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# 2 D ART Course

Assignment 2
A Jacobson
Production

STANDARDS
1. Demonstrate drawings
skills by the use of spatial
relationships.
2. Draw in one and two
point perspective.
3. Demonstrate a
willingness to improve
art skills.
Many of the early
artworks that mankind
created failed to show
any sense of three
dimension.

## In this picture you

can see overlapping
of people and
objects.
People different
sizes

.
Early artists did not
know how to depict
depth in their
drawings and
paintings.

## These artists tried to

show depth but were
unsuccessful.

## Aspects of there work

looked awkward.

.
Painting by Giotto di Bondone around 1300
Do you know this painting?
It was not until the Renaissance Period that
artists developed a system to show depth
logically and consistently.

The Last Supper is a 15th century mural painting created by Leonardo da Vinci
Use mathematics & Science.
They had to study how things
really look.
What our eyes naturally do.
Then through close
observation they invented a
drawing system called linear
perspective.
Linear perspective allows
artists to trick the eye into
seeing depth on a flat
surface.
Perspective: Techniques for showing three dimensional objects
or scenes on a flat surface.

sky and ground.

## Perpendicular: Line that intersect to form a 90 degree angle.

Parallel: Line that never intersect but run the same direction.
The red line is the Horizon Line.
The Horizon Line is horizontal
It is the place where the ground and the sky seem to meet
It goes from left to right and is parallel to the bottom edge of
the picture plane.

## Represents the viewers eye level.

EYE LEVELS / POINT OF VIEW

## The Horizon line is the first thing you draw.

1. Normal Eye Level: If you draw the horizon in the center of your paper- it will
appear your are look straight at the object.
2. Worms Eye View: If you draw the horizon lower on the paper the you will
appear to be looking up at the objects.
3. Birds Eye View: If you draw a higher horizon line, the scene will look as if you
are looking down.
To Review: If an object is (Worms Eye) above eye
level you will see the bottom of the box/object.

## If it is (Birds Eye) below eye level You will see

the top of the box.
EYE LEVELS / POINT OF VIEW
Vanishing Point: The point in which
converging lines meet

Our eye
naturally sees a
vanishing point.
What is
wrong with
this?

## The vanishing point is one of the most important points

to establish accurately in order to draw the object
accurately. If lines dont converge lines to the vanishing
point objects will be distorted in your drawing.
Orthogonals are the lines that slant toward the horizon line. They
converge at the vanishing point.
HOW TO FIND THEM:
Establish your horizon, identify the vanishing point, then all lines that go away
from you will become orthogonals. These angles slant to the vanishing point.
You must always use a ruler to draw every straight
line.
Use a triangle or t-square to make perpendicular
lines.
ALL LINES must be drawn very light lines because
most of them will be erased.
All lines that run parallel and go away from you
will slant and converge at a the vanishing
point.
These slanting lines become the orthogonals.
All orthogonals must be drawn lightly so you can erase
the areas that converge.
You must always follow the steps to one point perspective.
You must always follow the steps to two point perspective.
Always consider point of view- at eye level, below eye level
and above eye level.
1. Must have a horizon line
2. Must have a vanishing point
3. All vertical lines must be perpendicular to the horizon line.
4. All lines that go away from you must slant to a vanishing point in
which they become what we call an orthogonals
Notice the box on the left. The correction is made on
the right. Slightly crooked lines effect the entire look of
the drawing.
One Point

Two Point

Three Point
Artists use one-
point perspective to
show objects face-
on.
Most lines are
vertical, horizontal,
or orthogonal
Orthogonal are
drawn to a single
vanishing point.
Place a dot in the middle of the Horizon Line. This is your vanishing point. In
one-point perspective the Vanishing Point, represented is always on the Horizon
Line. As things get closer to the Vanishing Point they get smaller and smaller
until they appear to vanish.
Draw a square or rectangle In your picture plane.
Now connect three corners of your rectangle or square to the
vanishing point.
What are these slanted lines called?
Vertical lines make up the boxes sides that are
perpendicular to the horizon. The back of the box is always
parallel to the horizon.
Erase the orthogonals to complete your form. You
now have a 3-D form in one-point perspective.
Two point perspective
uses two vanishing
points at the edge of the
paper.

## You use a two point

perspective when you
need to draw an object
that you see two sides
of.
When viewing things in
TWO POINT
perspective, we are
viewing the object or
scene so that we are
looking at one corner,
with two sets of parallel
lines are moving away
from us.