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7

Energy and Energy Transfer

7.1 Systems and Environments
7.2 Work Done by a Constant Q7.1 The force is perpendicular to every increment of displacement.
Force
Therefore, F ⋅ ∆r = 0 .
7.3 The Scalar Product of Two
Vectors
7.4 Work Done by a Varying Q7.2 (a) Positive work is done by the chicken on the dirt.
Force
7.5 Kinetic Energy and the (b) No work is done, although it may seem like there is.
Work-Kinetic Energy
Theorem (c) Positive work is done on the bucket.
7.6 The Non-Isolated
System—Conservation of
Energy (d) Negative work is done on the bucket.
7.7 Situations Involving Kinetic
Friction (e) Negative work is done on the person’s torso.
7.8 Power
7.9 Energy and the Automobile Q7.3 Yes. Force times distance over which the toe is in contact with
the ball. No, he is no longer applying a force. Yes, both air
friction and gravity do work.

Q7.4 Force of tension on a ball rotating on the end of a string. Normal force and gravitational force on an
object at rest or moving across a level floor.

(c) Positive in increasing velocity on the downswing.

Negative in decreasing velocity on the upswing.

Q7.6 No. The vectors might be in the third and fourth quadrants, but if the angle between them is less
than 90° their dot product is positive.

Q7.7 The scalar product of two vectors is positive if the angle between them is between 0 and 90°. The
scalar product is negative when 90° < θ < 180° .

Q7.8 If the coils of the spring are initially in contact with one another, as the load increases from zero, the
graph would be an upwardly curved arc. After the load increases sufficiently, the graph will be
linear, described by Hooke’s Law. This linear region will be quite large compared to the first region.
The graph will then be a downward curved arc as the coiled spring becomes a completely straight
wire. As the load increases with a straight wire, the graph will become a straight line again, with a
significantly smaller slope. Eventually, the wire would break.

Q7.9 k ′ = 2 k . To stretch the smaller piece one meter, each coil would have to stretch twice as much as one
coil in the original long spring, since there would be half as many coils. Assuming that the spring is
ideal, twice the stretch requires twice the force.

191
192 Energy and Energy Transfer

Q7.10 Kinetic energy is always positive. Mass and squared speed are both positive. A moving object can
always do positive work in striking another object and causing it to move along the same direction
of motion.

Q7.11 Work is only done in accelerating the ball from rest. The work is done over the effective length of the
pitcher’s arm—the distance his hand moves through windup and until release.

Q7.12 Kinetic energy is proportional to mass. The first bullet has twice as much kinetic energy.

Q7.13 The longer barrel will have the higher muzzle speed. Since the accelerating force acts over a longer
distance, the change in kinetic energy will be larger.

Q7.14 (a) Kinetic energy is proportional to squared speed. Doubling the speed makes an object's
kinetic energy four times larger.

(b) If the total work on an object is zero in some process, its speed must be the same at the final
point as it was at the initial point.

Q7.15 The larger engine is unnecessary. Consider a 30 minute commute. If you travel the same speed in
each car, it will take the same amount of time, expending the same amount of energy. The extra
power available from the larger engine isn’t used.

Q7.16 If the instantaneous power output by some agent changes continuously, its average power in a
process must be equal to its instantaneous power at least one instant. If its power output is constant,
its instantaneous power is always equal to its average power.

Q7.17 It decreases, as the force required to lift the car decreases.

Q7.18 As you ride an express subway train, a backpack at your feet has no kinetic energy as measured by
you since, according to you, the backpack is not moving. In the frame of reference of someone on the
side of the tracks as the train rolls by, the backpack is moving and has mass, and thus has kinetic
energy.

Q7.19 The rock increases in speed. The farther it has fallen, the more force it might exert on the sand at the
bottom; but it might instead make a deeper crater with an equal-size average force. The farther it
falls, the more work it will do in stopping. Its kinetic energy is increasing due to the work that the
gravitational force does on it.

Q7.20 The normal force does no work because the angle between the normal force and the direction of
motion is usually 90°. Static friction usually does no work because there is no distance through
which the force is applied.

Q7.21 An argument for: As a glider moves along an airtrack, the only force that the track applies on the
glider is the normal force. Since the angle between the direction of motion and the normal force is
90°, the work done must be zero, even if the track is not level.
Against: An airtrack has bumpers. When a glider bounces from the bumper at the end of the
airtrack, it loses a bit of energy, as evidenced by a decreased speed. The airtrack does negative work.

Q7.22 Gaspard de Coriolis first stated the work-kinetic energy theorem. Jean Victor Poncelet, an engineer
who invaded Russia with Napoleon, is most responsible for demonstrating its wide practical
applicability, in his 1829 book Industrial Mechanics. Their work came remarkably late compared to the
elucidation of momentum conservation in collisions by Descartes and to Newton’s Mathematical
Principles of the Philosophy of Nature, both in the 1600’s.
Chapter 7 193

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 7.2 Work Done by a Constant Force

P7.1 (a) a fa
W = F∆r cos θ = 16.0 N 2.20 m cos 25.0° = 31.9 J f
(b), (c) The normal force and the weight are both at 90° to the displacement in any time interval.
Both do 0 work.

P7.2 The component of force along the direction of motion is

a f
F cos θ = 35.0 N cos 25.0° = 31.7 N .

The work done by this force is

a f a
W = F cos θ ∆r = 31.7 N 50.0 m = 1.59 × 10 3 J . fa f
P7.3 Method One.
Let φ represent the instantaneous angle the rope makes with the vertical as
it is swinging up from φ i = 0 to φ f = 60° . In an incremental bit of motion
from angle φ to φ + dφ , the definition of radian measure implies that
a f
∆r = 12 m dφ . The angle θ between the incremental displacement and the
force of gravity is θ = 90°+ φ . Then cos θ = cos 90°+φ = − sin φ . b g
The work done by the gravitational force on Batman is FIG. P7.3

z z
f φ = 60 °
W = F cos θdr = b
mg − sin φ 12 m dφ ga f
i φ =0

f z sin φ dφ = b−80 kg ge9.8 m s ja12 mfb− cos φ g

60 °
a
= − mg 12 m 2 60 °
0
0

= a −784 N fa12 mfa− cos 60°+1f = −4.70 × 10 J 3

Method Two.

b ge
The force of gravity on Batman is mg = 80 kg 9.8 m s 2 = 784 N down. Only his vertical j
displacement contributes to the work gravity does. His original y-coordinate below the tree limb is
a f
–12 m. His final y-coordinate is −12 m cos 60° = −6 m . His change in elevation is
a f
−6 m − −12 m = 6 m . The work done by gravity is

a fa f
W = F∆r cos θ = 784 N 6 m cos 180° = −4.70 kJ .
194 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.4 (a) e ja fa f
W = mgh = 3.35 × 10 −5 9.80 100 J = 3.28 × 10 −2 J

P7.5 A = 5.00 ; B = 9.00 ; θ = 50.0°

a fa f
A ⋅ B = AB cos θ = 5.00 9.00 cos 50.0° = 28.9

P7.6 e je
A ⋅ B = A x i + A y j + A z k ⋅ B x i + B y j + Bz kj
A ⋅ B = A B e i ⋅ i j + A B e i ⋅ jj + A B e i ⋅ k j
x x x y x z

+ A B e j ⋅ i j + A B e j ⋅ jj + A B e j ⋅ k j
y x y y y z

+ A B ek ⋅ i j + A B ek ⋅ jj + A B ek ⋅ k j
z x z y z z

A ⋅ B = A x Bx + A y B y + A z Bz

P7.7 (a) a fa f a
W = F ⋅ ∆r = Fx x + Fy y = 6.00 3.00 N ⋅ m + −2.00 1.00 N ⋅ m = 16.0 Jfa f
θ = cos −1
FG F ⋅ ∆r IJ = cos−1 16
(b)
H F∆r K ae 6.00f + a−2.00f jea3.00f + a1.00f j
2 2
=
2 2
36.9°

P7.8 We must first find the angle between the two vectors. It is:

θ = 360°−118°−90.0°−132° = 20.0°

Then

a fb
F ⋅ v = Fv cos θ = 32.8 N 0.173 m s cos 20.0° g
N ⋅m J
or F ⋅ v = 5.33 = 5.33 = 5.33 W
s s
FIG. P7.8

P7.9 (a) A = 3.00 i − 2.00 j

A ⋅B 12.0 + 8.00
B = 4.00 i − 4.00 j θ = cos −1 = cos −1 = 11.3°
AB a fa f
13.0 32.0

(b) B = 3.00 i − 4.00 j + 2.00k

A⋅B −6.00 − 16.0
A = −2.00 i + 4.00 j cos θ = = θ = 156°
AB a fa f
20.0 29.0

(c) A = i − 2.00 j + 2.00k

θ = cos −1
FG A ⋅ B IJ = cos FG −6.00 + 8.00 IJ =
−1
B = 3.00 j + 4.00k
H AB K H 9.00 ⋅ 25.0 K 82.3°
Chapter 7 195

P7.10 e j e
A − B = 3.00 i + j − k − − i + 2.00 j + 5.00k j
A − B = 4.00 i − j − 6.00k
a f e je j a
C ⋅ A − B = 2.00 j − 3.00k ⋅ 4.00 i − j − 6.00k = 0 + −2.00 + +18.0 = 16.0 f a f

Section 7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force

z
f
P7.11 W = Fdx = area under curve from xi to x f
i

(a) xi = 0 x f = 8.00 m

FG 1 IJ AC × altitude,
W = area of triangle ABC =
H 2K
FG 1 IJ × 8.00 m × 6.00 N =
W0 → 8 =
H 2K 24.0 J
FIG. P7.11

(b) xi = 8.00 m x f = 10.0 m

FG 1 IJ CE × altitude,
W = area of ∆CDE =
H 2K
F 1I
= G J × a 2.00 mf × a −3.00 N f = −3.00 J
W8 →10
H 2K
(c) a
W0 →10 = W0→ 8 + W8→10 = 24.0 + −3.00 = 21.0 J f
P7.12 a
Fx = 8 x − 16 N f
(a) See figure to the right

(b) Wnet =
a fa
− 2.00 m 16.0 N
+
f a
1.00 m 8.00 N fa
= −12.0 J
f
2 2

FIG. P7.12
196 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.13 z
W = Fx dx
and W equals the area under the Force-Displacement curve

(a) For the region 0 ≤ x ≤ 5.00 m ,

W=
a3.00 Nfa5.00 mf = 7.50 J
2

(b) For the region 5.00 ≤ x ≤ 10.0 , FIG. P7.13

a fa
W = 3.00 N 5.00 m = 15.0 J f
(c) For the region 10.0 ≤ x ≤ 15.0 ,

W=
a3.00 Nfa5.00 mf = 7.50 J
2

(d) For the region 0 ≤ x ≤ 15.0

a
W = 7.50 + 7.50 + 15.0 J = 30.0 J f

z ze
f 5m
P7.14 W = F ⋅ dr =
i 0
j
4x i + 3 y j N ⋅ dx i

5m

zb
5m
x2
g
4 N m xdx + 0 = 4 N m
2
b g = 50.0 J
0 0

P7.15 k=
F Mg
= =
a fa f
4.00 9.80 N
= 1.57 × 10 3 N m
y y 2.50 × 10 −2 m

(a) For 1.50 kg mass y =

mg
=
a fa f
1.50 9.80
= 0.938 cm
k 1.57 × 10 3

1 2
(b) Work = ky
2
1
e
Work = 1.57 × 10 3 N ⋅ m 4.00 × 10 −2 m
2
je j 2
= 1.25 J

P7.16 (a) Spring constant is given by F = kx

k=
F
=
a
230 N f
= 575 N m
x a
0.400 m f
(b) Work = Favg x =
1
2
a fa
230 N 0.400 m = 46.0 J f
Chapter 7 197
*P7.17 (a) b
Fapplied = k leaf x + k helper x h = k x + k h x − y 0 g
5 × 10 5 N = 5.25 × 10 5
N
m
x + 3.60 × 10 5
N
m
b
x − 0.5 m g
6.8 × 10 5 N
x = = 0.768 m
8.85 × 10 5 N m

1 1
k x 2 + k h x h2 =
1 FG
5.25 × 10 5
N IJ a f 2 1
3.60 × 10 5
N
a f 2
(b) W=
2 2 2 H m K
0.768 m +
2 m
0.268 m

= 1.68 × 10 5 J

z
f
P7.18 (a) W = F ⋅ dr
i

ze
0.600 m
W=
0
15 000 N + 10 000 x N m − 25 000 x 2 N m 2 dx cos 0° j
0.600 m
10 000 x 2 25 000 x 3
W = 15 000 x + −
2 3
0

W = 9.00 kJ + 1.80 kJ − 1.80 kJ = 9.00 kJ

(b) Similarly,

W = a15.0 kN fa1.00 mf +
b10.0 kN mga1.00 mf − e25.0 kN m ja1.00 mf 2 2 3

2 3
W = 11.7 kJ , larger by 29.6%

P7.19
1
4.00 J =
2
a
k 0.100 m
2
f
∴ k = 800 N m and to stretch the spring to 0.200 m requires

∆W =
1
2
a fa
800 0.200 f 2
− 4.00 J = 12.0 J

P7.20 (a) The radius to the object makes angle θ with the horizontal, so
its weight makes angle θ with the negative side of the x-axis,
when we take the x–axis in the direction of motion tangent to
the cylinder.
∑ Fx = ma x
F − mg cos θ = 0
F = mg cos θ
FIG. P7.20

z
f
(b) W = F ⋅ dr
i
We use radian measure to express the next bit of displacement as dr = Rdθ in terms of the
next bit of angle moved through:

z
π 2
π 2
W= mg cos θRdθ = mgR sin θ 0
0

a f
W = mgR 1 − 0 = mgR
198 Energy and Energy Transfer

(a) The hanging mass moves down by

x = x1 + x 2 =
mg mg
+ = mg
1
+
1 FG IJ
k1 k2 k1 k 2 H K
F 1m + 1m I=
= 1.5 kg 9.8 m s 2 GH 1 200 N 1 800 N JK 2.04 × 10 −2 m

(b) We define the effective spring constant as

k=
F
=
mg FG
=
1
+
1 IJ −1

b g H
x mg 1 k1 + 1 k 2 k1 k 2 K
F 1m + 1m I =
=G
−1

*P7.22 See the solution to problem 7.21.

(a)
FG 1 + 1 IJ
x = mg
Hk k K 1 2

(b)
F1 1I
k=G + J
−1

Hk k K
1 2

P7.23
L F O N kg ⋅ m s =
k =M P= =
2
kg
NxQ m m s2

Section 7.6 The Non-Isolated System—Conservation of Energy

P7.24 (a) KA =
1
2
b
0.600 kg 2.00 m s gb g 2
= 1.20 J

(b)
1
mv B2 = K B : v B =
2K B
=
a2fa7.50f = 5.00 m s
2 m 0.600

1
(c) ∑ W = ∆K = K B − K A = 2 mevB2 − v 2A j = 7.50 J − 1.20 J = 6.30 J

P7.25 (a) K=
1
2
1
b
mv 2 = 0.300 kg 15.0 m s
2
gb g 2
= 33.8 J

(b) K=
1
2
a
0.300 30.0 fa f 2
=
1
2
a
0.300 15.0 fa f a4f = 4a33.8f =
2
135 J
Chapter 7 199

P7.26 e j
v i = 6.00 i − 2.00 j = m s

(a) vi = vix2 + viy2 = 40.0 m s

Ki =
1
2
1
b ge
mvi2 = 3.00 kg 40.0 m 2 s 2 = 60.0 J
2
j
(b) v f = 8.00 i + 4.00 j
v 2f = v f ⋅ v f = 64.0 + 16.0 = 80.0 m 2 s 2
1
∆K = K f − K i = m v 2f − vi2 =
2
e 3.00
2
j a f
80.0 − 60.0 = 60.0 J

P7.27 Consider the work done on the pile driver from the time it starts from rest until it comes to rest at
the end of the fall. Let d = 5.00 m represent the distance over which the driver falls freely, and
h = 0.12 m the distance it moves the piling.
1 1
∑ W = ∆K : Wgravity + Wbeam =
2
mv 2f − mvi2
2
so b ga f d ia f
mg h + d cos 0°+ F d cos 180° = 0 − 0 .

Thus, F=
bmg gah + df = b2 100 kgge9.80 m s ja5.12 mf = 2
8.78 × 10 5 N . The force on the pile
d 0.120 m
driver is upward .

1
P7.28 (a) ∆K = K f − K i = mv 2f − 0 = ∑ W = (area under curve from x = 0 to x = 5.00 m)
2

vf =
a f
2 area
=
2 7.50 J a = 1.94 m s
f
m 4.00 kg

1
(b) ∆K = K f − K i = mv 2f − 0 = ∑ W = (area under curve from x = 0 to x = 10.0 m)
2

vf =
a f
2 area
=
2 22.5 J a = 3.35 m s
f
m 4.00 kg

1
(c) ∆K = K f − K i = mv 2f − 0 = ∑ W = (area under curve from x = 0 to x = 15.0 m)
2

vf =
a f
2 area
=
2 30.0 J a = 3.87 m s
f
m 4.00 kg

1
P7.29 (a) Ki + ∑ W = K f = mv 2f
2
0 + ∑W =
1
2
e15.0 × 10 −3 kg 780 m s jb g 2
= 4.56 kJ

W 4.56 × 10 3 J
(b) F= = = 6.34 kN
∆r cos θ a f
0.720 m cos 0°

(c) a=
v −v2
f
=
b780 m sg − 0 = 422 km s
2
i
2
2
2x f 2a0.720 mf

(d) ∑ F = ma = e15 × 10 kg je422 × 10 m s j =

−3 3 2
6.34 kN
200 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.30 (a) e j
v f = 0.096 3 × 10 8 m s = 2.88 × 10 7 m s

1 1
Kf =
2
e
mv 2f = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 2.88 × 10 7 m s
2
je j 2
= 3.78 × 10 −16 J

(b) Ki + W = K f : 0 + F∆r cos θ = K f

a f
F 0.028 m cos 0° = 3.78 × 10 −16 J

F = 1.35 × 10 −14 N

∑F = 1.35 × 10 −14 N
(c) ∑ F = ma ; a=
m 9.11 × 10 −31 kg
= 1. 48 × 10 +16 m s 2

(d) v xf = v xi + a x t e
2.88 × 10 7 m s = 0 + 1.48 × 10 16 m s 2 t j
t = 1.94 × 10 −9 s

1
Check: x f = xi +
2
d
v xi + v xf t i
1
e
0.028 m = 0 + 0 + 2.88 × 10 7 m s t
2
j
t = 1.94 × 10 −9 s

Section 7.7 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction

P7.31 ∑ Fy = ma y : n − 392 N = 0
n = 392 N
a fa f
f k = µ k n = 0.300 392 N = 118 N

(a) WF = F∆r cos θ = a130 fa5.00f cos 0° = 650 J

(b) a fa f
∆Eint = f k ∆x = 118 5.00 = 588 J
FIG. P7.31
(c) a fa f
Wn = n∆r cos θ = 392 5.00 cos 90° = 0

(d) a fa f a f
W g = mg∆r cos θ = 392 5.00 cos −90° = 0

(e) ∆K = K f − K i = ∑ Wother − ∆Eint

1
mv 2f − 0 = 650 J − 588 J + 0 + 0 = 62.0 J
2

(f) vf =
2K f
=
a
2 62.0 J f
= 1.76 m s
m 40.0 kg
Chapter 7 201

P7.32 (a) Ws =
1 2 1 2 1
2
kx i − kx f = 500 5.00 × 10 −2
2 2
a fe j 2
− 0 = 0.625 J
1 1 1
Ws = mv 2f − mvi2 = mv 2f − 0
2 2 2

so vf =
2 c∑ W h = 2a0.625f m s = 0.791 m s
m 2.00

1 1
(b) mvi2 − f k ∆x + Ws = mv 2f
2 2
a fa fa fb g
0 − 0.350 2.00 9.80 0.050 0 J + 0.625 J =
1
2
mv 2f

0.282 J = b 2.00 kg gv
1 2
f
2 FIG. P7.32
2a0.282 f
v =
f m s = 0.531 m s
2.00

P7.33 (a) a
W g = mg cos 90.0°+θ f
Wg = b10.0 kg gd9.80 m s ia5.00 mf cos 110° =
2
−168 J

(b) f k = µ k n = µ k mg cos θ
∆Eint = f k = µ k mg cos θ
a fa fa fa f
∆Eint = 5.00 m 0.400 10.0 9.80 cos 20.0° = 184 J

(c) a fa f
WF = F = 100 5.00 = 500 J
FIG. P7.33
(d) ∆K = ∑ Wother − ∆Eint = WF + W g − ∆Eint = 148 J

1 1
(e) ∆K = mv 2f − mvi2
2 2

vf =
2 ∆K a f+ vi2 =
2 148
+ 1.50
a f a f 2
= 5.65 m s
m 10.0

P7.34 ∑ Fy = ma y : a f
n + 70.0 N sin 20.0°−147 N = 0
n = 123 N
a
f k = µ k n = 0.300 123 N = 36.9 N f
(a) a fa
W = F∆r cos θ = 70.0 N 5.00 m cos 20.0° = 329 J f
(b) a fa
W = F∆r cos θ = 123 N 5.00 m cos 90.0° = 0 J f
FIG. P7.34
(c) a fa
W = F∆r cos θ = 147 N 5.00 m cos 90.0° = 0 f
(d) a fa
∆Eint = F∆x = 36.9 N 5.00 m = 185 J f
(e) ∆K = K f − K i = ∑ W − ∆Eint = 329 J − 185 J = +144 J
202 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.35 vi = 2.00 m s µ k = 0.100

1
K i − f k ∆x + Wother = K f : mvi2 − f k ∆x = 0
2
1
mvi2 = µ k mg∆x
v2
∆x = i =
2.00 m s
2

= 2.04 m
b g
2 2 µ k g 2 0.100 9.80 a fa f

Section 7.8 Power

*P7.36 Pav =
W K f mv 2 0.875 kg 0.620 m s
= = =
b g 2

= 8.01 W
∆t ∆t 2 ∆t 2 21 × 10 −3 s e j
P7.37 Power =
W
P= =
a
mgh 700 N 10.0 m
= 875 W
fa f
t t 8.00 s

P7.38 A 1 300-kg car speeds up from rest to 55.0 mi/h = 24.6 m/s in 15.0 s. The output work of the engine is
equal to its final kinetic energy,
1
2
b
1 300 kg 24.6 m s gb g 2
= 390 kJ

390 000 J
with power P = ~ 10 4 W around 30 horsepower.
15.0 s

P7.39 (a) ∑ W = ∆K , but ∆K = 0 because he moves at constant speed. The skier rises a vertical
a f
distance of 60.0 m sin 30.0° = 30.0 m . Thus,

b ge
Win = −Wg = 70.0 kg 9.8 m s 2 30.0 m = 2.06 × 10 4 J = 20.6 kJ . ja f
(b) The time to travel 60.0 m at a constant speed of 2.00 m/s is 30.0 s. Thus,
W 2.06 × 10 4 J
Pinput = = = 686 W = 0.919 hp .
∆t 30.0 s

P7.40 (a) The distance moved upward in the first 3.00 s is

∆y = vt =
LM 0 + 1.75 m s OPa3.00 sf = 2.63 m .
N 2 Q
The motor and the earth’s gravity do work on the elevator car:
1 1
mvi2 + Wmotor + mg∆y cos 180° = mv 2f
2 2
1
b 2
gb
Wmotor = 650 kg 1.75 m s − 0 + 650 kg g 2.63 m = 1.77 × 10 4 J
2
g b ga f
W 1.77 × 10 4 J
Also, W = P t so P = = = 5.91 × 10 3 W = 7.92 hp.
t 3.00 s

(b) When moving upward at constant speed v = 1.75 m s the applied force equals the b g
b ge
weight = 650 kg 9.80 m s j = 6.37 × 10 N . Therefore,
2 3

P = Fv = e6.37 × 10 N jb1.75 m sg = 1.11 × 10

3 4
W = 14.9 hp .
Chapter 7 203
P7.41 energy = power × time
For the 28.0 W bulb:

a fe j
Energy used = 28.0 W 1.00 × 10 4 h = 280 kilowatt ⋅ hrs
a fb
total cost = \$17.00 + 280 kWh \$0.080 kWh = \$39.40 g
For the 100 W bulb:

a fe j
Energy used = 100 W 1.00 × 10 4 h = 1.00 × 10 3 kilowatt ⋅ hrs
1.00 × 10 4 h
# bulb used = = 13.3
750 h bulb
b g e jb
total cost = 13.3 \$0.420 + 1.00 × 10 3 kWh \$0.080 kWh = \$85.60 g
Savings with energy-efficient bulb = \$85.60 − \$39.40 = \$46.20

FG 454 g IJ FG 9 kcal IJ FG 4 186 J IJ = 1.71 × 10 7

*P7.42 (a) Burning 1 lb of fat releases energy 1 lb
H 1 lb K H 1 g K H 1 kcal K J.

7

Then 3.42 × 10 6 J = nmg∆y cos 0°

b ge jb
3.42 × 10 6 J = n 50 kg 9.8 m s 2 80 steps 0.150 m ga f
3.42 × 10 6 J = ne5.88 × 10 Jj
3

3.42 × 10 6 J
where the number of times she must climb the steps is n = = 582 .
5.88 × 10 3 J
This method is impractical compared to limiting food intake.

(b) Her mechanical power output is

P=
W 5.88 × 10 3 J
= = 90.5 W = 90.5 W
1 hp
= 0.121 hp .
FG IJ
t 65 s 746 W H K
1h IJ FG 1 kcal IJ FG 1.30 × 10 J IJ =
FG
3 mi 8
*P7.43 (a) The fuel economy for walking is
220 kcal h H
K H 4 186 J K H 1 gal K 423 mi gal .

1 h F 10 mi I F 1 kcal I F 1.30 × 10 J I 8
(b) For bicycling G J
400 kcal H h K GH 4 186 J JK GH 1 gal JK
= 776 mi gal .
204 Energy and Energy Transfer

Section 7.9 Energy and the Automobile

P7.44 At a speed of 26.8 m/s (60.0 mph), the car described in Table 7.2 delivers a power of P1 = 18.3 kW to
the wheels. If an additional load of 350 kg is added to the car, a larger output power of

P2 = P1 + (power input to move 350 kg at speed v)

will be required. The additional power output needed to move 350 kg at speed v is:

b g b
∆Pout = ∆f v = µ r mg v . g
Assuming a coefficient of rolling friction of µ r = 0.016 0 , the power output now needed from the
engine is

b gb ge jb
P2 = P1 + 0.016 0 350 kg 9.80 m s 2 26.8 m s = 18.3 kW + 1.47 kW . g
With the assumption of constant efficiency of the engine, the input power must increase by the
same factor as the output power. Thus, the fuel economy must decrease by this factor:

bfuel economyg = FGH PP IJK bfuel economyg = FGH 18.318+.31.47 IJK b6.40 km Lg
2
1

2
1

or bfuel economy g = 5.92 km L .

2

1
2 mv 2f − 12 mvi2 1
2 mv 2f − 0
P7.45 (a) fuel needed = =
useful energy per gallon b
eff.× energy content of fuel g
=
1
2 b900 kggb24.6 m sg = 2

1.35 × 10 −2 gal
a0.150fe1.34 × 10 J galj 8

(b) 73.8

FG 1 gal IJ FG 55.0 mi IJ FG 1.00 h IJ FG 1.34 × 10 8

J I a0.150f =
JK
(c) power =
H 38.0 mi K H 1.00 h K H 3 600 s K H 1 gal 8.08 kW

P7.46 b g b g
At start, v = 40.0 m s cos 30.0° i + 40.0 m s sin 30.0° j

And K = mv = b0.150 kg gb34.6 m sg = 90.0 J

1 2 1 2

2 2
Chapter 7 205

P7.47 b
Concentration of Energy output = 0.600 J kg ⋅ step 60.0 kg gb gFGH 1.50
1 step I
mK
J = 24.0 J m
b gb
F = 24.0 J m 1 N ⋅ m J = 24.0 N g
P = Fv
a
70.0 W = 24.0 N v f
v = 2.92 m s

P7.48 (a) a fa f
A ⋅ i = A 1 cos α . But also, A ⋅ i = A x .

Thus, a Afa1f cos α = A x or cos α =

Ax
A
.

Ay
Similarly, cos β =
A
Az
and cos γ =
A

where A = A x2 + A y2 + A z2 .

cos 2 α + cos 2 β + cos 2 γ =

FG A IJ + FG A IJ + FG A IJ
x
2
y
2
z
2
A2
(b)
H AK H AK H AK =
A2
=1

P7.49 (a) x = t + 2.00t 3

Therefore,

dx
v= = 1 + 6.00t 2
dt
1 1
a fe
K = mv 2 = 4.00 1 + 6.00t 2
2 2
j = e2.00 + 24.0t
2 2
j
+ 72.0t 4 J

(b) a=
dv
dt
= a12.0tf m s 2

F = ma = 4.00a12.0t f = a 48.0t f N

(c) a fe
P = Fv = 48.0t 1 + 6.00t 2 = j e48.0t + 288t j W 3

z ze
2.00 2 .00
(d) W=
0
Pdt =
0
j
48.0t + 288 t 3 dt = 1 250 J
206 Energy and Energy Transfer

*P7.50 (a) We write

F = ax b
a
1 000 N = a 0.129 m f b

5 000 N = aa0.315 mf
b

5=G
F 0.315 IJ = 2.44 b
b
H 0.129 K
ln 5 = b ln 2.44
ln 5
b= = 1.80 = b
ln 2.44
1 000 N
a= = 4.01 × 10 4 N m1.8 = a
a
0.129 m
1.80
f
z z
0. 25 m 0. 25 m
N 1.8
(b) W= Fdx = 4.01 × 10 4 x dx
0 0 m1.8

= 4.01 × 10 4 N x 2 .8
0. 25 m

m1.8 2.8 0
m1.8 2.8
= 294 J

*P7.51 The work done by the applied force is

z z
f x max
W = Fapplied dx =
i 0
e
− − k1 x + k 2 x 2 dx j
x max xmax

z z
x max x max
x2 2 x3
= k 1 x dx + k 2 x dx = k1 + k2
0 0
2 0
3 0
2 3
x max x max
= k1 + k2
2 3

P7.52 (a) The work done by the traveler is mghs N where N is the number of steps he climbs during
the ride.

N = (time on escalator)(n)

h
of person

and vertical velocity of person = v + nhs

nh
Then, N=
v + nhs

mgnhhs
and the work done by the person becomes Wperson =
v + nhs

continued on next page

Chapter 7 207
(b) The work done by the escalator is

b ga f a fb
We = power time = force exerted speed time = mgvt ga f
h
where t= as above.
v + nhs

mgvh
Thus, We = .
v + nhs

As a check, the total work done on the person’s body must add up to mgh, the work an
elevator would do in lifting him.

It does add up as follows: ∑ W = Wperson + We =

mgnhhs
+ =
b
mgvh mgh nhs + v g
= mgh
v + nhs v + nhs v + nhs

1
P7.53 (a) ∆K = mv 2 − 0 = ∑ W , so
2
2W 2W
v2 = and v =
m m

W
(b) W = F ⋅ d = Fx d ⇒ Fx =
d

*P7.54 During its whole motion from y = 10.0 m to y = −3.20 mm, the force of gravity and the force of the
plate do work on the ball. It starts and ends at rest

Ki + ∑ W = K f
0 + Fg ∆y cos 0°+ Fp ∆x cos 180° = 0
b g b g
mg 10.003 2 m − Fp 0.003 20 m = 0

5 kg e9.8 m s ja10 mf
2
5
Fp = −3
= 1.53 × 10 N upward
3.2 × 10 m

b g FGH F IJ FG F IJ t 2
P7.55 (a) P = Fv = F vi + at = F 0 +
m K HmK
t =

(b) P=
LM a20.0 Nf 2 OPa3.00 sf = 240 W
MN 5.00 kg PQ
208 Energy and Energy Transfer

z z
f xi 1 + x a
1
*P7.56 (a) W1 = F1 dx = k1 x dx =
2
b
k 1 x i1 + x a g 2
− xi21 =
1
2
e
k1 x a2 + 2 x a xi1 j
i xi 1

z
− xi 2 + x a
1
(b) W2 = k 2 x dx =
2
b
k 2 − xi 2 + x a g 2
− xi22 =
1
2
e
k 2 x a2 − 2 x a xi 2 j
− xi 2

(c) Before the horizontal force is applied, the springs exert equal forces: k 1 xi1 = k 2 xi 2

k1 xi1
xi 2 =
k2

1 1
(d) W1 + W2 = k1 x a2 + k1 x a xi1 + k 2 x a2 − k 2 x a xi 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 k x
= k 1 x a + k 2 x a + k1 x a xi1 − k 2 x a 1 i1
2 2 k2
1
b
= k1 + k 2 x a2
2
g

z ze
t t
*P7.57 (a) v = a dt =
0 0
1.16t − 0.21t 2 + 0.24t 3 dt j
t
t2 t3 t4
= 1.16 − 0.21 + 0. 24 = 0.58t 2 − 0.07t 3 + 0.06t 4
2 3 4 0

At t = 0 , vi = 0. At t = 2.5 s ,

e
v f = 0.58 m s 3 2.5 s ja f − e0.07 m s ja2.5 sf + e0.06 m s ja2.5 sf
2 4 3 5 4
= 4.88 m s
Ki + W = K f

0+W =
1
2
1
mv 2f = 1 160 kg 4.88 m s
2
b g 2
= 1.38 × 10 4 J

(b) At t = 2.5 s ,

e j
a = 1.16 m s 3 2.5 s − 0.210 m s 4 2.5 s e ja f + e0.240 m s ja2.5 sf
2 5 3
= 5.34 m s 2 .

and inject power

b
P = Fv = 6.19 × 10 3 N 4.88 m s = 3.02 × 10 4 W . g
Chapter 7 209

P7.58 (a) The new length of each spring is x 2 + L2 , so its extension is

x 2 + L2 − L and the force it exerts is k FH IK
x 2 + L2 − L toward its
fixed end. The y components of the two spring forces add to
zero. Their x components add to

FH IK x F L I
F = −2 ik x 2 + L2 − L
x 2 + L2
GH
= −2 kx i 1 −
x 2 + L2
JK . FIG. P7.58

F I dx
z z
f 0
L
(b) W = Fx dx
i
W = −2 kx 1 −
A
GH x +L K
2
J 2

0
0
ex + L j
2 2 12

z ze
0 0
x2
W = −2 k x dx + kL
A A
x2 + L j
2 −1 2
2 x dx W = −2 k
2
+ kL
b1 2g
A
A

W = −0 + kA 2 + 2 kL2 − 2 kL A 2 + L2 W = 2 kL2 + kA 2 − 2 kL A 2 + L2

*P7.59 For the rocket falling at terminal speed we have

∑ F = ma
+ R − Mg = 0
1
Mg = DρAvT2
2

(a) For the rocket with engine exerting thrust T and flying up at the same speed,

∑ F = ma
+T − Mg − R = 0
T = 2 Mg

The engine power is P = Fv = TvT = 2 MgvT .

(b) For the rocket with engine exerting thrust Tb and flying down steadily at 3vT ,
1
b g
2
Rb = DρA 3 vT = 9 Mg
2

∑ F = ma
−Tb − Mg + 9 Mg = 0
Tb = 8 Mg

The engine power is P = Tv = 8 Mg 3 vT = 24MgvT .

210 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.60 (a) a fe
F1 = 25.0 N cos 35.0° i + sin 35.0° j = j e20.5i + 14.3 jj N
F2 = a 42.0 N fecos 150° i + sin 150° jj = e−36.4i + 21.0 jj N

(b) ∑ F = F1 + F2 = e−15.9 i + 35.3 jj N

∑F =
(c) a=
m
e−3.18 i + 7.07 jj m s 2

(d) e j e
v f = v i + at = 4.00 i + 2.50 j m s + −3.18 i + 7.07 j m s 2 3.00 sje ja f
vf = e−5.54i + 23.7 jj m s
1 2
(e) r f = ri + v i t + at
2
e jb ga
r f = 0 + 4.00 i + 2.50 j m s 3.00 s + f 12 e−3.18i + 7.07 jjem s ja3.00 sf
2 2

∆r = r f = e−2.30i + 39.3 jj m
(f) Kf =
1
2
1
b
mv 2f = 5.00 kg
2
g a5.54f + a23.7f em s j =
2 2 2
1.48 kJ

1
(g) Kf = mvi2 + ∑ F ⋅ ∆r
2
1
b
K f = 5.00 kg 4.00 + 2.50
2
g a f a f bm sg + a−15.9 Nfa−2.30 mf + a35.3 Nfa39.3 mf
2 2 2

K f = 55.6 J + 1 426 J = 1.48 kJ

P7.61 (a) ∑ W = ∆K : Ws + W g = 0
1 2
2
a
kxi − 0 + mg∆x cos 90°+60° = 0 f
1
2
e 2
j a f a fa fa
1.40 × 10 3 N m × 0.100 − 0.200 9.80 sin 60.0° ∆x = 0 f
∆x = 4.12 m

(b) ∑ W = ∆K + ∆Eint : Ws + W g − ∆Eint = 0

1 2
kxi + mg∆x cos 150°− µ k mg cos 60° ∆x = 0
2
1
2
e j a
2
f a fa fa f a
1.40 × 10 3 N m × 0.100 − 0.200 9.80 sin 60.0° ∆x − 0.200 9.80 0.400 cos 60.0° ∆x = 0 fa fa fa f
∆x = 3.35 m
Chapter 7 211
P7.62 (a) FN a f Lammf FaNf Lammf
2.00 15.0 14.0 112
4.00 32.0 16.0 126
6.00 49.0 18.0 149
8.00 64.0 20.0 175
10.0 79.0 22.0 190
12.0 98.0
FIG. P7.62

(b) A straight line fits the first eight points, together with the origin. By least-square fitting, its
slope is

0.125 N mm ± 2% = 125 N m ± 2%

F
In F = kx , the spring constant is k = , the same as the slope of the F-versus-x graph.
x

(c) b ga
F = kx = 125 N m 0.105 m = 13.1 N f
P7.63 K i + Ws + W g = K f
1 1 1 1
mvi2 + kx i2 − kx 2f + mg∆x cos θ = mv 2f
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 FIG. P7.63
0 + kxi − 0 + mgxi cos 100° = mv 2f
2 2
1
2
b ga fb g b ge 1
jb
1.20 N cm 5.00 cm 0.050 0 m − 0.100 kg 9.80 m s 2 0.050 0 m sin 10.0° = 0.100 kg v 2
2
g b g
−3
b
0.150 J − 8.51 × 10 J = 0.050 0 kg v 2
g
0.141
v= = 1.68 m s
0.050 0

P7.64 (a) ∆Eint = − ∆K = −

1
2
e j 1
b
m v 2f − vi2 : ∆Eint = − 0.400 kg
2
gea6.00f − a8.00f jbm sg
2 2 2
= 5.60 J

(b) ∆Eint = f∆r = µ k mg 2πr : a f b ge

5.60 J = µ k 0.400 kg 9.80 m s 2 2π 1.50 m j a f
Thus, µ k = 0.152 .

(c) After N revolutions, the object comes to rest and K f = 0 .

1
Thus, ∆Eint = − ∆K = −0 + K i = mvi2
2

or µ k mg N 2πr =a f 1
2
mvi2 .

This gives N=
1
2 mvi2
=
b8.00 m sg
1
2
=
2

2.28 rev .
µ mg a 2πr f a0.152fe9.80 m s j2π a1.50 mf
k
2
212 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.65 If positive F represents an outward force, (same as direction as r), then

z ze
f rf
W = F ⋅ dr =
i ri
2 F0σ 13 r −13 − F0σ 7 r −7 dr j
rf
2 F σ 13 r −12 F0σ 7 r −6
W= 0 −
−12 −6 ri

W=
− F0σ 13
e r f−12 − ri−12 j + F σ er
0
7 −6
f − ri−6 j= Fσ 0
7
r f−6 − ri−6 −
F0 σ 13 −12
r f − ri−12
6 6 6 6
−77
W = 1.03 × 10 r f−6 − ri−6 − 1.89 × 10 −134
r f−12 − ri−12

W = 1.03 × 10 −77 1.88 × 10 −6 − 2.44 × 10 −6 10 60 − 1.89 × 10 −134 3.54 × 10 −12 − 5.96 × 10 −8 10 120

W = −2.49 × 10 −21 J + 1.12 × 10 −21 J = −1.37 × 10 −21 J

P7.66 P∆t = W = ∆K =
a ∆m f v 2

∆m ∆m
The density is ρ= = .
vol A∆x
∆x
Substituting this into the first equation and solving for P , since = v,
∆t FIG. P7.66
3
ρAv
for a constant speed, we get P= .
2

ρAv 2
Also, since P = Fv, F= .
2

Our model predicts the same proportionalities as the empirical equation, and gives D = 1 for the
drag coefficient. Air actually slips around the moving object, instead of accumulating in front of it.
For this reason, the drag coefficient is not necessarily unity. It is typically less than one for a
streamlined object and can be greater than one if the airflow around the object is complicated.

z
23 .7
375dx
P7.67 We evaluate 3
by calculating
12.8 x + 3.75 x

a
f + 375a0.100f + … 375a0.100f = 0.806
375 0.100
a12.8f + 3.75a12.8f a12.9f + 3.75a12.9f a23.6f + 3.75a23.6f
3 3 3

and

a
f + 375a0.100f + … 375a0.100f = 0.791 .
375 0.100
a12.9f + 3.75a12.9f a13.0f + 3.75a13.0f a23.7f + 3.75a23.7f
3 3 3

The answer must be between these two values. We may find it more precisely by using a value for
∆x smaller than 0.100. Thus, we find the integral to be 0.799 N ⋅ m .
Chapter 7 213
1
*P7.68 P= Dρπr 2 v 3
2

(a) Pa =
1
2
e
1 1.20 kg m3 π 1.5 m ja f b8 m sg
2 3
= 2.17 × 10 3 W

Pb v b3 24 m s F I 3

(b) = 3 =
Pa v a 8 ms GH JK = 3 3 = 27

e j
Pb = 27 2.17 × 10 3 W = 5.86 × 10 4 W

P7.69 (a) The suggested equation P∆t = bwd implies all of the v = constant
following cases:
n d
FG w IJ a2df FG ∆t IJ = bFG w IJ d
(1) P∆t = b
H 2K (2) P
H 2 K H 2K fk = µ k n F

F ∆t I F d I
P G J = bwG J
FG P IJ ∆t = bFG w IJ d
(3)
H 2 K H 2K and (4)
H 2K H 2K
w
These are all of the proportionalities Aristotle lists.
FIG. P7.69

(b) For one example, consider a horizontal force F pushing an object of weight w at constant
velocity across a horizontal floor with which the object has coefficient of friction µ k .

∑ F = ma implies that:
+n − w = 0 and F − µ k n = 0

so that F = µ k w

As the object moves a distance d, the agent exerting the force does work

W
W = Fd cos θ = Fd cos 0° = µ k wd and puts out power P =
∆t

This yields the equation P∆t = µ k wd which represents Aristotle’s theory with b = µ k .

Our theory is more general than Aristotle’s. Ours can also describe accelerated motion.

*P7.70 (a) So long as the spring force is greater than the friction force,
the block will be gaining speed. The block slows down when
the friction force becomes the greater. It has maximum
speed when kx a − f k = ma = 0. 0

e1.0 × 10 3
j
N m x a − 4.0 N = 0 x = −4.0 × 10 −3 m

0
(b) By the same logic,
FIG. P7.70
e1.0 × 10 3
j
N m x b − 10.0 N = 0 x = −1.0 × 10 −2 m
214 Energy and Energy Transfer

P7.6 see the solution Ax Ay A

P7.48 (a) cos α = ; cos β = ; cos γ = z ;
A A A
P7.8 5.33 W (b) see the solution

P7.10 16.0 40.1 kN

P7.50 (a) a = ; b = 1.80 ; (b) 294 J
m 1.8
P7.12 (a) see the solution; (b) −12.0 J
mgnhhs mgvh
P7.52 (a) ; (b)
P7.14 50.0 J v + nhs v + nhs

P7.16 (a) 575 N m ; (b) 46.0 J P7.54 1.53 × 10 5 N upward

P7.18 (a) 9.00 kJ; (b) 11.7 kJ, larger by 29.6% P7.56 see the solution

P7.20 (a) see the solution; (b) mgR P7.58 (a) see the solution;
(b) 2 kL2 + kA 2 − 2 kL A 2 + L2
P7.22 (a)
mg mg
+ ; (b)
1
+
FG
1 IJ −1

k1 k2 H
k1 k 2 K P7.60 e
(a) F1 = 20.5 i + 14.3 j N ;j
P7.24 (a) 1.20 J; (b) 5.00 m s ; (c) 6.30 J e
F2 = −36.4i + 21.0 j N ;j
P7.26 (a) 60.0 J; (b) 60.0 J e j
(b) −15.9 i + 35.3 j N ;

(c) e −3.18 i + 7.07 jj m s ; 2

P7.28 (a) 1.94 m s ; (b) 3.35 m s ; (c) 3.87 m s
(d) e −5.54i + 23.7 jj m s ;
P7.30 (a) 3.78 × 10 −16 J ; (b) 1.35 × 10 −14 N ;
(e) e −2.30 i + 39.3 jj m ; (f) 1.48 kJ; (g) 1.48 kJ
(c) 1.48 × 10 +16 m s 2 ; (d) 1.94 ns

P7.32 (a) 0.791 m s; (b) 0.531 m s P7.62 (a) see the solution; (b) 125 N m ± 2% ;
(c) 13.1 N
P7.34 (a) 329 J; (b) 0; (c) 0; (d) 185 J; (e) 144 J
P7.64 (a) 5.60 J; (b) 0.152; (c) 2.28 rev
P7.36 8.01 W
P7.66 see the solution
P7.38 ~ 10 4 W
P7.68 (a) 2.17 kW; (b) 58.6 kW
P7.40 (a) 5.91 kW; (b) 11.1 kW
P7.70 (a) x = −4.0 mm ; (b) −1.0 cm
P7.42 No. (a) 582; (b) 90.5 W = 0.121 hp