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United Kingdom

c.1277 - 12 Apr 1606; 12 Apr 1606 - 22 Feb 1649; Adopted 1 Jan 1801
22 Feb 1649 - 8 May 1660 8 May 1660 - 1 Jan 1801

Hear National Anthem Text of National Anthem Constitution


Map of the United Kingdom
"God Save the Queen" first performed 1745 (None, all laws of Parliament)
Map of Administrative
Statute of Westminster Magna Carta
Divisions Historical Maps of Britain
(11 Dec 1931) (1215)
(does not reflect curent divisions)
National Holiday: 2nd Sat.
Currency: British Pound in Jun (1926)
Capital: London Population: 60,943,912 (2008)
(GBP) Birthday of Queen
Elizabeth II
Ethnic groups: white 92.1% (of which English 81.5%,
Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%),
Exports: $468.7 billion (2008)
GDP: $2.31 trillion (2008) black 2% (of which West Indian 1%, African 0.8%),
Imports: $647.7 billion (2008)
Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, Bangladeshi 0.5%,
Chinese 0.4%, other 1.9% (2001)
Total Active Armed Forces: 191,030 (2006) Religions: Christian 71.6% (of which Anglican 29%,
U.S. Forces: 10,300 (2006) Roman Catholic 11%, Orthodox 0.9%), Muslim 2.7%,
Declared Nuclear Power (1952): est. 201 weapons (2008) Hindu 1%, Sikh 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%,
Merchant marine: 518 ships (2008) non-religious 15.5%, other 8.1% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS,
BSEC (dialogue partner), BTWC, C, CBSS (observer), CDB (nonregional), CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
United Chronology
Kingdom 927 Kingdom of England
Index
Northern Dec 1013 - 2 Feb 1014 Danish rule.
Ireland 30 Nov 1016 - 8 Jun 1042 Danish rule.
14 Oct 1066 Norman conquest.
Scotland 1 Feb 1171 English rule in Ireland begins.
Wales 13 Jun 1291 - 17 Oct 1292 Direct over Scotland.
2 Jul 1296 - 7 Jul 1307 Direct over Scotland.
Palatine 21 Mar 1413 - 1453 Personal union with France (from 30 Oct 1422,
County in opposition to the French claimant).
of Durham 18 Jun 1541 Ireland in nominal personal union with England.
(1071-1836) 24 Mar 1603 Personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland.
17 Mar 1649 Act Abolishing the Kingly Office in England,
Isles of Scilly Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belonging
(1568-1920) (Wales, islands of Guernsey and Jersey) passed.
Guernsey 19 May 1649 Commonwealth of England
16 Dec 1653 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Isle of Man 8 May 1660 Kingdom of England (restored).
Jersey 12 May 1707 United Kingdom of Great Britain
1 Aug 1714 - 20 Jun 1837 Personal union with Hanover.
1 Jan 1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
18 Jun 1922 Independence of Ireland, (the 6 northern counties
Church of of Ulster remain part of Britain as Northern
England Ireland).
12 Apr 1927 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland (in official, non-statutory use
from 6 Dec 1922).

Kings
15 Apr 871 - 26 Oct 899 Alfred (b. 849 - d. 899)
26 Oct 899 - 17 Jul 924 Edward "the Elder" (b. c. 871 - d. 924)
17 Jul 924 - 2 Aug 924 Elfweard (b. c.904 - d. 924)
17 Jul 924 27 Oct 939 Ethelstan (b. c.895 - d. 939)
27 Oct 939 - 26 May 946 Edmund I "the Magnificent" (b. c.921 - d. 946)
23 May 946 - 23 Nov 955 Eadred "the Weak-in-the-Feet" (b. c. 923 - d. 955)
23 Nov 955 - 1 Oct 959 Eadwig "the Fair" (b. c.941 - d. 959)
9 May 957 - 8 Jul 975 Edgar I "the Peaceable" (b. 943 - d. 975)
8 Jul 975 - 18 Mar 978 Edward "the Martyr" (b. 962 - d. 978)
18 Mar 978 - fall 1013 Ethelred "the Unready" (1st time) (b. 968/69 - d. 1016)
18 Mar 978 - 983 Alfhere -Regent (d. 983)
fall 1013 - 3 Feb 1014 Sweyn (Forkbeard) (b. c.960 - d. 1014)
Mar/Apr 1014 - 23 Apr 1016 Ethelred "the Unready" (2nd time) (s.a.)
23 Apr 1016 - 30 Nov 1016 Edmund II "Ironside" (b. c.989 - d. 1016)
23 Apr 1016 - 12 Nov 1035 Cnut (Canute) (b. c.955 - d. 1035)
12 Nov 1035 - 1037 Harthacnut (2nd time) (b. c.1018 - d. 1042)
12 Nov 1035 - 17 Mar 1040 Harold I "Harefoot" (b. c.1016 - d. 1066)
(regent to 1037)
17 Mar 1040 - 8 Jun 1042 Harthacnut (1st time) (s.a.)
8 Jun 1042 - 4/5 Jan 1066 Edward "the Confessor" (b. 1002/05 - d. 1066)
5 Jan 1066 - 14 Oct 1066 Harold II (Godwinesson) (b. c.1022 - d. 1066)
14 Oct 1066 - 25 Dec 1066 Edgar II "the theling" (b. c.1052 - d. 1125)
25 Dec 1066 - 9 Sep 1087 William I "the Conqueror" (b. 1027/28 - d. 1087)
26 Sep 1087 - 2 Aug 1100 William II (Rufus) (b. 1056/60 - d. 1100)
5 Aug 1100 - 1 Dec 1135 Henry I (Beauclerc) (b. 1068 - d. 1135)
22 Dec 1135 - 8 Apr 1141 Stephen (1st time) (of Blois) (b. c.1097 - d. 1154)
(prisoner 13 Feb 1141 - 1 Nov 1141)
Lady of the English
8 Apr 1141 - 7 Dec 1141 Matilda (left England Feb 1148) (b. 1102 - d. 1167)
Kings
7 Dec 1141 - 25 Oct 1154 Stephen (2nd time) (s.a.)
6 Apr 1152 - 17 Aug 1153 Eustace (not recognized) (b. c.1131 - d. 1153)
19 Dec 1154 - 6 Jul 1189 Henry II (b. 1133 - d. 1189)
14 Jun 1170 - 11 Jun 1183 Henry (III) "the Young King" (b. 1155 - d. 1183)
Lord
6 Jul 1189 - 3 Sep 1189 Richard "the Lionhearted" (b. 1157 - d. 1199)
King
3 Sep 1189 - 6 Apr 1199 Richard I "the Lionhearted" (s.a.)
(in France, on crusade, then in captivity
in Germany 12 Dec 1189 - 13 Mar 1194)
Lord
6 Apr 1199 - 27 May 1199 John "Lackland" (b. 1167 - d. 1216)
Kings
27 May 1199-18/19 Oct 1216 John "Lackland" (s.a.)
2 Jun 1216 - 11 Sep 1217 Louis of France (pretender) (b. 1187 - d. 1226)
(later King Louis VIII of France)
28 Oct 1216 - 16 Nov 1272 Henry III (b. 1207 - d. 1272)
11 Nov 1216 - 9 Apr 1219 William Marshal, -Governor (b. 1146 - d. 1219)
Earl of Pembroke and Striguil
Apr 1219 - Jan 1227 Hubert de Burgh -Regent (b. bf.1180 - d. 1243)
20 Nov 1272 - 7 Jul 1307 Edward I "Longshanks" (b. 1239 - d. 1307)
7 Jul 1307 - 20 Jan 1327 Edward II (b. 1284 - d. 1237)
24 Jan 1327 - 21 Jun 1377 Edward III (b. 1312 - d. 1377)
21 Jun 1377 - 30 Sep 1399 Richard II (b. 1367 - d. 1400)
(captive from 19 Aug 1399)
30 Sep 1399 - 20 Mar 1413 Henry IV (Bolingbroke) (b. 1366/67 - d. 1413)
20 Mar 1413 - 31 Aug 1422 Henry V (b. 1387 - d. 1422)
31 Aug 1422 - 4 Mar 1461 Henry VI (1st time) (b. 1421 - d. 1471)
(Yorkist prisoner 10 Jul 1460 - 17 Feb 1461
King of France as Henri II from 21 Oct 1421)
5 Dec 1422 - 6 Nov 1429 Protectors
- John Duke of Bedford (b. 1389 - d. 1435)
- Humphrey Duke of Gloucester (b. 1390 - d. 1447)
3 Apr 1454 - Feb 1455 Richard Plantagenet, (1st time) (b. 1411 - d. 1460)
Duke of York -Protector
19 Nov 1455 - 25 Feb 1456 Richard Plantagenet, (2nd time) (s.a.)
Duke of York -Protector
4 Mar 1461 - 2 Oct 1470 Edward IV (1st time) (b. 1442 - d. 1483)
(prisoner at Warwick Castle Aug-Sep 1469)
5 Oct 1470 - 11 Apr 1471 Henry VI (2nd time) (s.a.)
(imprisoned in Tower of London Jul 1456 - 5 Oct 1470)
11 Apr 1471 - 9 Apr 1483 Edward IV (2nd time) (s.a.)
9 Apr 1483 - 25 Jun 1483 Edward V (b. 1470 - d. 1483)
30 Apr 1483 - 26 Jun 1483 Richard Plantagenet, (b. 1452 - d. 1485)
Duke of Gloucester -Protector
26 Jun 1483 22 Aug 1485 Richard III "Crookback" (s.a.)
(Richard Plantagenet)
22 Aug 1485 - 21 Apr 1509 Henry VII (b. 1457 - d. 1509)
22 Apr 1509 - 28 Jan 1547 Henry VIII (b. 1491 - d. 1547)
28 Jan 1547 - 6 Jul 1553 Edward VI (b. 1537 - d. 1553)
31 Jan 1547 - 10 Oct 1549 Edward Seymore, (b. 1500 - d. 1552)
Earl of Hertford -Regent
Queens
7 Jul 1553 - 19 Jul 1553 Jane (Lady Jane Grey) (b. 1537 - d. 1554)
19 Jul 1553 - 17 Nov 1558 Mary I "Bloody Mary" (b. 1516 - d. 1558)
17 Nov 1558 - 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (b. 1533 - d. 1603)
Kings
24 Mar 1603 - 27 Mar 1625 James I (b. 1566 - d. 1625)
(from 24 Jul 1567, King James VI of Scotland)
27 Mar 1625 - 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (b. 1600 - d. 1649)
Speakers of Commons of England, in Parliament Assembled (from 19 May 1649,
Parliament of the Commonwealth of England)
4 Jan 1649 - 20 Apr 1653 William Lenthall (b. 1591 - d. 1652)
Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief
20 Apr 1653 - 4 Jul 1653 Oliver Cromwell (1st time) (b. 1599 - d. 1658) Mil
President of the Supreme Authority
5 Jul 1653 - 6 Jul 1653 Francis Rous (b. 1579 - d. 1658)
Speaker of the Parliament (from 7 Jul 1653, Parliament of the Commonwealth of England)
6 Jul 1653 - 12 Dec 1653 Francis Rous (s.a.)
Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief
12 Dec 1653 - 16 Dec 1653 Oliver Cromwell (2nd time) (s.a.) Mil
Lord Protectors
16 Dec 1653 - 3 Sep 1658 Oliver Cromwell (s.a.) Mil
3 Sep 1658 - 7 May 1659 Richard Cromwell (b. 1626 - d. 1712)
Speaker of the Parliament
7 May 1659 - 13 Oct 1659 William Lenthall (3rd time) (s.a.)
President of the Council of State
13 Oct 1659 - 25 Oct 1659 Bulstrode Whitelocke (b. 1605 - d. 1675)
Committee of Safety
25 Oct 1659 - 23 Dec 1659 Members of the Committee of Safety
- Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (b. 1613 - d. 1662)
- Bulstrode Whitelocke (s.a.)
- William Sydenham (b. 1615 - d. 1661)
- John Lambert (b. 1619 - d. 1683)
- James Berry
- Archibald Johnston, Lord (b. 1611 - d. 1663)
Warriston
- Edmund Ludlow (b. 1617 - d. 1692)
- Richard Salwey (b. 1615 - d. 1685)
- John Desborough (or Disbrowe) (b. 1608 - d. 1680)
- Charles Fleetwood (b. c.1618 - d. 1692)
- Sir James Harrington (b. 1607 - d. 1680)
- William Steele (b. 1610 - d. 1680)
- Walter Strickland (b. 1600 - d. 1671)
- Henry Laurence (or Lawrence) (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
- John Ireton (b. 1615 - d. 1689)
- Robert Tichborne (b. 1604 - d. 1682)
- Henry Brandreth
- Robert Thomson
- John Hewson (b. 1595 - d. 1663)
- John Clerk (or Clark)
- Robert Lilburne (b. 1613 - d. 1665)
- Robert Bennet (d. 1687)
- Cornelius Holland (b. 1599 - d. c.1671)
Speaker of the Parliament of England
24 Dec 1659 - 16 Mar 1660 William Lenthall (4th time) (s.a.)
President of the Council of State
16 Mar 1660 - 25 Apr 1660 Arthur Annesley (b. 1614 - d. 1686)
Speaker pro tempore of the House of Lords
25 Apr 1660 - 29 May 1660 Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester(b. 1602 - d. 1671)
Speaker of the House of Commons
25 Apr 1660 - 29 May 1660 Sir Harbottle Grimston (b. 1603 - d. 1685)
Kings
29 May 1660 - 6 Feb 1685 Charles II (b. 1630 - d. 1685)
(proclaimed king by parliament 8 May 1660)
6 Feb 1685 - 22 Feb 1689 James II (b. 1633 - d. 1701)
(King of Scotland as James VII; on flight
from London 11-16 Dec 1688; fled England
23 Dec 1688; declared to have abdicated 12 Feb 1689)
Chairmen of the Peers of the Realm (in absence of James II)
11 Dec 1688 - 11 Dec 1688 Laurence of Hyde, Earl of (b. 1642 - d. 1711)
Rochester
12 Dec 1688 - 28 Dec 1688 George Savile, Marquess of Halifax(b. 1633 - d. 1695)
28 Dec 1688 - 23 Feb 1689 Prince William Henry of Orange (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
(civil administrator)
King
23 Feb 1689 - 19 Mar 1702 William III (s.a.)
(in Netherlands as Prince Willem III of Orange)
- jointly with the following -
Queens
23 Feb 1689 - 7 Jan 1695 Mary II (b. 1662 - d. 1695)
19 Mar 1702 - 12 Aug 1714 Anne (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
Kings
12 Aug 1714 - 22 Jun 1727 George I (b. 1660 - d. 1727)
22 Jun 1727 - 25 Oct 1760 George II (b. 1683 - d. 1760)
25 Oct 1760 - 29 Jan 1820 George III (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
(19 Jun 1794 - 15 Oct 1796 also King of Corsica)
29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jun 1830 George IV (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
(5 Feb 1811 - 29 Jan 1820 prince regent for George III)
26 Jun 1830 - 20 Jun 1837 William IV (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
Queen
20 Jun 1837 - 22 Jan 1901 Victoria (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
Kings
22 Jan 1901 - 6 May 1910 Edward VII (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
6 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936 George V (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
20 Jan 1936 - 11 Dec 1936 Edward VIII (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
11 Dec 1936 - 6 Feb 1952 George VI (b. 1895 - d. 1952)
Queen
6 Feb 1952 - Elizabeth II (b. 1926)

Secretary of State
1485 - 1516 Richard Foxe, Bishop of Exeter (b. c.1448 - d. 1528)
and Winchester
Lord Chancellors
24 Dec 1515 - 18 Oct 1529 Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (b. 1471 - d. 1530)
26 Oct 1529 - 16 May 1532 Sir Thomas More (b. 1478 - d. 1535)
20 May 1532 - 22 Apr 1544 Sir Thomas Audley, (b. c.1488 - d. 1544)
(from 29 Nov 1538) Baron Audley of Walden
3 May 1544 - 7 Mar 1547 Sir Thomas Wriothesley, (b. 1505 - d. 1550)
(from 16 Feb 1547) Earl of Southampton)
7 Mar 1547 - 23 Oct 1547 Sir William Paulet (b. c.1483 d. 1572)
23 Oct 1547 - 21 Dec 1551 Richard Rich, Baron Rich (b. 1496/7 - d. 1567)
Lord High Treasurers and Chief Advisors
3 Feb 1550 - 10 Mar 1572 William Paulet, Earl of Wiltshire,
Marquess of Winchester (b. c.1485 - d. 1572)
Jul 1572 - 4 Aug 1598 William Cecil, Baron Cecil of (s.a.)
Burghley
15 May 1599 - 19 Apr 1608 Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst,
Earl of Dorset (b. c.1536 - d. 1608)
4 May 1608 - 24 May 1612 Robert Cecil, Viscount Cranborne,
Earl of Salisbury (b. 1563 - d. 1612)
17 Jun 1612 - 24 May 1613 Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
24 May 1613 - 11 Jul 1614 Thomas Egerton, Baron Ellesmere (b. 1540 - d. 1617)
11 Jul 1614 - Jul 1618 Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk
Jul 1618 - 14 Dec 1620 George Villiers, Earl of (b. 1592 - d. 1628)
Buckingham (acting)
14 Dec 1620 - 29 Sep 1621 Henry Montagu, Viscount Mandeville(b. 1563 - d .1642)
29 Sep 1621 - 25 Apr 1624 Lionel Cranfield, Baron Cranfield,
Earl of Middlesex (b. 1575 - d. 1645)
11 Dec 1624 - 15 Jul 1628 James Ley, Baron Ley of Ley,
Earl of Marlborough (b. 1552 - d. 1628)
15 Jul 1628 - 13 Mar 1635 Richard Weston, Baron Weston,
Earl of Portland (b. 1577 - d. 1635)
15 Mar 1635 - 6 Mar 1636 William Laud, Archbishop of (b. 1573 - d. 1645)
Canterbury
6 Mar 1636 - 21 May 1641 William Juxon, Bishop of London (b. 1582 - d. 1663)
21 May 1641 - 3 Oct 1643 Edward Littleton, Baron Lyttleton (b. 1589 - d. 1645)
3 Oct 1643 - 30 Jan 1649 Francis Cottington,
Baron Cottington of Hanworth (b. 1579 - d. 1652)
Chairman of the Council of State
30 Jan 1649 - 17 Feb 1649 Oliver Cromwell (s.a.)
Presidents of the Council of State (also routinely styled Lord President)
17 Feb 1649 - 12 Mar 1649 Oliver Cromwell (s.a.)
(praeses pro tempore)
12 Mar 1649 - 29 Dec 1651 John Bradshaw (b. 1602 - d. 1659)
(1st time)
29 Dec 1651 - 26 Jan 1652 Bulstrode Whitelocke (s.a.)
(1st time)
26 Jan 1652 - 23 Feb 1652 Sir Arthur Hesilrige (b. c.1600 - d. 1661)
(1st time)
23 Feb 1652 - 22 Mar 1652 Philip Sidney, Viscount Lisle (b. 1619 - d. 1698)
22 Mar 1652 - 19 Apr 1652 John Lisle (b. 1610? - d. 1664)
19 Apr 1652 - 17 May 1652 Henry Rolle (1st time) (b. 1589? - d. 1656)
17 May 1652 - 14 Jun 1652 Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (1st time) (s.a.)
14 Jun 1652 - 12 Jul 1652 Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke
and Montgomery, Baron Herbert
of Shurland
12 Jul 1652 - 9 Aug 1652 Dennis Bond (1st time) (b. 1588 - d. 1658)
9 Aug 1652 - 7 Sep 1652 William Purefoy (b. 1580? - d. 1659)
7 Sep 1652 - 5 Oct 1652 Sir James Harrington
5 Oct 1652 - 25 Oct 1652 Sir William Constable (1st time) (b. c.1580 - d. 1655)
25 Oct 1652 - 22 Nov 1652 Sir William Masham (b. c.1592 - d. c.1656)
22 Nov 1652 - 1 Dec 1652 Sir William Constable (2nd time) (s.a.)
1 Dec 1652 - 29 Dec 1652 .... [unknown]
29 Dec 1652 - 26 Jan 1653 Henry Rolle (2nd time) (s.a.)
26 Jan 1653 - 23 Feb 1653 John Bradshaw (2nd time) (s.a.)
23 Feb 1653 - 23 Mar 1653 Thomas Chaloner (or Challoner) (b. 1595 - d. 1661)
23 Mar 1653 - 20 Apr 1653 Dennis Bond (2nd time) (s.a.)
1 May 1653 - 6 May 1653 John Lambert (s.a.)
6 May 1653 - 13 May 1653 Sir Gilbert Pickering (1st time) (b. 1610 - d. 1668)
13 May 1653 - 27 May 1653 .... [unknown]
27 May 1653 - 10 Jun 1653 John Desborough (or Disbrowe) (s.a.)
10 Jun 1653 - 24 Jun 1653 .... [unknown]
24 Jun 1653 - 5 Jul 1653 Philip Jones
8 Jul 1653 - 21 Jul 1653 Sir Gilbert Pickering (2nd time) (s.a.)
21 Jul 1653 - 4 Aug 1653 Edward Montagu (1st time) (b. 1602 - d. 1671)
4 Aug 1653 - 17 Aug 1653 .... [unknown]
17 Aug 1653 - 31 Aug 1653 Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (b. 1621 - d. 1683)
31 Aug 1653 - 14 Sep 1653 Robert Tichborne (s.a.)
14 Sep 1653 - 28 Sep 1653 .... [unknown]
28 Sep 1653 - 14 Oct 1653 Charles Howard
4 Oct 1653 - 3 Nov 1653 Samuel Moyer (acting)
(acting [for Howard to 14 Oct 1653])
3 Nov 1653 - 6 Dec 1653 Edward Montagu (2nd time) (s.a.)
6 Dec 1653 - 12 Dec 1653 Walter Strickland (s.a.)
Dec 1653 - May? 1659 Henry Laurence (or Lawrence) (s.a.)
19 May 1659 - 25 Oct 1659 Members of the Council known to
serve as president in this period
in alphabetic order:
- Josiah Berners (or Barnes)
- Sir James Harrington (2nd time) (s.a.)
- Sir Arthur Hesilrige (s.a.)
(2nd time)
- Archibald Johnston, Lord (s.a.)
Warriston
- Richard Salwey (s.a.)
- Thomas Scot
- Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (2nd time) (s.a.)
- Bulstrode Whitelocke (s.a.)
(2nd time)
25 Oct 1659 - 30 Dec 1659 the Council of Safety
30 Dec 1659 - 23 Feb 1660 .... [unknown]
23 Feb 1660 - 28 May 1660 Arthur Annesley (s.a.)
Lord High Treasurers
8 Sep 1660 - 16 May 1667 Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of (b. 1607 - d. 1667)
Southampton
1 Jun 1667 - 3 Jan 1670 George Monk, Duke of Albemarle (s.a.)
3 Jan 1670 - 28 Nov 1672 Anthony Ashley Cooper, Baron Ashley,
(from 1672, Earl of Shaftsbury) (s.a.)
(acting)
28 Nov 1669 - 19 Jun 1673 Thomas Clifford, Baron Clifford (b. 1630 - d. 1673)
of Chudleigh
19 Jun 1673 - 6 Mar 1678 Thomas Osborne, Viscount Osborne
of Dunblane, (from 1674) (b. 1631 - d. 1712)
Earl of Danby
First Lords of the Treasury (chief ministers)
6 Mar 1679 - 19 Nov 1679 Arthur Capell, Earl of Essex (b. 1632 - d. 1683)
19 Nov 1679 - 25 Aug 1684 Laurence Hyde, Viscount Hyde of (b. 1642 - d. 1711) Tor
Kenilworth, (from 29 Nov 1682)
Earl of Rochester (1st time)
25 Aug 1684 - 16 Feb 1685 Sidney Godolphin, (b. 1645 - d. 1712) Tor
Baron Godolphin (1st time)
16 Feb 1685 - 5 Jan 1686 Laurence Hyde, Viscount Hyde of (s.a.) Tor
Kenilworth, Earl of Rochester
(2nd time)
5 Jan 1687 - 8 Apr 1689 John Belasyse, Baron Belasyse (b. 1614 - d. 1689) Tor
8 Apr 1689 - 19 Mar 1690 Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Monmouth(b. 1658 - d. 1735) Whg
19 Mar 1690 - 15 Nov 1690 John Lowther (b. 1655 - d. 1700) Whg
15 Nov 1690 - 1 May 1697 Sidney Godolphin, (s.a.) Tor
Baron Godolphin (2nd time)
1 May 1697 - 25 Nov 1699 Charles Montagu (1st time) (b. 1661 - d. 1715) Whg
25 Nov 1699 - 12 Dec 1700 Forde Grey, Baron Grey of Werk, (d. 1701) Whg
Earl of Tankerville
12 Dec 1700 - 27 Dec 1701 Sidney Godolphin, (s.a.) Tor
Baron Godolphin (3rd time)
27 Dec 1701 - 8 May 1702 Charles Howard, (b. 1669 - d. 1738) Whg
Earl of Carlisle (1st time)
8 May 1702 - 11 Aug 1710 John Churchill, (b. 1650 - d. 1722) Tor
Duke of Marlborough
11 Aug 1710 - 29 Mar 1711 John Poulett, Count Poulett
29 Mar 1711 - 30 Jul 1714 Robert Harley, (b. 1661 - d. 1724) Tor
Earl of Oxford and Mortimer
30 Jul 1714 - 11 Oct 1714 Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury(b. 1660 - d. 1718) Whg
11 Oct 1714 - 19 May 1715 Charles Montagu, Baron of Halifax (s.a.) Whg
(2nd time)
23 May 1715 - 10 Oct 1715 Charles Howard, (s.a.) Whg
Earl of Carlisle (2nd time)
10 Oct 1715 - 9 Jun 1717 Robert Walpole (1st time) (b. 1676 - d. 1745) Whg
12 Jun 1717 - 21 Mar 1721 James Stanhope, (b. 1673 - d. 1721) Whg
Viscount Stanhope of Mahon
(from 1718, James Stanhope, Earl of Stanhope)
21 Mar 1721 - 4 Apr 1721 Charles Spencer, (b. 1674 - d. 1722) Whg
Earl of Sunderland
4 Apr 1721 - 15 May 1730 Robert Walpole (2nd time) (s.a.) Whg
(from 1725, Sir Robert Walpole)
Prime ministers2
15 May 1730 - 11 Feb 1742 Sir Robert Walpole (s.a.) Whg
16 Feb 1742 - 2 Jul 1743 Spencer Compton, (b. 1673? - d. 1743) Whg
Earl of Wilmington
27 Aug 1743 - 6 Mar 1754 Henry Pelham (b. 1696 - d. 1754) Whg
16 Mar 1754 - 16 Nov 1756 Thomas Pelham-Holles, (b. 1693 - d. 1768) Whg
Duke of Newcastle (1st time)
16 Nov 1756 - 25 Jun 1757 William Cavendish, (b. 1720 - d. 1764) Whg
Duke of Devonshire
25 Jun 1757 - 2 Jul 1757 James Waldegrave, (b. 1715 - d. 1763) Whg
Earl of Waldegrave (acting)
2 Jul 1757 - 26 May 1762 Thomas Pelham-Holles, (s.a.) Whg
Duke of Newcastle (2nd time)
26 May 1762 - 16 Apr 1763 John Stuart, Earl of Bute (b. 1713 - d. 1792) Tor
16 Apr 1763 - 13 Jul 1765 George Grenville (b. 1712 - d. 1770) Whg
13 Jul 1765 - 30 Jul 1766 Charles Watson-Wentworth, (b. 1730 - d. 1782) Whg
Marquess of Rockingham (1st time)
30 Jul 1766 - 14 Oct 1768 William Pitt, "the Elder" (b. 1708 - d. 1778) Whg
Earl of Chatham
14 Oct 1768 - 28 Jan 1770 Augustus Henry Fitzroy, (b. 1735 - d. 1811) Whg
Duke of Grafton
28 Jan 1770 - 22 Mar 1782 Frederick North, Lord North (b. 1732 - d. 1792) Tor
27 Mar 1782 - 1 Jul 1782 Charles Watson-Wentworth, (s.a.) Whg
Marquess of Rockingham (2nd time)
4 Jul 1782 - 2 Apr 1783 William Petty-Fitzmaurice, (b. 1737 - d. 1805) Whg
Earl of Shelburne
2 Apr 1783 - 19 Dec 1783 William Henry Cavendish- (b. 1738 - d. 1809) Whg
Bentinck, Duke of Portland
(1st time)
19 Dec 1783 - 14 Mar 1801 William Pitt "the Younger" (b. 1759 - d. 1806) Tor
(1st time)
17 Mar 1801 - 10 May 1804 Henry Addington (b. 1757 - d. 1844) Tor
10 May 1804 - 23 Jan 1806 William Pitt "the Younger" (s.a.) Tor
(2nd time)
11 Feb 1806 - 31 Mar 1807 William Wyndham Grenville, (b. 1759 - d. 1834) Whg
Baron Grenville
31 Mar 1807 - 4 Oct 1809 William Henry Cavendish- (s.a.) Whg
Bentinck, Duke of Portland
(2nd time)
4 Oct 1809 - 11 May 1812 Spencer Perceval (b. 1762 - d. 1812) Tor
9 Jun 1812 - 10 Apr 1827 Robert Banks Jenkinson, (b. 1770 - d. 1828) Tor
Earl of Liverpool
10 Apr 1827 - 8 Aug 1827 George Canning (b. 1770 - d. 1827) Tor
31 Aug 1827 - 22 Jan 1828 Frederick John Robinson, (b. 1782 - d. 1859) Tor
Viscount Goderich
22 Jan 1828 - 22 Nov 1830 Arthur Wellesley, (b. 1769 - d. 1852) Tor
Duke Wellington (1st time)
22 Nov 1830 - 16 Jul 1834 Charles Grey, Earl Grey (b. 1764 - d. 1845) Whg
16 Jul 1834 - 17 Nov 1834 William Lamb, (1st time) (b. 1779 - d. 1848) Whg
Viscount Melbourne
17 Nov 1834 - 10 Dec 1834 Arthur Wellesley, (s.a.) Tor
Duke of Wellington (2nd time)
10 Dec 1834 - 18 Apr 1835 Sir Robert Peel (1st time) (b. 1788 - d. 1850) Con
18 Apr 1835 - 30 Aug 1841 William Lamb, (2nd time) (s.a.) Whg
Viscount Melbourne
30 Aug 1841 - 30 Jun 1846 Sir Robert Peel (2nd time) (s.a.) Con
30 Jun 1846 - 23 Feb 1852 John Russell, Lord Russell (b. 1792 - d. 1878) Whg/Lib
(1st time)
23 Feb 1852 - 19 Dec 1852 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, (b. 1799 - d. 1869) Con
Earl of Derby (1st time)
19 Dec 1852 - 6 Feb 1855 George Hamilton-Gordon, (b. 1784 - d. 1860) Peel
Earl of Aberdeen
6 Feb 1855 - 20 Feb 1858 Henry John Temple, (b. 1784 - d. 1865) Lib
Viscount Palmerston (1st time)
20 Feb 1858 - 12 Jun 1859 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, (s.a.) Con
Earl of Derby (2nd time)
12 Jun 1859 - 18 Oct 1865 Henry John Temple, (s.a.) Lib
Viscount Palmerston (2nd time)
29 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1866 John Russell, Earl Russell (s.a.) Lib
(2nd time)
28 Jun 1866 - 27 Feb 1868 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, (s.a.) Con
Earl of Derby (3rd time)
27 Feb 1868 - 3 Dec 1868 Benjamin Disraeli (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1881) Con
3 Dec 1868 - 20 Feb 1874 William Ewart Gladstone (1st time)(b. 1809 - d. 1898) Lib
20 Feb 1874 - 23 Apr 1880 Benjamin Disraeli, (2nd time) (s.a.) Con
(from 12 Aug 1876) Earl of Beaconsfield
23 Apr 1880 - 23 Jun 1885 William Ewart Gladstone (2nd time)(s.a.) Lib
23 Jun 1885 - 1 Feb 1886 Robert Arthur Talbot (b. 1830 - d. 1903) Con
Gascoyne-Cecil,
Marquess of Salisbury (1st time)
1 Feb 1886 - 25 Jul 1886 William Ewart Gladstone (3rd time)(s.a.) Lib
3 Aug 1886 - 15 Aug 1892 Robert Arthur Talbot (s.a.) Con
Gascoyne-Cecil,
Marquess of Salisbury (2nd time)
15 Aug 1892 - 5 Mar 1894 William Ewart Gladstone (4th time)(s.a.) Lib
5 Mar 1894 - 25 Jun 1895 Archibald Primrose, (b. 1847 - d. 1929) Lib
Earl of Rosebery
25 Jun 1895 - 12 Jul 1902 Robert Arthur Talbot (s.a.) Con
Gascoyne-Cecil,
Marquess of Salisbury (3rd time)
12 Jul 1902 - 5 Dec 1905 Arthur James Balfour (b. 1848 - d. 1930) Con
5 Dec 1905 - 8 Apr 1908 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (b. 1836 - d. 1908) Lib
8 Apr 1908 - 7 Dec 1916 Herbert Henry Asquith (b. 1852 - d. 1928) Lib
7 Dec 1916 - 23 Oct 1922 David Lloyd George (b. 1863 - d. 1945) Lib
23 Oct 1922 - 22 May 1923 Andrew Bonar Law (b. 1858 - d. 1923) Con
22 May 1923 - 22 Jan 1924 Stanley Baldwin (1st time) (b. 1867 - d. 1947) Con
22 Jan 1924 - 4 Nov 1924 Ramsay MacDonald (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1937) Lab
4 Nov 1924 - 5 Jun 1929 Stanley Baldwin (2nd time) (s.a.) Con
5 Jun 1929 - 7 Jun 1935 Ramsay MacDonald (2nd time) (s.a.) Lab
7 Jun 1935 - 28 May 1937 Stanley Baldwin (3rd time) (s.a.) Con
28 May 1937 - 10 May 1940 Neville Chamberlain (b. 1869 - d. 1940) Con
10 May 1940 - 26 Jul 1945 Winston Churchill (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1965) Con
26 Jul 1945 - 26 Oct 1951 Clement Richard Attlee (b. 1883 - d. 1967) Lab
26 Oct 1951 - 6 Apr 1955 Winston Churchill (2nd time) (s.a.) Con
(from 24 Apr 1953, Sir Winston Churchill)
6 Apr 1955 - 10 Jan 1957 Sir Robert Anthony Eden (b. 1897 - d. 1977) Con
10 Jan 1957 - 19 Oct 1963 Maurice Harold Macmillan (b. 1894 - d. 1986) Con
19 Oct 1963 - 16 Oct 1964 Alexander Frederick (b. 1903 - d. 1995) Con
Douglas-Home, Earl of Home
(from 23 Oct 1963, Sir Alec Douglas-Home)
16 Oct 1964 - 19 Jun 1970 James Harold Wilson (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 1995) Lab
19 Jun 1970 - 4 Mar 1974 Edward Richard George Heath (b. 1916 - d. 2005) Con
4 Mar 1974 - 5 Apr 1976 James Harold Wilson (2nd time) (s.a.) Lab
5 Apr 1976 - 4 May 1979 Leonard James Callaghan (b. 1912 - d. 2005) Lab
4 May 1979 - 28 Nov 1990 Margaret Thatcher (f) (b. 1925) Con
28 Nov 1990 - 2 May 1997 John Major (b. 1943) Con
2 May 1997 - 27 Jun 2007 Anthony "Tony" Blair (b. 1953) Lab
27 Jun 2007 - Gordon Brown (b. 1951) Lab

Full style of the ruler:


(a) Anglo-Saxon Royal Styles (9th-11th century): the evidence found in contemporary sources
of different kinds suggests that the Anglo-Saxon rulers of England in the 9th-11th century
used a number of forms of royal title, which loosely varied. As a matter of fact, the
royal title was a conflation of the word 'king', usually inscribed in Latin\ rex or Old English
cing (cyng, or cyngc, etc.), with an attribution to national authority 'English', 'Anglo-
Saxon', 'West-Saxon'. The combination which became most common since the reign of King
thelstan was rex Anglorum ("king of the English"), but it was usually coupled with colorful
epithets in charters and writs. Occasionally, rex was dropped in favor of other titles
emphasizing imperium over other peoples in Britain. In some instances, as illustrated by
Eadwig's charter of 956 (Sawyer 633), the Anglo-Saxon rulers were styled imperator (Eadwi Rex
nutu Dei Angulsxna . et Northanhumbrorum imperator . paganorum gubernator . Breotonumque
propugnator). The title basileus also occasionally substituted for rex.
The charters of the first decade of lfred's reign mostly referred to him as
rex Saxonum ("king of the Saxons"). After the capture of London (886), Alfred's royal style
shifted to variations on rex Angulsaxonum ("king of the Anglo-Saxons") and rex Anglorum et
Saxonum ("king of the English and Saxons"). Eadred was styled regis qui regimina regnorum
Angulsaxna, Norhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque ("king of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians,
pagans, and Britons") in a charter of 946 (Sawyer 520), and again in 949-950. He was reduced to
rex Anglorum in 951, and raised back to "king of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, pagans, and
Britons" in 954. Eadgar was styled rex Merciorum, when he was installed as king in Mercia
(957-959), but he acquired the traditional title of rex Anglorum, when he succeeded his
brother, Eadwig, in 959. The consecration at Bath (973) and the ceremony on the Dee River
probably influenced additions to the royal title. A charter of 974 (Sawyer 797) styled Eadgar
totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus ("Of all Britain and of the neighboring kings
basileus"). Contemporary charters use a number of styles for Cnut having rex Anglorum in the
core and other titles (rex Angligen nationis, rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis
gubernator et rector, Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus, basileon Angelsaxonum, etc.). In
his letter of 1027 to the English people, he was styled rex totius Angli et Denemarchi et
Norreganorum et partis Suanorum ("King of all England and of Denmark, Norway and part of
Sweden"). Edward the Confessor was rex Anglorum on coins, rex Anglorum or Anglorum Basileus
in charters and on his seal;
(b) from 25 Oct 1415: "by the Grace of God, King of France and England and Lord of Ireland"
(Rex Francie et Anglie et Dominus Hibernie);
(c) from Dec 1541: "by the Grace of God, King of England and France and Ireland (Rex Francie et
Anglie et Hibernie), Defender of the Faith (11 Oct 1521 - 1538, 1544 - Oct 1554, from 1559),
Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England (15 Jan 1535 - 1554, from 1559) and Ireland
(from 1537)";
(d) from 24 Mar 1603: "by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland,
Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland."
From 24 Oct 1604 James I also began to use the style of "King of Great Britain, France and
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." this was formalized from 1 May 1707;
(e) 16 Dec 1653 - 7 May 1659: "By the Grace of God, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of
England, Scotland, and Ireland (and the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging), often
shorted to "By the Grace of God and Republic, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland"
(Olivarius Dei Gratia Reip[ublicae] Angliae Scotiae et Hiberniae, &c Protector);
(f) from 12 May 1707: "by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland King/Queen,
Defender of the Faith";
(g) from 1 Jan 1801: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
King/Queen, Defender of the Faith"; in 1 Jul 1876 the title "Empress of India" was added;
(h) from 1901: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of
the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(i) from 12 Apr 1927: "by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British
Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of
India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(j) from 29 May 1953: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of
the Faith."

The origin of the term prime minister and the question to whom it should originally be applied
2

have long been issues of scholarly and political debate. Although the term was used as early as
the reign of Queen Anne (1702-1714), it acquired wider currency during the reign of George II
(1727-1760), when it began to be used as a term of reproach toward Sir Robert Walpole. It was
not until early 20th century when the Prime Minister's precedence in England was established
10 Dec 1905 that placed the Prime Minister, mentioned as such, in the order of precedence in
England immediately after the Archbishop of York.
The first Act of Parliament to mention the office of Prime Minister was the Chequers Estate
Act, which received the Royal Assent on 20 Dec 1917. The title was finally given full
recognition in 1 Jul 1937, when the Salaries of the Ministers of the Crown Act made provision
for paying "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister" - the two offices that since the
18th century, have usually been held by the Prime Minister, though some exceptions existed.
The Act made a certain distinction between "position" (Prime Minister) and "office" (First Lord
of the Treasury) emphasizing the unique character of the position and recognized the existence
of the Cabinet. Nevertheless, in spite of this recognition, the brass plate outside the Prime
Minister's front door still bears the title of First Lord of the Treasury.

Territorial Disputes: In 2003, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain


a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding
participation in talks between the U.K. and Spain; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant
Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British
Indian Ocean Territory) and its former inhabitants since their eviction in 1965; most
Chagossians reside in Mauritius, and in 2001 were granted UK citizenship, where some have since
resettled; in May 2006, the High Court of London reversed the UK Government's 2004 orders of
council that banned habitation on the islands; U.K. rejects sovereignty talks requested by
Argentina, which claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland remains
dormant; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim
and partially overlaps Chilean claim not recognized by the United Nations, U.S., Russia or most
other countries; Iceland, the U.K., and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faeroe
Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm.

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party (center-right); Lab = Labour Party (social-
democratic, center-left, first officially named 1868); LDP = Liberal Democratic Party (social-
liberal);
- Former parties - Note: Before the development of the Conservative and Liberal parties in the
mid-19th century, parties were largely simply alliances of prominent groups or aristocratic
families. The designations Whig and Tory tend often to be approximate - Lib = Liberal Party
(on 19 Mar 1988 Lib united with Social Democratic Party as Social and Liberal Democrats,
renamed Liberal Democrats Oct 1989); Peel = Peelite (named for Robert Peel, breakaway faction
of Con. party, 1846-1859); Whg = Whig Party (moderate conservative, aristocratic, pro-reform,
later elements became the Liberal party by the 1850's); Tor = Tory Party (conservative,
royalist, pro-Anglican, remnants became the Conservative Party by the 1840s)

Northern Ireland
From 18 Jun 1922, Only Legal Flag from 30 Mar 1972 15 Aug 1924 - 18 Jul 1973 Governor's Flag 1929 - 29 May 1953 Government Ensign

29 May 1953 - 30 Mar 1972 Government Ensign

Text of Anthem
Hear Local Anthem Northern Ireland Act
Map of Northern Ireland first performed 1894;
"A Londonderry Air" (19 Nov 1998)
unofficial from 1972
Local Holidays: 12 Jul (1690)
Battle of the Boyne
Currency: British Pound
Capital: Belfast (Orangemen's Day) Population: 1,774,033 (2008)
(GBP)
and 17 Mar (461)
Saint Patrick's Day

1 Feb 1177 English rule begins in Ulster.


Jun 1541 Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with England.
1 Jan 1801 Part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
18 Jun 1922 Independence of southern counties as Irish Free State,
six counties of Ulster remain part of Britain.
18 Jun 1922 Irish Free State (south) independent (see Ireland).
5 Oct 1968 Irish separatist violence begins.
30 Mar 1972 - 1 Jan 1974 Britain imposes direct rule.
28 May 1974 - 1 Jul 1998 Britain imposes direct rule.
11 Feb 2000 - 30 May 2000 Home rule suspended.
10 Aug 2001 - 11 Aug 2001 Home rule suspended.
22 Sep 2001 - 23 Sep 2001 Home rule suspended.
15 Oct 2002 - 8 May 2007 Home rule suspended.

Governors
12 Dec 1922 - 7 Sep 1945 James Albert Edward Hamilton, (b. 1869 - d. 1953)
Duke of Abercorn
7 Sep 1945 - 1 Dec 1952 William Spencer Leveson Gower, (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
Earl Granville
3 Dec 1952 - 1 Dec 1964 John de Vere Loder, (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
Baron Wakehurst
3 Dec 1964 - 2 Dec 1968 John Maxwell Erskine, (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
Baron Erskine of Rerrick
3 Dec 1968 - 18 Jul 1973 Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey, (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
Baron Grey of Naunton
Secretaries of State for Northern Ireland
1 Apr 1972 - 2 Dec 1973 William Shepard Ian Whitelaw (b. 1918 - d. 1999) Con
2 Dec 1973 - 5 Mar 1974 Francis Leslie Pym (b. 1922 - d. 2008) Con
5 Mar 1974 - 10 Sep 1976 Merlyn Rees (b. 1920 - d. 2006) Lab
10 Sep 1976 - 5 May 1979 Roy Mason (b. 1924) Lab
5 May 1979 - 14 Sep 1981 Humphrey Edward Atkins (b. 1922) Con
14 Sep 1981 - 10 Sep 1984 James Michael Leathes Prior (b. 1927) Con
10 Sep 1984 - 2 Sep 1985 Douglas Richard Hurd (b. 1930) Con
2 Sep 1985 - 24 Jul 1989 Thomas "Tom" Jeremy King (b. 1933) Con
24 Jul 1989 - 2 Apr 1992 Peter Leonard Brooke (b. 1934) Con
9 Apr 1992 - 3 May 1997 Sir Patrick Barnabas Burk Mayhew (b. 1929) Con
3 May 1997 - 11 Oct 1999 Marjorie "Mo" Mowlam (f) (b. 1951 - d. 2005) Lab
11 Oct 1999 - 24 Jan 2001 Peter Benjamin Mandelson (b. 1953) Lab
24 Jan 2001 - 24 Oct 2002 John Reid (b. 1947) Lab
24 Oct 2002 - 6 May 2005 Paul Murphy (b. 1948) Lab
6 May 2005 - 28 Jun 2007 Peter Hain (b. 1950) Lab
(also Secretary of State for Wales)
28 Jun 2007 - Shaun Woodward (b. 1958) Lab

Prime Ministers
7 Jun 1921 - 24 Nov 1940 Sir James Craig (b. 1871 - d. 1940) UUP
(from 20 Jan 1927, James Craig, Viscount Craigavon)
27 Nov 1940 - 1 May 1943 John Miller Andrews (b. 1871 - d. 1956) UUP
1 May 1943 - 26 Mar 1963 Sir Basil Stanlake Brooke (b. 1888 - d. 1973) UUP
(from 4 Jul 1952, Basil Stanlake Brooke,
Viscount Brookeborough of Colebrooke)
26 Mar 1963 - 1 May 1969 Terence O'Neill (b. 1914 - d. 1990) UUP
1 May 1969 - 23 Mar 1971 James Dawson Chichester-Clark (b. 1923 - d. 2002) UUP
23 Mar 1971 - 30 Mar 1972 Arthur Brian Faulkner (b. 1921 - d. 1977) UUP
Chief executive
1 Jan 1974 - 28 May 1974 Arthur Brian Faulkner (s.a.) UUP
28 May 1974 - 1 Jul 1998 Post abolished
First ministers
1 Jul 1998 - 1 Jul 2001 William David Trimble (1st time) (b. 1944) UUP
(suspended 11 Feb - 30 May 2000)
1 Jul 2001 - 18 Oct 2001 Sir Reginald Norman Morgan Empey (b. 1947) UUP
(acting)(suspended 10-11 Aug 2001
and 22-23 Sep 2001)
6 Nov 2001 - 15 Oct 2002 William David Trimble (2nd time) (s.a.) UUP
15 Oct 2002 - 8 May 2007 Post suspended
8 May 2007 - 5 Jun 2008 Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (b. 1926) DUP
5 Jun 2008 - Peter David Robinson (b. 1948) DUP

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party; DUP = Democratic Unionist Party (unionist,
nationalist, mainly Protestant); Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic); SF = Sinn Fin ("We
Ourselves", separatist, socialist, linked to Irish Republican Army, mainly Catholic);
UUP = Ulster Unionist Party (conservative, unionist, mainly Protestant)

Scotland

1512 - 12 May 1707 Royal Banner adopted 1801

Hear Local Anthem Text of Anthem


"Flower of Scotland" "Flower of Scotland"
Scotland Act
Map of Scotland ----------------------------- -----------------------------
(19 Nov 1998)
Hear Local Anthem Text of Anthem
"Scotland the Brave" "Scotland the Brave"
Capital: Edinburgh Currency: British Pound National Day: 30 Nov Population: 5,143,598 (2008)
(Perth 1210-1437;
Scone 847-1210; (GBP); Scottish Pound (SSP) Saint Andrew's Day
Dunfermline 1057-1603)

470 Kingdom of Dl Riada (of the Scots) established.


844 King Kenneth MacAlpine of Dl Riada subdues the Picts.
6 Feb 858 Unification of Alba (kdm. of the Picts) and Dl Riada
(kdm. of the Scots) as Kingdom of the Scots and Picts (Pictavia).
c.874 - 1469 Norwegian/Danish rule over the Earldom of Orkney Islands.
889 Kingdom of Alba
1018 Southern kingdom of Strathclyde (Alclud) incorporated.
25 Nov 1034 Kingdom of Scotia
6 Jan 1156 - May 1493 Lordship of the Isles (the Hebrides Islands [Western Isles]
from 2 Jul 1266, under Scottish suzerainty).
2 Jul 1266 Hebrides (including Isle of Man) ceded to Scotland.
18 Mar 1286 Kingdom of Scotland
8 Dec 1174 - 5 Dec 1189 King of England acknowledged as overlord of Scotland.
13 Jun 1291 - 17 Nov 1292 Ruled by England.
10 Jul 1296 - 7 Jul 1307 Ruled by England.
21 Jan 1590 Orkney and Shetland Islands formally ceded to Scotland
by Demark-Norway.
24 Mar 1603 Personal union with England.
30 Jan 1649 King Charles I executed in England.
17 Mar 1649 Monarchy abolished in England.
5 Feb 1649 Covenanter faction proclaims Charles II king of Scotland.
26 May 1652 Surrender of last Scottish castle holding out for Charles II.
16 Dec 1653 - 7 May 1660 Part of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland
(kingship in Scotland formally abolished on 4 May 1654).
8 May 1660 Kingdom of Scotland (restored)
12 May 1707 Act of Union formally unites Scotland and England as the
United Kingdom of Great Britain.
1690, 1715, 1745 Stuart or "Jacobite" restoration rebellions.
1 May 1979 Referendum rejects home rule.
11 Sep 1997 Referendum endorses home rule.
1 Jul 1999 First Scottish parliament since 1707 opens.
1 Jul 1999 Scottish Office replaced by Scotland Office.

Kings
840 - 858 Kenneth I mac Alpin (d. 585)
6 Feb 858 - c.863 Donald I (Domhnall III) mac Alpin (d. c.863)
c.863 - 877 Constantine I (b. c.836 - d. 877)
866 - 871 Olaf "the White", king of Dublin (d. 872)
(overlord of the Picts and Scots)
877 - 878 edh (Aodh) (d. 878)
878 - 889 Eochaidh (d. 889)
- jointly with -
878 - 889 Giric I (Cirig mac Dungal)
889 - 900 Donald II (Domhnall IV) (b. c.862 - d. 900)
900 - 943 Constantine II (d. 952)
943 - 954 Malcolm I (Maelcolaim) (b. c.897 - d. 954)
954 - 962 Indulf (Uluilb) (d. 962)
962 - 966 Duff (Dubh) (d. 967)
966 - 971 Colin (Cuilean) (d. 971)
971 - 995 Kenneth II (b. c.932 - d. 995)
971 - 977 Olaf (in opposition) (d. 977)
995 - 997 Constantine III "the Bald" (d. 997)
997 - 25 Mar 1005 Kenneth III (d. 1005)
- jointly with -
997 - 25 Mar 1005 Giric II (d. 1005)
25 Mar 1005 - 25 Nov 1034 Malcolm II mac Kenneth (b. c.954 - d. 1034)
25 Nov 1034 - 15 Aug 1040 Duncan I "the Gracious" (b. c.1001 - d. 1040)
15 Aug 1040 - 15 Aug 1057 Macbeth (b. c.1005 - d. 1057)
15 Aug 1057 - 17 Mar 1058 Lulach "the Fool" (b. c.1032 - d. 1058)
17 Mar 1058 - 13 Nov 1093 Malcolm III Canmore (b. c.1031 - d. 1093)
13 Nov 1093 - May 1094 Donald III Bane (1st time) (b. c.1033 - d. 1097)
(Donalbain)
May 1094 - 12 Nov 1094 Duncan II (b. c.1060 - d. 1094)
12 Nov 1094 - Oct 1097 Donald III Bane (2nd time) (s.a.)
- jointly with following -
12 Nov 1094 - Oct 1097 Edmund (b. c.1070 - d. 1130s?)
1095 - 8 Jan 1107 Edgar (pretender to Oct 1097) (b. c.1074 - d. 1107)
8 Jan 1107 - 23 Apr 1124 Alexander I "the Fierce" (b. c.1077 - d. 1124)
23 Apr 1124 - 24 May 1153 David I "the Saint" (b. 1084 - d. 1153)
24 May 1153 - 9 Dec 1165 Malcolm IV "the Maiden" (b. 1142 - d. 1165)
9 Dec 1165 - 4 Dec 1214 William I "the Lion" (b. 1143 - d. 1214)
4 Dec 1214 - 6 Jul 1249 Alexander II "the Peaceful" (b. 1198 - d. 1249)
8 Jul 1249 - 19 Mar 1286 Alexander III "the Glorious" (b. 1241 - d. 1286)
6 Jul 1249 - 1261 Regency
- Robert de Keldeleth of Dunfermline (d. 1273)
(to 1251)
- Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan (b. c.1205 - d. 1289)
(1st time)(1251 - 1255)
- Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith (b. c.1198 - d. 1258)
(1251 - 1255)
- William, Earl of Mar (b. c.1222 - d. 1281)
(1251 - 1255)
- John de Balliol (1251 - 1255) (b. c.1212 - d. 1268)
- Gamelin Bishop of St. Andrews
- Alan Durwart (1251 - 1257)
- Alexander The Steward (b. c.1214 - d. 1283)
(1255 - 1261)
- Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March (b. c.1213 - d. 1289)
(1255 - 1261)
19 Mar 1286 - 26 Sep 1290 Margaret "Maid of Norway" -Queen (b. 1283 - d. 1290)
(never in Scotland)
19 Mar 1286 - Nov 1292 Regency
- William Fraser, Bishop of (b. c.1230 - d. 1297)
St. Andrews
- Robert Wischard, Bishop of Glasgow
- Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife (b. 1262 - d. 1288)
(to 25 Sep 1288)
- Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan (s.a.)
(2nd time)
- John Comyn of Badenoch (b. c.1242 - d. c.1300)
- James The Steward (b. c.1243 - d. 1309)
13 Jun 1291 - 17 Nov 1292 Edward I "Longshanks" (1st time) (b. 1239 - d. 1307)
(Overlord; also king of England)
Jun 1291 Brian FitzAlan of Bedal -Regent (b. c.1250 - d. 1306)
17 Nov 1292 - 11 Jul 1296 John Balliol (b. 1249 - d. 1315)
11 Jul 1296 - 7 Jul 1307 Edward I "Longshanks" (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Sep 1297 - 22 Aug 1298 Sir William Wallace (b. c.1270 - d. 1305)
(Guardian of Scotland, in opposition)
1299 - 9 Feb 1304 Regency
- William de Lamberton, Bishop (d. 1328)
of St. Andrews
- John Comyn of Badenoch (b. c.1270 - d. 1306)
- Robert de Bruce (to 3 May 1300) (b. 1274 - d. 1329)
- Ingram de Umfraville (d. af.1321)
(3 May 1300 - 9 Feb 1304)
25 Mar 1306 - 7 Jun 1329 Robert I "the Bruce" (b. 1274 - d. 1329)
1316 - 1317 Walter The Steward -Regent
7 Jun 1329 - 12 Aug 1332 David II (1st time) (b. 1324 - d. 1371)
7 Jun 1329 - 1341 Regents
- Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray (b. c.1277 - d. 1332)
(to 20 Jul 1332)
- Donald, Earl of Mar (b. c.1302 - d. 1332)
(2 Aug 1332 - 12 Aug 1332)
- Archibald Douglas (b. 1296 - d. 1333)
(Apr 1333 - 19 Jul 1333)
- John Randolph, Earl of Moray (b. c.1306 - d. 1346)
(Jul 1333 - 1334)
- Robert Stewart The Steward (b. 1316 - d. 1390)
(Jul 1333 - 1341)
12 Aug 1332 - 16 Dec 1332 Edward Balliol (1st time) (b. 1282 - d. 1364)
16 Dec 1332 - Mar 1333 David II (2nd time) (s.a.)
Mar 1333 - 1336 Edward Balliol (2nd time) (s.a.)
c.1335 - 1341 Robert Stewart (s.a.)
(Guardian of the Kingdom)
1336 - 22 Feb 1371 David II (3rd time) (s.a.)
(in France May 1334 - Jun 1341)
Oct 1346 - 1357 Robert Stewart (s.a.)
(Guardian of the Kingdom)
22 Feb 1371 - 19 Apr 1390 Robert II Stewart (s.a.)
1 Dec 1388 - 19 Apr 1390 Robert Stewart, Earl of Menteith (b. 1340 - d. 1420)
(1st time)(Governor of the Kingdom)
19 Apr 1390 - 4 Apr 1406 Robert III (b. 1337 -d. 1406)
27 Jan 1399 - c.1402 David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (b. 1378 - d. 1402)
(Lieutenant General of the Kingdom)
4 Apr 1406 - 20 Feb 1437 James I (b. 1394 - d. 1437)
(22 Mar 1406 - Apr 1424 English prisoner)
Jun 1406 - 3 Sep 1420 Robert Stewart, Duke of (s.a.)
Albany (4th time)
(Governor of the Kingdom)
Sep 1420 - Apr 1424 Murdoch Stewart, Duke of (b. c.1362 - d. 1425)
Albany (Governor of the Kingdom)
20 Feb 1437 - 3 Aug 1460 James II (b. 1430 - d. 1460)
Nov 1438 - 26 Jun 1439 Archibald, Earl of Douglas (b. c.1390 - d. 1439)
(Lieutenant General of the Kingdom)
3 Aug 1460 - 11 Jun 1488 James III (b. 1452 - d. 1488)
11 Jun 1488 - 9 Sep 1513 James IV (b. 1473 - d. 1513)
9 Sep 1513 - 14 Dec 1542 James V (b. 1512 - d. 1542)
(in France 24 Jul 1536 - 19 May 1537)
9 Sep 1513 - 1514 Margaret Tudor (f) -Regent (b. 1489 - d. 1541)
12 Jul 1515 - 16 Nov 1524 John Stuart, Duke of Albany (b. c.1481 - d. 1586)
(Governor and Protector of the Realm)
(12 Jul 1515 - 16 Nov 1524)
14 Dec 1542 - 24 Jul 1567 Mary I "Mary Queen of Scots" -Queen (b. 1542 - d. 1587)
(in France Aug 1548 - Aug 1561; Queen
Consort of France 10 Jul 1559 - 5 Dec 1560;
in dissidence 3-16 May 1568)
24 Apr 1558 - 5 Dec 1560 Franois (b. 1554 - d. 1560)
(in France: from 10 Jul 1559 King Franois II)
29 Jul 1565 - 10 Feb 1567 Henry (Henry Stuart of Darnley) (b. 1545 - d. 1567)
19 Dec 1542 3 Jan 1543 Governors of the Realm
- David Cardinal Beaton (b. c.1494 - d. 1546)
- James Stewart, Earl of Moray (b. c.1499 - d. 1544)
- George Gordon, Earl of Huntly (b. c.1514 - d. 1562)
- Gillespie Roy Archibald Campbell, (b. c.1507 - d. 1558)
Earl of Argyll
- James Hamilton, Earl of Arran (b c.1517 - d. 1575)
3 Jan 1543 12 Apr 1554 James Hamilton, Earl of Arran (b c.1517 - d. 1575)
(from 8 Feb 1548, Duke of Chtelherault)
(Governor and Protector of the Kingdom)
12 Apr 1554 11 Jun 1560 Mary of Guise-Lorraine (f) -Regent (b. 1515 - d. 1560)
24 Jul 1567 - 27 Mar 1625 James VI (b. 1566 - d. 1625)
(from 24 Mar 1603 King of England James I,
proclaimed in Edinburgh 31 Mar 1603)
24 Jul 1567 - 12 Mar 1578 Regents
- James Stuart, Earl of Moray (b. 1531 - d. 1570)
(22 Aug 1567 23 Jan 1570)
- Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lennox (b. 1516 - d. 1571)
(27 Jan 1570 4 Sep 1571)
- John Erskine, Earl of Mar (b. c.1551 - d. 1572)
(6 Sep 1571 Oct 1572)
- James Douglas, Earl of Morton (b. c.1516 - d. 1581)
(24 Nov 1572 12 Mar 1578)
27 Mar 1625 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (b. 1600 - d. 1649)
30 Jan 1649 - 6 Aug 1651 Charles II (b. 1630 - d. 1685)
(proclaimed 5 Feb 1649 in Edinburgh, crowned 1 Jan 1651;
in Scotland from 23 Jun 1650 - 6 Aug 1651; fled
into exile 15 Oct 1651; kingship abolished 4 May 1654)
14 Sep 1649 - 2 Sep 1650 Council of State ("Covenanters")
+ Archibald Campbell, Marquess of (b. 1607 - d. 1661)
Argyll
Commissioners of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England, for ordering and
managing affairs in Scotland
23 Oct 1651 - 16 Dec 1653 Commissioners
(arrived in Scotland 15 Jan 1652)
- Oliver St. John
- Sir Henry Vane, Jr. (b. 1613 - d. 1662)
- Richard Salwey
- George Fenwick
- John Lambert (b. 1619 - d. 1683)
- Richard Deane
- Robert Tichborne (b. 1604 - d. 1682)
- George Monck (b. 1608 - d. 1670)
Kings
14 May 1660 6 Feb 1685 Charles II (s.a.)
11 May 1660 - 23 Aug 1660 Commissioners
(in the name of Parliament of England)
- Sir Thomas Morgan (b. 1604 - d. 1679)
- Philip Twistleton
- William Daniel
- Molyneux Disney (b. 1614 - d. 1694)
6 Feb 1685 11 Apr 1689 James VII (b. 1633 - d. 1701)
(ceased to exercise royal authority on
leaving the British Isles 23 Dec 1688)
14 Jan 1689 - 16 Mar 1689 Prince William Henry of Orange (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
(administrator)
16 Mar 1689 - 11 May 1689 William Douglas Hamilton, (b. 1634 - d. 1694)
Duke of Hamilton
(President of the Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland)
11 May 1689 - 19 Mar 1702 William II (s.a.)
(proclaimed on 13 Apr 1689)
- jointly with the following -
11 May 1689 - 28 Dec 1694 Mary II -Queen (b. 1662 - d. 1695)
(proclaimed on 13 Apr 1689)
19 Mar 1702 - 12 May 1707 Anne -Queen (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
12 May 1707 - the kings/queens of Great Britain
2 Jan 1716 - 15 Feb 1716 James (VIII) Francis Stuart (b. 1688 - d. 1766)
"the Old Pretender" (in dissidence)
3 Aug 1745 - 1 Oct 1746 Prince Charles Edward Stuart -Regent (b. 1720 - d. 1788)
"the Young Pretender"
"Bonnie Prince Charlie"
(for James [VIII]; in dissidence)

Lord Chancellors
5 Jan 1692 - 2 May 1696 John Hay, Earl of Tweeddale (b. 1625 - d. 1697)
2 May 1696 - 21 Nov 1702 Patrick Hume, Earl of Marchmont (b. 1641 - d. 1724)
21 Nov 1702 - 17 Oct 1704 James Ogilvy, Earl of Seafield (b. 1664 - d. 1730)
(1st time)
17 Oct 1704 - 9 Mar 1705 John Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale (b. 1645 - d. 1713)
9 Mar 1705 - 25 May 1708 James Ogilvy, Earl of Seafield (s.a.)
(2nd time)
Secretary of State in Scotland
1705 - 3 Feb 1709 John Erskine, Earl of Mar (b. 1675 - d. 1732)
Secretaries of State for Scotland
3 Feb 1709 - 6 Jul 1711 James Douglas, Duke of Queensberry (b. 1662 - d. 1711)
and Dover
30 Sep 1713 - Sep 1714 John Erskine, Earl of Mar (s.a.)
24 Sep 1714 - Aug 1715 James Graham, Duke of Montrose (b. 1684 - d. 1742)
13 Dec 1716 - Aug 1725 John Ker, Duke of Roxburghe (b. c.1680 - d. 1741)
Aug 1725 - 16 Feb 1742 Vacant
16 Feb 1742 - 3 Jan 1746 James Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale (b. 1695 - d. 1762)
3 Jan 1746 - 17 Aug 1885 Post abolished
Secretaries for Scotland
17 Aug 1885 - 17 Feb 1886 Charles Gordon-Lennox, (b. 1818 - d. 1893) Con
Duke of Richmond and Gordon
17 Feb 1886 - 3 Apr 1886 Sir George Otto Trevelyan (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1928) Lib
3 Apr 1886 - 5 Aug 1886 John William Ramsay Dalhousie, (b. 1847 - d. 1887) Lib
Earl of Dulhousie
5 Aug 1886 - 25 Mar 1887 Arthur James Balfour (b. 1848 - d. 1930) Con
25 Mar 1887 - 18 Aug 1892 Schomberg Henry Kerr, (b. 1833 - d. 1900) Con
Marquess of Lothian
18 Aug 1892 - 29 Jun 1895 Sir George Otto Trevelyan (2nd time) (s.a.) Lib
29 Jun 1895 - 9 Oct 1903 Alexander Hugh Bruce, (b. 1849 - d. 1921) Con
Baron Balfour of Burleigh
9 Oct 1903 - 4 Feb 1905 Andrew Graham Murray (b. 1849 - d. 1942) Con
4 Feb 1905 - 11 Dec 1905 John Adrian Louis Hope, (b. 1860 - d. 1908)
Marquess of Linlithgow
11 Dec 1905 - 29 Feb 1912 John Sinclair, (from 16 Feb 1909) (b. 1860 - d. 1925) Lib
Baron Pentland
29 Feb 1912 - 12 Jul 1916 Thomas MacKinnon Wood (b. 1855 - d. 1927) Lib
12 Jul 1916 - 11 Dec 1916 Harold John Tennant (b. 1865 - d. 1933) Lib
11 Dec 1916 - 25 Oct 1922 Robert Munro (b. 1868 - d. 1955) Lib
2 Nov 1922 - 23 Jan 1924 Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, (b. 1860 - d. 1934) Con
Viscount Novar
23 Jan 1924 - 7 Nov 1924 William Adamson (b. 1863 - d. 1936) Lab
7 Nov 1924 - 26 Jul 1926 Sir John Gilmour (b. 1876 - d. 1940) Con
Secretaries of State for Scotland
26 Jul 1926 - 7 Jun 1929 Sir John Gilmour (s.a.) Con
7 Jun 1929 - 26 Aug 1931 William Adamson (s.a.) Lab
26 Aug 1931 - 1 Oct 1932 Sir Archibald Henry Sinclair (b. 1890 - d. 1970) Lib
1 Oct 1932 - 13 Oct 1936 Sir Godfrey Pattison Collins (b. 1875 - d. 1936) Lib
13 Oct 1936 - 16 May 1938 Walter Elliot Elliot (b. 1888 - d. 1958) Con
16 May 1938 - 15 May 1940 David John Colville (b. 1894 - d. 1954) Con
15 May 1940 - 12 Feb 1941 Ernest Brown (b. 1882 - d. 1962) Con
12 Feb 1941 - 28 May 1945 Thomas Johnston (b. 1882 - d. 1965) Con
28 May 1945 - 3 Aug 1945 Albert Edward Harry Mayer Archibald (b. 1882 - d. 1974) Con
Primrose, Earl of Rosebery
3 Aug 1945 - 14 Oct 1947 Joseph Westwood (b. 1884 - d. 1948) Lab
14 Oct 1947 - 2 Mar 1950 Arthur Woodburn (b. 1890 - d. 1978) Lab
2 Mar 1950 - 30 Oct 1951 Hector MacNeil (b. 1910 - d. 1955) Lab
30 Oct 1951 - 14 Jan 1957 James Stuart (b. 1897 - d. 1971) Con
14 Jan 1957 - 13 Jul 1962 John Scott Maclay (b. 1905 - d. 1992) Con
13 Jul 1962 - 19 Oct 1964 Michael Antony Cristobal Nobel (b. 1913 - d. 1984) Con
19 Oct 1964 - 20 Jun 1970 William Ross (1st time) (b. 1911 - d. 1988) Lab
20 Jun 1970 - 5 Mar 1974 Graham Gordon Campbell (b. 1921 - d. 2005) Con
5 Mar 1974 - 8 Apr 1976 William Ross (2nd time) (s.a.) Lab
8 Apr 1976 - 5 May 1979 Bruce Millan (b. 1927) Lab
5 May 1979 - 11 Jan 1986 George Kenneth Hostson Younger (b. 1931 - d. 2003) Con
11 Jan 1986 - 29 Nov 1990 Malcolm Leslie Rifkind (b. 1946) Con
29 Nov 1990 - 5 Jul 1995 Ian Lang (b. 1940) Con
5 Jul 1995 - 3 May 1997 Michael Forsyth (b. 1954) Con
3 May 1997 - 17 May 1999 Donald Campbell Dewar (b. 1937 - d. 2000) Lab
17 May 1999 - 24 Jan 2001 John Reid (b. 1947) Lab
24 Jan 2001 - 13 Jun 2003 Helen Liddell (f) (b. 1950) Lab
13 Jun 2003 - 5 May 2006 Alistair Darling (b. 1953) Lab
5 May 2006 - 28 Jun 2007 Douglas Alexander (b. 1967) Lab
28 Jun 2007 - 3 Oct 2008 Des Browne (b. 1952) Lab
3 Oct 2008 - Jim Murphy (b. 1967) Lab

First ministers
17 May 1999 - 11 Oct 2000 Donald Campbell Dewar (s.a.) Lab
11 Oct 2000 - 26 Oct 2000 Jim Wallace (1st time)(acting) (b. 1954) LDP
26 Oct 2000 - 8 Nov 2001 Henry McLeish (b. 1948) Lab
8 Nov 2001 - 22 Nov 2001 Jim Wallace (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.) LDP
22 Nov 2001 - 17 May 2007 Jack McConnell (b. 1960) Lab
17 May 2007 - Alexander "Alex" Salmond (b. 1954) SNP

Full style of the ruler:


(a) from 1329: deigratia Rex/Regina Scotorum (or Scotie)("by the Grace of God King/Queen of the
Scots [or Scotland]");
(b) from 24 Mar 1603: Dei gratia Scotie Anglie Francie et Hibernie Rex, Fidei Defensor, etc.
("by the Grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith,
etc.").

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party; Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic,


est.1906); LDP = Liberal Democratic Party (social-liberal); SNP = Scottish National Party
(social-democratic, regionalist, Scottish separatist);
- Former parties: Lib = Liberal Party (1988 merged with Social Democratic Party as Social and
Liberal Democrats, renamed LDP)

Wales

1807 - 11 Mar 1953 11 Mar 1953 - 23 Feb 1959 Adopted 23 Feb 1959
Hear Local Anthem
Text of Anthem Government of Wales Act
Maps of Wales "Hen wlad fy nhadau"
First Played 1858 (31 Jul 1998)
(Land of My Fathers)
Capital: Cardiff Currency: British Pound National Day: 1 Mar (589)
Population: 2,998,376 (2008)
(London 1284-1955) (GBP) Saint David's Day

844 - 878 Rhodri II Mawr "the Great" (d. 909) unifies most Welsh kingdoms
(from 844 Gwynedd, Deheubarth, and Dyfed; from 854 Powys; and
from 872 Ceredigion/Kereddigyawn).
910 - 949 Hywel I Dda (the Good) ap Cadell (d. 949/50) unifies Deheubarth,
Powys and (from 942) Gwynedd under his rule.
1093 Dyfed under permanent English rule.
1258 Llywelyn III ap Gruffyd (d. 1282) takes the style Princeps Wallie
(Prince of Wales).
11 Dec 1282 Gwynedd (the most important of the Welsh kingdoms)
conquered by England.
3 Mar 1284 Act of union between England and Wales enacted by the
Statute of Rhuddlan; Northern Wales lands were organized
into the Principality of Wales and shired after the English
fashion, as were part of the King's lands in the North East of
Wales which became the County of Flint. The remaining lands of
Wales were in the hands of the Marcher lords and a handful of
native Welsh.
7 Feb 1301 Edward (future King Edward II) becomes the first English
"Prince of Wales." From this period on all the heirs to the
English (from 1701, British) throne will bear the same title.
16 Sep 1400 - Feb 1409 Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr (b. 1359? - d. 1415?), who proclaims
himself Prince of Wales.
1415 Glyn Dyfrdwy and Cynnlait, last independent areas,
subdued by England.
14 Apr 1536 First Act of union between England and Wales; Wales is
officially annexed to England and the act also brought
Welsh law and legal practice into line with that of
England and formed the County of Monmouthshire.
1542 Second Act of union between England and Wales; this act
abolished most of the powers of the Marcher lords
and divided the remainder of Wales into shires.
1 Mar 1979 Referendum rejects home rule.
18 Sep 1997 Referendum endorses home rule.
16 May 1999 National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) opens.
1 Jul 1999 Welsh Office replaced by Wales Office.

Minister of State for Welsh Affairs (also Home Office Secretary; in London)
27 Oct 1951 - 19 Oct 1954 Sir David Maxwell Fyfe, Earl of (b. 1900 - d. 1967) Con
Kilmuir
19 Oct 1954 - 14 Jan 1957 Gwilym Lloyd George, Viscount (b. 1894 - d. 1967) Con
Tenby
Ministers of Housing, Local government, and Welsh Affairs (in London)
14 Jan 1957 - 9 Oct 1961 Henry Brooke (b. 1903 - d. 1984) Con
9 Oct 1961 - 13 Jul 1962 Charles Hill (b. 1904 - d. 1989) Con
13 Jul 1962 - 18 Oct 1964 Sir Keith Sinjohn Joseph (b. 1918 - d. 1994) Con
Secretaries of State for Wales
18 Oct 1964 - 5 Apr 1966 James Griffiths (b. 1890 - d. 1975) Lab
5 Apr 1966 - 5 Apr 1968 Cledwyn Hughes (b. 1916 - d. 2001) Lab
5 Apr 1968 - 20 Jun 1970 Thomas George Thomas (b. 1909 - d. 1997) Lab
20 Jun 1970 - 5 Mar 1974 Peter John Mitchell Thomas (b. 1920 - d. 2008) Con
5 Mar 1974 - 5 May 1979 John Morris (b. 1931) Lab
5 May 1979 - 13 Jun 1987 Roger Nicholas Edwards (b. 1934) Con
13 Jun 1987 - 4 May 1990 Peter Walker (b. 1932) Con
4 May 1990 - 27 May 1993 David Hunt (1st time) (b. 1942) Con
27 May 1993 - 26 Jun 1995 John Redwood (b. 1951) Con
26 Jun 1995 - 5 Jul 1995 David Hunt (2nd time) (s.a.) Con
5 Jul 1995 - 3 May 1997 William Hague (b. 1961) Con
3 May 1997 - 27 Oct 1998 Ron Davies (b. 1946) Lab
27 Oct 1998 - 28 Jul 1999 Alun Michael (b. 1943) Lab
28 Jul 1999 - 24 Oct 2002 Paul Murphy (1st time) (b. 1948) Lab
24 Oct 2002 - 24 Jan 2008 Peter Hain (1st time) (b. 1950) Lab
(also Secretary for Northern Ireland 6 May 2005 - 28 Jun 2007)
24 Jan 2008 - 5 Jun 2009 Paul Murphy (2nd time) (s.a.) Lab
5 Jun 2009 - Peter Hain (2nd time) (s.a.) Lab

First Secretaries
12 May 1999 - 9 Feb 2000 Alun Michael (s.a.) Lab
9 Feb 2000 - 16 Oct 2000 Rhodri Morgan (b. 1939) Lab
(acting to 15 Feb 2000)
First minister
16 Oct 2000 - Rhodri Morgan (s.a.) Lab
Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative Party; Lab = Labour Party (social-democratic);
PC = Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales, regionalist, welsh nationalist, separatist)

County Palatine of Durham

Map of County Palatine


Capital: Durham Population: N/A
of Durham

995 Roman Catholic diocese of Durham (Dunelmensis) erected and is a


lineal continuation of the See of Lindisfarne founded in 635.
1071 Bishops granted palatine powers and Durham becomes one of the
three English Counties Palatine.
1536 Bishop's semi-regal power abolished and much of the civil and
judicial independence of the palatinate was ended by the
Act of Resumption.
1540 Durham Abbey surrendered to dissolution.
1559 Becomes an Anglican diocese after the removal of the last Catholic
bishop.
21 Feb 1836 Semi-independence ends when the territory is fully
integrated into England; separate courts are retained
until 12 May 1971.

Prince-Bishops of Durham
Mar 1071 - 14 May 1080 (William) Walcher (d. 1080)
9 Nov 1080 - 2 Jan 1096 William de St-Calais (or Carilef) (d. 1096)
(provisional to 27 Dec 1080 or 3 Jan 10881)
29 May 1099 - 5 Sep 1128 Ranulf Flambard (b. c.1060 - d. 1128)
(provisional to 5 Jun 1099)
14 May 1133 - 6 May 1141 Geoffrey Rufus (d. 1141)
(provisional to 6 Aug 1133)
14 Mar 1143 - 13 Nov 1152 William of St. Barbe (d. 1152)
(provisional to 20 Jun 1143)
12 Jan 1153 - 3 Mar 1195 Hugh du Puiset (b. c.1125 - d. 1195)
(provisional to 20 Dec 1153)
Nov 1195 - 22 Apr 1208 Philip of Poitiers (d. 1208)
(provisional to 20 Apr 1197)
29 Jun 1217 - 1 May 1226 Richard Marsh (Richard de Marisco)(d. 1226)
(provisional to 2 Jul 1217)
14 May 1228 - 15 Apr 1237 Richard le Poor (Richard Poore) (d. 1237)
(provisional to to 22 Jul 1228)
10 Feb 1241 - 2 Feb 1249 Nicholas Farnham (d. 1257)
(provisional to 26 May/9 Jun 1241)
20 Oct 1249 - 9 Aug 1260 Walter Kirkham (d. 1260)
(provisional to 5 Dec 1249)
5 Dec 1260 - 4 Aug 1274 Robert Stitchill (d. 1274)
(provisional to 13 Feb 1261)
8 Nov 1274 - 7 Jun 1283 Robert of Holy Island (d. 1283)
(provisional to 9 Dec 1274)
4 Sep 1283 - 3 Mar 1311 Antony Bek (Beck) (b. c.1245 - d. 1311)
(provisional to 9 Jan 1284)
20 May 1311 - 9 Oct 1316 Richard Kellaw (d. 1316)
9 Feb 1317 - 24 Sep 1333 Lewis de Beaumont (d. 1333)
(provisional to 26 Mar 1318)
14 Oct 1333 - 14 Apr 1345 Richard de Bury (b. 1287 - d. 1345)
(Richard Aungerville)
(provisional to 15 Dec 1333)
1 Jun 1345 - 8 May 1381 Thomas Hatfield (d. 1381)
9 Sep 1381 - 3 Apr 1388 John Fordham (d. 1425)
(provisional to 5 Jan 1382)
3 Apr 1388 - 23 Mar 1406 Walter Skirlaw (d. 1406)
(provisional to 13 Sep 1388)
14 May 1406 - 20 Nov 1437 Thomas Langley (b. 1363 - d. 1437)
(provisional to 8 Aug 1406)
27 Jan 1438 - 9 Jul 1457 Robert Neville (b. 1408 - d. 1457)
(provisional to 8 Apr 1438)
22 Aug 1457 - 1 Sep 1476 Laurence Booth (b. c.1420 - d. 1480)
(provisional to 25 Sep 1457)
1 Sep 1476 - 29 Sep 1483 William Dudley (d. 1483)
29 Mar 1484 - 14 Jan 1494 John Shirwood (d. 1494)
(provisional to 26 May 1484)
30 Jul 1494 - 20 Aug 1501 Richard Fox (b. c.1448 - d. 1501)
(provisional to 18 Dec 1494)
15 Oct 1502 - 1505 William Senhouse (d. 1505)
27 Aug 1507 - 20 Sep 1508 Christopher Bainbridge (b. 1464? - d. 1514)
(provisional to 12 Dec 1507)
12 Jun 1509 - 4 Feb 1523 Thomas Ruthall (d. 1523)
(provisional to 3 Jul 1509)
30 Apr 1523 - 8 Feb 1529 Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (b. c.1471 - d. 1530)
21 Feb 1530 - 28 Sep 1559 Cuthbert Tunstal (b. 1474 - d. 1559)
2 Mar 1561 - 23 Jan 1576 James Pilkington (b. 1520 - d. 1576)
9 May 1577 - 24 Aug 1587 Richard Barnes (b. 1532 - d. 1587)
27 Jul 1589 - 24 Mar 1595 Matthew Hutton (b. 1529 - d. 1606)
13 Apr 1595 - 28 Aug 1606 Tobias Matthew (b. 1546 - d. 1628)
7 Sep 1606 - 12 May 1617 William James (b. 1542 - d. 1617)
9 Oct 1617 - 7 Feb 1628 Richard Neile (b. 1562 - d. 1640)
19 Feb 1628 - 1 Jul 1628 George Monteigne (d. 1628)
17 Sep 1628 - 6 Feb 1632 John Howson (b. 1557 - d. 1632)
2 Jul 1632 - 22 Sep 1659 Thomas Morton (b. 1564 - d. 1659)
2 Dec 1660 - 15 Jan 1672 John Cosin (b. 1594 - d. 1672)
6 Dec 1674 - 18 Sep 1721 Nathaniel Crewe (b. 1633 - d. 1721)
(from from 30 Sep 1697, Nathaniel
Crew, Baron Crew of Stene)
7 Nov 1721 - 10 Oct 1730 William Talbot (b. 1658 - d. 1730)
21 Nov 1730 - 20 Jul 1750 Edward Chandler (b. 1668 - d. 1750)
16 Oct 1750 - 16 Jun 1752 Joseph Butler (b. 1692 - d. 1752)
7 Dec 1752 - 9 Jun 1771 Richard Trevor (b. 1707 - d. 1771)
20 Jul 1771 - 30 Jan 1787 John Egerton (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
19 Feb 1787 - 27 May 1791 Thomas Thurlow (b. 1737 - d. 1791)
7 Jul 1791 - 25 Mar 1826 Shute Barrington (b. 1734 - d. 1826)
24 Apr 1826 - 21 Feb 1836 William Van Mildert (b. 1765 - d. 1836)

Counties Palatine were erected in the 11th century to defend the northern (Scottish) and
western (Welsh) frontiers of the Kingdom of England. In order to allow them to do so in the
best way they could, their counts were granted royal or palatine ("from the palace") powers
within their territories, making these territories nearly sovereign jurisdictions with their
own administrations and courts. The two other Counties Palatine were Chester (or Cheshire)
1071-1246, and the only of the three English medieval Counties Palatine which survived until
the present-day, the Duchy of Lancaster, created in 1351 but in 1399 united as a separate
holding to the English Crown. The Prince-Bishops of Durham were so powerful, that medieval
historians often styled them the "second kings of England."

Isles of Scilly (Scilly Islands)

Adopted 22 Feb 2002 (unofficial)


Map of the Scilly Islands Capital: Hugh Town Population: 2,100 (2006)

938 Part of the Kingdom of England (St Martin's, St Mary's, Tresco,


St Agnes, and Bryher islands [uninhabited: Annet, Eastern Isles,
Norrad Rocks, St Helen's, Samson, Tean and Western Rocks]).
1114 Granted to the Abbey of Tavistock.
1539 Reunited to the Crown, part of the Duchy of Cornwall.
1568 - 1830 Leased by the crown to the Godolphin family.
10 Oct 1834 Leased by Augustus John Smith (and later his heirs).
1920 Lease limited to Tresco, Samson and Tean Islands.

Lord Proprietors of the Scilly Islands and Tenants


1568 - 1608 Francis Godolphin (b. 1535 - d. 1608)
1608 - 1613 William Godolphin (d. 1613)
1613 - 1636 William Godolphin (d. 1636)
1613 - 1625 Francis Godolphin -Regent (d. 1625)
1636 - 1643 Sidney Godolphin (b. 1610 - d. 1643)
1643 - 1666 Francis Godolphin (d. 1666)
1666? - 1712 Sidney, Earl Godolphin (b. 1645 - d. 1712)
1712? - 1766 Francis, Earl Godolphin (b. 1678 - d. 1766)
1713 - 1785 Thomas Osborne, Duke of Leeds (b. 1713 - d. 1789)
1785 - 1799 Francis Godolphin Osborne, (b. 1751 - d. 1799)
Duke of Leeds
1799 - 10 Oct 1834 Frederick Godolphin Osborne, (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
Duke of Leeds
10 Oct 1834 - 31 Jul 1872 Augustus John Smith (b. 1804 - d. 1872)
31 Jul 1872 - 1918 Thomas Algernon Dorrien-Smith
1918 - 1920 Arthur Algernon Dorrien-Smith (b. 1876 - d. 1955)

Garrison commanders
1647 - 164. George Askew
Apr 1648 - Jun 1648 Anthony Buller
Nov 1648 - Dec 1649 Charles Grosse (parliament)
1649 - Jun 1651 Sir John Grenville (royalist) (b. 1643 - d. 1701)
2000 Ben Cahoon

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