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# Chapter VI Material Properties

Isotropic Materials
The behavior of an isotropic material is independent of the direction of loading or
the orientation of the material. In addition, shearing behavior is uncoupled from
extensional behavior and is not affected by temperature change. Isotropic behavior
is usually assumed for steel and concrete, although this is not always the case.

The isotropic mechanical and thermal properties relate strain to stress and tempera-
ture change as follows:

## 1 -u12 -u12 (Eqn. 1)

e1 0 0 0
e1 e1
1 -u12
e11 0 0 0 s11 a1
e e1 e1
1 s 22 a1
22 0 0 0
e 33 e1 s 33 a1
= 1 + DT
g12 0 0 s12 0
g13 g12 s13 0
1
sym. 0 s 0
g 23 g12 23
1

g12

where e1 is Youngs modulus of elasticity, u12 is Poissons ratio, g12 is the shear
modulus, and a1 is the coefficient of thermal expansion. This relationship holds re-
gardless of the orientation of the Material local 1, 2, and 3 axes.

The shear modulus is not directly specified, but instead is defined in terms of
Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio as:
e1
g12 =
2 (1 + u12)

Note that Youngs modulus must be positive, and Poissons ratio must satisfy the
condition:
1
-1 < u12 <
2

Isotropic Materials 73
CSI Analysis Reference Manual

Uniaxial Materials
Uniaxial materials are used for modeling rebar, cable, and tendon behavior. These
types of objects primarily carry axial tension and have a preferred direction of ac-
tion. Shearing behavior may be considered in certain applications, such as for rebar
when used in layered shell sections.

## Uniaxial behavior can be considered as an isotropic material with stresses

s 22 = s 33 = s 23 = 0, regardless of the strains. This relationship is directional and is
always aligned with the Material local 1 axis.

The uniaxial mechanical and thermal properties relate strain to stress and tempera-
ture change as follows:

## 1 -u12 -u12 (Eqn. 2)

e1 0 0 0
e1 e1
1 -u12
e11 0 0 0 s11 a1
e e1 e1
1 0 0
22 0 0 0
e 33 e1 0 0
= 1 + DT
g12 0 0 s12 0
g13 g12 s13 0
1
sym. 0 0 0
g 23 g12
1

g12

where e1 is Youngs modulus of elasticity, u12 is Poissons ratio, g12 is the shear
modulus, and a1 is the coefficient of thermal expansion.

When used, the shear modulus is not directly specified, but instead is defined in
terms of Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio as:
e1
g12 =
2 (1 + u12)

Note that Youngs modulus must be positive, and Poissons ratio must satisfy the
condition:
1
-1 < u12 <
2

74 Uniaxial Materials
Chapter VI Material Properties

Orthotropic Materials
The behavior of an orthotropic material can be different in each of the three local
coordinate directions. However, like an isotropic material, shearing behavior is un-
coupled from extensional behavior and is not affected by temperature change.

The orthotropic mechanical and thermal properties relate strain to stress and tem-
perature change as follows:

## 1 -u12 -u13 (Eqn. 3)

e1 0 0 0
e2 e3
1 -u23
e11 0 0 0 s11 a1
e e2 e3
1 s 22 a2
22 0 0 0
e 33 e3 s 33 a3
= 1 + DT
g12 0 0 s12 0
g13 g12 s13 0
1
sym. 0 s 0
g 23 g13 23
1

g23

where e1, e2, and e3 are the moduli of elasticity; u12, u13, and u23 are the Pois-
sons ratios; g12, g13, and g23 are the shear moduli; and a1, a2, and a3 are the coef-
ficients of thermal expansion.

Note that the elastic moduli and the shear moduli must be positive. The Poissons
ratios may take on any values provided that the upper-left 3x3 portion of the stress-
strain matrix is positive-definite (i.e., has a positive determinant.)

Anisotropic Materials
The behavior of an anisotropic material can be different in each of the three local
coordinate directions. In addition, shearing behavior can be fully coupled with ex-
tensional behavior and can be affected by temperature change.

The anisotropic mechanical and thermal properties relate strain to stress and tem-
perature change as follows:

Orthotropic Materials 75