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# Engineers Training Center

## Hand Calculation for Typical Flat Slab Design

Based on:
BS 8110 1997
TR 43 1st Edition

Prepared by:

Nov. 2008

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## A post-tensioned prestressed banded flat slab

floor system for an office complex is shown in
figure.1 together with atypical sub-frame
section.

## The structure is checked both at serviceability

and ultimate limit states.

## These checks are carried out at serviceability

and ultimate limit states. These checks are
carried out at transfer and under working

## 1. Input design data:

1.1 Material:
Figure 1: structural plan
- Concrete:

## Unit weight = 24 KN/m3

fck = 40 MPa (cylinder strength at 28 day)
fcu = 50 MPa (cube strength at 28 day)
fcui = 25 MPa (strength at transfer)
Ec = 30 GPa (elastic modulus at 28 day)
Eci =25 GPa (elastic modulus at transfer)

- Bonded reinforcement:

fy = 460 Mpa

- Prestressing steel:

## 12.9 mm diameter super strand placed in metal ducts.

Pk = 186 KN (characteristic strength of strand)
Aps = 100 mm2 (area of strand)
fpu = Pk/Aps = 1860 MPa (characteristic strength of prestress steel)
Eps= 195 GPa (elastic modulus)

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## Partition = 2.0 KN/m2

Finishing = 1.5 KN/m2
Services and false ceiling = 0.5 KN/m2

- Class 3.

2. Design step:

## 2.1 Preliminary designs:

For normal slab load, and initial span, we can take span/depth = 42
10,000
240mm
42
Punching shear affected by size of column and slab thickness.
However to reduce shear reinforcement requirement a depth of 250 mm is chosen.

## - Total live load = 3.0 KN/m2

In these example a balanced load consisting 60% of all dead load is chosen 0.6 X 10 = 6 KN/m2.

## 2.2 Tendon profile:

Nominal cover requirement in accordance with BS 8110-1, sec.3.4:

## For 2 hour fire resistance take cover = 25 mm.

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## Note: The positioning of reinforcement must be considered at this stage, so as to obtain

practical arrangement of the steel at support.
Based on tendon eccentricities show in figure.3 and the position of inflection point
(0.1 times the span from the center of the supports) the tendon profile can be calculated.

## - At transfer 10% of the jacking load.

- At service 20% of the jacking load.

A through check will be carried out after the stress calculates to check that these initial
assumptions are reasonable.

## 2.3 Initial Prestressing force:

The initial prestress force i.e jacking force, has been taken to be 75% of the characteristic
strand strength (BS8110-1:1197, sec 4.7.1).

Calculation of Pavg:

## - Jacking force (Pj) = 0.75 X 186 = 139.5 KN/strand.

- Prestress force at transfer (Po) = 125.55 KN/strand. (10% losses)
- Prestress force at service (Pe) =111.6 KN/strand. (20% losses)

Next the value of prestress force required in each span is calculate, this is done using the
inflection, s, and the drape, a, as shown in figure.4, (refer to appendix A for profile calculation)

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## Figure 4 : Draps for load balanced

The prestress force is obtained from the following equation which assumes a parabolic profile.

ws 2
Prqd =
8a

## - Prqd = (6.0 X 7.0 X 64002) / (8.0 X 67.5 X 1000) = 3185 KN

- Therefore number of the tendons = Prqd / effective force = 3185 / 111.6 = 28.54
- Try 30 tendons per panel 10 X 3S or 6 X 5S (more economical).

## - Prqd = (6.0 X 7.0 X 80002) / (8.0 X 120 X 1000) = 2800 KN

- Therefore number of the tendons = 2800 / 111.6 = 25
- Try 30 tendons per panel as before 6 X 5S.

The effect of the tendon in the slab is modeled by mean of equivalent as shown below. It
should be noted that the portions of cable from the edges of the slab to grid lines A and D are
horizontal and so do not contribute to the equivalent load.
The equivalent load w, between any two points of inflection for the chosen number of tendons
is given by:

8 a n Pav
W=
s2

Where:
n: number of strand.
a: drab at the point considered (up +, down -).
s: distance between point of inflection.

## Figure 5 : Calculation of equivalent load

due to tendon forces

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At transfer:
Pav = 125.55 KN
n = 30

## Table 1 : Calculations of equivalent loads due to transverse tendons

A span B B span C C span D
n. Pav (KN) 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5 3766.5
a (mm) 18.6 -67.5 26.3 30 -120 30 26.3 -67.5 18.6
s (mm) 1600 6400 1600 2000 8000 2000 1600 6400 1600
w (KN/m) 218.9 -49.7 309.6 226 -56.5 226 309.6 -49.7 218.9

At service:
Pav = 111.6 KN
n = 30

## Table 2 : Calculations of equivalent loads due to transverse tendons

A span B B span C C span D
n. Pav (KN) 3348 3348 3348 3348 3348 3348 3348 3348 3348
a (mm) 18.6 -67.5 26.3 30 -120 30 26.3 -67.5 18.6
s (mm) 1600 6400 1600 2000 8000 2000 1600 6400 1600
w (KN/m) 194.6 -44.1 275.2 200.9 -50.2 200.9 275.2 -44.1 194.6

## 2.4 Stresses Calculations:

P P.e M A M S
ft = + +
Ac Zt Zt Zt

P P.e M A M S
fb = + - -
A c Zb Zb Zb

Where:

MS = moment due secondary effect.
Zt = top section modulus.
Zb = bottom section modulus.
Ac = 7.0 X 0.25 X 106 =1.75 X 106 mm2

As the section being considered is rectangular and symmetrical abut about the centroid, Zt
and Zb are equal.

## Zt =Zb = Z = bh2/6 = 7.29 X 107mm3

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## 2.4.1 Allowable stresses:

Maximum allowable concrete compressive and tensile stresses for floor with banded tendon
are given in BS 8110, part 1, section 4.3.4.2 and 4.3.4.3.

## Compression = 0.5 f ci = 0.5 25 = 12.5 MPa

Tension = 0.36 f ci = 0.36 25 = 1.8 MPa

## Compression = 0.4 f cu = 0.4 50 = 20 MPa

Tension: tensile stresses calculated to limit the crack width see table 3.

## Table 3 : Tensile stresses for class 3

Limiting crack width (mm) 30 N/mm2 40 N/mm2 50 and over
Grouted post-tension N/mm2
tendons 0.1 3.2 4.1 4.8
0.2 3.8 5.0 5.8

## Figure 6 : moment digram for own weight

wservice = (6 + 4) X 7+ 3 X 7
= 70 KN/m + 80 KN/m

## Figure 7 : moment diagram for service load

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## 2.4.3 Stresses at transfer:

Po = 30 X 125.55 = 3766.5 KN

## Table 4 : Stresses at transver for the transverse direction

STRESS
STRESS DUE DUE TO TOTAL ALLAWABLE
ZONE FIBER e(mm) PRESTRESS SELF STRESS STRESS STATE
(MPa) WEIGHT (MPa) (MPa)
(MPa)
A top 0 -2.152 3.00 0.85 1.8 OK
bottom 0 -2.152 -3.00 -5.152 -12.5 OK
AB(sgging) top 80 1.98 -1.54 0.44 -12.5 OK
bottom 80 -6.29 1.54 -4.75 1.8 OK
B top -70 -5.77 3.13 -2.64 1.8 OK
bottom -70 1.47 -3.13 -1.66 -12.5 OK
B top -70 -5.77 4.79 -0.98 1.8 OK
bottom -70 1.47 -4.79 -3.32 -12.5 OK
BC(sgging) top 80 1.98 -2.41 -0.43 -12.5 OK
bottom 80 -6.29 2.41 -3.88 1.8 OK
C top -70 -5.77 2.41 -3.66 1.8 OK
bottom -70 1.47 -2.41 -0.94 -12.5 OK
C top -70 -5.77 3.13 -2.64 1.8 OK
bottom -70 1.47 -3.13 -1.66 -12.5 OK
CD(sgging) top 80 1.98 -1.54 0.44 -12.5 OK
bottom 80 -6.29 1.54 -4.75 1.8 OK
D top 0 -2.152 3.00 0.85 1.8 OK
bottom 0 -2.152 -3.00 -5.15 -12.5 OK

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## 2.4.4 Stresses at service:

Po = 30 X 111.6 = 3348 KN

## Table 5 : Stresses after all stresses for the transverse direction

STRESS
STRESS DUE DUE TO TOTAL ALLAWABLE
ZONE FIBER e(mm) PRESTRESS SELF STRESS STRESS STATE
(MPa) WEIGHT (MPa) (MPa)
(MPa)
A top 0 -1.913 6.55 4.64 5.8 OK
bottom 0 -1.913 -6.55 -8.46 -20.0 OK
AB(sgging) top 80 1.76 -3.35 -1.59 -20.0 OK
bottom 80 -5.59 3.35 -2.24 4.8 OK
B top -70 -5.12 6.76 1.64 5.8 OK
bottom -70 1.30 -6.76 -5.46 -20.0 OK
B top -70 -5.12 10.38 5.8 OK
bottom -70 1.30 -10.38 -9.08 -20.0 OK
BC(sgging) top 80 1.76 -5.23 -3.47 -20.0 OK
bottom 80 -5.59 5.23 -0.36 4.8 OK
C top -70 -5.12 10.38 5.26 5.8 OK
bottom -70 1.30 -10.38 -9.08 -20.0 OK
C top -70 -5.12 6.76 1.64 5.8 OK
bottom -70 1.3 -6.76 -5.46 -20.0 OK
CD(sgging) top 80 1.76 -3.35 -1.59 -20.0 OK
bottom 80 -5.59 3.35 -2.24 4.8 OK
D top 0 -1.913 6.55 4.64 5.8 OK
bottom 0 -1.913 -6.55 -8.46 -20.0 OK

## 2.5.1 Determination of hyperstatic action:

Hyperstatic moments can be calculated either directly or indirectly (Alami, 1998b) for skeletal
members, such as beams and floor systems that are modeled as strips of isolated slab frames ,
hyperstatic actions can be successfully calculated using both methods.

In this example we will use the indirect method (covenantal method) in calculation of
hyperstatic action.
Indirect method is based on the following relationship:

## Mhyp = Mbal P.e

Where:
e = eccentricity of post-tensioning with respect to the neutral axis of the section (positive if
CGS is above the neutral axes otherwise negative).
Mhyp =hyperstatic moment.
Mbal = balanced moment due to balanced load.
P = post-tensioning force positive

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As described before:

8 a n Pav
Wbal =
s2

## Figure 8 : moment diagram for balance load

- At support A:
-
Mbal= 232 KN.m , Pe = 3348 KN , e = 0.0 mm
Mhyp= (232) + (3348 X 0 / 1000) = 232 KN.m

## Mbal= -117.7 KN.m , Pe = 3348 KN , e = 45-125 = -80 mm

Mhyp= (-117.7) + (3348 X 80 / 1000) = 150.14 KN.m

- At left of support B:

## Mbal= 238.1 KN.m , Pe = 3348 KN , e = -70 mm

Mhyp= (238.1) - (3348 X 70 / 1000) = 3.74 KN.m

- At right of support B:

## Mhyp= (-209.7) + (3348 X 80 / 1000) = 58.14 KN.m

- At left of span C:

## Mhyp= (417.8) - (3348 X 70 / 1000) = 183.44 KN.m

- At right of support C:

- At support D:

## Mhyp = 232 KN.m

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## Figure 12 : Moment diagram for ultimate load pear panel

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## 2.5.3 Design section:

Section analyses may be carried out in accordance with clause 3.7 of BS 8110, part 1, the
moment capacity of the section can calculated using following equation.

## Mu = fPb Aps (d- dn)

Where:
Mu = design moment of resistance of the section.
fPb = design tensile strength in the tendon.
Aps = area of prestressing tendon in the tension zone.
d = effective depth to the centroid of the steel area.
dn = depth of centroid of the compression zone = 0.45x.
x = depth of neutral axis.
b = effective width of the section.

## - When d = 125 mm.

f pu Aps 1860 30 100
= = 0.127
f cu bd 50 7000 125
f pe 1116
= = 0.6
f pk 1860
From table 4.4 BS 8110. Sec 4.3.7.3 finds value of fPb and x.
fPb = 1731.7 MPa
x = 36.25 mm
dn = 0.45 x 36.25 = 16.3 mm
Mu = -1731.7 x 30 x 100 x (125-16.3) = -564 KN.m

## When d = 205 mm.

f pu Aps 1860 30 100
= = 0.078
f cu bd 50 7000 205
f pe 1116
= = 0.6
f pk 1860
fPb = 1767 MPa
x = 35.9 mm
dn = 0.45 x 35.9 = 16.14 mm
Mu = 1767 x 30 x 100 x (205-16.14) = 1001 KN.m

## - When d = 195 mm.

f pu Aps 1860 30 100
= = 0.08
f cu bd 50 7000 195
f pe 1116
= = 0.6
f pk 1860
fPb = -1767 MPa
x = 35.1 mm
dn = 0.45 x 35.1 = 15.8 mm
Mu = -1767 x 30 x 100 x (195-15.8) = -950 KN.m

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Table 6 : Comparison between applied moment and moment capacity at ultimate limit state
ZONE M (KN.m)/panel Mu (KN.m)/panel
(applied) (capacity)
A -411 -564
AB 503.42 1001
B -708.62 -950
B -911.0 -950
BC 609.8 1001
C -911.0 -950
C -708.62 -950
CD 503.42 1001
D -411 -564

Because the moment capacity at ultimate limit state > applied moment, no un-tensioned
reinforcement is required.

## Ac = hb = 250 X 7000 = 1.75 X 106 mm2

As = 0.00075 X 1.75 X 106 = 1312.5 mm2

## Use 7 T 16 = 1407 mm2

The reinforcement should extend into the span by 0.2 span measured from the centerline of the
column and the width of strip is the column breadth plus 3 times the slab depth as shown in
figure 13.

## Figure 13 : Un-tensioned reinforcement details

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## 2.6.1.1 Friction losses:

Px = Po e - x( + )

Where:

## Px = Force at distance x from stressed end.

Po = 139.5 KN (Stressing force (at anchor)).
= 0.2 (friction coefficient).
= angle change in tendon from anchor to point considered (radians).

## - Total drab for span A-B and span C-D:

(18.6+26.3)/2 + 67.5 = 89.95 mm

## - Total drab for span B-C:

(30+30)/2 + 120 = 150 mm

16 total drape
=
L2
(16 89.95 10 3 )
1 = 3 = = 0.023 rad / m
82
(16 150 10 3 )
2 = = 0.024 rad / m
10 2

PA = 139.5 KN

## (139.5 + 132.64 + 124.3 + 118.2)

Pavg = = 128.66 KN
4

## Po - Pavg = 139.5 128.66 = 10.84 KN

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Pw = 2 L P

Where:

## Pw = Force losses due draw-in.

E PS PS
L' = (Length of the tendon affected by draw-in).
P'
(PA - PD )
P' = (Slop of the force profile).
(L1 + L 2 + L 3 )
= 6 mm (Wedge draw-in).
Eps = Modulus of elasticity of the tendon.
Aps = Area of the tendon.

(139.5 - 118.2)
P' = = 0.82 KN
(8 + 10 + 8)

(6 X 10 -3 X 195 X 100)
L' = = 11.95 m < Length of the tendon
0.82

Where:

## Pes = Force losses due Elastic shortening.

es = 0.5 fco/ Eci
fco = n Po /bh (stress in concrete adjacent to the tendon after transfer).
Eci = Modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of transfer.

## Pes = 3.72 X 10-5 X 195000 X 100 / 1000 = 0.725 KN

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Where:

## Pcr = Force losses due creep.

cr = fco/ Eci
= 2.9 (creep coefficient (BS 8110, part 2, figure.1))

sh = 300 X 10-6

## 2.6.2.3 Relaxation of the tendon losses:

Pr = 1000 hour relaxation value x relaxation factor x the pre-stressed force at transfer.

## 2.6.3 Summary for P.T losses:

- Short-term losses:
1- Friction losses = 10.84 KN . 7.7%
2- Wedge set losses = 4.48 KN ... 3.2%
3- Elastic shortening losses = 0.725 KN ..... 0.5%

## Total short-term losses = 16.1 KN ....... 11.5%

- long-term losses:
1- Creep of concrete losses = 4.21 KN .. 3.0%
2- Shrinkage of concrete losses = 5.85 KN ... 4.2%
3- Relaxation of the tendon losses = 5.69 KN ... 4.0%

## Total losses = 31.85 KN ...... 22.8%

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## Figure 15 : Tendon geometry

jX + mX+n = 0
m = (p2-2L)(q1 q2 ) + p1 (q3- q2) = (800 - 2 X 8000) (125-45) + 800 (195 - 45) = -1096000
n = (q1-q2)(L-P2)L = (125-45)(8000-800)8000 =4608X106
L =(-m [ m2 4 j n ] )/ 2 j = (1096000 1577973.384 ) /-140 = -19094 , 3442.67
L = 3442.67 mm
a1 = [(q1 q2)P1]/ L = [80 X 800] / 3442.67 = 18.6 mm
a2 = [(q3 q2)P2]/ [L-L]= [150 X 800] / 4557.33 = 26.33 mm

## - for span B-C:

q1 = q3 = 195 mm, P1=1000 , L= 5000
a4 = [195 - 45] X 1000 / 5000 = 30 mm

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