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Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611

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Technical note

Inuence of sludge properties on the direct gasication of dewatered

sewage sludge in supercritical water
M. Gong a, W. Zhu a, b, *, Z.R. Xu a, c, H.W. Zhang a, b, H.P. Yang a
College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China
National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efcient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098, PR China
Environmental Policy and Standard Research Department, Environmental Science Research and Design Institute of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou,
Zhejiang 310007, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the present study, ten different types of dewatered sewage sludges were treated in supercritical water
Received 11 April 2013 in a high-pressure autoclave under a given condition (at 400  C, 60 min and 23 MPa). The feasibility of
Accepted 13 January 2014 direct gasication and the effect of sludge properties on the gasication of dewatered sewage sludge
Available online 4 February 2014
with various properties in supercritical water were investigated. The results showed that dewatered
sewage sludge with various water contents (73.48e88.51 wt%), organic matter contents (29.25e73.02 wt
%, on dry basis) and inorganics can be directly gasied in supercritical water. The total gas and phenol
Sludge property
production increased linearly with the increment of organic matter content in dewatered sewage sludge.
Supercritical water gasication
Sewage sludge
The difference in hydrogen content in the gaseous product may be related to the content of water and
Phenol inorganic as well as pH value of the sludge. The char/coke formed in the solid residue increased with
Char/coke decrement of water content, which inhibited the gasication reaction and resulted in the carbonization
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction different temperatures and residence times. However, the volume

of concentrated sewage sludge (with a water content of approxi-
Sewage sludge is a complex end-product from wastewater mately 95 wt%) is four times that of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS,
treatment, which is produced in large quantities. Treatment and with a water content of approximately 80 wt%). Direct gasication
disposal of waste sludge in an effective and safe way is an important of DSS in SCW can greatly reduce the size of the facility and improve
environmental concern in most cities. The best way of sewage the treatment efciency. To our best knowledge, few researchers
sludge disposal is utilization, such as, hydrogen production and have focused on direct gasication of DSS in SCW.
compost. Gasication of sewage sludge in supercritical water (SCW) The properties of sewage sludge vary greatly. In China, waste-
for hydrogen products has been a widespread concern of re- waters that are treated in traditional wastewater treatment plant
searchers in recent years [1e3]. (WWTP) are mostly an mixture of rainwater and domestic waste-
Previous studies are focused on concentrated sewage sludge, water [7], sewage sludge from this WWTP normally contains
which contains water up to 95e98 wt%. Xu et al. [4] studied the inorganic substances, including sediment and heavy metals. In
effect of activated carbon catalyst on the hydrogen yield from addition, the organic materials in sewage sludge vary in content
sewage sludge samples with 97.2 wt% water content. Xu et al. [5] and composition due to differences in wastewater sources and the
mixed digested sewage sludge (with a water content of 92.3 wt%) sewage treatment process. The water content of sewage sludge also
with the corn starch paste for hydrogen rich gas production. Zhang varies due to different dewatering processes. Some issues need to
et al. [6] investigated the energy recovery efciency of secondary be addressed before the practical application of supercritical water
pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP, with a water content of 98.0 wt%) and gasication (SCWG) of sewage sludge, such as the effect of sludge
sewage sludges (with a water content of 95.5e97.2 wt%) in SCW at properties on the gasication of DSS in SCW. Thus, it is necessary to
consider whether DSS from different WWTPs can be directly gasi-
ed in SCW.
Sewage sludge has a complex nature, which is characterized by
* Corresponding author. College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing
210098, PR China. Tel.: 86 18652070980. high contents of water, organic matter (OM) and inorganic com-
E-mail address: (W. Zhu). pounds. The OM content and composition affect the yield and

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
606 M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611

composition of syngas during biomass conversion in sub- and su-

percritical water. Kpak et al. [8] investigated the partial oxidation
of olive mill wastewater in SCW and found that the higher the total
organic carbon (TOC) of the feeds (i.e., higher OM content), the
higher the total gas production, and the lower the carbon gasi-
cation efciency. Zhang et al. [6] treated SPP and sewage sludge in
SCW at 500  C for 60 min using a Parr high-pressure reactor. The
results showed that a higher OM content of sewage sludge resulted
in greater gas production for a given quantity of dry sludge and a
higher content of heavy oil (mainly phenols). The organic compo-
sition also has some impact on the gasication reaction. In addition,
the gas composition is slightly changed by alanine addition. Yanik
et al. [9] also reported that the yield and composition of gas depend
on the organic materials, and concluded that the kind of lignin may
also have an effect on gasication products.
Inorganic salts and heavy metals are the main components of
inorganic matter in sewage sludge. Inorganic salts, which are
insoluble or less soluble under supercritical conditions, can cause
plugging of the reactor by precipitation [10]. Moreover, some
inorganic salts and metals existed in the sludge have catalytic ef-
fects [11]. After the SCWG reaction, the heavy metals in solid Fig. 1. The locations of wastewater treatment plants and types of industrial
products have more stable characteristics [12,13]. wastewater.
The water content also affects the reaction process of biomass
gasication in sub- and supercritical water. Xu et al. [14] reported
respectively. The reactor was heated by a salt-bath furnace,
on converting SPP into bio-oils by direct liquefaction in sub- and
equipped with a PID temperature control unit with a K-type ther-
near-critical water at 280e380  C. The water content of the SPP was
mocouple. The reaction pressure read from the pressure gauge
found to decrease from 95.2 to 83.3 wt%, whereas the char yield
depending on the reaction temperature and the DSS loading in the
increased. Zhang et al. [6] also found that a decrease in the water
reactor, which was not adjusted manually. Our experimental re-
content of the SPP from 98 to 91.2 wt% resulted in a decreased yield
cords showed that the reactor pressure was above 22.1 MPa at
of total gas especially signicant reductions in the formation of H2
400  C with 33 mL of water in the reactor, indicating that the water
and CO2. Susanti et al. [15] investigated the effect of the dry matter
reached supercritical conditions at this temperature. The mass of
content of glucose on gas yield in SCW. A decrease in the water
DSS added to the reactor was calculated from the moisture content
content of glucose from 98 to 85 wt% resulted in a decreased total
of the DSS, and the water reached supercritical conditions at 400  C
gas yield. When the glucose content is greater than 20%, large
(i.e., 33 mL).
amounts of char/coke are produced which clogs the reactor.
In a typical experiment, 44 g of DSS (with a water content of
The direct gasication of dewatered sludge in SCW is more
74.8 wt%) was placed in the reactor. Sealed and placed in a salt-bath
attractive because of its higher efciency during sludge treatment.
furnace kept at 400  C. When the pre-set temperature (400  C) was
Consequently, the primary objective of the present work was to
reached, it was maintained for a pre-determined residence time
study gasied dewatered sludge in SCW (at 400  C, 60 min and
(60 min). After that, the reactor was moved from the salt-bath and
23 MPa) to determine the feasibility of direct gasication of DSS
rapidly cooled to room temperature by water and fans. After cool-
with various properties in SCW. Moreover, the effects of sludge
ing, the procedures for sample collection and separation were
properties on the gasication of dewatered sludge in SCW were
described in detail in a previous paper [16].
investigated using a batch reactor.

2. Materials and methods 2.3. Product analysis

2.1. Materials The method used for analysis of gas, liquid, solid residue and the
procedures for char separation and preparation were described in
In this work, ten different types of DSSs (named S0 to S9) were detail in Ref. [16]. The sludge samples were air-dried, pulverized
collected from WWTPs in Jiangsu, China. The locations of the and then sieved under a 100-mesh before analysis. The elemental
WWTPs and the types of industrial wastewater are shown in Fig. 1. compositions (C, H, N, and S) of the sludge samples were measured
DSS was collected from the WWTPs and stored in the preservation by an elemental analyzer (Vario EL III, Elementar). The inorganic
box of a refrigerator at a temperature below 4  C before experiment. elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Ni) in the sludge samples were
The compositions, in terms of the content of OM, moisture, and ash, determined by ICPeOES (Optima 8000, PerkinElmer). The pH value
as well as ultimate analyses of each type of DSS, are listed in Table 1. of the liquid and raw sludge was measured by a pH meter (FE20,
The inorganic element composition of each type of DSS is listed in Mettler Toledo). Besides, the parameter RLiquid is the ratio of OM
Table 2. residues in liquid, as dened in Ref. [16].

2.2. Experimental apparatus and procedure 3. Results

The SCWG of DSS was performed in a 316 L stainless steel batch 3.1. The state of the product after the SCWG
reactor obtained from the Songling Chemical Instrument Co., Yan-
tai, Shandong, China. The schematic presentation of the reactor is The DSS (S0eS9) used in this study had water contents in the
shown in Fig. 2. The reactor has a 100-mL capacity and a maximum range of 73.48e88.51 wt%, based on the water content demanded to
operating temperature and pressure of 650  C and 35 MPa, attain supercritical conditions at 400  C (i.e., 33 mL), we calculated
M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611 607

Table 1
Properties of the dewatered sewage sludges tested.

Type of sludge Organic matter Moisture content Ash (wt.%)a pHb Ultimate analysis (wt.%)a HHV (MJ/kg)d Sewage
(wt.%)a (wt.%) treatment processe
C H N S Oc

S0 29.25 77.91 54.49 8.06 7.60 2.53 0.37 0.91 34.09 0.17 AS
S1 30.94 73.48 57.78 7.97 16.25 2.29 0.62 2.85 20.22 5.44 A/O
S2 37.40 74.79 54.05 6.80 9.14 3.94 1.38 1.03 30.47 3.41 OD
S3 46.05 88.51 48.71 5.92 18.02 4.06 2.79 1.95 24.47 7.78 A/A/O
S4 49.57 84.73 49.03 7.57 17.14 3.96 2.93 1.16 25.78 7.03 UASB
S5 51.09 86.91 48.18 6.59 20.39 4.15 3.05 1.30 22.93 8.94 A/A/O
S6 54.44 85.41 44.91 6.97 22.08 4.41 3.53 1.05 24.02 9.67 CAST
S7 59.52 86.29 41.19 6.40 25.05 4.70 3.84 1.21 24.02 11.11 OD
S8 63.94 87.75 38.20 6.91 27.56 5.20 1.58 2.49 24.97 12.60 CAST
S9 73.02 73.99 24.33 3.71 31.00 6.20 1.22 3.34 33.91 13.68 A/O
On an air-dried basis.
The ratio of water to solid was 20.
By difference (O% 100%  ash%  C%  H%  N%  S%).
Higher heating value (HHV) calculated by the Dulong Formula, i.e., HHV (MJ/kg) 0.3393C 1.443 (H  O/8) 0.0927S 0.01494N.
AS: activated sludge process; A/O: aerobic-oxic; OD: oxidation ditch; A/A/O: anaerobic-anoxic-oxic; UASB: up-ow anaerobic sludge bed; CAST: cyclic activated sludge

the amount of the DSS fed is listed in Table 3. The indicated pressure after SCWG at 400  C for 60 min. The liquid residues contained
in the autoclave when the temperature was reached and stabilized at large amounts of OM. COD in the liquid residues ranged from about
the pre-set points of the reactor is also listed in Table 3. The pressures 3500 to 17,000 mg/L. The ratios of OM in the liquid residues (RLiquid)
in the reactor ranged from 22.5 to 24 MPa, and averaged at 23.4 MPa, ranged from 3.3% to 18.0%. The remaining OM in the liquid residues
which were higher than the critical pressure (22.1 MPa) of the water, exceeded wastewater discharge standards and required further
indicating that the water was in a supercritical state in all cases. The removing.
state of the products in the reactor indicated that gaseliquidesolid Phenol, as a representative pollutant, needs to be taken into
three-phase separation was obtained, regardless of the source of the consideration in the processing and utilization of the liquid prod-
DSS. The mass components of the products are listed in Table 3. The ucts after SCWG treatment [6,16]. The concentrations of total
amount of solid residue that adhered to the reactor inner wall after phenols in the liquid products of different DSSs after SCWG are
SCWG of the DSS increased with decreasing water content. This led shown in Fig. 5. The contents of phenolic substances produced in
to obvious differences in the products of the total mass and the feed each sample varied greatly, from approximately 400 mg/L in S9 to
amounts (S1, S9). 50e200 mg/L in the other sludges.

3.2. Effects of DSS properties on gas yield and compositions

3.4. Effects of DSS properties on OM in solid residue
The effects of DSS properties on the gas yield and the yield of
primary gaseous products are shown in Fig. 3. The components of Fig. 6 illustrates the OM content changed in the solid phase of
the gaseous products of the DSS samples after SCWG were the same different DSSs before and after SCWG at 400  C for 60 min. A
and mainly included H2, CH4, CO, and CO2. CO2 is the main portion of the OM remained in the solid phase after SCWG. How-
component of the gaseous product, accounting for approximately ever, the remaining OM content was signicantly reduced
85% of the total gas production. The hydrogen yields from the compared with that of the original sludge, ranging from 5.8% to
different DSSs were quite different, ranging from 0.06 to 0.87 mol/
(kg OM). The total gas yields were ranged between 5.1 and 6.3 mol/
(kg OM) for all DSSs except S2, which had a slightly lower gas yield.

3.3. Effects of DSS properties on OM in liquid residue

The remaining OM in the liquid residue was characterized by

COD. Fig. 4 shows the COD in the liquid residues of different DSSs

Table 2
Inorganic element compositions of the dewatered sewage sludges tested.

Type of sludge Major mineral elements in the sample (mg/Kg)a

Na K Ca Mg Fe Ni

S0 1152 368 163,088 4496 9893 523.7

S1 2337 230 149,438 4967 65,491 36.7
S2 857 3004 20,353 3064 17,666 70.8
S3 1745 4839 18,173 4695 34,771 912.9
S4 2329 4348 34,188 4349 14,151 91.5
S5 1315 5269 15,593 5857 19,096 157.5
S6 1520 7351 18,973 7162 18,027 79.8
S7 1796 6357 17,013 6106 13,466 1210
S8 2163 663 8851 3982 105,891 17.7
S9 2362 322 2029 1061 7427 80.9
On a dry basis. Fig. 2. Schematic presentation of the experimental apparatus.
608 M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611

Table 3
The recovery rate of the product and the reaction pressure after SCWG.

Type of sludge S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9

Dewatered sludge (g) 42.3 44.8 44.0 37.2 38.9 37.9 38.5 38.1 37.5 44.5
Total product mass (g) 34.4 32.4 42.3 32.3 34.3 33.4 34.0 33.5 34.2 33.2
Recovery ratea (%) 81.32 72.32 96.12 86.69 88.09 88.06 88.30 87.82 91.32 74.64
Dry sludge (g) 9.3 11.9 11.1 4.3 5.9 5.0 5.6 5.2 4.6 11.6
Organic matter mass (g) 2.7 3.7 4.1 2.0 2.9 2.5 3.1 3.1 2.9 8.5
Reaction temperature 400  C
Reaction pressure (MPa) 23.3 23.2 24.0 23.8 23.3 22.5 23.8 23.0 23.6 24.1
Recovery rate Total product mass/dewatered sludge  100%.

48.1%, depending on the change in the OM content of the original conclude that the water in the DSS has reached the supercritical
sludge. state. Xu et al. [16] experimented with one type of DSS at different
To reveal the effects of DSS properties on the carbonization re- moisture contents (76.2e94.4 wt%) and found that the water in all
action, the char/coke content in the solid phase products after the samples was able to enter the supercritical state normally. DSSs
reaction was measured, and the total char/coke mass was calcu- with various properties after the gasication reaction are in the
lated. The results are shown in Fig. 7. The char/coke contents in the same state, in which the gas, liquid and solid phases are apparently
solid phase products ranged from 5.7% to 47.4%, and the char/coke separated. These results are consistent with results obtained by
masses ranged from 0.2 g to 2.3 g. other scholars in researchs on SCWG of sludge [18,19]. In addition,
the OM in the DSS after reaction can successfully be transformed
3.5. The OM distribution of gasication products into liquid and gaseous products, and the components of the gas
products and the forms of the liquid- and solid-phase organics are
From the OM residues in the gasication products after SCWG, all similar (Fig. 8). Thus, we can conclude that the components of
we determined the distributions of OM in three-phase products the products after gasication of DSSs with various properties in
shown in Fig. 8. The OM in the DSS remained in three-phase SCW are similar and exhibit no fundamental differences.
products after SCWG. DSSs with different properties can go
through the SCWG reaction normally. However, the conversion
efciency of organics is not high with approximately 30% of OM
remaining in the liquid and solid products.

4. Discussion

4.1. The feasibility of direct gasication of DSS with various

properties in SCW

The main purposes of this study were to establish whether DSSs

with various properties can be directly gasied in SCW and
examine the effects of the DSS properties on the SCWG of DSS. For
the DSSs tested, with different water contents (73.48e88.51 wt%)
and OM contents (29.25e73.02 wt%), the stable pressures reached
within the reactor at the pre-set temperature of 400  C were all
higher than 22.1 MPa (Table 3). The demarcation point for pure
water between the supercritical state and the subcritical state is
Fig. 4. COD in liquid residues and RLiquid of different DSSs after SCWG at 400  C for
T 374.15  C and P 22.1 MPa [17]. Based on the above, we can
60 min. RLiquid: The ratio of OM residues in liquid.

Fig. 3. Effects of DSS properties on the gas yield and the yields of primary gaseous
products. Fig. 5. Total phenols concentration of different DSSs after SCWG at 400  C for 60 min.
M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611 609

Fig. 6. The OM content changed in the solid phase of different DSSs before and after
SCWG at 400  C for 60 min.
Fig. 8. The OM distribution in gasication products of the DSSs.

In summary, under the conditions of these tests, the water in the

the feed. Essentially, the relationship of the water content to the gas
DSSs with various properties can enter the supercritical state nor-
yield is the same as the relationship of the OM content to the gas
mally, and the components of the products after the reaction are
yield. In addition, the gas yield for S0 and S4 was relatively high,
similar. Therefore, SCWG technology is concluded to have a com-
which may be due to their higher Na, K, Ni ions contents and pH
mon effect on treating DSSs with various properties.
values (as shown in Tables 1 and 2). Onwudili and Williams [22]
noted that under alkaline hydrothermal condition, the wateregas
4.2. Effects of DSS properties on the SCWG of DSS
shift reaction of biomass can be promoted to increase the gas
production. Na, K, Ni ions were also proved to be able to promote
Although the DSSs with various properties all went through the
the gasication by many researchers [23e25]. This may also be the
SCWG reaction normally under the experimental conditions in this
reason why the gas yield for S2 and S9 was relatively low as its Na,
study and the ingredients of the products after the reaction were
K, Ni ions content and pH value were relatively low.
similar, there were considerable differences in the contents of the
The DSSs with various properties were all found to be able to go
products. Thus, the DSS properties have some effect on the SCWG of
through the SCWG reaction normally. However, there still remain
DSS. The main DSS properties of inuence are the contents of OM,
some problems, such as the amount of hydrogen in the gaseous
inorganic matter, and moisture and some other properties.
products being relatively low, phenolic substances being produced
Under the experimental conditions of this study, a linear in-
in the liquid products and char/coke being formed in the solid
crease in gas production for a given quantity of dry sludge was
phase products. The reasons for the low hydrogen content have not
observed with increasing OM content in the DSS (as shown in
been clearly identied. Muangrat et al. [26] noted that this may be
Fig. 9). Organics in sludge undergo steam reforming, wateregas
associated with the organic composition and chemical structure of
shift reaction, methanation reaction and transformation into gas
the feed materials. Moreover, some researchers have commented
products during SCWG [20,21]. The higher the content of OM is in
that in SCWG of biomass, the existence of K, Na, Ni and Fe ions can
sludge, the higher the quantity of OM is during the reaction
promote the generation of hydrogen [6,27,28]. The relatively high
(Table 3), which contributes to an increase in the gas yield. In a
hydrogen contents of S3, S7 and S8 may be related to their higher
previous study, Xu et al. [16] found that there is a good linear
contents of K, Na, Ni and Fe ions (as shown in Fig. 3 and Table 2). The
relationship between the water content of the DSS and the gas
yield. However, only one type of DSS was used in that experiment.
Changes in the water content led to changes in the OM content in

Fig. 7. The contents and mass of char/coke in solid residue of different DSSs after
SCWG at 400  C for 60 min. Fig. 9. Effects of OM content on gas yield from the SCWG of DSS.
610 M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611

decreasing water content. This also means that when the water
content of the DSS decreases, the gasication reaction is inhibited.
Meanwhile, the carbonization reaction is promoted and the trans-
formation of OM into char/coke is increased. This is consistent with
the results of previous studys analysis of the char/coke content of
the product after the reaction of DSS with different moisture con-
tents [16]. We noted that char/coke is mainly generated from
devolatilization of the original biomass when the moisture content
is low. Xu et al. [14] obtained the same results from SCWG of SPP at
a reaction temperature of 280  C. An increase in the dry matter
content of sludge from 4.8 wt% to 16.7 wt% (with the water content
ranging from 95.2 wt% to 83.3 wt%) resulted in an increased yield of
char/coke content in the solid phase residues. Thus, there is a ne-
cessity to inhibit the carbonization reaction occurring and improve
the efciency of organics gasication in the future research.
From the perspective of technology popularization and appli-
cation, SCWG technology was found to have common effects on
DSSs with various properties. We did not need to adjust the
Fig. 10. Effects of OM content on total phenol production from the SCWG of DSS. apparatus for the different types of sludge, which was benecial to
the design of the treatment. However, issues such as the feed of
water contents of S3, S7 and S8 were relatively high (Table 1). sludges with low water contents and reactor clogging and corrosion
Zhang et al. [6] noted that increasing the water content can improve need to be considered [1e3]. Differences in the results obtained
the generation of hydrogen and methane. As shown in Fig. 10, the using different types of reactor should also be considered. A ow-
OM content of DSS exhibits an obvious increasing trend in the type reactor may be used to improve treatment efciency in prac-
quantity of phenols formed (except for the large deviations for S3). tical applications. Besides, the cost accounting, resource utilization
Zhang et al. [6] obtained similar results: the higher the OM content and energy balance of the products also need to be considered. In
in SPP, the higher the content of heavy oil (mainly phenols) in the addition, the controls on the use of SCWG technology to treat
products. Some studies have noted that the phenolic compounds hazardous waste such as sludge should be more rigorous and
originate primarily from the degradation of the lignin component detailed to ensure the environmental safety of the products.
(due to cleavage of the aryl ether linkages in lignin) [29,30]. In
addition, condensation/cyclization of the cellulose/hemicellulose- 5. Conclusions
derived carbohydrates might also lead to the formation of phenol
and phenolic compounds [31]. The composition of organics in the A comprehensive study of SCWG of DSS with various properties
sludge is complex, consisting mainly of carbohydrates, cellulose, was performed. The effect of DSS properties on the SCWG of DSS
hemicellulose, lignin, protein, fat and other substances [32]. The was investigated in this study. The gas yields and compositions, OM
OM in sludge may go through decomposition and condensation to content in liquid and solid, and total phenols and char/coke content
form phenols in SCW. The subsequent processing of the liquid were measured to determine the effects of the DSS properties. The
product after reaction needs to be conducted taking into consid- major conclusions of the present study can be summarized as
eration how to reduce the generation of phenols. Adding an follows:
oxidizing agent to achieve partial oxidation gasication is an
effective way to solve this problem [33]. (1) DSSs with various water contents (73.48e88.51 wt%), OM
The effect of water content on char/coke formation during the contents (29.25e73.02 wt%) and inorganics can be directly
SCWG of DSSs with various properties was investigated. The results gasied in supercritical water. However, the conversion ef-
are illustrated in Fig. 11. Char/coke formation increased with ciency of organics is not high with approximately 30% of
OM remained in the liquid and solid residues.
(2) The total gas and phenol production increased linearly with
the increasing of OM content in DSS.
(3) Differences in hydrogen content in the gaseous product may
be related to differences in the inorganic compounds, water
content and pH value of the DSS samples.
(4) Carbonization occurred during the SCWG of the DSS. The
char/coke formed in the solid residue increased with decre-
ment of water content, which inhibited the gasication re-
action and resulted in the carbonization reaction. Therefore,
methods to inhibit the carbonization or improve the gasi-
cation efciency during the direct gasication of DSS should
be studied in the future.


The authors are grateful for the nancial support from the
Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2011025), the
Natural Science Foundation (51278165) of PR China, and the Na-
tional Program on Key Basic Research Project of China
Fig. 11. Effects of water content on char/coke production from the SCWG of DSS. (2012CB719804).
M. Gong et al. / Renewable Energy 66 (2014) 605e611 611

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