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International Journal of scientific research and management (IJSRM)

\||Volume||3||Issue||3||Pages|| 2421-2427||2015||
Website: www.ijsrm.in ISSN (e): 2321-3418

Performance Appraisal Management In Aviation Industry


Ratnamani
Research Scholar,
Pacific University, Udaipur.
Ph. No.: 9634008852
Address: 31/2 Vasant Vihar, Phase-II,
Dehradun 248002.
Uttarakhand.

Abstract:
Now days aviation industry plays a vital role in global economy. Its a key factor between air and land
based transportation of goods and passengers. It is a part of international supply chain networks.
Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand the
abilities of a person for further growth and development. The main Objectives of Performance Appraisal is
to maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc. and
to identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right person on right job. It is said that
performance appraisal is an investment for the company that can be justified by following advantages:
Promotion, Compensation, Employees Development, Selection Validation, Communication and Motivation.
In this research paper we tried to identify the techniques of Performance Appraisal followed in aviation
industry and to identify how the performance of the employees is improved and enhanced.

Key Words: Aviation Industry, Employees, Performance Appraisal, Appraisal Systems.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL performance management is clearly more than a


new name for performance appraisal (Edmonstone,
Performance appraisal refers to a process, which 1996). Most organizations prefer to call their
studies and evaluates the job performance of systems as performance management system rather
personnel formally (Mondy, 2008). than performance appraisal systems. This is most
welcome change of the last fifteen years (Pareek
In the late 20th was seen. There has been a great and Rao, 2006). Century, a great change in
realization that it is more important to focus on approaches to performance appraisal systems across
defining, planning and managing performance than the world.
merely appraising performance (Pareek and Rao,
2006). Performance appraisal is the traditional
Dessler (2008) defines performance appraisal
approach to evaluating the performance of an
means evaluating an employees current and /or
employee. As many people think that performance
past performance relative to his/her performance
management (some call it performance
standards. He explains performance appraisal
development) is a new name given to well-
always assumes that the employees understood what
established term performance appraisal and there is
his/her performance standards were, and that the
no difference between the two (Prasad 2005) most
supervisor also provides the employees with the
of the organizations takes performance management
feedback, development, and incentives required to
synonymously of performance appraisal. Yet

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2421


help the person eliminate performance deficiencies Some of the most popular rating methods typically
or to continue to perform above par. This aims at call for some type of absolute judgment of
improving employees performance. performance that is, the rater must indicate
whether or not the rates performance meets the
Snell and Bohlander defines (2007) performance standards that are described in statements on the
appraisal as a process, typically rating scale. Some of the absolute rating standards
performed/delivered by a supervisor to a are as follows:
subordinate, designed to help employees understand
their roles, objectives, expectations and Critical Incident
performance success. Further he explains Narrative Essay
performance management is the process of creating Checklist
a work environment in which people can perform to Graphic Rating Scale (GRS)
the best of their abilities. It is a whole work system Behaviourally Anchored Rating
that begins when a job is defined. So performance Scales (BARS)
appraisal is a way, by which senior officers keeps Behavioural Observation Scales
some periodic objective (for specific period) to his (BOS)
subordinates, clears the expected role and explain
Forced Choice
his performance success by his actual performance
with pre-determined standard, and performance
management is the way to creating the whole Result Based Approach:
working environment so the people can perform
their best. In contrast, outcome-oriented appraisal techniques
are primarily concerned with the results of work
Performance Appraisal Methods: performance. These techniques include work
planning and review and the well-known
Performance appraisal methods and formats are managementby objectives approach. They are
mostly are based on three criteria: intended to focus not on what an employee does or
1. Trait are but on what an employee produces.
2. Behaviour
3. Result Performance Appraisal Measurement Methods
and Forms
Depending on these criteria there are several
methods:
Evaluate Decisions Development Decisions

Comparative/Relative Approach:
Fig1.Performance Appraisal
These types of appraisal techniques specifically call
for relative comparisons among workers Measurement Methods and Forms
performances. These techniques are referred to as
personnel comparison systems, and they include the
Critical Incidents Approach
paired comparison, rank-ordering, and forced-
distribution methods. The critical incident method consists of collecting
1. Ranking reports of behaviors that are considered critical in
2. Paired Comparison the sense that they make a difference in the success
3. Forced Distribution/Forced ranking or failure of a particular work situation. The
incident is defined as critical by an observer, who
also makes a judgment as to its effectiveness.
Absolute Standard Approach: According to Flanagan (1954), a legitimate critical
incident report is one in which there is reference to
actual behavior in a specific situation with no

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2422


Common Problems with the Performance
Appraisal Process
mention of traits or judgmental inferences. Flanagan
pointed out that training with the critical incident
method would quickly improve the quality of the
incident reports.

BARS
Several remedies have been proposed for the
recurring problems in performance measurement, but
none of them has been more heavily researched in
recent years than behavioral expectation scaling or
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). The
BARS method was introduced by Patricia Cain
Smith and the late Lorne Kendall in a 1963 study
sponsored by the National League for Nursing. Since
that time, there have been. BARS may be described
as graphic rating scales with specific behavioral
descriptions utilizing various points along each scale.
Fig 2.Performance Appraisal Problems and
Each scale represents a dimension or factor
Avoiding Them
considered important for work performance.
Typically, both raters and rates are involved in the
development of the dimensions and the generation of
Objectives of the Study:
behavioral descriptions.
To identify the techniques of
MBO Performance Appraisal followed in
aviation industry.
To identify how the performance of
Management by objectives (MBO) is the popular the employees is improved and
name for a process of managing that can focus on enhanced.
the performance of individuals in organizations. In Research Methodology:
general, it is a goal setting process whereby
objectives may be established for the organization, Data source: Primary as well as Secondary.
each department, each manager within each
department, and each employee. MBO is not a Research approach: Survey Method.
measure of employee behavior; it is an attempt to
measure employee effectiveness, or contribution to Research instrument: Questionnaire.
organizational success and goal attainment.
Respondents: The Managers & Employees of
Desirable Characteristics of an Appraisal Form various organizations. The primary data was
collected with the help of survey information. A
1. It must be simple concise questionnaire was prepared keeping in mind
2. Relevant the information specifications.
3. Clarity of content
4. Adaptable
5. Comprehensive Population:
6. Communicability of the form must be easy

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2423


The population selected for this particular study is Quantitative Process 35
Criteria
employees of aviation industry.

Sampling:

The sampling population of this research includes


100 employees of aviation industry. This research
followed the random sampling method
representative population. The population belongs
to an age group of 22-50.

Data Analysis and Interpretation:

Table 1. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS


TYPE OF APPRAISAL SYSTEM Interpretation:

Assessment Centre 15 While conducting the research it is found that 25%


MBO 20 employees replied for Quantitative Outcome
BARS 10 Criteria, 40% employees said that Qualitative
360 Degree Feedback 10 Process Criteria and 35% employees said that
Balance Scorecard 45 Quantitative Process Criteria.

Table 3. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS


TIMING OF APPRAISAL

Annual 68
Half Yearly 20
Quarterly 12
Monthly 0
Anytime 0

Interpretation:

While conducting the research it is found that 45%


employees said that Appraisal system is Balance
Scorecard, 20% said MBO, 15% said Assessment
Centre, 10% said BARS and 10% said 360 Degree
Feedback.
Table 2. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CRITERIA
Interpretation:
Quantitative Outcome 25
Criteria
Qualitative Process Criteria 40

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2424


68% employees said that timing of appraisal is
annual, 20% employees said that half yearly and
12% employees said that quarterly.

Table 4. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS


AN INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE IS EVLUATED
ON THE BASIS OF HIS/HER

Technical 55
Behavior 30
Adaptability 10
Any Other 5
Interpretation:

40% employees said that performance assessment


match to employee expectation rarely, 20%
employees said that often, 15% employees said that
every time, 15% employees said that sometimes and
10% employees said that never performance
assessment match to employee expectation.

Table 6. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS


SATISFIED WITH APPRISAL SYSTEM
ADOPTED CURRENTLY

Yes 60
Interpretation: No 40

55% employees said that employee is evaluated on


the basis of his/her technical, 30% employees said
for behavior, 10% employees said for adaptability
and 5% said for any other evaluation technique.

Table 5. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS


PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MATCH TO
EMPLOYEE EXPECTATION

Never 10
Rarely 40
Sometimes 15
Often 20 Interpretation:
Every time 15
60% employees were satisfied with appraisal
system adopted currently and 40% employees were
not satisfied with appraisal system adopted
currently.

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2425


Table 7. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Immediate Supervisor 9
Peer Appraisal 12
Rating Committee 49
Self Rating 20
Appraisal By Subordinates 10

Interpretation:

62% employees said that the purpose of appraisal


system is Salary Administration & Benefits, 14%
employees said that Determination of Promotion of
Transfer, 11% employees said that Guideline for
Training Plan,
8% employees said that Assistance in Goal and 5%
employees said that purpose of appraisal system is
Decision to Layoff.

Interpretation: Conclusion:

49% employees said that performance appraisal by While conducting the study it is found that most
Rating Committee, 20 % employees said that employees said that appraisal system is scorecard.
performance appraisal by Self Rating, 12% There are three performance appraisal criteria i.e.
employees said that performance appraisal by Peer Quantitative Outcome Criteria, Qualitative Process
Appraisal, 10% employees said that performance Criteria and Quantitative Process Criteria. Timing
appraisal by Subordinates and 9% employees said of appraisal is annually. Employees are evaluated
that performance appraisal by Immediate on the basis of his/her Technical, Behavior and
Supervisor. Adaptability. Performance assessment matches to
employee expectation rarely. Many employees were
satisfied with appraisal system adopted currently
and some employees were not satisfied with
Table 8. EMPLOYYES RESPONSE TOWARDS appraisal system adopted currently. In aviation
PURPOSE OF APPRAISAL SYSTEM industry, there is performance appraisal by Rating
Committee, Self Rating, Peer Appraisal, Immediate
Determination of 14 Supervisor and Appraisal By Subordinates. Purpose
Promotion of Transfer of appraisal system is Salary Administration &
Salary Administration & 62 Benefits, Determination of Promotion of Transfer,
Benefits and Guideline for Training Plan, and Assistance in
Decision to Layoff 5 Goal.
Guideline for Training Plan 11
Assistance in Goal 8

Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2426


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Ratnamani , IJSRM volume 3 issue 3 March 2015 [www.ijsrm.in] Page 2427