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# UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof.

Steven Errede

## LECTURE NOTES 10.5

EM Standing Waves in Resonant Cavities

One can create a resonant cavity for EM waves by taking a waveguide (of arbitrary shape)
and closing/capping off the two open ends of the waveguide.
Standing EM waves exist in (excited) resonant cavity (= linear superposition of two counter-
propagating traveling EM waves of same frequency).
Analogous to standing acoustical/sound waves in an acoustical enclosure.
Rectangular resonant cavity use Cartesian coordinates
Cylindrical resonant cavity use cylindrical coordinates to solve the EM wave eqn.
Spherical resonant cavity use spherical coordinates
A.) Rectangular Resonant Cavity: ( L W H a b d ) with perfectly conducting walls
(i.e. no dissipation/energy loss mechanisms present), with 0 x a , 0 y b , 0 z d .
n.b. Again, by convention: a > b > d.
Since we have rectangular symmetry, we use Cartesian coordinates - seek monochromatic
EM plane wave type solutions of the general form:

E x, y, z , t Eo x, y, z e it Subject to the boundary conditions
E|| 0 and B 0
B x, y, z , t Bo x, y, z e it at all inner surfaces.

Maxwells Equations (inside the rectangular resonant cavity away from the walls):
(1) Gauss Law: (2) No Monopoles:

E 0 Eo 0 B 0 Bo 0
(3) Faradays Law: (4) Amperes Law:

B 1 E
E Eo i Bo B 2 Bo i 2 E o
t c t c
Take the curl of (3): = 0 {Gauss Law}

2

2

Eo i Bo Eo Eo i Bo E {using (4) Amperes Law}
c
2

Eox Eox
2

c E ox E ox x, y, z
2

Eoy Eoy E oy E oy x, y, z i.e. each is a fcn x, y, z
2

c
Eoz Eoz x, y, z
2

2 Eoz E oz
c

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 1

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

For each component x, y, z of Eo x, y, z we try product solutions and then use the
separation of variables technique:
2

E oi x, y, z X i x Yi y Z i z for 2 E oi x, y, z E oi where subscript i x, y, z .
c

2 X i x 2Yi y 2 Zi z
2
c
Yi y Z i z X x Z z X x Y y X i x Yi y Z i z
x 2
y
2
z
2
i i i i
c

## Divide both sides by X i x Yi y Z i z :

2 X i x 1 Yi y 1 Zi z
2

2 2
1
The wave equation becomes:
X i x x 2
Yi y y 2
Z i z z 2
c

fcn x only fcn y only fcn z only

0 x a

This equation must hold/be true for arbitrary (x, y, z) pts. interior to resonant cavity 0 y b
0 z d

This can only be true if:

1 2 X i x 2 X i x
k constant
2
k x2 X i x 0
Xi x x 2 x 2
x

n.b. We seek
1 2Yi y 2Yi y oscillatory
k y2 constant k y2Yi y 0
Yi y y 2
y 2 (not damped)
solutions !!!
1 2 Zi z 2 Zi z
k z2 constant k z2 Z i z 0
Zi z z 2 z 2

2

with: k k k k characteristic equation
2 2
x
2
y
2
z
c

## E oi x, y, z Ai cos k x x Bi sin k x x Ci cos k y y Di sin k y y Ei cos k z z Fi sin k z z

n.b. In general, k x , k y and k z should each have subscript i x, y, z , but we will shortly find out
that k xi same for all i x, y, z , k yi same for all i x, y, z , and k zi same for all i x, y, z .

## 2 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Boundary Conditions: E|| 0 @ boundaries and B 0 @ boundaries:

y 0, y b E x 0 k y n b , n 1, 2,3,....
Eox 0 at coefficients and
z 0, z d Cx 0 k z d , 1, 2,3,....
x 0, x a A y 0 k x m b , m 1, 2,3,....
Eoy 0 at coefficients and
z 0, z d E y 0 k z d , 1, 2,3,....
x 0, x a A z 0 k x m a , m 1, 2,3,....
Eoz 0 at coefficients and
y 0, y b Cz 0 k y n d , n 1, 2,3,....

## E ox x, y, z sin k x x sin k y y E cos k z z F sin k z z

E ox E oy E oz
But (1) Gauss Law: E 0 0
x y z
Thus:

## k z sin k x x sin k y y E sin k z z F cos k z z 0

This equation must be satisfied for any/all points inside rectangular cavity resonator.
In particular, it has to be satisfied at x, y, z 0, 0, 0 .

We see that for the locus of points associated with (x = 0,y,z) and (x,y = 0,z) and (x,y,z = 0),
we must have B D F 0 in the above equation.

Note also that for the locus of points associated with x m 2k x , y, z and x, y n 2k y , z
and x, y, z 2k z where m, n, odd integers (1, 3, 5, 7, etc. ) we must have:
Ck
Ak Ek
0.
x y z

Note further that this relation is automatically satisfied for m, n, even integers (2, 4, 6, 8, etc. ).

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 3

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

m
kx m 1, 2,3, 4,
E ox x, y, z A cos k x x sin k y y sin k z z a

n
Thus: E oy x, y, z C sin k x x cos k y y sin k z z k y n 1, 2,3, 4,
b
E oz x, y, z E sin k x x sin k y y cos k z z
k z 1, 2,3, 4,
d

## With: E o x, y, z E ox x E oy y E oz z n.b.: m n 0 simultaneously is not allowed!

Now use Faradays Law to determine B :
i
B E

i E E
y sin k x x cos k y y cos k z z Ck z sin k x x cos k y y cos k z z
i
Box oz oy Ek
y z
i E E
z cos k x x sin k y y cos k z z Ek x cos k x x sin k y y cos k z z
i
Boy ox oz Ak
z x
i E oy E ox
x cos k x x cos k y y sin k z z Ak y cos k x x cos k y y sin k z z
i
Boz Ck

x y

Bo x, y, z Box x Boy y Boz z

or:

i
Ek y Ck
sin k x cos k y cos k z x
z x y z

Ak z
cos k x sin k y cos k z y
Ek x x y z

Ck
cos k x cos k y sin k z y
Ak
x y x y z

This expression for Bo x, y, z (already) automatically satisfies boundary condition (2) B 0 :
Box 0 at x 0, x a Boy 0 at y 0, y b Boz 0 at z 0, z d
m n
with k x with k y with k z
a b d
m 0,1, 2, n 0,1, 2, 0,1, 2,

## 4 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

Does Bo x, y, z 0 ???

B B B
Bo x, y, z ox oy oz
x y z

i Ck
k x Ek y z x
cos k x cos k y cos k z
y z

i
k k E k k C
x y x z

k y Ak z
cos k x cos k y cos k z
Ek x x y z k y k z A k x k y E

k Ck
z

x
cos k x cos k y cos k z
Ak y x y z k x k z C k y k z A
cos k x x cos k y y cos k z z

Bo x, y, z 0 YES!!!

For TE Modes:

Ck
Ez 0 coefficient E 0 . Then Ak Ek 0 or: C A k x
Ck
0 tells us that: Ak
x y z x y ky

Thus:

m
E ox x, y, z , t A cos k x x sin k y y sin k z z e it kx , m 1, 2,3,
a
k n
E oy x, y, z , t A x sin k x x cos k y y sin k z z e
i t
ky , n 1, 2,3,
ky b
The
lowest
E oz x, y, z , t 0 kz , 1, 2,3,
TEm ,n , d
mode (n = 0 is NOT allowed for TE modes!!!)
a b d Box x, y, z , t
i k
A x k z sin k x x cos k y y cos k z z e it
is: TE111 k y

## k z A cos k x x sin k y y cos k z z e it

i
Boy x, y, z , t

i k
Boz x, y, z , t A x k x k y cos k x x cos k y y sin k z z e
it

k y

The angular cutoff frequency for m, n, th mode for TE modes in a rectangular cavity is:

2 2 2
m n
mn c and: vg c v no dispersion.
a b d k

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 5

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

For TM Modes:

Ak
k y
Bz 0 Ck x y 0 or: C A
kx
Thus:
m
E ox x, y, z , t A cos k x x sin k y y sin k z z e it kx , m 1, 2,3,
a
ky n
E oy x, y, z , t A sin k x x cos k y y cos k z z e
it
ky , n 1, 2,3,
kx b

The (m = 0 is NOT allowed for TM modes!!!) kz , 1, 2,3,
lowest d
k k k
E oz x, y, z , t A x y y sin k x x sin k y y cos k z z e it
TM m, n ,
mode k z k x k z
a b d
is: TM 111 i k ky ky
Box x, y, z , t A k x y k z sin k x x cos k y y cos k z z e
it
ky A
kx kz kx
i
k k y k k x
Boy x, y, z , t Ak cos k x x sin k y y cos k z z e
i t
A
z
x y
kx kx
B x, y, z , t 0
oz

2

For either TE or TM modes: k k k k
2 2
x
2
y
2
z with:
c

m n
kx , m 1, 2, ky , n 1, 2, kz , 1, 2,
a b d

The angular cutoff frequency for m, n, th mode is the same for TE/TM modes in a rectangular cavity:

2 2 2
m n
mn c and: vg c v no dispersion.
a b d k

## 6 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

## B.) The Spherical Resonant Cavity:

The general problem of EM modes in a spherical cavity is mathematically considerably more

involved (e.g. than for the rectangular cavity) due to the vectorial nature of the E and B -fields.
For simplicitys sake, it is conceptually easier to consider the scalar wave equation, with a

1 r ,t
2

scalar field r , t satisfying the free-source wave equation r , t 2
2
0
c t

which can be Fourier-analyzed in the complex time-domain r , t r , e it d

with each Fourier component r , satisfying the Helmholtz wave equation:

## 2 k 2 r, 0 with: k 2 c 2 i.e. no dispersion.

In spherical coordinates, the Laplacian operator is:

1 2 1 r , 1 2 r ,
r ,
2

r r 2
r r , r 2 sin sin r 2 sin 2 2

To solve this scalar wave equation we again try a product solution of the form:

R r The Ym , satisfy
r ,
r
P Q e it f r Y
m ,
m
,m
spherical
the angular portion of
harmonics scalar wave equation

Plug this r , into the above scalar wave equation, use the separation of variables technique:
d2 2 d 1
Get radial equation: 2 k2 f r 0 where: = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
dr r dr r2
1
Let: f r u r . Then we obtain Bessels equation with index v 12 :
r

d2 1 d 12
2

2 k
2
u r 0
dr r dr r 2
Am B
Solutions of the (radial) Bessels equation are of the form: f m r J 1 kr m N 1 kr
r 2
r 2

Bessel fcn of 1st Bessel fcn of 2nd
kind of order 12 kind of order 12

It is customary to define so-called spherical Bessel functions and spherical Hankel functions:
1

2
j x J 1 x where: x kr
2x 2

2
n x N 1 x
2x 2

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 7

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

1
2 n.b. If x = kr is real, then
and: h 1,2
x J 12 x iN 12 x j x i n x h 2 x h*1 x
2x

1 d sin x

j x x

x dx x
1 d cos x

n x x

x dx x

sin x eix
j0 x h01 x
x ix
cos x e ix
n0 x h0 2 x
x ix

## sin x cos x eix i

j1 x h1 x
1
1
x2 x x x
cos x sin x e ix i
n1 x h1
2
x 1
x2 x x x

For x 1, :
x x2
j x 1 ... where: 2 1 !! 2 1 2 1 2 3 ... 5 3 1
2 1!! 2 2 3
n x
2 1!! 1 x2
...

x 1 2 1 2
For x 1, :
1
j x sin x
x 2
1
n x cos x
x 2

The general solution to Helmholtzs equation in spherical coordinates can be written as:

r , t
A1m h1 kr Am2 h 2 kr Ym ,

,m
Coefficients are determined by boundary conditions.
For the case of EM waves in a spherical resonant cavity we will (here) only consider TM modes,

which for spherical geometry means that the radial component of B, Br 0 . We further assume

(for simplicitys sake) that the E and B -fields do not have any explicit -dependence.

## 8 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

2 1 m ! m
Hence: Ym , P cos eim
4 m !

Will have some restrictions imposed on it Associated Legendr Polynomial

If Br 0 and B explicit function of , then: B 0 B 0 {necessarily}

B
But: E requires: E 0
t

## TM modes with no explicit -dependence involve only Er , E and B

B 1 E
Combining E and B 2 with harmonic time dependence e it of solutions,
t c t
2

We obtain: B B 0
c

## The -component of this equation is:

2
2 1 1

c
rB
r 2
rB 2
r sin
sin rB 0

1 1 rB rB
But:
sin
sin rB
sin
sin
sin 2

~Legendr equation with m 1

u r 1
Try product solutions of the form: B r , P cos
r

Substituting this into the above equation gives a differential equation for u r of the form of:
d 2u r 1
2

## Bessels equation: u r 0 with = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . defining the

dr 2 c r 2
angular dependence of the TM modes.
Let us consider a resonant spherical cavity as two concentric, perfectly conducting spheres of

u r 1
If B r , P cos , the radial and tangential electric fields (using Amperes Law) are:
r
ic 2 ic 2 u r
Er r ,
r sin
sin B
r
1
r
P cos

ic 2 ic 2 u r 1
E r ,
r r
rB
r r
P cos

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 9

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

u r u r
But E E which must vanish at r = a and r = b r a r b 0
r r
The solutions of the radial Bessel equation are spherical Bessel functions (or spherical Hankel
functions).
u r
The above radial boundary conditions on r a 0 lead to transcendental equations for
r r b
the characteristic frequencies, {eeeEEK}!!!
1 1
However {dont panic!}, if: (b a) = h is such that h a then: constant!!!
r2 a2
And thus in this situation, the solutions of Bessels equation:

d 2u r 1 d 2 u r 1
2 2

u r 0 k u r 0 where: k
2 2

dr 2 c a 2 dr 2 c a2

are simply sin (kr) and cos (kr) !!! i.e. u r A cos kr B sin kr

u u
Then: kA sin ka kB cos ka 0 and kA sin kb kB cos kb 0
r r a r r b

## For b a h a an approximate solution is: u r A cos kr ka

with: kh k b a n , n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

1 n
2 2

Thus: k
2
n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . and = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
c a2 h
The corresponding angular cutoff frequency is:

1 n 1
2

n c k 2
2
c for h a , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . and = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
a2
n
a h

Because h a , we see that the modes with n = 1, 2, 3, . . . turn out to have relatively high
n
frequencies n c for n 1 . However, the n = 0 modes have relatively low frequencies:
h
1 c
0 c 1 for h a .
a2 a
c
An exact solution (correct to first order in (h/a) expansion) for n = 0 is: 0 1
a 12 h
These eigen-mode frequencies are known as Schumann resonance frequencies. = 1, 2, 3, . . .
(W.O. Schumann Z. Naturforsch. 72, 149, 250 (1952))

## 10 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

1 1
2
For n = 0, the EM fields are: E0 0 , Er0 P cos and B0 P1 cos
r r
z
Very Useful Table:
r r , B 0
0
r r S r, Er0 r

r r
a
y
b

x
Poyntings vector:
1
S0
0
r
1
r
1

E0 B0 r 3 P cos P1 cos 3 P cos P1 cos Circumpolar
N-S waves!

The Earths surface and the Earths ionosphere behave as a spherical resonant cavity (!!!)
with the Earths surface {approximately} as the inner spherical surface: a r r 6378 km
6.378 106 m (= Earths mean equatorial radius), the height h (above the surface of the Earth)
of the ionosphere is: h 100 km 105 m ( a ) b = a + h 6.478 x 106 m.
c
For the n = 0 Schumann resonances: 0 1 for h a .
a 12 h
c 2 01
1: 01 f 01 10.5 Hz
a 12 h 2
c 6 02
2 : 02 f 02 18.3 Hz
a 12 h 2
n.b. For the n = 1
c 12 03
3 : 03 f 03 25.7 Hz Schumann resonances:
a 12 h 2 f1 1.5 KHz
c 20 04
4 : 04 f 04 33.2 Hz
a 12 h 2
c 30 05
5 : 05 f 05 46.7 Hz (. . . etc.)
a 12 h 2

## The n = 0 Schumann resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity manifest themselves as peaks

in the noise power spectrum in the VLF (Very Low Frequency) portion of the EM spectrum
VLF EM standing waves in the spherical cavity of the Earth-ionosphere system!!!

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 11

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

Schumann resonances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity are excited by the radial E -field
component of lightning discharges (the frequency component of EM waves produced by
lightning at these Schumann resonance frequencies).
Lightning discharges (anywhere on Earth) contain a wide spectrum of frequencies of EM
radiation the frequency components f01, f02, f03, f04, . . excite these resonant modes the Earth
literally rings like a bell at these frequencies!!! The n = 0 Schumann resonances are the
lowest-lying normal modes of the Earth-ionosphere cavity.
Schumann resonances were first definitively observed in 1960. (M. Balser and C.A. Wagner,
Nature 188, 638 (1960)).
Nikola Tesla may have observed them before 1900!!! (Before the ionosphere was known to
even exist!!!) He also estimated the lowest modal frequency to be f01 ~ 6 Hz!!!

n = 0 Schumann Resonances:

## 12 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

The observed Schumann resonance frequencies are systematically lower than predicted,
1 i
(primarily) due to damping effects: 2 02 1 where Q = Quality factor 0 = Q
Q
of resonance, and = width at half maximum of power spectrum:
The Earths surface is also not perfectly conducting.
Seawater conductivity C 0.1 Siemens!!
Neither is the ionosphere! Ionospheres conductivity C 104 107 Siemens

On July 9, 1962, a nuclear explosion (EMP) detonated at high altitude (400 km) over
Johnson Island in the Pacific {Test Shot: Starfish Prime, Operation Dominic I}.
- Measurably affected the Earths ionosphere and radiation belts on a world-wide scale!
- Sudden decrease of ~ 3 5% in Schumann frequencies increase in height of ionosphere!
- Change in height of ionosphere: h h h 2 0.03 0.05 R 400 600 km !!!
- Height changes decayed away after ~ several hours.
- Artificial radiation belts lasted several years!
Note that # of lightning strikes, (e.g. in tropics) is strongly correlated to average temperature.
Scientists have used Schumann resonances & monthly mean magnetic field strengths to
monitor lightning rates and thus monitor monthly temperatures they all correlate very well!!!
Monitoring Schumann Resonances Global Thermometer useful for Global Warming
studies!!
Earth Coordinate System:
c
f0 1
2 a 12 h
E0 0 (north south)
1
Er0 P cos (up down)
r2
1
B0 P1 cos (east west)
r
1

S0 3 P cos P1 cos (north south)
r

## For the n = 0 modes of Schumann Resonances:

E r (up down) B (east west) S (north south)

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 13

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 10.5 Prof. Steven Errede

We can observe Schumann resonances right here in town / @ UIUC!! Use e.g. Gibson P-90
single-coil electric guitar pickup LP 90 10 Henrys, ~10K turns #42AWG copper wire for
detector of Schumann waves and a spectrum analyzer (e.g. HP 3562A Dynamic Signal Analyzer)
read out the HP 3562A into PC via GPIB.
Orientation/alignment of Gibson P-90 electric guitar pickup is important want axis of

pickup aligned B (i.e. oriented east west) as shown in figure below. n.b. only this
orientation yielded Schumann-type resonance signals {also tried 2 other 90o orientations
{up-down} and {north-south} but observed no signal(s) for Schumann resonances for these.}
Electric guitar PUs are very sensitive e.g. they can easily detect car / bus traffic on street
below from 6105 ESB (6th Floor Lab) can easily see car/bus signal from PU on a scope!!!

n.b. PU housed in 4 closed, grounded aluminum sheet-metal box to suppress electric noise.