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1.

A circular cone as shown is subjected to a torque applied at its top and bottom
surfaces.
(a) Write down the boundary conditions on its lateral surface. The z-axis is
pointed upward.
(b) Discuss the validity of Saint-Venants assumption. (20%)

Ans.
(a)Physical components
h n h h Rr
= x , nx = = , nz =
R r nz h2 + ( R r )
2 12
s s

h Rr
Cartesian coordinates: n = ( nx , n y , nz ) = , 0,
s s
Cylindrical coordinates: n = nr e r + n e + nz e z
h Rr
n = ( nr , n , nz ) = , 0,
s s
n n
T j = ij ni = 0 and T j = i j ni = 0
n n
T j = ij ni and T j = i j ni
h rr ( R r ) rz ( R r ) rz
rr nr + r n + rz nz = 0 , + = 0 , or rr =
s s h
h r ( R r ) z ( R r ) z
r nr + n + z nz = 0 , + = 0 , or r =
s s h
h zr ( R r ) zz ( R r ) zz
zr nr + z n + zz nz = 0 , + = 0 , or zr =
s s h

(b) Saint-Venants assumption can not satisfy the boundary condition on the lateral surface where
rr 0 , rz 0 , r 0 , z 0 , zr 0 , zz 0

2. For a static two-dimensional problem, derive the equation of equilibrium in terms of physical components
in the -direction of a polar coordinate. (20%)
Ans. ds = g1dx1 + g 2 dx 2 = er dr + e rd
g1 = e r , g 2 = re g11 = 1 , g 22 = r 2 , gij = 0 if i j
e 1
g1 = er , g 2 = , g 11 = 1 , g 22 = , g ij = 0 if i j
r r2
The Christoffel symbols are
gi , j = ijk g k = ijk g k
1 1
g1,1 = 0, g1,2 = e = g2 12
2
=
r r
1 1
g 2,1 = e = g 2 = 212
g2 21
2
=12
2
=
r r
g 2,2 = re r = rg1 =122 g1 122 = r
Equations of equilibrium
ij j + X i = 0
X = X 1g1 + X 2 g 2 = X 1e r + rX 2e = Fr e r + F e

For i=1
1 j j + X 1 = 11 1 + 12 2 + X 1 = 0

( ) (g ) ( ) (g )
12 1 2 1 2
ii 1 2
ij = g jj ii
ij , ij = g jj ij
11 11
11 1 = 11,1 + l111l + 1l 11l = 11,1 = ( g11 )
1 2
( g11 )
12
=
r r
12
1
12 2 = 12,2 + l 2 12l + 1l 22l = 12,2 + 22 122 + 11 21
2
= 22 r + 11
r
1 2
12
= ( g 22 )
1 2
( ) ( g 22 )
1 2
( )
g 22 22 r + ( g11 )
1 2
( ) 1
12 12
g 11 g 11 11
r
1 12
1 1
= 22 + 11
r r r
11
1 12
+ ( 11 22 ) + F = 0
1 1
+
r r r
For i=2
j 2 + X 2 = 12 + 22 + X 2 = 0
j 1 2

( ) (g ) ( ) (g )
12 1 2 1 2
ii 1 2
ij = g jj ii
ij , ij = g jj ij
12 1 = 12,1 + l 211l + 1l 12l
= 12,1 + 12 11
1
+ 22 12
1
+ 1111
2
+ 12 12
2

1 1
= 12,1 + 12 0 + 22 0 + 11 0 + 12 = 12,1 + 12
r r
12
= ( g 22 )
1 2
( g11 ) + ( g 22 ) ( g 11 ) 12
1 2 1
12 12

r r
1 12 1 12
= + 2
r r r
22 2 = ,2 + 2l + 2l 22l
22 l2 2

= 22,2 + 12 221 + 22 222 + 21 221 + 22 222


1 22 1
= 22,2 + 12
+ 0 + 21 + 22 0
r r
1 2
22
= ( g 22 ) ( g 22 ) + ( g 22 ) ( g 11 ) 12 + ( g11 ) ( g 22 ) 21
1 2 1 2 12 1 1 2 12 1
r r
1 22
1 1 1 1 1 22
2 12
= 2 + 12 + 21 = 2 + 2
r r r r r r r
1 21
1 1 22
2 12
F 2
+ 2 21 + 2 + 2 + =0
r r r r r r
3. An infinite plate with a circular hole of radius a is subjected to a uniform
shearing load S as shown in the figure. Find the Airy stress function and the
physical components of stress. (20%)
Ans.
Uniform shear at r
No body force 4 = 0
Boundary conditions
(1) xy = S, and xx = yy = 0 at r , (2) rr = 0 , and r = 0 at r = a
At large r,
2 r 2 sin 2
= xy = S try = Sxy = Sr 2 cos sin = S
xy 2
Stresses correspond to this are
rr = S sin 2 , r = S cos 2 , = S sin 2
They does not satisfy the B.C. at r=a. Add other biharmonic functions to cancel rr and r the
possible biharmonic functions must yield stresses depend on or a function of sin2 and
cos2 respectively.
A possible Airy stress function is
r 2 sin 2 sin 2
= S + A 2 + B sin 2
2 r
and the corresponding physical stress components are
sin 2 sin 2
rr = S sin 2 6 A 4 4 B 2 ,
r r
cos 2 cos 2
r = S cos 2 + 6 A 4 + 2 B 2 ,
r r
sin 2
= S sin 2 + 6 A 4
r
At r = a, rr = 0 , and r = 0
A B A B
( rr ) r = a = ( S 6 4 4 2 ) sin 2 = 0 , or S = 6 4 + 4 2
a a a a
A B A B
( r ) r = a = ( S + 6 4 + 2 2 ) cos 2 = 0 , or S = 6 4 2 2
a a a a
A = a S / 2 and B = a S
4 2

(a) Airy stress function:


2
Sr 2 sin 2 a 4 S sin 2 r 4 a 4 + 2r 2 a 2 r 2 a2 S
= + a 2
S sin 2 = S sin 2 = sin 2
2 2r 2 2r 2 r 2
(b) Physical stress components:
3a 4 S sin 2 4a 2 S sin 2 r 4 4a 2 r 2 + 3a 4
rr = S sin 2 + = S sin 2 ,
r4 r2 r4
3a S cos 2 2a S cos 2 r + 2a r 3a
4 2 4 2 2 4
r = S cos 2 + = S cos 2 ,
r4 r2 r4
3a 4 S sin 2 r 4 + 3a 4
= S sin 2 = S sin 2
r4 r
4

4. A thin disk is rotating with a constant angular speed . The disk has an outer radius
a is mounted on a rigid shaft of radius b. The material of disk is isotropic and has a
density . Find physical components of stress in the disk.. (20%)
1 d d 1 d d
Note: For axial symmetric case 4 = r r
r dr dr r dr dr
Ans.
Use coordinates attached to the rotating disk.
Body force F = Fr e r + F e = r 2e r
V 1 V
F = V = er e = r 2e r
r r r
V V
Body force potential = r 2 and =0
r
r 2 2
V =
2
The compatibility relation requires
2( 1) 2
4 + V = 0 or
1+
1 d d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 2( 1) 1 d dV 4( 1) 2

r r = V = r =
r dr dr r dr dr 1+ 1 + r dr dr 1+
d d 1 d d 4( 1) 2 r
r r =
dr dr r dr dr 1+
d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 r 2
r = +A
dr r dr dr
r
1+
d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 r A
r = +
dr r dr dr 1+ r
1 d d ( 1) 2 r 2
r = + A ln r + B
r dr dr 1+
d d ( 1) 2 r 3
r = + Ar ln r + Br
dr dr 1+
d ( 1) 2 r 4 A 2 r2 B
r = + r ln r + r 2 + C
dr 4 (1 + ) 2 2 2
d ( 1) 2 r 3 A r B C ( 1) 2 r 3 C
= + r ln r + r + = + Ar ln r + Br +
dr 4 (1 + ) 2 2 2 r 4 (1 + ) r
( 1) 2 r 4
= + A1r 2 ln r + B1r 2 + C ln r + D = p + c
16 (1 + )
From the table, the stress function r 2 ln r gives multiple-valued displacement u . Therefore, A1=0.
1 ( 1) 2 r 2 C ( 1) 2 r 2 C r 2 2 ( + 3) 2 r 2 C
rr = +V = + B + 2 + V = + 2 B1 + 2 = + 2 B1 + 2 ,
r r 4 (1 + ) r 4 (1 + ) r 2 4 (1 + ) r
1
r = ( )0 ,
r r
2 3( 1) 2 r 2 C 3( 1) 2 r 2 C r 2 2 ( 5) 2 r 2 C
= 2 +V =
+ B 2 +V = + B1 2
2 = + 2 B1 2
r 4 (1 + ) r 4 (1 + ) r 2 4 (1 + ) r
The displacement caused by p and V can be found as follows:
ur 1 3 3 (1 )
rr = = ( + ) = r 2 2
2 4 (1 + )

r 2
rr rr
4
1 u ur 1 3 1 (1 )
= + = ( rr + ) = r 2 2
r r 2 4 2 4 ( )
1 +
3 (1 ) (1 ) r 3 2 + rigid body motion(let it be zero)
2 ur = r 2 2 dr =
4 (1 + ) 4 (1 + )
(1 ) (1 ) r 3 2 d = 0 + rigid body motion(let it be zero)
2 u =
4 (1 + ) 4 (1 + )
Therefore, the components of dis[placement are
(1 ) r 3 2 B 1 r C
2 ur = 1( ) , 2 u = 0
4 (1 + ) r
The boundary conditions:
At r=a, the physical components rr = 0 , r = 0
At r=b, the physical components ur = 0 , u = 0
( + 3) 2 a 2 C
rr = + 2 B1 + 2 = 0
r =a
4 (1 + ) a
(1 ) b3 2 B 1 b C = 0
2 ur = 1( )
r =b
4 (1 + ) b
Solve to obtain

B1 =
1 ( 1) b 4 + ( + 3)a 4 2 , C=
( 1) ( + 3)a 2 2b 2 a 2b 2 2
4 ( + 1) ( 1) b 2 + 2a 2 4 ( + 1) ( 1) b 2 + 2a 2
(Alternative:
3 1 ( 5) r C 3 2 2 r 2
2 2
1
=
( + )
= + 2 B + 4 B

1
2 2 4 (1 + ) 4 (1 + )
rr 1
4 r2
( 1) 2 2
1 C
= r + ( 1) B1 2
4 (1 + )
2 r
At r=b, the physical components ur = 0 , u = 0 results in = 0 , i.e.,
(1 ) 1 C
= b 2 2 (1 ) B1 2 = 0
4 (1 + )2
r =b
b
It is the same equation of coefficients as given by ur r =b = 0 .)

5. The Airy stress function for an infinite elastic plane subjected to a concentrated force P acting at the
P
origin in the x-direction is = [ ( + 1)r sin +( 1)r log r cos ] . Find the Airy stress
2 ( + 1)
function for an infinite elastic plane subjected to a concentrated moment M acting at the origin of the
coordinate. (20%)
Ans.

P
1 = [ ( + 1)r sin +( 1)r log r cos ] = Pf ( x, y)
2 ( + 1)

2 = Pf ( x, y y )
Let Py = M = Const.
f ( x, y ) f ( x, y y )
= 1 + 2 = P [ f ( x, y ) f ( x, y y ) ] = M
y
When y 0
f ( x, y ) f ( x, y y ) f
= lim M =M
y 0
y y
f f r f
= +
y r y y
r 1
r = ( x2 + y2 ) ,
12 2y y
= = = sin
y 2 ( x + y )2 2 12
r

y 1 1 x cos
= tan 1 , = = 2 =
x y x 1 + ( y x ) 2
x +y 2
r
( + 1)r sin + ( 1)r log r cos
f (r , ) =
2 ( + 1)
f ( + 1) sin + ( 1) log r cos + ( 1) cos
=
r 2 ( + 1)
f ( + 1)r sin ( + 1)r cos ( 1)r log r sin
=
2 ( + 1)
f f r f f f cos
= + = sin +
y r y y r r
1 ( + 1) sin 2 + ( 1) log r cos sin + ( 1) cos sin
=
2 ( + 1) ( + 1) sin cos ( + 1) cos 2 ( 1) log r sin cos
1
= [( + 1) + 2 cos sin ]
2 ( + 1)
1
= [( + 1) + sin 2 ]
2 ( + 1)
The corresponding stress depends on q that cannot satisfy axial symmetric condition. Therefore,
additional stress function is needed.

P 3
3 = [( + 1) r cos + ( + 1)r cos + ( 1)r log r sin ] = Pg ( x, y )
2 ( + 1) 2

4 = Pg ( x + x, y )
Let Px = M = Const.
g ( x, y ) g ( x + x, y)
= 3 + 4 = P [ g ( x, y ) g ( x + x, y )] = M
x
When x 0
g ( x, y ) g ( x + x, y ) g
= lim M = M
x 0
x x
g g r g
= +
x r x x
r 1
r = ( x2 + y 2 ) ,
12 2x x
= = = cos
x 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 2
r
y y 1 y sin
= tan 1 , = 2 = 2 =
x x x 1 + ( y x ) 2
x +y 2
r
3
( + 1) r cos + ( + 1)r cos + ( 1)r log r sin
g (r , ) = 2
2 ( + 1)
3
( + 1) + cos + ( 1) log r sin + ( 1)sin
g 2
=
r 2 ( + 1)
3
( + 1)r cos ( + 1)r + sin + ( 1)r log r cos
g 2
=
2 ( + 1)
g g r g g g sin
= + = cos
x r x x r r
3 2
( + 1) + 2 cos + ( 1) log r sin cos + ( 1) sin cos
1
=
2 ( + 1) 3 2
( + 1) cos sin + ( + 1) + sin ( 1) log r cos sin
2
1 3
= ( + 1) + 2sin cos
2 ( + 1) 2
1 3
= ( + 1) + sin 2
2 ( + 1) 2
Therefore, the total stress function for concentrated moment acting at the origin is
+ M f g
t = =
2 2 y x
M 3
= ( + 1) sin 2 ( + 1) + + sin 2
4 ( + 1) 2
M 3
= +
2 4
The physical stress components are
M
rr = 0 , r = , = 0
2 r 2
1. The bottom of a circular cone as shown is rest on a smooth surface so that it
can slide freely. Write down the boundary conditions on its (a) top surface,
(b) bottom surface, and (c) lateral surface. The z-axis is pointed upward.
(20%)
Ans.
n
(a) Top surface T = 0 , n = nr er + n e + nz e z = ( nr , n , nz ) = ( 0, 0, 1)
n n
T j = ij ni and T j = i j ni
rr nr + r n + rz nz = 0 , rz = 0 ,
r nr + n + z nz = 0 , z = 0 ,
zr nr + z n + zz nz = 0 , zz = 0 .

(b) Bottom surface uz = u3 = 0, and Tr = T = 0 , n = ( nr , n , nz ) = ( 0, 0, -1)


rr nr + r n + rz nz = 0 , rz = 0 ,
r nr + n + z nz = 0 , z = 0 .
(c) lateral surface
h n h h Rr
= x , nx = = , nz =
R r nz h 2 + ( R r )2
1 2
s s

h Rr
Cartesian coordinates: n = ( nx , n y , nz ) = , 0,
s s
Cylindrical coordinates: n = nr e r + n e + nz e z
h Rr
n = ( nr , n , nz ) = , 0,
s s
h rr ( R r ) rz ( R r ) rz
rr nr + r n + rz nz = 0 , + = 0 , or rr =
s s h
h r ( R r ) z ( R r ) z
r nr + n + z nz = 0 , + = 0 , or r =
s s h
h zr ( R r ) zz ( R r ) zz
zr nr + z n + zz nz = 0 , + = 0 , or zr =
s s h

2. For a static two-dimensional problem, derive the equation of equilibrium in terms of physical components
in the r-direction of a polar coordinate. (20%)
Ans. ds = g1dx1 + g 2 dx 2 = er dr + e rd
g1 = e r , g 2 = re g11 = 1 , g 22 = r 2 , gij = 0 if i j
e 1
g1 = er , g 2 = , g 11 = 1 , g 22 = 2
, g ij = 0 if i j
r r
The Christoffel symbols are
gi , j = ijk g k = ijk g k
1 1
g1,1 = 0, g1,2 = e = g2 12
2
=
r r
1 1
g 2,1 = e = g 2 = 221 g 2 221 =12
2
=
r r
g 2,2 = re r = rg1 =122 g1 122 = r
Equations of equilibrium
ij + X i = 0
j

X = X 1g1 + X 2 g 2 = X 1e r + rX 2e = Fr e r + F e

For i=1
1 j j + X 1 = 11 1 + 12 2 + X 1 = 0

( ) (g ) ( ) (g )
12 1 2 1 2
ii 1 2
ij = g jj ii
ij , ij = g jj ij
11 11
1 = + + = = ( g11 ) ( g )
1 2 11 1 2
11 11
,1
l1 1 1l 1 11
,1 =
r r
1l 1l

12
1
12 2 = 12,2 + l 2 12l + 1l 22l = 12,2 + 22 122 + 11 221 = 22 r + 11
r
1 2
12
= ( g 22 ) ( g 11 ) ( g 22 ) ( g 22 ) 22 r + ( g11 ) ( g 11 ) 11
1 2 1 2 12 1 2 12 1
r
1 12
1 1
= 22 + 11
r r r
11
1 12
rr 1 r 1
+ ( 11 22 ) + F = 0 or
1
+ ( rr ) + Fr = 0
1
+ +
r r r r r r

3. An infinite wedge is subjected to a uniform shearing load S as shown in


the figure. Find the Airy stress function and the physical components of
stress. (20%)
Ans.
Boundary conditions:
(i) = , n = (nr , n ) = (0,1)
n n
T j = ij ni and T j = i j ni
rr nr + r n = S , 0 + r = S , or r = S
r nr + n = 0 , 0 + = 0 , or = 0
(ii) = , n = (nr , n ) = (0, 1)
rr nr + r n = S , 0 r = S , or r = S
r nr + n = 0 , 0 = 0 , or = 0
Airy stress function selection:
Due to symmetry w.r.t. x-axis:
(i) At =0, r = 0, and u = 0 (without rigid body motion)
(ii) r = 0, and u = 0 must be odd functions of
(iii) ur = 0 must be an even function of
Boundary conditions require r and are independent of r
Therefore, = Ar 2 + Br 2 cos 2 and the corresponding stress fields are
rr = 2 A 2 B cos 2 , r = 2 B sin 2 , and = 2 A + 2 B cos 2
At the boundary =
S
r = 2 B sin 2 = S , therefore, B =
2sin 2
S cos 2
= 2 A + 2 B cos 2 = 0, therefore, A =
2sin 2
Sr 2
The Airy stress function is = ( cos 2 cos 2 )
2sin 2
and the physical components of stress are
S
rr = 2 A 2 B cos 2 = ( cos 2 + cos 2 )
sin 2
S sin 2
r = 2 B sin 2 =
sin 2
S
= 2 A + 2 B cos 2 = ( cos 2 cos 2 )
sin 2

4. A thin annulus is rotating with a constant angular speed . The annulus has an
outer radius a and inner radius b. The material is isotropic and has a density .
Find physical components of stress in the annulus.. (20%)
1 d d 1 d d
Note: For axial symmetric case 4 = r r
r dr dr r dr dr
Ans.
Use coordinates attached to the rotating disk.
Body force F = Fr e r + F e = r 2e r
V 1 V
F = V = er e = r 2e r
r r r
V V
Body force potential = r 2 and =0
r
r 2 2
V =
2
The compatibility relation requires
2( 1) 2
4 + V = 0 or
1+
1 d d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 2( 1) 1 d dV 4( 1)
2

r r = V = r =
r dr dr r dr dr 1+ 1 + r dr dr 1+
d d 1 d d 4( 1) 2 r
r r =
dr dr r dr dr 1+
d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 r 2
r = +A
dr r dr dr
r
1+
d 1 d d 2( 1) 2 r A
r = +
dr r dr dr 1+ r
1 d d ( 1) 2 r 2
r = + A ln r + B
r dr dr 1+
d d ( 1) 2 r 3
r = + Ar ln r + Br
dr dr 1+
d ( 1) 2 r 4 A 2 r2 B
r = + r ln r + r 2 + C
dr 4 (1 + ) 2 2 2
d ( 1) 2 r 3 A r B C ( 1) 2 r 3 C
= + r ln r + r + = + Ar ln r + Br +
dr 4 (1 + ) 2 2 2 r 4 (1 + ) r
( 1) 2 r 4
= + A1r 2 ln r + B1r 2 + C ln r + D = p + c
16 (1 + )
From the table, the stress function r 2 ln r gives multiple-valued displacement u . Therefore, A1=0.
1 ( 1) 2 r 2 C ( 1) 2 r 2 C r 2 2 ( + 3) 2 r 2 C
rr = +V = + B + 2 + V = + 2 B1 + 2 = + 2 B1 + 2 ,
r r 4 (1 + ) r 4 (1 + ) r 2 4 (1 + ) r
1
r = ( )0 ,
r r
2 3( 1) 2 r 2 C 3( 1) 2 r 2 C r 2 2 ( 5) 2 r 2 C
= 2 +V = + B 2 + V = + 2 B1 2 = + 2 B1 2
r 4 (1 + ) r 4 (1 + ) r 2 4 (1 + ) r
The boundary conditions:
At r=a, the physical components rr = 0 , r = 0
At r=b, the physical components rr = 0 , r = 0
( + 3) 2 a 2 C
rr = + 2 B1 + 2 = 0
r =a
4 (1 + ) a
( + 3) 2b 2 C
rr = + 2 B1 + 2 = 0
r =b
4 (1 + ) b
Solve to obtain
( + 3) 2 a 2 C
rr = + 2 B1 + 2 = 0
r =a
4 (1 + ) a
( + 3) 2b 2 C
rr = + 2 B1 + 2 = 0
r =b
4 (1 + ) b
( + 3) 2 2
( + 3) ( + )
( a b2 )
( + 3) 2 a 2b 2
1 1
2
4 1
4 (1 + )
( a b ) + C a 2 b2 = 0, C =
2 2

1 1
=
4 (1 + )
2 2
a b
( + 3) 2 ( a 4 b 4 )
( + 3) 2 ( a 4 b 4 ) 4 (1 + ) ( + 3) 2 ( a 2 + b 2 )
+ 2 ( a b ) B1 = 0,
2 2
B1 = =
4 (1 + ) 2 ( a 2 b2 ) 8 (1 + )

( + 3) 2 r 2 C ( + 3) 2 2 r 2 a 2b 2
rr =
4 (1 + )
+ 2 B1 + 2 =
(1 + )
(a + b ) 4 r2
2

r
r = 0 ,
( 5) 2 r 2 C ( 5) 2 r 2 ( + 3) 2 2 a 2b 2
=
4 (1 + )
+ 2 B1 2 =
r 4 (1 + )
+
4 (1 + )
( a + b 2
) +
4r 2

5. A forged thin annulus is cut open to release residual stress as shown in the
figure. The opening edges are tangent to radius and the angle is very
small. The annulus has an outer radius a and inner radius b. If there is no
stress exists after cutting, please determine the residual stress before cutting.
(20%)
Ans.
(i) The annulus is axial symmetric before cutting, therefore, the
residual stress must be axial symmetric, i.e., they are independent of .
(ii) Set u =0 at =0 as a reference, the displacement component u is proportional to so that the
open edges can be tangent to radius.
Therefore, the candidate for Airy stress function is
= Ar 2 + B log r + Cr 2 log r
And the corresponding stress field is
B
rr = 2 A + + C ( 2 log r + 1)
r2
B
= 2 A 2 + C ( 2 log r + 3)
r
r =0
2Gu = C ( + 1) r
Boundary conditions:
r=a, rr = r = 0
r=b, rr = r = 0
u 2
u 0 = u 2
= r
B
rr r =a
= 2A ++ C ( 2 log a + 1) = 0
a2
B
rr r =b = 2 A + 2 + C ( 2 log b + 1) = 0
b
2G u = 2 = C ( + 1) 2 r = 2Gr
Solve these equations to obtain
G 2 b2 a 2
A= b ( log b ) a ( log a ) +
2

( + 1) ( a 2 b2 ) 2
2G a 2b 2 a 2G a 2b 2 b
B= log = log
( + 1) ( a b ) b ( + 1) ( b a ) a
2 2 2 2

G
C=
( + 1)
Therefore the residual stress is
2G 2 a 2b 2 a
rr = 2
b ( log b ) a 2
( log a ) + log + ( a 2 b 2 ) log r
( + 1) ( a b )
2
r 2
b
2G b2 2 a2 2 2
2 2 ( ) 2 (
= r a 2
log b r b ) log a + ( a 2 b 2 ) log r
( + 1) ( a b ) r
2
r
2G 2 a 2b 2 a
= b ( log b ) a 2
( log a ) log + ( a 2
b 2
) ( log r + 1)
( + 1) ( a 2 b2 ) r 2
b
2G b2 2 a2 2
2 2 (
= r + a ) log b 2 ( r + b 2 ) log a + ( a 2 b 2 ) ( log r + 1)
2

( + 1) ( a b ) r
2
r
r = 0