioxide - 0.03%
nitrogen - 79.04%
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 96
3) Oxygen Utilization. The usage of oxygen supplied by the lungs
and transported by the blood in tissue that require oxygen
(energy liberating chemical reactions).
electron
O2 -> cells -> mitochondria -> krebs + transport -> CO2

B.) Non-Respiratory Functions.


1) Elimination of volatile (easily evaporated) substances.
- alcohol, garlic, acetone, DMSO.

2) Detoxification of the blood.


- bradykinin, prostaglandins, seratonin.

3) Synthesis of various types of molecules.


- carbohydrate - mucus.
- lipid - surfactant.
- proteins - enzymes and antienzymes (antitrypsin).
Trypsin is formed in the G.I. tract and is used to digest
proteins consumed in our diets. However, trypsin that is
circulated in the blood, as a result of digestion, would destroy
lung tissue if not neutralized in some way. Therefore, the
enzyme antitrypsin is produced by the lungs neutralizing trypsin.
If no anti-trypsin the lungs would eventually be destroyed ===
===> emphysema.

4) Endocrine functions.
- synthesis of hormones.
- source of hormones.
- destroys hormones.

5) Immunology.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 97
II.) ANATOMY/STRUCTURES.
Major passages and structures associated with the respiratory
system are subdivided in to three main parts.
A. Structures of the Thorax/Pump
Bones:

Muscles:
Name of the Muscle Origin Insertion Action of the muscle

Pleura:
Pleurae is a tough membrane-like sac that surrounds the lungs. It is comprised
of two components:
1) Visceral Pleurae - which adheres to the outer surface of each lung.
2) Parietal Pleurae - which lines the thoracic walls and the thoracic surface
of the diaphragm.
Pleural cavity - is the space created between these two membranes.

The functions of the Pleurae:


1) a small amount of fluid is contained within the pleural cavity which acts as
a lubricant to allow the lungs to slide along the chest wall (thoracic cavity).
2) pressure within the pleural cavity is lower than the pressure in the lungs,
which is necessary for ventilation.
3) pleura separate the organs of the thoracic cavity allowing for each organ to
be contained in its own separate "container". Membranes form
compartments within the thoracic cavity resulting in a "protective value" to
compartmentalization. Infections in one compartment will not
automatically infect or result in damage to the organs of the other
compartment.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 98
A. Structures of the Respiratory Tract/Passages:
Major passages and structures associated with the respiratory system
are subdivided within two main divisions:

Conducting Division (Tubes):


1.) Nasal Cavity.
2.) Oral Cavity.
3.) Pharynx.
4.) Larynx (voice box).
5.) Tachea (wind pipe).

- - - - - below this level comprises the "lungs" - - - - -

6.) Right and Left Primary Bronchus.


7.) Secondary and Segmental Bronchi.
8.) Terminal Bronchioles.

Respiratory Division (Balloons):


9.) Respiratory Bronchiole.
10.) Alveolar Duct.
11.) Alveoli.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 99
A.) Conducting division of the respiratory system is the pathway by
which air is transported to the respiratory division of the lungs
(i.e. the tubes). Cavities and passageways within the respiratory
system consist of:

1) Nasal Cavity.
Functions:
- warm, moisten, & cleanse air; sense of smell.
- voice phonetics by functioning as a resonating chamber.
Phonetics is the study of the production and written
representation of speech sounds.
- drainage areas within the nasal cavity: Lacrimal duct excessive
tears causes the nose to run; Auditory tube connects with the
nasal cavity (upper respiratory and ear infections).
2) Oral Cavity.
Functions:
- digestive enzymes, mastication, & sense of taste
- moistens food for the formation of food bolus.

3) Pharynx - connects nasal and oral cavities.


Functions:
- respiratory functions during breathing.
- digestive functions during chewing and swallowing.

4) Larynx - "voice box".


Functions:
- prevent food from entering the trachea and lungs.
- permit passage of air into the lungs.
- production of sounds.

Structures of the Larynx:


Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 100
- Epiglottis - leaf-like structure that covers the glottis during
swallowing.
- Glottis - slit-like opening into the larynx.
- Vocal chords vibrate with air movement and produce sound.
- Laryngeal muscles - close the glottis during swallowing and
involved in speech. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles elevate the
larynx durng swallowing. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles change
the length which alters the position and tension of the vocal
chords produce the range of sounds that are familiar to us.

5) Trachea - "wind pipe".


Structure:
- made up of 16-20 "C"-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. This
cartilage allows for expansion of the esophagus when food is
swallowed. This cartilage also provides structural support for
the trachea keeping the airway permanently open.
- mucus secretions (Goblet cells) are abundant in the trachea.
Dust particles stick to the mucus and then ciliary motion
sweeps the mucus to the pharynx. It is then removed through
the cough reflex.

---- Structures within and comprising the lungs (#6-11): ----

6) Right and Left Primary Bronchus.


7) Secondary and Segmental Bronchi.
8) Terminal Bronchioles - end of the air-conducting division
pathway to the alveoli. Bronchioles contain very little hyaline
cartilage, thick with smooth muscle that can constrict and dilate.
Bronchioles provide the greatest resistance to air flow in the
conducting division.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 101

B.) Respiratory division of the respiratory system. That portion of


the respiratory system that is directly involved in gas exchange
(balloons).

9) Respiratory Bronchiole.
10) Alveolar Duct.
11) Alveoli - little "air-sacs" (balloons). The branching of the
bronchioles into smaller and smaller structures eventually
alveoli, leads to a tremendous number of these structures (350
million alveoli per lung). If you were to take all of these air
sacs (alveoli) out of the body and lay them flat side by side they
would cover the surface area of a tennis court. VERY HIGH
SURFACE AREA. So what????? High surface area allows for
greater exposure of the blood with the air in the lungs; therefore,
much more oxygen and carbon dioxide will be able to diffuse
accross the lungs to the blood or blood to the lungs.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 102

III.) THE LUNGS.


The lungs are an organ that are comprised of all those structures
starting with the bronchi and extending through the alveoli. The
lungs are found within the thoracic Cavity. The base of the lungs are
concave and fit over the diaphragm. The top or tip of the lungs is
called the apex. The lungs are a unique type of organ. They are
unique in that they are:
1) the major organ between you and the environment,
2) organ of contact - all blood must flow to the lungs,
3) diversified (performs many functions). It is not true that the
lungs perform only one function.

LEFT LUNG
- smaller than the right and has the cardiac notch where the heart is
located.
- left lung is made up of two lobes:
Superior lobe.
Inferior lobe.

RIGHT LUNG
- right lung is made up of three lobes:
Superior lobe.
Middle lobe.
Inferior lobe.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 103

V.) MECHANICS OF BREATHING.


Breathing or "pulmonary ventilation" refers to the movement of
air into and out of the respiratory system. This occurs as a result of
differences between the atmospheric and intrapulmonary pressures.
Air goes in the respiratory system when the intrapulmonary pressure
is decreased (or subatmospheric). Air leaves the respiratory system
when the intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric
pressure.

HOW DO CHANGES IN PRESSURE OCCUR ????


Due to changes within the thoracic cavity - volume and pressure
changes.

WHAT IS THE THORACIC CAVITY ????


Thorax (the chest) is a semi rigid (flexible) structure that protects the
vital organs within that thoracic cavity and it also provides
attachments for many short, powerful muscles. The thorax is
comprised of the Ribs, Sternum, and the Vertebrae (spinal column).
The leading causes of death in the United States are associated with
diseases or dysfunction of the thoracic organs.

WHAT CHANGES THE THORACIC CAVITY SIZE ????


Respiratory muscles about changes in the thoracic cavity size
thereby changing pressure.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 104
Respiratory system is comprised of a series of tubes (conducting
division) and balloons (respiratory division). The physical
movement of air into and out of the respiratory system is referred to
as Pulmonary Ventilation. Mathematically defined, pulmonary
ventilation is equal to the respiratory rate (breaths/min)(breathing
rate) multiplied by tidal volume (liters/min). Pulmonary ventilation
occurs due to contraction and relaxation of the respiratory muscles.

Inspiratory Muscles.
Normal inspiration.
Primary muscles:
- diaphragm - vertical movements.
- external intercostals - anterioposterior and lateral movements.

Forced, deep inspiration.


Secondary muscles (in order of importance):
- scalenus - anterioposterior movements.
- pectoralis minor - anterioposterior movements.
- sternocleidomastoid - anterioposterior movements.

Expiratory muscles.
Normal expiration.
Passive process that occurs due to recoil of the muscles of inspiration.

Forced expiration.
- internal intercostals - contract and depress the ribe cage.
- abdominal muscles - force the abdominal organs up against the diaphragm and
further decrease the volume of the thorax.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 105
Pulmonary Ventilation consists of two phases:
Inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation).

The contraction and relaxation of these muscles results in


changes in the size of the thorax which alters intrapulmonary/intra-
alveolar pressure allowing for inspiration and expiration.

Inspiration:
Inspiratory Decrease in Inspiration
Thoracic cavity
muscles intrapulmonary occurs
increase in size
contraction pressure
relax
Normal inspiration. Primary muscles: Forced, deep inspiration. Secondary muscles:
- diaphragm - vertical movements. - scalenus - anterioposterior movements.
- external intercostals - anterioposterior - pectoralis minor - anterioposterior movements.
& lateral movements. - sternocleidomastoid - anterioposterior movements.

Expiration:
Inspiratory
muscles relax

Thoracic cavity Increase in Expiration


and/or decrease in size intrapulmonary occurs
pressure

Expiratory
muscles
contraction
relax

Normal expiration. Forced expiration.


Passive process that occurs - internal intercostals - contract and depress the ribe cage.
due to recoil of the muscles of - abdominal muscles - force the abdominal organs up against
inspiration. the diaphragm and further decrease the volume of the thorax.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 106
How do we assess the respiratory system to see if it is functioning
correctly????

We can assess pulmonary function or measure the amount of air in


and out of the body and the time required for that volume air to be
brought in and out of the body (air flow) by the use of
PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS (PFT)/ SPIROMETRY.
Two types of PFTs:

1.) Static tests of PF.


- measurement of volumes and capacities.
- measurement of amount of air within the lungs.

Static measures:
- tidal volume (VT) - residual volume (RV)
- inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) - vital capacity (VC)
- expiratory reserve volume (ERV) - total lung capacity (TLC)

2.) Dynamic tests of PF.


- measurement of air flow or flow rates.
- measures how quickly you can "move" that volume of air in
and out of the body.

Dynamic measures:
- forced vital capacity (FVC)
- forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0)
- forced expiratory volume in two seconds (FEV2.0)
- forced expiratory volume in three seconds (FEV3.0)
- FEV1.0/FVC
- FEV2.0/FVC
- FEV3.0/FVC
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 107
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:

A.) Respiratory Functions:


1) Ventilation:
- Pulmonary ventilation.
minute ventilation = tidal volume x respiratory rate
- Pulmonary function tests.
static and dynamic measures.

2) Gas Exchange:
- Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO).
- Blood gas measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

3) Oxygen Utilization:
- Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.

B.) Non-Respiratory Functions:


1) Elimination of volatile substances.
- alcohol, garlic, acetone, DMSO.
2) Detoxification of the blood.
- hormones; bradykinin, prostaglandin, seratonin.
3) Synthesis of various types of molecules.
- carbohydrates.
- lipids.
- proteins.
4) Endocrine functions.
5) Immunology.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 108
GAS EXCHANGE:

Gas exchange at the alveolar/capillary (blood) and capillary/tissue


membranes takes place through the physical process of diffusion.
Diffusion can be defined as the random movement of molecules (i.e.
Brownian motion). Gases tend to diffuse from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration.

Factors affecting gas exchange:


1) partial pressures gradients of the gases throughout the body.
2) the length of the diffusion path.
3) the number of red blood cells.
4) the surface area available for diffusion.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 109

Gas Exchange
Gas Exchange/Respiration the processes involved in supplying the
body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide. Two types:

1) External gas exchange - diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between


the alveolar space and pulmonary capillary bed. External Gas Exchange
Barrier Respiratory membrane:

Diffusion Path for


Diffusion Path for Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Type I alveolar cells Hemoglobin molecule
Interstitial fluid Red blood cell membrane
Capillary Endothelium Plasma portion of the blood
Plasma portion of the blood Capillary Endothelium
Red blood cell membrane Interstitial fluid
Hemoglobin molecule Type I alveolar cells

2) Internal gas exchange - diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between


the tissue capillary bed and tissue cells of the body.
Internal Gas Exchange Barrier Tissue/capillary membrane:

Diffusion Path for


Diffusion Path for Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Hemoglobin molecule Krebs Cycle
Red blood cell membrane Mitochondrial cytoplasm
Plasma portion of the blood Outer Mitochondrial Membrane
Capillary Endothelium Cytoplasm
Interstitial fluid Cell membrane
Cell membrane Interstitial fluid
Cytoplasm Capillary Endothelium
Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Plasma portion of the blood
Mitochondrial cytoplasm Red blood cell membrane
Inner membrane of mitochondria Hemoglobin molecule
Electron Transport Chain
Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 110

HOW IS OXYGEN TRANSPORTED FROM THE LUNGS TO


CELLS OF THE BODY ????

TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD.


- 3% dissolved in the plasma (blood).
- 97% transported in hemoglobin molecule (HbO2) of the red blood cell (chemically combined).

Normal ranges for % oxygen bound to hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin saturation (%SaO2)):


- 94-100%; of all the hemoglobin in the blood is bound/carrying oxygen.

Hemoglobin (Hb) is found inside of the Red Blood Cells (RBC) of the blood. Each RBC contains
280 million Hb molecules. Each Hb contains 4 polypeptide chains (quaternary structure). Associated
with each chain is an organic pigment called hemes. In the center of each heme is a single atom of iron.
Only one oxygen molecule can combine with one iron atom; therefore, one hemoglobin molecule can
combine with four molecules of oxygen.
O2 + Hb ---> oxyhemoglobin.
O2 - Hb ---> deoxyhemoglobin.
CO + Hb ---> carboxyhemoglobin. The bond between Hb and CO is about 210 times stronger than O2
and Hb. Therefore, carbon monoxide displaces oxygen or does not allow oxygen to
bind Hb. The transport of oxygen to the cells is reduced.

HOW IS CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORTED FROM THE


LUNGS TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY ????
TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE BLOOD.
- 7% dissolved in plasma (blood).
- 23% as carbaminohemoglobin (HbNHCOOH)
- 70% as bicarbonate (HCO3).