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Rose

a stem modified into


a short (usually),
sharp point.
(rose, pyracantha)

Pear
a compressed stem with short
internodes, usually bearing
leaves, flowers and/or fruit.
spur
Many fruit trees bear flowers
and fruit on spur shoots.
(apple, pear )

Cactus

stems, usually flattened,


cladophyll specialized for photosynthesis.
(cactus)

a specialized storage organ


a) concentric or tunicate bulb
bulb (usually underground)
b) scale or non-tunicate bulb
composed of a compressed
stem enclosed by fleshy or
See images below.
papery leaves or leaf bases.
Onion

a)
concentric or tunicate
stem enclosed by concentric or
sheathing leaves or leaf bases.
(onion, garlic, amaryllis, tulip)

b)
scale or non-tunicate Easter Lily
stem enclosed by separate,
thick (usually fleshy) scale-like
leaf bases.
(lily)

Orchid

thickened bulb-like leaf (or


stem) based resembling a
pseudobulb
bulb.
(orchid)

Taro

short, thickened, underground


stems with few nodes and short
corm internodes, usually enclosed by
dry, scale-like leaves.
(gladiolus, crocus, taro)

Irish Potato
large, undergound storage
organs formed by thickening or
swelling of the subapical
tuber portion of an undergound
stem.
(caladium, irish potato,
Jerusalem artichoke)

Sansevieria

horizontal stems, usually thick,


that grow partially or entirely
rhizome
underground.
(iris, canna, sansevieria)
Grass
horizontal stems, usually thin,
that grow above ground, and
which usually form roots and
stolon
plantlets at nodes that contact
the ground.
(grasses)

Spider Plant

a slender stem with elongated


runner internodes.
(strawberry, chlorophytum)