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Biopotentials arise from cells, and more generally from organs. They hold rich
physiological and clinical information. For example, action potentials give
information on fundamental ion channel biophysics and molecular aspects of
any pathology. Biopotentials from the organs of the body are of clinical
diagnostic significance.
Biopotential Examples:
1. Action Potentials from Cells (and 3 Nobel prizes!)
Neuronal action potential (history of Squid axon and Hodgkin-Huxley work)
Achmad Rizal 2. Biopotentials from the organ/body
1. Electrocardiogram (ECG) from heart -> use in heart attack, pacemakers
2. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from brain -> use in epilepsy, brain trauma
Institut Teknologi Telkom 3. Electromyogram (EMG) from muscle -> use in muscle diseases, prosthesis
4. Others

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2. Electrical Activity of Excitable 3. Action potential:

Cells Neuronal action potential
Excitable cells 0 mV
Exist in nervous, muscular K+ outflux
and glandular tissue
- 70 mV
Exhibit a resting potential
and an action potential depolarization:
Necessary for information Na+ influx

transfer (e.g. sensory info in Cardiac action potential

nervous system or repolarization:
K+ outflux
coordination of blood
pumping in the heart)

Na+ Biomedis
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4. Resting vs. Active State 5. Recording of Action Potential

Resting State Typical
Steady electrical potential of difference recording
between internal and external environments system (top)
Typically between -70 to -90mV, relative to using
the external medium microelectrode
Recording of an
Active State
action potential
Electrical response to adequate stimulation in nerve cell
Consists of all-or-none action potential after (bottom)
the cell threshold potential has been reached
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6. Resting Membrane Potential (1) 6. Resting Membrane Potential (2)
Cell potential is a function of membrane Equilibrium membrane resting potential when net
permeability and concentration gradient to various
molecules (i.e. K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+) current through the membrane is zero
RT PK [ K ]o + PNa [ Na]o + PCl [Cl ]i
Equilibrium potential is the membrane potential at E= ln
which a given molecule has no net movement across F PK [ K ]i + PNa [ Na ]i + PCl [Cl ]o
the membrane P is the permeability coefficient of the given ion
Nernst Equation (in Volts at 37 oC): Factors influencing ion flow across the membrane
RT [ K ]o [ K ]o
EK = ln = 0.0615 log10 Diffusion gradients
nF [ K ]i [ K ]i
n is the valence of K+, [K]i and [K]o are the intra- and Inwardly-directed electric field
extracellular concentrations, R is the universal gas constant, Membrane structure
T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin, F is the Faraday
constant, and EK is the equilibrium potential Active transport of ions against electrochemical gradient

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8. Action Potential and Ionic

7. Action Potential
Stimulation of excitable cells causes all-or- gNa and gK are
none response the
At threshold, the membrane potential rapidly of Na+ and K+
depolarizes due to a change in membrane v is the
permeability membrane
PNa significantly increases causing the membrane potential
potential to approach ENa (+60mV) Absolute and
A delayed increase in PK causes relative
hyperpolarization and a return to resting
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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell 9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell

Membrane (1) Membrane (2)


++++ ++ + + + Outside cell
Plasma membrane ++++ ++ +++
Inside cell

K+ K+
1 Resting phase 2 Depolarizing phase

There is no Na+ diffusion into the cell and K+ out of the cell The Na+ permeability increases, Na+ enters the cell interior,

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell 9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell
Membrane (3) Membrane (4)
++++ ++ +++
++++ ++ +++

3 Repolarizing phase K+
K+permeability increases, flows out K+ 4 Undershoot phase
Na gate close, resting potensial regerated

K+ flow out to reach resting potential

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell

Membrane (5)
Membrane potential

2 3 Biopotential Signal examples
0 1 4


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10. Electroneurogram (ENG) 11. Electromyogram (EMG) (1)

Measures nerve field Measures muscle
potentials activity
Use of needle Record
electrodes intramuscularly
Stimulate the periphery through needle
and measure the electrodes
conduction velocity Record surface EMG
Used in assessing using electrodes on
neuromuscular biceps, triceps
disorders: peripheral Use in muscular
nerve injury, muscular disorders, muscle
dystrophy based prosthesis
prosthetic arm, leg
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11. Electromyogram (EMG) (2) 12. Electroretinogram (ERG) (1)
Biopotential of
the eye (retina)
Indicator of
retinal diseases
such as retinal

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12. Electroretinogram (ERG)(2) 13. Electrooculogram (EOG)(1)

EOG electrical activity of eye muscles

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14. Measurement of the

15. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
clinical EOG Cardiac vector
-has magnitude and
=> Dipole (electrical
vector with magnitude -
and direction to the

Measures activity of the heart

Source of cardiac activity: dipole model
Electrical circuit representation: equivalent generator
Measurements on body surface or intracardiac
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torso, arms, Biomedisinside the heart
legs; catheter 24

16. Electroencephalogram (EEG) 17. Rhythms of the Brain
Averaged activity of
10e8 neurons is very
Averaged electrical
complex: indicative of activity of the brain
- sleep stage cells (100 billion!)
- epilepsy Synaptic potentials:
- event related pyramidal neuron
changes structure forms a
- brain-computer dipole
Recording from the
dipole scalp, from the
cortex surface
(epilepsy), intra-
cortex (research) Different brain waves: divided by spectral EEG in brain diesease and disorders:
differences: 04 (delta), 4-8 (theta), 8-12
Epilepsy different types and forms
(alpha), 12 up (beta): delta/theta in infants,
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disease; alpha: sleep; beta: awake, eyes Instrumentasi Biomedis
Brain injury definition of death? 26

18. EEG Electrode Recording

19. 10-20 Electrode system
EEG recording
is done using a
standard lead
system called
10-20 system
Recall dipole
concept to
identify source
of brain activity
Interest in
mapping sleep
stages, site of
seizure, and
cortical function
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20. Progression of EEG during

Sleep 21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(1)
Clinical uses of EEG Measures muscle activity
-Sleep staging: note related to the stomach and
different features abdominal region.
- e.g. REM (rapid eye Measured from a baseline
movement stage)
reading containing a regular
- Monitoring in
neurocritical care
rhythm. In a normal subject
- e.g. live/dead, coma
a current increase is
status observed after a meal.
- Intraoperative monitoring EGG signal is recorded by
for depth of anesthesia electrodes that are placed
- e.g. changes with over the upper abdomen.
anesthesia and depth

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21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(2) 21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(3)

Bradygastrias : O-2.4cpm
Tachygastrias: 3.6-9.9cpm
These Gastric Dysrhythmias have
clinical relevance.
Some problem :Nausea, Gastric Reflux,
Peptic Ulcer, Irritable Bowel
Syndrome, Cirrhosis

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21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(4) 21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(5)

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