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Metal Forming

Dr. shantanu Bhattacharya

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.I.T. Kanpur

Metal Forming

Bulk Deformation
Sheet metalworking

Rolling processes
Bending operations

Forging processes Deep or cup drawing

Extrusion processes Shearing processes

Drawing processes Other processes

Common terminologies
Se ifi ished product
Bloom: is the product of first breakdown of ingot and has a square cross-
section of or larger.

Billet: is the product obtained from a further reduction by hot rolling

(cross sectional area > 40 x 40 mm2)

Slab: is the hot rolled ingot (cross sectional area > 100 cm2 and with a
width >= 2 x thickness)

Mill product

Plate is the product with thickness > 5 mm

Sheet is the product with thickness < 5 mm and width > 600mm

Strip is the product with a thickness < 5 mm and width <600 mm

Types of Deformation

Elastic Deformation
Elastic deformations of a solid are entirely
recoverable once the stress is removed. No
part of the object under stress has
undergone permanent deformation.
Before yield point.

Plastic Deformation
Deformation beyond elastic limits.
Due to slip, grain fragmentation, movement
Fig: Typical stress-strain curve for ductile material
of atoms and lattice distortion.
In the plastic region, the etal s behavior is
expressed by the flow curve:
where K is the strength coefficient, Mpa
= True stress
= True strain
n is the strain-hardening exponent

For plastic deformation, a constant-volume relationship
is required.
. . + + =

In metalworking, compressive stress and strain are


If a block of initial height is compressed to , the

axial compressive strain will be:

For True strain;

= = , >

For conventional strain;

= =

Flow Stress
The flow curve describes the stressstrain relationship in the region in which metal forming
takes place.
It indicates the flow stress of the metalthe strength property that determines forces and
power required to accomplish a particular forming operation.
Flow stress is defined as the instantaneous value of stress required to continue deforming
the material to keep the metal flo i g.
It is the yield strength of the metal as a function of strain, which can be expressed:
where is the flow stress, MPa.

Average Flow Stress

The average flow stress (also called the mean flow stress) is the
average value of stress over the stressstrain curve from the
beginning of strain to the final (maximum) value that occurs during
The average flow stress is determined by integrating the flow curve
equation, between zero and the final strain value defining the
range of interest. This yields the equation:
Stressstrain curve indicating
= location of average flow stress
in relation to yield strength Y and
where is the maximum strain value during deformation. final flow stress .

Problems based on Flow stress

1. The strength coefficient = 550 MPa and strain-hardening exponent = 0.22 for a
certain metal. During a forming operation, the final true strain that the metal
experiences = 0.85. Determine the flow stress at this strain and the average flow
stress that the metal experienced during the operation.
Solution: Flow stress = = . =

Average flow stress = =

Try yourself:
1. A metal has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 850 MPa and strain-hardening exponent =
0.30. A tensile specimen of the metal with gage length = 100 mm is stretched to a length = 157
mm. Determine the flow stress at the new length and the average flow stress that the metal
has been subjected to during the deformation.
2. A particular metal has a flow curve with strength coefficient =35,000 lb/in2 and strain-
hardening exponent = 0.26. A tensile specimen of the metal with gage length = 2.0 in is
stretched to a length = 3.3 in. Determine the flow stress at this new length and the average
flow stress that the metal has been subjected to during deformation.
3. In a tensile test, two pairs of values of stress and strain were measured for the specimen metal
after it had yielded: (1) true stress = 217 MPa and true strain = 0.35, and (2) true stress = 259
MPa and true strain = 0.68. Based on these data points, determine the strength coefficient
and strain-hardening exponent.

Yield criteria
Yielding in unidirectional tension test takes place when the
stress = F/A reaches the critical value.

Yielding in multiaxial stress states is not dependent on a single

stress but on a combination of all stresses.

The establishment of a yield criterion is based on the following

assumptions or empirical observations:
-The metals are homogeneous, continuous, and
isotropic (i.e., have the same properties in all directions).
-The metals have the same yield stress in compression
and tension.
-A superimposed hydrostatic pressure does not influence
the initiation of yielding.

Trescas Yield Criterion
In 1864, Tresca put forward his criterion saying that
plastic flo occurs he the maximum shear stress exceeds a
critical alue .

Since the maximum shear stress is equal to half the difference

between the greatest and the smallest principal stress, Tresca's
criterion may be expressed as:

= = ; > >
. (1)

For uniaxial Tension: = = , = =

Then maximum shear stress criterion is given by

= .
This is very important, since is the most easily obtained material
property. Tresca's criterion can thus be expressed as

.. (3)

Strain Energy

When a force is applied to a solid, it deforms. i.e. we can say that work is done on the solid,
which is proportional to the force and deformation. The work done by applied force is stored
in the solid as potential energy, which is called the strain energy.
The strain energy in the solid may not be distributed uniformly through out the solid. Stain
energy density ( )is defined as:
For the general 3-D case the stain energy density is expressed as

= + + + + +
If the material is elastic, then the strain energy can be completely recovered by
Unloading the body.

The three dimensional (triaxial) stress situation.
In the three dimensional stress situation, the state of stress at a particular location is fully defined by
three principal stress , , and .

Strain energy at a location of the element:

The strain energy at a particular location of the element can be segregated into three categories, namely:
(a)Total strain energy per unit volume of the stressed element, arising from the principal stresses , ,
and .
(b)Strain energy per unit volume arising from the change of volume caused by a hydrostatic stress, which
is uniform in all three directions
(c)Strain energy per unit volume arising from distortion of the element, and which can be considered as
being the difference between (a) and (b).

ELASTIC STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS (Tri-Axial stress situation)

The relationship between three principal stresses , , and the strains in the directions of the
principal stresses are given by:

Energy per unit volume at stress location

von Mises' Yield Criterion
In 1913, von Mises proposed a yield criterion, stating
yieldi g occurs when the work of deformation per unit volume
provided by the system of stress exceeds a critical value for the
particular material.

It can be expressed mathematically as:

+ +
.. (13)
Uniaxial tension: = = , = =
The von Mises' criterion can then be expressed as State of stresses
+ +
For the state of pure shear = , = , = :

von Mises' criterion requires a 15%
Tresca: + = = higher critical shear stress value to
initiate yielding than does Tresca' s
Von-Mises: + + + = criterion.
= For ductile material, von-Mises
criteria is used.


Disadvantages of Hot Working

It requires expensive tools.
It produces poor surface finish, due to the
rapid oxidation and scale formation on the
metal surface.
Due to the poor surface finish, close
tolerance cannot be maintained.

Strain rate

The rate at which the metal is strained in a forming process is directly related to the speed of
deformation, v.
In many forming operations, deformation speed is equal to the velocity of the ram or other
moving element of the equipment.
strain rate is defined as:
where is true strain rate, m/s/m (in/sec/in), or simply s1; and h is instantaneous
height of the workpiece being deformed, m (in).

If deformation speed v is constant during the operation, strain rate will change as h changes.

At the temperatures of hot working, flow stress depends on strain rate. The effect of strain rate on
strength properties is known as strain rate sensitivity.
where C is the strength constant (similar but not equal to the strength coefficient in the
flow curve equation), and m is the strain rate sensitivity exponent.

A more complete expression for flow stress as a function of both strain and strain rate would be
the following:

where A is a strength coefficient, combining the effects of the K and C values, n is the
strain-hardening exponent and m is the strain rate sensitivity exponent.
Rolling Process

Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.I.T. Kanpur

Types of Rolling Mills

Contact Length (L)
Forward and Backward Slip:


Fundamental concept of metal rolling

Determination of Rolling Pressure

The arc of contact between the rolls and the metal is a part of a circle.
The coefficient of friction, is constant in theory, but in reality varies along the arc of
The metal is considered to deform Plastically during rolling.
The volume of metal is constant before and after rolling. In practical the volume might
decrease a little bit due to close-up of pores.
The velocity of the rolls is assumed to be constant.
The metal only extends in the rolling direction and no extension in the width of the
The cross sectional area normal to the rolling direction is not distorted.

Pressure at Neutral point

Forging Processes

Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

A process in which the workpiece is shaped by compressive forces applied

through dies and Tools.
Was initially used by hammering metals with tools in shaping jewelry and

Forging of Strip
Slab Analysis

Total Forging force per unit length of the workpiece is given as

Worked out example:

Forging of Disc

Extrusion & Drawing
Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.I.T. Kanpur

Extrusion Process
Extrusion is a Bulk Deformation Process in which the work is forced to flow through a die
opening to produce a desired cross-sectional shape.

Direct extrusion Indirect extrusion

Fig. Indirect extrusion to produce (a) a solid cross

Fig. Direct extrusion to produce (a) a solid cross section and (b) a hollow cross section.
section and (b) a hollow cross section.
Analysis of Extrusion process
Ram Pressure: Extrusion ratio or Reduction ratio
Under the assumption of ideal deformation (no (r):
friction and no redundant work), the pressure applied
by the ram to compress the billet through the die =
opening is given by where is cross-sectional area of the starting
= billet,mm2 (in2);
is average flow stress, Mpa. and is final cross-sectional area of the extruded
section,mm2 (in2).
Actual true strain and associated ram pressure True strain in extrusion:
(Johnson): = =
= +
where a and b are empirical constants for a
Ram pressure, p
given die angle. Typical values of these constants are: a =
0.8 and b = 1.2 to 1.5. Values of a and b tend to increase
with increasing die angle.
Ram pressure (Indirect extrusion):

Ram pressure (Direct extrusion):
= +
Ram force (F): =
Power required: = .
V= ram velocity.
Wire and Bar Drawing
Similar to extrusion except work is pulled through die in drawing (It is pushed through in
Although drawing applies tensile stress, compression also plays a significant role since metal
is squeezed as it passes through die opening
Change in size of work is usually given by area reduction (r)

True drawing strain:

= =

The draft, d, is defined as, =

For circular section:
Draw force: = = . .
where is the drawing stress. Where D is average diameter of work
during drawing, mm(in).
Drawing stress (suggested by Schey) +
= +
is contact length of the work with
is die-work coefficient of friction, is die angle the draw die mm(in).
(half-angle), is factor for inhomogeneous wire and bar
Drawing deformation. =

Maximum Reduction per Pass
From the preceding equations, it is clear that as the reduction increases, draw stress

If the reduction is large enough, draw stress will exceed the yield strength of the exiting

For wire drawing to be successful, maximum draw stress must be less than the yield
strength of the exiting metal.

In this ideal case, the maximum possible draw stress is equal to the yield strength of the
work material.
. . =

. =

= = .

Maximum possible reduction is:

= = .

Sheet Drawing

Metalworking Processes
Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.I.T. Kanpur

Sheet Metalworking Processes

Bending Drawing

Shearing; (1) as punch first

contacts sheet and (2) after
Bending operations
Bending is defined as the straining of the sheet metal around a straight edge:
Two types: V-Bending and Edge Bending process.

V-Bending Edge Bending

V-bendingsheet metal is bent along
a straight line between a V-shape
punch and die.
Edge bendingbending of the
cantilever part of the sheet around
the die edge.

Analysis of Bending process
Stretching length ()

= +
= =
are lengths of the straight parts of the blank, is the
bend allowance.

Bend allowance (ba)

= +
where is the bend angle, is a factor to stretching.
. , <
. ,

Springback is the elastic recovery leading to the increase
of the included angle when the bending pressure is
To compensate for springback two methods are
commonly used:
Overbendingthe punch angle and radius are
smaller than the final ones.
Bottomingsqueezing the part at the end of the


is included angle of the sheet-metal part, degrees; and
is included angle of the bending tool, degrees.

Bending forces (F)

where is tensile strength of the sheet metal, MPa; w is width of part in the
direction of the bend axis, mm ; t is stock thickness, mm ; and D is die opening
dimension, mm (in); is a constant that accounts for differences encountered
in an actual bending process.
. ,
. ,

Shearing is a sheet metal cutting operation along a straight line between two cut-
ting edges by means of a power shear.
Clearance c is the distance between
the punch and die.
The correct clearance depends on
sheet-metal type and thickness t:
where a is the allowance (a = 0.075 for
steels and 0.060 for aluminum alloys).

If the clearance is not set correctly,

either an excessive force or an
oversized burr can occur:
Cutting forces
Cutting force in all shearing operations is
determined by
where is the shear strength of material, L is
the length of the cut edge.
For approximate solutions,
= . Shearing process: step wise
Blanking and punching
Blanking and punching are similar sheet metal cutting operations that involve cutting
the sheet metal along a closed outline.
If the part that is cut out is the desired product, the operation is called blanking and the
product is called blank.
If the remaining stock is the desired part, the operation is called punching.

Die, Punch diameter:

Because of the geometry of the sheared
edge, the outer dimension of the part cut
out of the sheet will be larger than the hole

Thus, punch and die sizes for a round blank

of diameter Db are determined as
Bla ki g pu ch dia eter =
Bla ki g die dia eter=

Punch and die sizes for a round hole of

diameter Dh are determined as:
Hole pu ch dia eter=
Hole die dia eter = +