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of Steel Design

Advantages of Steel

High strength-to-weight ratio

High ductility and energy absorption (good for seismic applications)

Slender members capable of very long spans

Equal strength and modulus in tension and compression

Excellent shear strength

Versatile for construction of complex and unique structures

No need for labor intensive formwork or shoring

Can serve structural & architectural functions

Disadvantages of Steel

Can be

avoided Slender sections prone to buckling and vibration problems

with

Some details are susceptible to fatigue failure

proper

design Material and fabrication costs can be high

Susceptible to corrosion

Temperature variations can cause distortion of slender members

Final structure is sensitive to construction tolerances

Page 1 of 35

Basics of Steel Fabrication

Iron is melted and mixed with other alloying elements. The melted iron

is cast into large slabs, blooms or billets and cooled gradually until it

hardens. Primary steel making uses pig iron, a partly processed form

of iron ore, as the main precursor. In contrast, secondary steel making

uses scrap metal as the main precursor and is generally achieved using

an electric arc furnace.

Hot Rolling

Steel is heated to a red hot condition and passed through a series of

rollers to form gradually to the desired shape. This distorts the crystal

structure of the steel. Gradual cooling allows recrystalization of the

steel grains.

Page 2 of 35

Bar

(beams) W Sections HSS

Hot-Rolling Process and Hot-Rolled Sections

Page 3 of 35

Residual Stresses Due to rolling, differential cooling, and welding

Comp Comp

Ten.

Has been measure as high as 20ksi

uneven cooling

A

compression members as we will see later.

Cold Forming

Thin sheets or plates of steel can be mechanically formed to the desired

shape using a press or a brake without heating. This process, known as

cold working, typically results in increased strength and hardness, but

reduced ductility.

Page 4 of 35

(www.prosmetal.com) (www.structuresmag.org)

Steel is a metallic alloy composed primarily of Iron (Fe) and Carbon (C).

While at the macro-scale steel is a homogeneous material, at the micro-

scale the granular structure of steel is clearly evident. The individual

grains are ordered crystals of iron, carbon and other alloying elements.

The evolution of this crystal structure during processing gives steel its

unique characteristics. The properties of the steel can be widely varied

by altering the fundamental crystal structure. This can be done during

fabrication, by heat treatment, by including various alloys in the steel

and by varying the carbon content.

Page 5 of 35

Individual grains bcc crystal

structure

Carbon Content

Structural steel is produced by melting iron (Fe) and combining it with

various alloying elements. Iron is a ductile, soft, and weak metallic

element. Besides iron, carbon (C) is the most common element in

typical mild structural steels. Carbon is a hard, strong, and brittle non-

metallic element. Combining these two elements, in different

proportions, yields steel with different properties. The relationship

between carbon content, temperature, and crystal structure is defined by

the phase diagram.

Page 6 of 35

Crystal structure and phase diagram for iron-carbon alloys (Campbell, 2008)

(http://threeplanes.net/toolsteel.html)

Page 7 of 35

(http://www.gowelding.com/met/carbon.htm)

As it cools from the liquid state, pure iron (C < 0.008%) forms a body

centered cubic (bcc) structure known as ferrite ( iron) at a temperature

of approximately 1540oC. With continued cooling, the crystal

undergoes a shift to a face centered cubic (fcc) structure called austenite

( iron) at a temperature of about 1400oC. Continued cooling results in a

second shift back to a bcc ferrite structure ( iron).

applications. As such, it is commonly combined with carbon to provide

strength and hardness. The carbon content of most structural steels is

typically within the range of 0.1% - 0.5%. Upon cooling, steels form

crystals of ferrite and cementite or iron carbide (Fe 3 C), a hard brittle

compound. Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness and

strength of steel while reducing its ductility, toughness, and weldability.

Page 8 of 35

The effect of carbon content on several steel properties is illustrated

below.

~ 75 ksi

Perfectly ordered crystal structures are typically quite brittle. The

characteristic ductility of steel results from the presence of

discontinuities, or dislocations, in the crystal structure. Yielding occurs

as these dislocations move along slip plains through the crystal structure.

Page 9 of 35

As steel cools, crystals begin to form around nucleation sites. As these

crystals grow, they begin to intersect forming individual grains with

different orientations. As such, the mechanical properties of steel are

also influenced by the size of the grains that form upon cooling. Fine-

grained steels generally have higher yield strengths, ductility, and

fracture strength than coarse grained steels. Therefore, it is often

desirable to fabricate steel in such a way as to produce a fine-grained

microstructure.

(short, direct slip planes) (longer, winding slip planes)

The relationship between grain size and yield strength for different

metals is given by the Hall-Petch relationship (illustrated below).

Reducing grain size is very effective in increasing yield strength for iron

(Fe) while it is less effective for other metals. Decreasing grain size also

increases toughness and decreases the ductile-brittle transition

Page 10 of 35

temperature (DBTT), discussed below. All of these are generally seen

as positive features of fine grained steels.

d = 0.25 mm d = 0.01 mm

Heat Treatment

Grain size and microstructure can be controlled by subjecting steel to

different types of heat treatment and carefully controlling heating and

cooling rates to achieve the desired mechanical properties:

cool.

o Relieves internal stresses which form during mechanical

working

o Increases ductility and toughness of steel

o Reduces steel strength and hardness

Page 11 of 35

Hardening Heating to 1500oF followed by rapid cooling

(quenching) in suitable fluid such as water or oil.

o Rearranges atomic structure of steel

o Increases steel hardness and strength

o Reduces ductility and toughness

gradual or rapid cooling. Typically done after hardening to restore

ductility and toughness.

Alloying Elements

Steels with different mechanical properties (stainless steel, tool steel

etc.) can be formed by alloying steel with various other elements. Some

common alloying elements and their function are (Davis et al., 1982):

Aluminum (Al) helps expel gasses from molten steel (Al killed

steels)

increases hardness and strength

slightly increases hardness and strength

Page 12 of 35

Nickel (Ni) produces finer grain structure, makes quenching

more effective, increases strength with little loss

of ductility

ductility, increases hardness slightly

fine grained clean metal

steel and to give steel various other properties

Stress-Strain Response

Steel is a ductile material. Its stress-strain response is idealized by an

elastic-perfectly plastic relationship. Many of the principles that we

implement in design are based on the inherent characteristics of the steel

and the simplifications that we make in representing this behavior.

Page 13 of 35

80

70

Fu = ultimate

strength

60

50

Stress (MPa)

rupture

40

Strain Strain

30 hardening softening

region region

20

10

Elastic

region 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Strain (in/in)

T

80 u = ultimate

Plastic Strain strain

70

region hardening

region

60

50

Stress (MPa)

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

Strain (in/in)

T

Stress-Strain Relationship of ASTM A572 Steel

Page 14 of 35

80

70 E = Elastic

modulus,

60 1

Fy = Yield

Strength

50

Stress (MPa)

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

Strain (in/in)

y = Fy/E

Yield Strain

structural steels near room temperature. At extreme temperatures, the

mechanical properties of steel are quite different.

Page 15 of 35

(Bruneau et al., 2011)

Page 16 of 35

Fracture Toughness

Toughness is the capacity of steel to dissipate energy during

deformation. In steel it is commonly measured using the Charpy V-

notch test (CVN).

bending High

test strain

rate

Page 17 of 35

Steel toughness is

dramatically affected

by temperature. At

higher temperatures

steel exhibits ductile

behavior with

significant energy

absorption. However,

below the ductile-

brittle transition

temperature (DBTT)

steel becomes brittle

with low energy

absorption capacity.

This makes steel

particularly susceptible

to fatigue damage at

low temperatures.

Page 18 of 35

Strain Aging

Strain aging is a phenomenon that develops due to cold working of steel

materials. If steel is loaded, unloaded and immediately reloaded, it

typically follows a similar loading path as shown by path 1 below. The

reloaded steel does not exhibit an inelastic plateau if it was previously

loaded into the strain-hardening range. However, if the steel is loaded

and unloaded and the left unstressed for a time, particularly at elevated

temperatures, a phenomenon called strain aging occurs. In this case,

the inelastic plateau of the steel is re-established and the material

becomes stronger and more brittle (path 2 below).

path (2)

Stress

Failure

(Rupture)

path (1)

Failure

(Rupture)

Unload

Load

Reload

Strain

Permanent Set

arent locked in iron carbide crystals), and nitrogen atoms through the

crystal structure of the steel in the spaces between atoms (interstitials).

Page 19 of 35

These atoms move through interstitials and collect near dislocations.

The presence of these interstitial atoms near dislocations pins the

dislocations making it harder for them to move. This increases the yield

and ultimate strength of the material and reduces its toughness. The

process is accelerated at elevated temperatures because the increased

energy facilitates movement of carbon atoms through the crystal lattice

structure.

structures that are required to resist repeated cyclic loads or are required

to have significant ductility (bridges and transportation infrastructure,

cold worked and galvanized structures).

Buckling occurs when relatively slender elements are subjected to

compression loading. At low load levels, the compression element

exhibits only one stable configuration. As the load increases, once the

applied load reaches a critical value, the compression element can

remain in equilibrium in one of two configurations: the original, un-

deflected configuration or a buckled, deflected configuration. This is

known as bifurcation or buckling instability.

Page 20 of 35

Global Buckling

P = Pcr

P < Pcr

Applied load, P

P = Pcr

Lateral displacement,

was first studied by Euler. His formulation lead to the well known

Euler buckling load

2 EI

Pcr =

(kL) 2

where E and I are the elastic modulus of the material and the moment of

inertia of the section about the axis of buckling, respectively and kL is

the effective length (distance between the inflection points of the

Page 21 of 35

buckled element). The effective length factor k depends on the

boundary conditions of the member.

factors:

1. Residual stresses primary reason

primary causes

3. Load eccentricity

compression member? Illustrate on the P- graph on the previous page.

stresses can lead to premature yielding of portions of the cross section at

load levels lower than the Euler buckling load. In this case the member

may exhibit inelastic buckling prior to yielding but at a load lower than

the elastic buckling load.

Page 22 of 35

F

Fy 2E t

F=

( / r )2

2E

Limiting Fe =

buckling ( / r )2

stress

Limiting slenderness /r

ratio

Local Buckling

Similarly to global buckling, local elements (web or flange) of a cross-

section can buckle under compressive stresses. This is based on

consideration of plate bending and leads to an expression for the critical

buckling stress of:

k 2 E

Fcr = < Fy

12(1 2 )(b / t ) 2

where k in this case is a parameter (different from the effective length

factor described previously) that depends on the boundary conditions of

the plate element. This expression is used to establish limiting values of

flange and web slenderness, b f /2t f and h/t w respectively, which define

the boundaries between compact, non-compact, and slender elements

and cross-sections.

Page 23 of 35

Local buckling limits for elements in axial compression

Critical

stress Efficiency of section reduced due

to local buckling (AISCS E7)

~2 Fy

Transition curve

Elastic local

Fy

buckling

slenderness ratio,

r, Limiting value from bf/2tf for FLB

AISC Spec Table B4.1a h/tw for WLB

For compression members, the primary consideration for local buckling

relates to how much of the cross section is rendered ineffective due to

local buckling. For members with non-slender elements ( < r ), the

entire cross-section is effective. For members with slender elements (

> r ), a reduction factor is applied to account for the lost efficiency of

the section due to local buckling.

Flexure of steel beams is assumed to conform to the basic assumptions

of beam theory (plane sections remain plane, normals remain normal,

symmetric sections). Additionally, to simplify the analysis and

design, an elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain relationship is assumed.

Page 24 of 35

Based on these assumptions we can track the evolution of bending

stresses in a steel beam as follows:

<y =y =y =y

N.A.

N.A.

Initial Fully

yielding plastic

9 y), must be developed in the compression flange.

Page 25 of 35

Mp

~10~18% M p = Fy Z

My

1.10 to 1.18M y

M y = Fy S

M M

CL deflection

steel beams ultimately fail due to buckling in one of three modes:

1) Flange local buckling (FLB)

2) Web local buckling (WLB)

3) Beam lateral-torsional buckling (LTB)

1) The beam achieves its plastic moment capacity, M p , and

exhibits significant inelastic deflection before ultimately failing

due to buckling (Compact section)

2) The beam achieves its plastic moment capacity, M p , but fails

due to lateral-torsional buckling prior to achieving significant

inelastic deflection (Compact section with inelastic LTB of

member)

3) The beam fails due to inelastic buckling (which is affected by

the presence of residual stresses) prior to achieving its full

Page 26 of 35

plastic moment capacity, M p . (Non-Compact section, or

Compact section with inelastic LTB of member)

4) The beam buckles elastically prior to the onset of any inelastic

behavior. (Slender section, or Non-Compact or Compact

Section with elastic LTB of member)

Moment

Complete yielding, Mp 1

2

Initial yielding, My 3 inelastic

Inelastic due to residual elastic

stresses, Mr 4

CL deflection

Therefore, when designing and analyzing doubly symmetric steel beams,

we must consider the behavior at two levels: 1) local buckling at the

cross-section level and 2) lateral-torsional buckling at the member level.

Similarly to compression members, local buckling of steel elements in

flexural compression can be controlled by limiting the slenderness ratio

of the flange and the web. The flange local buckling (FLB) behavior of

steel beams is illustrated below where:

Page 27 of 35

M r = 0.7F y S x

F y = yield strength

S x = I x /y (elastic section modulus )

Ix = moment of inertia about x-axis

y = distance from neutral axis to most extreme fibers in the section

The moment M r is the reduced moment at which inelastic behavior

initiates due to the effect of residual stresses.

Bending Non-compact

Moment

Compact Slender

Mp

My

Effect of residual stresses

Mr

p r slenderness ratio,

Limiting values from bf/2tf for FLB

AISC Spec Table B4.1b

All hot-rolled I shaped sections have compact webs for the range of

yield strengths used in building construction. Welded, built-up sections

with non-compact or slender webs are classified as plate girders and are

Page 28 of 35

designed as such. For these types of members, the slenderness of the

web can reduce the flange local buckling strength of the section.

Why?

Lateral-torsional buckling occurs in members that do not have adequate

lateral support to prevent global instability of the compression region of

the beam. As such, the LTB capacity of a beam is governed by its

unbraced length, L b , the distance between lateral supports.

Section

capacity Inelastic

Bending Elastic LTB

governs LTB

Moment

Mp

(or less)

My

Effect of residual stresses

Mr

Constant

Non-constant

moment

moment

(Cb factor)

Lp Lr Unbraced

Length, Lb

Limiting values from

AISC Spec Table B4.1b

Page 29 of 35

Ductility

Ductility is defined as the ability of a material deform under tensile

stress. In steel, ductility comes from yielding and plastic flow and is

associated with increased energy dissipation or toughness. Ductility can

be defined at the material level, the section level and the structure level.

While there are many definitions, they generally relate the behavior at

ultimate to the behavior at yielding. As such, at the various levels,

ductility can be defined as:

Section ductility: curvature ductility = u /y

Joint ductility: rotation ductility = u / y

Member ductility: deflection ductility = u / y

respectively.

order of 150. However, at the section level, ductility can be reduced by

local buckling. Further, at the member level, ductility can be reduced

due to the localization of inelastic behavior as illustrated below.

Page 30 of 35

Material Level

80 Section Level

70 Moment, M

60

Mp

50

Stress (MPa)

My

u/y 7 9

40

30

u/y 100-160

20

10

Curvature,

0 y u

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Strain (in/in)

Member Level

Beam Span, L

P

Load, P u/y 3 5

Pp

Bending Py

Moment, M

My My

Mp

Curvature,

y Deflection,

u

Plastic hinge

region

(~0.3 0.4 L)

Page 31 of 35

Calculation of the Plastic Moment Capacity

Ac y

p.n.a yc C

Mp yt

y T

At

AC = area in compression

AT = area in tension

yC = distance from p.n.a to centroid of comp. force res.

yT = distance from p.n.a to centroid of tension force res.

F X =0 C =T

y AC = y AT (defines plastic neutral axis, for

homogeneous cross-sections)

AC = AT = A / 2

M n.a . =0

M p = AC y yC + AT y yT

= ( AC yC + AT yT ) y

Mp =Z y

= first moment of area w.r.t. the plastic neutral axis(p.n.a.)

= AC yC + AT yT

= Ai yi PNA

Page 32 of 35

Design Philosophies

Two philosophies of design have been adopted by AISC:

1) Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

2) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

While both design methodologies are accepted and widely used, there is

a general trend by code and specification writing bodies, and the

engineering community to move towards LRFD.

The basic principle behind ASD can be summarized as the stress in a

member due to the effect of applied loads should not exceed a specified

allowable value.

support applied loads (allowable strength)

Rn

Ra

R n = Nominal Strength

= Factor of Safety (depends on nature of load applied

& failure mode)

= 2.00 for rupture

The Factor of Safety defined in this way does not give us any idea

about the probability of failure of a structure designed according to this

philosophy.

Page 33 of 35

Load and Resistance Factor Design

according to this formulation will have a known, acceptable probability

of failure. This design philosophy accounts for the inherent statistical

variability of applied loads, material properties and member dimensions.

Required strength < design strength.

R u R n

where:

R u = Required strength (LRFD)

R n = Nominal strength (T n , P n , V n , M n )

= Resistance factor

R n = Design strength

Required Strength, R u

R u = i Q i

Q i = Effect of applied load

Applied Loads:

Live Load (L) Snow (S) Flood (F a )

Roof Live Ld. (L r ) Rain (R) Lat. Earth Press. (H)

Wind (W) Weight of Ice (D i ) Self straining (T)

Page 34 of 35

Based on ASCE 7, AISC defines seven load combinations:

1. 1.4D

2. 1.2D + 1.6L +0.5(L r or S or R)

3. 1.2D + 1.6(L r or S or R) + (0.5L or 0.5W)

4. 1.2D + 1.0W + 0.5L + 0.5(L r or S or R)

5. 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S

6. 0.9D + 1.0W Cases when dead load counteracts

7. 0.9D + 1.0E effect of applied loads

Applied loads are inherently variable and uncertain. Some load effects,

such as live loads and wind loads, are exhibit more variability than

others, such as dead load. Generally, each load effect can be represented

by a statistical distribution.

their resistance are also statistically variable.

Resistance

Probability of

Occurrence

Failure

Load

= R n i Q i region

Since, the resistance, R n , and the load effects, Q i , each have their own

statistical distributions, the load and resistance factors, i and

respectively, are adjusted to achieve an acceptable probability of failure

defined by the reliability index, . This process is called code

calibration. While the target probability of failure is the subject of

debate, many US design codes accept 0.02% as a tolerable probability of

failure. This corresponds to a reliability index, = 3.5.

Page 35 of 35

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