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Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

I.I.T. Kanpur

2

Metal Forming

Bulk Deformation

Sheet metalworking

Rolling processes

Bending operations

3

Common terminologies

Se ifi ished product

Bloom: is the product of first breakdown of ingot and has a square cross-

section of or larger.

(cross sectional area > 40 x 40 mm2)

Slab: is the hot rolled ingot (cross sectional area > 100 cm2 and with a

width >= 2 x thickness)

4

Mill product

Sheet is the product with thickness < 5 mm and width > 600mm

5

Types of Deformation

Elastic Deformation

Elastic deformations of a solid are entirely

recoverable once the stress is removed. No

part of the object under stress has

undergone permanent deformation.

Before yield point.

Plastic Deformation

Deformation beyond elastic limits.

Due to slip, grain fragmentation, movement

Fig: Typical stress-strain curve for ductile material

of atoms and lattice distortion.

In the plastic region, the etal s behavior is

expressed by the flow curve:

=

where K is the strength coefficient, Mpa

= True stress

= True strain

n is the strain-hardening exponent

6

For plastic deformation, a constant-volume relationship

is required.

. . + + =

predominated.

axial compressive strain will be:

=

= = , >

= =

7

Flow Stress

The flow curve describes the stressstrain relationship in the region in which metal forming

takes place.

It indicates the flow stress of the metalthe strength property that determines forces and

power required to accomplish a particular forming operation.

Flow stress is defined as the instantaneous value of stress required to continue deforming

the material to keep the metal flo i g.

It is the yield strength of the metal as a function of strain, which can be expressed:

=

where is the flow stress, MPa.

The average flow stress (also called the mean flow stress) is the

average value of stress over the stressstrain curve from the

beginning of strain to the final (maximum) value that occurs during

deformation.

The average flow stress is determined by integrating the flow curve

equation, between zero and the final strain value defining the

range of interest. This yields the equation:

Stressstrain curve indicating

= location of average flow stress

+

in relation to yield strength Y and

where is the maximum strain value during deformation. final flow stress .

8

Problems based on Flow stress

1. The strength coefficient = 550 MPa and strain-hardening exponent = 0.22 for a

certain metal. During a forming operation, the final true strain that the metal

experiences = 0.85. Determine the flow stress at this strain and the average flow

stress that the metal experienced during the operation.

.

Solution: Flow stress = = . =

Average flow stress = =

+

Try yourself:

1. A metal has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 850 MPa and strain-hardening exponent =

0.30. A tensile specimen of the metal with gage length = 100 mm is stretched to a length = 157

mm. Determine the flow stress at the new length and the average flow stress that the metal

has been subjected to during the deformation.

2. A particular metal has a flow curve with strength coefficient =35,000 lb/in2 and strain-

hardening exponent = 0.26. A tensile specimen of the metal with gage length = 2.0 in is

stretched to a length = 3.3 in. Determine the flow stress at this new length and the average

flow stress that the metal has been subjected to during deformation.

3. In a tensile test, two pairs of values of stress and strain were measured for the specimen metal

after it had yielded: (1) true stress = 217 MPa and true strain = 0.35, and (2) true stress = 259

MPa and true strain = 0.68. Based on these data points, determine the strength coefficient

and strain-hardening exponent.

9

Yield criteria

Yielding in unidirectional tension test takes place when the

stress = F/A reaches the critical value.

stress but on a combination of all stresses.

assumptions or empirical observations:

-The metals are homogeneous, continuous, and

isotropic (i.e., have the same properties in all directions).

-The metals have the same yield stress in compression

and tension.

-A superimposed hydrostatic pressure does not influence

the initiation of yielding.

10

Trescas Yield Criterion

In 1864, Tresca put forward his criterion saying that

plastic flo occurs he the maximum shear stress exceeds a

critical alue .

between the greatest and the smallest principal stress, Tresca's

criterion may be expressed as:

= = ; > >

. (1)

= .

(2)

This is very important, since is the most easily obtained material

property. Tresca's criterion can thus be expressed as

.. (3)

11

Strain Energy

When a force is applied to a solid, it deforms. i.e. we can say that work is done on the solid,

which is proportional to the force and deformation. The work done by applied force is stored

in the solid as potential energy, which is called the strain energy.

The strain energy in the solid may not be distributed uniformly through out the solid. Stain

energy density ( )is defined as:

=

For the general 3-D case the stain energy density is expressed as

= + + + + +

If the material is elastic, then the strain energy can be completely recovered by

Unloading the body.

12

The three dimensional (triaxial) stress situation.

In the three dimensional stress situation, the state of stress at a particular location is fully defined by

three principal stress , , and .

The strain energy at a particular location of the element can be segregated into three categories, namely:

(a)Total strain energy per unit volume of the stressed element, arising from the principal stresses , ,

and .

(b)Strain energy per unit volume arising from the change of volume caused by a hydrostatic stress, which

is uniform in all three directions

(c)Strain energy per unit volume arising from distortion of the element, and which can be considered as

being the difference between (a) and (b).

The relationship between three principal stresses , , and the strains in the directions of the

principal stresses are given by:

13

Energy per unit volume at stress location

14

15

16

von Mises' Yield Criterion

In 1913, von Mises proposed a yield criterion, stating

that

yieldi g occurs when the work of deformation per unit volume

provided by the system of stress exceeds a critical value for the

particular material.

+ +

.. (13)

Uniaxial tension: = = , = =

=

(14)

The von Mises' criterion can then be expressed as State of stresses

+ +

(15)

For the state of pure shear = , = , = :

von Mises' criterion requires a 15%

Tresca: + = = higher critical shear stress value to

initiate yielding than does Tresca' s

Von-Mises: + + + = criterion.

= For ductile material, von-Mises

criteria is used.

17

COLD WORKING

18

HOT WORKING

It requires expensive tools.

It produces poor surface finish, due to the

rapid oxidation and scale formation on the

metal surface.

Due to the poor surface finish, close

tolerance cannot be maintained.

19

Strain rate

The rate at which the metal is strained in a forming process is directly related to the speed of

deformation, v.

In many forming operations, deformation speed is equal to the velocity of the ram or other

moving element of the equipment.

strain rate is defined as:

=

where is true strain rate, m/s/m (in/sec/in), or simply s1; and h is instantaneous

height of the workpiece being deformed, m (in).

If deformation speed v is constant during the operation, strain rate will change as h changes.

At the temperatures of hot working, flow stress depends on strain rate. The effect of strain rate on

strength properties is known as strain rate sensitivity.

=

where C is the strength constant (similar but not equal to the strength coefficient in the

flow curve equation), and m is the strain rate sensitivity exponent.

A more complete expression for flow stress as a function of both strain and strain rate would be

the following:

=

where A is a strength coefficient, combining the effects of the K and C values, n is the

strain-hardening exponent and m is the strain rate sensitivity exponent.

20

21

Rolling Process

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

I.I.T. Kanpur

22

23

Types of Rolling Mills

24

25

Contact Length (L)

Forward and Backward Slip:

26

Draft

27

Fundamental concept of metal rolling

Assumptions:

The arc of contact between the rolls and the metal is a part of a circle.

The coefficient of friction, is constant in theory, but in reality varies along the arc of

contact.

The metal is considered to deform Plastically during rolling.

The volume of metal is constant before and after rolling. In practical the volume might

decrease a little bit due to close-up of pores.

The velocity of the rolls is assumed to be constant.

The metal only extends in the rolling direction and no extension in the width of the

material.

The cross sectional area normal to the rolling direction is not distorted.

28

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30

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33

34

Pressure at Neutral point

35

Forging Processes

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Forging

through dies and Tools.

Was initially used by hammering metals with tools in shaping jewelry and

coins

37

Forging of Strip

Slab Analysis

38

39

40

41

Total Forging force per unit length of the workpiece is given as

42

43

Forging of Disc

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

Extrusion & Drawing

Processes

Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

I.I.T. Kanpur

51

Extrusion Process

Extrusion is a Bulk Deformation Process in which the work is forced to flow through a die

opening to produce a desired cross-sectional shape.

Fig. Direct extrusion to produce (a) a solid cross section and (b) a hollow cross section.

section and (b) a hollow cross section.

52

Analysis of Extrusion process

Ram Pressure: Extrusion ratio or Reduction ratio

Under the assumption of ideal deformation (no (r):

friction and no redundant work), the pressure applied

by the ram to compress the billet through the die =

opening is given by where is cross-sectional area of the starting

= billet,mm2 (in2);

is average flow stress, Mpa. and is final cross-sectional area of the extruded

section,mm2 (in2).

Actual true strain and associated ram pressure True strain in extrusion:

(Johnson): = =

= +

where a and b are empirical constants for a

Ram pressure, p

given die angle. Typical values of these constants are: a =

0.8 and b = 1.2 to 1.5. Values of a and b tend to increase

with increasing die angle.

and

Ram pressure (Indirect extrusion):

=

Ram pressure (Direct extrusion):

= +

Ram force (F): =

Power required: = .

V= ram velocity.

53

Wire and Bar Drawing

Similar to extrusion except work is pulled through die in drawing (It is pushed through in

extrusion).

Although drawing applies tensile stress, compression also plays a significant role since metal

is squeezed as it passes through die opening

Change in size of work is usually given by area reduction (r)

:

=

True drawing strain:

= =

For circular section:

Draw force: = = . .

where is the drawing stress. Where D is average diameter of work

during drawing, mm(in).

Drawing stress (suggested by Schey) +

=

= +

is contact length of the work with

is die-work coefficient of friction, is die angle the draw die mm(in).

(half-angle), is factor for inhomogeneous wire and bar

Drawing deformation. =

54

Maximum Reduction per Pass

From the preceding equations, it is clear that as the reduction increases, draw stress

increases.

If the reduction is large enough, draw stress will exceed the yield strength of the exiting

metal.

For wire drawing to be successful, maximum draw stress must be less than the yield

strength of the exiting metal.

In this ideal case, the maximum possible draw stress is equal to the yield strength of the

work material.

. . =

. =

= = .

= = .

55

Sheet Drawing

56

57

58

59

Sheet

Metalworking Processes

Dr. Shantanu Bhattacharya

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

I.I.T. Kanpur

60

Sheet Metalworking Processes

Bending Drawing

contacts sheet and (2) after

cutting

61

Bending operations

Bending is defined as the straining of the sheet metal around a straight edge:

Two types: V-Bending and Edge Bending process.

V-bendingsheet metal is bent along

a straight line between a V-shape

punch and die.

Edge bendingbending of the

cantilever part of the sheet around

the die edge.

62

Analysis of Bending process

Stretching length ()

= +

= =

are lengths of the straight parts of the blank, is the

bend allowance.

= +

where is the bend angle, is a factor to stretching.

. , <

=

. ,

Springback:

Springback is the elastic recovery leading to the increase

of the included angle when the bending pressure is

removed.

To compensate for springback two methods are

commonly used:

Overbendingthe punch angle and radius are

smaller than the final ones.

Bottomingsqueezing the part at the end of the

stroke.

63

Springback:

=

is included angle of the sheet-metal part, degrees; and

is included angle of the bending tool, degrees.

=

where is tensile strength of the sheet metal, MPa; w is width of part in the

direction of the bend axis, mm ; t is stock thickness, mm ; and D is die opening

dimension, mm (in); is a constant that accounts for differences encountered

in an actual bending process.

. ,

=

. ,

64

Shearing

Shearing is a sheet metal cutting operation along a straight line between two cut-

ting edges by means of a power shear.

Clearance

Clearance c is the distance between

the punch and die.

The correct clearance depends on

sheet-metal type and thickness t:

=

where a is the allowance (a = 0.075 for

steels and 0.060 for aluminum alloys).

either an excessive force or an

oversized burr can occur:

Cutting forces

Cutting force in all shearing operations is

determined by

=

where is the shear strength of material, L is

the length of the cut edge.

For approximate solutions,

= . Shearing process: step wise

65

Blanking and punching

Blanking and punching are similar sheet metal cutting operations that involve cutting

the sheet metal along a closed outline.

If the part that is cut out is the desired product, the operation is called blanking and the

product is called blank.

If the remaining stock is the desired part, the operation is called punching.

Because of the geometry of the sheared

edge, the outer dimension of the part cut

out of the sheet will be larger than the hole

size.

of diameter Db are determined as

Bla ki g pu ch dia eter =

Bla ki g die dia eter=

diameter Dh are determined as:

Hole pu ch dia eter=

Hole die dia eter = +

66

Drawing

67

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