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# Chapter 4 Pressure Measurement

Definition of Pressure
Pressure is the normal force exerted by a
medium on a unit area. i.e.
F
P=
A
P : Pressure in Pascal (Pa)
F : Normal force in Newton (N)
2
A : Area in square metres (m )

## Other important terms:

Atmospheric pressure
Absolute and Gage pressures
Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation pressures
Some Relations and Units
Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gage pressure

## Stagnation pressure = Static pressure + Dynamic pressure

Units
bar bar
Pascal Pa
mm. Mercury mm Hg
inch Water in H2O
Pound/sq. inch psi
Torr torr
etc.
Principles of Pressure Measurement

Gravitational types
Liquid columns
Pistons or loose diaphragms, and weights
Direct-acting elastic types
Elastic diaphragms
Bellows
Bulk compression
Indirect-acting elastic types, a piston with
elastic restraining member.
Gravitational type
Manometry
Gravitational type
Manometry : U-tube manometer
P atm

PA

P B =P C
P B =P A gh1
P C =P atm man gh2
P A=P atm man gh2 gh1 <=== absolute pressure
P AP atm =man gh2 gh1 <=== gage pressure
Gravitational type
Manometry : U-tube manometer
B
Derive P A P B

A
Gravitational type
Manometry : Well-type manometer
Derive P 1P 2

[ d2
ans: P 1P 2= g z 2 1 2 g z 2
D ]
Gravitational type
Manometry : Inclined-type manometer

d2
D d2
P 1P 2= g z 2 1 2 = g x sin 1 2 g x sin
D

x
Elastic type
Elastic type
Pressure Transducers
Strain Gage Pressure Transducer
Capacitance Pressure Transducer
Potentiometric Pressure Transducer
Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer
Magnetic Pressure Transducer
Optical Pressure Transducer
Calibration