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Germany

962 - 1401 1 Jul 1867 - 16 Apr 1871 9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852
Holy Roman Emperor's flag (North German Confederation); (German Reich -Frankfurt);
16 Apr 1871 - 31 Dec 1921; 14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933
11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935
(co-national flag)

11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945 12 Nov 1945 - 14 Aug 1950 Re-adopted 9 May 1949
(co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935) Provisional Civil Ensign ("West Germany" to 3 Oct 1990)

Hear National Anthem


Text of Anthem Constitution
Map of Germany "Lied der Deutschen"
Adopted 3 Oct 1990 (23 May 1949)
(Song of the Germans)
Capital: Berlin Currency: Euro (EUR);
National Holiday: 3 Oct (1990)
(some ministries 1948 - 1 Jan 2002 Population: 82,369,552 (2008)
German Unity Day
remain in Bonn) Deutsche Mark (DEM)
Ethnic groups: German 88.2%, Turkish 3.4% (Kurdish 0.7%),
Exports: $1.53 trillion (2008)
GDP: $2.86 trillion (2008) Italian 1%, Greek 0.7%, Serb 0.6%, Russian 0.6%,
Imports: $1.20 billion (2008)
Polish 0.4%, other 5.1% (2000)
Religions: Christian 75.8% (of which Protestant 35.6%
Total Active Armed Forces: 284,500 (2006)
[Lutheran 33.9%], Roman Catholic 33.5%, Orthodox 0.9%,
U.S. Troops: 66,000 (2005)
other Christian 4.9%, independent Christian 0.9%), Sunni
British Troops: 22,000 (2005)
Muslim 4.4%, Jewish 0.1%, atheist 2.2%, non-religious 17.2%,
Merchant marine: 393 ships (2008)
other 0.3% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), AfDB (nonregional), ADB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC
(observer), BTWC, CBSS, CDB (nonregional), CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, DC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7,
G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol,
Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU,
WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Germany Chronology
Index 25 Dec 800 Holy Roman Empire ("First Reich").
Federal 25 Jul 1806 Confederation of the Rhine founded (under French
Republic of rule).
6 Aug 1806 Holy Roman Empire dissolved.
Germany
19 Oct 1813 Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
(since 1949) 21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Attempted central coordination.
States 20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866 German Confederation; members in official order:
since 1918 (1) Austria
(2) Prussia (announces exit 14 Jun 1866,
German states permission denied by Federal Assembly 16
before 1918 Jun 1866).
A-E&F-M (3) Bavaria (4) Saxony (5) Hanover
N-Q&R-Z (6) Wrttemberg (from 1 Sep 1815)
(7) Baden (from 26 Jul 1815)
Prussia (8) Hesse-Kassel (9) Hesse-Darmstadt
Provinces (10) Holstein (plus Schleswig from 12 Apr 1848)
(to 1945) (11) Luxembourg
(12) Limburg (from 5 Sep 1839, see Netherlands)
Holy Roman
(13) Braunschweig (14) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Empire (15) Nassau-Usingen + Nassau-Weilburg, merged
(1576-1806) 24 Mar 1816 into Nassau.
Confederation (16) Saxe-Weimar (17) Saxe-Gotha
of the Rhine (18) Saxe-Coburg (19) Saxe-Meiningen
(20) Saxe-Hildburghausen
(1806-1813)
(21) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22) Holstein-Oldenburg
Transitional (23) Anhalt-Dessau (merged 30 Aug 1863
Administration into Anhalt)
(1813-1815) (24) Anhalt-Bernburg (same as above)
(25) Anhalt-Kthen (same as above)
German Reich (26) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
(1815-1945) (27) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Allied Military (28) Hohenzollern-Hechingen
(annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850)
Occupation
(29) Liechtenstein
(1945-1949) (30) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
U.S. Zone (annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850)
British Zone (31) Waldeck (32) Reuss Senior Line
French Zone (33) Reuss Junior Line (34) Schaumburg-Lippe
(35) Lippe (36) Hesse-Homburg (from 7 Jul 1817)
Soviet Zone (37) Lauenburg (38) Lbeck (39) Frankfurt
Dutch Zone (40) Bremen (41) Hamburg
East Germany 12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 German Empire (Reich)
(1949-1990) (officially from 28 Mar 1849).
1 Jul 1867 - 1 Jan 1871 North German Confederation; members in
East German official order:
Districts (1) Prussia (with Lauenburg) (2) Saxony
(1952-1990) (3) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(4) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Heligoland (5) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (6) Oldenburg
(1807-1891) (7) Brunswick (8) Saxe-Meiningen
Saarland (9) Saxe-Altenburg
(1918-35,1945- (10) Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (11) Anhalt
(12) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
56)
Allied
Occupation
of the
Rhineland
(1918-1930)
Rheinland
Republic
(1919,1923,192
4)
French
Dpartements
in Germany
(1800-1813)
German
Antarctica
(1938-1945)
Historical Maps

of Germany (13) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen


Map of Holy (14) Waldeck (15) Reuss Senior Line
Roman Empire (16) Reuss Junior Line (17) Schaumburg-Lippe
in 1789 (18) Lippe (19) Lbeck (20) Bremen (21) Hamburg
(22) Hesse-Darmstadt (only the territories on
the right bank of the Rhine).
1 Jan 1871 German Empire ("Second Reich").
18 Jan 1871 - 11 Nov 1918 Alsace-Lorraine annexed from France.
1 Dec 1918 - 30 Jun 1930 Allied occupation of the Rhineland.
28 Jun 1919 By the Treaty of Versailles, Alsace-Lorraine
restored to France; Eupen-Malmedy and Neutral
Moresnet ceded to Belgium; Danzig made a Free
Map of City; most of West Prussia, part of Pomerania,
Germany Posen, a "Corridor" to the Baltic and part of
in 1807 Upper Silesia (after plebiscite) ceded to
Poland; Memel and the Saarland to be under
International administration; Rhineland to be
demilitarized and under Allied occupation;
Northern Schleswig ceded to Denmark after
plebiscite; union with Austria forbidden;
and all colonies surrendered to the Allies.
14 Aug 1919 Germany a republic (style German Reich not
officially abandoned) "Weimar Republic"

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1401 1401 - 6 Aug 1806


Holy Roman Emperor's Flag Holy Roman Emperor's Flag
25 Dec 800 Holy Roman Empire
6 Aug 1806 Reich dissolved.
Emperors-elect
2 Nov 1576 - 20 Jan 1612 Rudolf II (b. 1552 - d. 1612)
(elected 27 Oct 1575)
20 Jan 1612 - 13 Jun 1612 Imperial vicars
- Friedrich V (1st time) (b. 1596 - d. 1632)
(count palatine of the Rhine)
- Johann Georg I (1st time) (b. 1585 - d. 1656)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
24 Jun 1612 - 20 Mar 1619 Matthias II (b. 1557 - d. 1619)
(elected 13 Jun 1612)
20 Mar 1619 - 28 Aug 1619 Imperial vicars
- Friedrich V (2nd time) (s.a.)
(count palatine of the Rhine)
- Johann Georg I (2nd time) (s.a.)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
28 Aug 1619 - 15 Feb 1637 Ferdinand III (b. 1578 - d. 1637)
15 Feb 1637 - 2 Apr 1657 Ferdinand IV (b. 1608 - d. 1657)
(elected 22 Dec 1636)
2 Apr 1657 - 18 Jul 1658 Imperial vicars
- Karl I Ludwig (b. 1617 - d. 1680)
(count palatine of the Rhine;
in dispute with Ferdinand Maria)
- Ferdinand Maria (duke of Bavaria)(b. 1636 - d. 1679)
(in dispute with Karl I Ludwig)
- Johann Georg II (b. 1613 - d. 1680)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
1 Aug 1658 - 5 May 1705 Leopold I (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
(elected 18 Jul 1658)
5 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711 Joseph I (b. 1678 - d. 1711)
(elected 23 Jan 1690, crowned 26 Jan 1690)
17 Apr 1711 - 12 Oct 1711 Imperial vicars
- Johann Wilhelm (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
(count palatine of the Rhine)
- Friedrich August I "der Starke" (b. 1670 - d. 1740)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
22 Dec 1711 - 20 Oct 1740 Karl VI (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
(elected 12 Oct 1711)
20 Oct 1740 - 14 Jan 1742 Imperial vicars
- Karl Albrecht (b. 1697 - d. 1745)
(duke of Bavaria)
- Friedrich August II (1st time) (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
12 Feb 1742 - 20 Jan 1745 Karl VII (s.a.)
(Karl Albrecht, duke of Bavaria)
(elected 14 Jan 1742)
20 Jan 1745 - 13 Sep 1745 Imperial vicars
- Maximilian III Joseph (b. 1727 - d. 1777)
(duke of Bavaria)
- Friedrich August II (2nd time) (s.a.)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
4 Oct 1745 - 18 Aug 1765 Franz I (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
(elected 13 Sep 1745)
18 Aug 1765 - 20 Feb 1790 Joseph II (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
(elected 27 Mar 1764, crowned 3 Apr 1764)
20 Feb 1790 - 30 Sep 1790 Imperial vicars
- Karl IV Philipp Theodor (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
(1st time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
- Friedrich August III (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
"der Gerechte" (1st time)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
9 Oct 1790 - 1 Mar 1792 Leopold II (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
(elected 30 Sep 1790)
1 Mar 1792 - 7 Jul 1792 Imperial vicars
- Karl IV Philipp Theodor (s.a.)
(2nd time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
- Friedrich August III (s.a.)
"der Gerechte" (2nd time)
(count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
14 Jul 1792 - 6 Aug 1806 Franz II (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
(elected 7 Jul 1792)

Archchancellors for Germany


30 Mar 1695 - 25 Jul 1806 the Archbishops of Mayence (Mainz)
Archchancellors for Gaul and the Kingdom of Arles
13 Jul 1676 - 27 Apr 1803 the Archbishops of Trier
Archchancellors for Italy
19 Jul 1688 - 27 Apr 1803 the Archbishops of Cologne

Constitutionally the entity dealt here is the Reich ruled by the king elected by the electors
(Kurfrsten) and crowned king. (It is a matter of dispute whether the king acquires his ruling
authority with the election or only with the coronation; both dates are given in the following
record.) In theory, his title is just King (Knig) without territorial appendage. By the time
period covered here, it was understood that the king had acquired the dignity and notional
authority of a Roman emperor (see below), and the scope of his authority as such was styled the
Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Rmisches Reich - Sacrum Romanum Imperium); the addition "of the
German Nation" (deutscher Nation - nationis germanicae) comes into official use in the 15th
century (e.g., Act of the Imperial Diet [Reichsschluss] of 1486); its meaning has been the
subject of considerable dispute since the 17th century. In the time period covered, the imperial
authority extended de facto (except for some vestigial remnants, such as the chartering of
notaries-public throughout Western Europe) only to the (German) Reich, and official use made no
distinctions.
Upon his election (and coronation) the person acquired the style of king, whether during the
lifetime of the ruler or after an interregnum. Theoretically, he was king just as much as an
existing ruler, but this was just theory. In honor of the imperial status of the ruler, the
elected and crowned king, if not yet emperor-elect (see above), was styled, not just King or
German King, but Roman King (Rmischer Knig - Rex Romanorum, literally "king of the Romans").
With the demise of the imperial authority, by death or abdication, if a Roman King was in
existence, he took the style of Roman Emperor-Elect, King in Germany (see above). The imperial
coronation by the pope having been discontinued (except for Karl V 24 Feb 1530), it was decided 4
Feb 1508 to forego the formal acquisition of the style of Roman Emperor and to fall back on the
theory that an elected German king was ipso facto Roman emperor-elect and to make this point by
incorporating this concept into the ruler's style.
The full style during the period covered (to which were, of course, attached the styles
belonging to the states ruled by the emperor-elect, such as Archduke of Austria) was as follows:
Von Gottes Gnaden erwhlter rmischer Kaiser, R.I.S.A., Knig in Germanien - Divina favente
clementia Romanorum imperator electus et semper augustus, R.I.S.A., rex in Germania. The initials
R.I.S.A. stood for Romanorum imperator semper augustus, but were misinterpreted to stand for
Romani imperii semper auctor, and this misinterpretation had by the period covered come into
official use, being rendered in German as zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs ("at all times
increaser of the empire").
Under the provisions of the Golden Bull of 1356, when there was no king the royal authority was
exercised by two imperial vicars (Reichsvikare - vicarii imperii), each with a separate
territorial jurisdiction. They were specified to be the count palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgraf
bei Rhein) and the count palatine of Saxony (Pfalzgraf von Sachsen). By the time period covered,
the count palatine of Saxony was the duke of Saxony, elector; and the count palatine of the Rhine
was the elector with that title, until the interregnum of 1657, when the electorate in question,
and with it the county palatine, were in dispute with Bavaria.
The Confederation of the Rhine

25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813


Note: Under the aegis of Napolon I, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, a confederation of
states resigning from the Reich was formed 25 Jul 1806, Napolon becoming protecteur de la
Confdration du Rhin in addition to his other styles. The Charter (Rheinbundsakte in German) was
written in the French language, and called the entity tats confdrs du Rhin, but used the term
Confdration. The official German term was Rhein-Confoederation, but it was informally styled
Rheinbund, the name by which it is known to history. The constituents of the Confederation were
technically not states, but rulers. By joining the Confederation some had their rank elevated,
notably a few who became grand-dukes (Grossherzge), who were regarded as of royal status. The
Diet of the Confederation, as well as its College of Kings, was chaired by the former Archbishop
of Mayence, Imperial Archchancellor and Elector, in his capacity as Prince-Primate (Frstprimas).

Map of Confederation
Capital: Karlsruhe
of the Rhine

25 Jul 1806 Confederation of the Rhine founded.


Charter members:
- King of Bavaria (to 8 Oct 1813)
- King of Wrttemberg
- Elector-archchancellor (formerly archbishop of Mayence).
- Elector of Baden, becomes a grand-duke.
- Duke of Berg and Cleves, becomes a grand-duke.
- Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, becomes a grand-duke.
- Prince of Nassau-Usingen, senior of these two becomes a duke.
- Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
- Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
- Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
- Prince of Salm-Salm
- Prince of Salm-Kyrburg
- Prince of Isenburg-Birstein
- Duke of Arenberg
- Prince of Liechtenstein
- Count of Leyen, becomes a prince.
From 15 Sep 1806:
- Grand-duke of Wrzburg
From 11 Dec 1806:
- King of Saxony
From 15 Dec 1806:
- Duke of Saxe-Weimar
- Duke of Saxe-Gotha
- Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
- Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
- Duke of Saxe-Coburg
- Duke of Anhalt-Dessau
- Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
- Duke of Anhalt-Kthen
- Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
- Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
- Duke of Oldenburg
- Prince of Lippe-Detmold
- Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
- four Princes of Reuss
- two Princes of Schwarzburg
- Prince of Waldeck
From 15 Nov 1807:
- King of Westphalia
19 Oct 1813 Confederation dissolves.

Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine


25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813 Napolon I (b. 1769 - d. 1821)

Prince-Primate (also Chairman of the Diet and the College of Kings)


25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813 Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kmmerer
von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
(1803 - 1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg,
1806 - 1810 Grand Duke of Frankfurt)

Transitional Central Administration 1813-1815

Note: After the dissolution of the Rhine Confederation, there was no central authority in Germany
until the creation of the German Confederation. An attempt at coordination was, however, made,
and it was headed by a body called Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat).

21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Attempted central coordination.

President of the Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat)


21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
vom und zum Stein

German Reich

9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852; 1 Jul 1867 - 31 Dec 1921; 11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945
14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933 11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935 (co-national flag) (co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935)

National Holiday 1933-1945:


23 Apr (1889)
Currency: 1871-1918 German Population: 89,930,700 (1939)
Capital: Berlin (1871-1945) Fuhrer's Birthday
Paper Mark (DED); 1924-1948 62,348,782 (1925)
(Pln 29 Apr - 23 May 1945) --------------------------
German Reichsmark (DER) 67,812,000 (1914)
1888-1918: Kaiser's Birthday
27 Jan (1859)
German Confederation
National Anthem
Map German Confederation Seat of Assembly: Frankfurt Constitution
(None)
(8 Jun 1815; in German)
Map of German Empire Hear Imperial Anthem Text of National Anthem Imperial Constitution
"'Heil Dir im Siegerkranz" (1 Jan 1871-11 Aug 1922) (16 Apr 1871 - 14 Aug 1919;
(Hail To Thee in in German)
Victor's Laurels)
HearAnthem 1922-1945
"Deutschland, Deutschland Text of National Anthem Weimar Constition
Map of Germany 1920
ueber alles" (Germany, (11 Aug 1922 - 23 May 1945) (14 Aug 1919 - 5 Jun 1945)
Germany above all)
Hear NSDAP Anthem
Text of "Horst Wessel" Nuremburg Laws
Map of Germany 1942 "Horst Wessel Lied"
(11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945) (15 Sep 1935-May 1945)
(Host Wessel Song)
International Organizations/Treaties 1871-1945: ICRM, IHB, ILO, IMO, IOC, ICPC, IPU, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCA,
PCIJ, UIBPIP, UPU

20 Jun 1815 German Confederation


12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 German Empire (declared at Frankfurt; officially
from 28 Mar 1849).
28 Mar 1849 Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia elected Emperor;
on 28 Apr 1849, he rejects the election.
24 Aug 1866 End of the German Confederation.
1 Jul 1867 North German Confederation
1 Jan 1871 German Empire (Deutsches Reich)
14 Aug 1919 Germany a republic (but style German Reich not abandoned).
23 May 1945 Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power 5 Jun 1945).

Presidents of the German Confederation


20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866 the Emperors of Austria
Presidential Envoys to the Federal Parliament (in Frankfurt)(all Austrian)
5 Oct 1815 - 16 Dec 1815 Franz Joseph Freiherr von Albini (b. 1748 - d. 1816)
auf Drrenried
16 Dec 1815 - 24 Feb 1823 Johann Rudolf Graf von Buol- (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
Schauenstein
24 Feb 1823 - 12 Mar 1848 Joachim Eduard Freiherr von (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
Mnch-Bellinghausen
12 Mar 1848 - 14 May 1848 Franz Graf von Colloredo-Wallsee (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
14 May 1848 - 12 Jul 1848 Anton von Schmerling (b. 1805 - d. 1893)
1 May 1850 - 1 Nov 1852 Friedrich Graf von Thun-Hohenstein (b. 1810 - d. 1881)
2 Jan 1853 - 12 Oct 1855 Anton Freiherr Prokesch (b. 1795 - d. 1876)
12 Oct 1855 - 4 May 1859 Johann Bernhard Graf von Rechberg (b. 1806 - d. 1899)
und Rothenlwen
23 May 1859 - 24 Aug 1866 Aloys Freiherr von Kbeck (b. 1819 - d. 1873)

Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly (Frankfurt-am-Main)


18 May 1848 - 19 May 1848 Friedrich Lang (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
(president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
19 May 1848 - 12 Jul 1849 Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr (b. 1799 - d. 1880) R-Lib
von Gagern
Provisional Central Authorities of the German Reich (Frankfurt-am-Main)
12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849 Johann, Erzherzog von sterreich (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
(Imperial Vicar [Reichsverweser])
6 Jun 1849 - 18 Jun 1849 German Imperial Regency
(in Stuttgart; in rebellion)
- Peter Franz Joseph Raveaux (b. 1810 - d. 1851) Dem
- August Christoph Carl Vogt (b. 1817 - d. 1895) Dem
- August Heinrich Simon (b. 1805 - d. 1860) Dem
- Friedrich Schler (b. 1791 - d. 1873) Dem
- Heinrich August Becher (b. 1816 - d. 1890) Dem
20 Dec 1849 - 1 May 1850 Federal Commission (Frankfurt-am-Main)
(on behalf of the Emperor of Austria
and the King of Prussia)
- Karl Friedrich Kbeck Freiherr (b. 1780 - d. 1855)
von Kbau (Austria)
- Karl Freiherr von Schnhals (b. 1788 - d. 1857)
(Austria)
- Carl Wilhelm Boetticher (b. 1791 - d. 1868)
(Prussia)
- Joseph Maria von Radowitz (b. 1797 - d. 1853)
(to 31 Mar 1850)(Prussia)
- Eduard von Peucker (Prussia) (b. 1791 - d. 1876)
(from 19 Jan 1850; acting to 31 Mar 1850)
President of the North German Confederation
1 Jul 1867 - 1 Jan 1871 the King of Prussia
Emperors4
18 Jan 1871 - 9 Mar 1888 Wilhelm I (b. 1797 - d. 1888)
4 Jun 1878 - 5 Dec 1878 Friedrich Wilhelm von Prussen (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
(acting)
9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888 Friedrich III (s.a.)
9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888 Wilhelm von Preussen (acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
15 Jun 1888 - 9 Nov 1918 Wilhelm II (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Workers and
Soldiers' Councils of Greater Berlin
11 Nov 1918 - 20 Dec 1918 Richard Mller (b. 1880 - d. 1943) USPD
+ Hans-Georg von Beerfelde (b. 1877 - d. 1960) Mil
(to 12 Nov 1918)
+ Brutus Molkenbuhr (b. 1881 - d. 1959) SPD
(from 12 Nov 1918)
Chairmen of the Central Council of the German Socialist Republic
20 Dec 1918 - 6 Feb 1919 Robert Leinert (b. 1873 - d. 1940) SPD
+ Emmanuel "Max" Cohen-Reuss (b. 1876 - d. 1963) SPD
+ Hermann Mller (b. 1876 - d. 1931) SPD
Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly
6 Feb 1919 - 7 Feb 1919 Wilhelm Pfannkuch (b. 1841 - d. 1923) SPD
(president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
7 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1919 Eduard Heinrich Rudolph David (b. 1863 - d. 1930) SPD
Presidents
11 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1925 Friedrich Ebert (s.a.) SPD
28 Feb 1925 - 12 Mar 1925 Hans Luther (acting) (b. 1879 - d. 1962) Non-party
12 Mar 1925 - 12 May 1925 Walter Simons (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1937) Non-party
12 May 1925 - 2 Aug 1934 Paul von Beneckendorff und (b. 1847 - d. 1934) Non-party
Hindenburg
2 Aug 1934 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler -Fhrer (b. 1889 - d. 1945) NSDAP
1 May 1945 - 23 May 1945 Karl Dnitz (b. 1891 - d. 1980) Mil

Prime ministers
15 Jul 1848 - 16 Sep 1848 Karl Emich Prinz von Leiningen- (b. 1804 - d. 1856) Lib-Con
Westerburg
16 Sep 1848 - 18 Dec 1848 Anton von Schmerling (b. 1805 - d. 1893) Lib-Con
18 Dec 1848 - 16 May 1849 Heinrich Freiherr von Gagern (s.a.)
16 May 1849 - 21 May 1849 Maximillian Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (b. 1781 - d. 1860) Con
Grvell (provisional)
21 May 1849 - 20 Dec 1849 August Prinz von Sayn-Wittgenstein (b. 1788 - d. 1874) Mil
zu Berleburg
Federal Chancellor
14 Jul 1867 - 21 Mar 1871 Otto Eduard Graf von Bismarck- (b. 1815 - d. 1898) Non-party
Schnhausen
Chancellors
21 Mar 1871 - 20 Mar 1890 Otto Eduard Frst von Bismarck- (s.a.) Non-party
Schnhausen
20 Mar 1890 - 29 Oct 1894 Leo von Caprivi (b. 1831 - d. 1899) Non-party
(from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi)
29 Oct 1894 - 17 Oct 1900 Chlodwig Carl Victor Frst zu (b. 1819 - d. 1901) Non-party
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfrst,
Prinz von Ratibor und Corvey
17 Oct 1900 - 14 Jul 1909 Bernhard Graf von Blow (b. 1849 - d. 1929) Non-party
(from 6 Sep 1905, Bernhard Frst von Blow)
14 Jul 1909 - 16 Jul 1917 Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (b. 1856 - d. 1921) Non-party
16 Jul 1917 - 2 Dec 1917 Georg Michaelis (b. 1857 - d. 1936) Non-party
2 Dec 1917 - 5 Oct 1918 Georg Graf von Hertling (b. 1843 - d. 1919) Z
5 Oct 1918 - 9 Nov 1918 Maxmilian Prinz von Baden (b. 1867 - d. 1929) Non-party
9 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert (s.a.) SPD
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
10 Nov 1918 - 27 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (1st time) (s.a.) SPD
+ Hugo Haase (b. 1863 - d. 1919) USPD
27 Dec 1918 - 29 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (2nd time) (s.a.) SPD
29 Dec 1918 - 30 Dec 1918 Friedrich Ebert (3rd time) (s.a.) SPD
+ Philipp Scheidemann (b. 1865 - d. 1939) SPD
30 Dec 1918 - 11 Feb 1919 Friedrich Ebert (4th time) (s.a.) SPD
(executive chairman)
Prime Ministers (presidents of the imperial ministry)
13 Feb 1919 - 21 Jun 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (s.a.) SPD
21 Jun 1919 - 14 Aug 1919 Gustav Bauer (b. 1870 - d. 1944) SPD
Chancellors
14 Aug 1919 - 27 Mar 1920 Gustav Bauer (s.a.) SPD
13 Mar 1920 - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp (in rebellion) (b. 1858 - d. 1922) ADV
27 Mar 1920 - 21 Jun 1920 Hermann Mller (1st time) (s.a.) SPD
21 Jun 1920 - 10 May 1921 Konstantin Fehrenbach (b. 1852 - d. 1926) Z
10 May 1921 - 22 Nov 1922 Joseph Karl Wirth (b. 1879 - d. 1956) Z
22 Nov 1922 - 13 Aug 1923 Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno (b. 1876 - d. 1933) Non-party
13 Aug 1923 - 30 Nov 1923 Gustav Stresemann (b. 1878 - d. 1929) DVP
30 Nov 1923 - 16 Jan 1925 Wilhelm Marx (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1946) Z
16 Jan 1925 - 13 May 1926 Hans Luther (s.a.) Non-party
13 May 1926 - 17 May 1926 Otto Gessler (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1955) DDP
17 May 1926 - 28 Jun 1928 Wilhelm Marx (2nd time) (s.a.) Z
28 Jun 1928 - 30 Mar 1930 Hermann Mller (2nd time) (s.a.) SDP
30 Mar 1930 - 1 Jun 1932 Heinrich Brning (b. 1885 - d. 1970) Z
1 Jun 1932 - 3 Dec 1932 Franz von Papen (b. 1879 - d. 1969) Z/Non-party
3 Dec 1932 - 30 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (b. 1882 - d. 1934) Non-party
30 Jan 1933 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler (s.a.) NSDAP
30 Apr 1945 - 1 May 1945 Paul Joseph Goebbels (b. 1897 - d. 1945) NSDAP
Chairman (Leitender Minister) of interim government
2 May 1945 - 23 May 1945 Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von (b. 1887 - d. 1977) Non-party
Krosigk (at Flensburg)

According to the Charter of the German Confederation, "Austria has the chair in the Federal
Assembly." Although the Charter does not use the term, this chairmanship is officially styled
Prsidium or Bundesprsidium; it is ambiguous whether this style refers to the person or office
of the Emperor of Austria.

According to the Constitution of the North German Confederation, "The Crown of Prussia is
entitled to the Presidency of the Confederation" (Prsidium des Bundes). The office does not
confer a specific style on the King of Prussia; when exercising it, the style used is "King of
Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation."

4
Full official style of the ruler: Deutscher Kaiser und Knig von Preussen, Markgraf zu
Brandenburg, Burggraf zu Nrnberg, Graf zu Hohenzollern, souverner und oberster Herzog von
Schlesien wie auch der Grafschaft Glatz, Grossherzog vom Niederrhein und Posen, Herzog zu
Sachsen, Westfalen und Engern, zu Pommern, Lneburg, Holstein und Schleswig, zu Magdeburg,
Bremen, Geldern, Cleve, Jlich und Berg, sowie auch der Wenden und Kaschuben, zu Krossen,
Lauenburg, Mecklenburg, Landgraf zu Hessen und Thringen, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz,
Prinz von Oranien, Frst zu Rgen, zu Ostfriesland, zu Paderborn und Pyrmont, zu Halberstadt,
Mnster, Minden, Osnabrck, Hildesheim, zu Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau und Moers, gefrsteter
Graf zu Henneberg, Graf der Mark und zu Ravensberg, zu Hohnstein, Tecklenburg und Lingen, zu
Mansfeld, Sigmaringen und Veringen, Herr zu Frankfurt ("German Emperor and King of Prussia;
Margrave of Brandenburg; burgrave of Nrnberg, count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and highest Duke
of Silesia as of the county of Glatz; Grand duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony,
Wesphalia, and Angaria, of Pomerania, Lneburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, Bremen,
Gelders, Cleves, Jlich and Berg, as well as of the Wendes and Kaschubs, of Krossen, Lauenburg,
Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia, Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of
Orange, Prince of Rgen, of East Frisia, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Mnster,
Minden, Osnabrck, Hildesheim, of Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely count of
Henneberg; Count of the Mark and of Ravensberg, of Hohnstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of
Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen, Lord of Frankfurt").

Noble titles: Ritter = Knight; Freiherr = Baron; Graf = Count; Frst, Prinz = Prince; Herzog =
Duke; Grossherzog = Grand Duke; Knig= King; Kaiser = Emperor

Party abbreviations (from 1 Dec 1933 all political parties except NSDAP are banned):
ADV = Alldeutscher Verband (All-German [or pan-German] Union, nationalist); DDP = Deutsche
Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party, democratic); DVP = Deutsche Volkspartei (German
People's Party, Nationalist, right-liberal); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche
Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, nationalist
-only legal party 14 Jul 1933-31 May 1945); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social
Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic); USPD = Unabhngige Sozialdemokratische Partei
Deutschlands (Independent Social Democratic Party, socialist-liberal, 1917-1922);
Z = Zentrum (Center Party, catholic, centerist); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Conservative; Dem = Democrat; Lib = Liberal; Lib-Con = Liberal-
Conservative; R-Lib = Right Liberal

Allied Military Occupation

23 May 1945 - 9 May 1949 Adopted 9 May 1949


Provisional Civil Ensign

Map of Allied Occupation Allied Occupation


Zones in Germany Commanders of Berlin

2 May 1945 Soviet forces begin Allied occupation of Berlin.


8 May 1945 Allies accept the unconditional of Germany surrender.
23 May 1945 Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme power 5 Jun 1945)
1 Jan 1947 Bizone ("Bizonia") created my economic merger of U.K. & U.S. zones.
8 May 1949 Trizone ("Trizonia") formed by addition of French zone to Bizone.
7 Sep 1949 American, British, and French zones become Federal Republic
of Germany.
21 Sep 1949 - 23 Oct 1954 American, French, and British form Allied High Commission.
7 Oct 1949 Soviet zone becomes German Democratic Republic.
5 May 1955 Allied Occupation of West Germany ends.
21 Sep 1955 Soviet military occupation of East Germany ends.
3 Oct 1990 Re-unification of Germany, end of allied control on 15 Mar 1991.

American Zone

Military governors
8 May 1945 - 10 Nov 1945 Dwight David Eisenhower (b. 1890 - d. 1960)
11 Nov 1945 - 25 Nov 1945 George S. Patton, Jr. (acting) (b. 1885 - d. 1945)
26 Nov 1945 - 5 Jan 1947 Joseph T. McNarney (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
6 Jan 1947 - 14 May 1949 Lucius DuBignon Clay (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
15 May 1949 - 1 Sep 1949 Clarence R. Huebner (acting) (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
High commissioners
2 Sep 1949 - 1 Aug 1952 John J. McCloy (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
1 Aug 1952 - 11 Dec 1952 Walter J. Donnelly (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
11 Dec 1952 - 10 Feb 1953 Samuel Reber (acting) (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
10 Feb 1953 - 5 May 1955 James B. Conant (b. 1893 - d. 1978)

British Zone

Military governors
22 May 1945 - 30 Apr 1946 Sir Bernard Law Montgomery (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
(from 1 Jan 1946, Bernard Law
Montgomery, Viscount Montgomery
of Alamein)
1 May 1946 - 31 Oct 1947 Sir William Sholto Douglas (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
1 Nov 1947 - 21 Sep 1949 Sir Brian Hubert Robertson (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
High commissioners
21 Sep 1949 - 24 Jun 1950 Sir Brian Hubert Robertson (s.a.)
24 Jun 1950 - 29 Sep 1953 Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick (b. 1897 - d. 1964)
29 Sep 1953 - 5 May 1955 Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar (b. 1900 - d. 1989)

French Zone

Military commander
May 1945 - Jul 1945 Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
Military governor
Jul 1945 - 21 Sep 1949 Marie-Pierre Koenig (b. 1898 - d. 1970)
High commissioner
21 Sep 1949 - 5 May 1955 Andr Franois-Poncet (b. 1887 - d. 1978)

Soviet Zone

Military commander
Apr 1945 - 9 Jun 1945 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
Military governors
9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (s.a.)
10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949 Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
29 Mar 1949 - 10 Oct 1949 Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission
10 Oct 1949 - 28 May 1953 Vasily Ivanoivich Chuikov (s.a.)
High commissioners
28 May 1953 - 16 Jul 1954 Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov (b. 1911 - d. 1992)
16 Jul 1954 - 20 Sep 1955 Georgy Maksimovich Pushkin (b. 1909 - d. 1963)

Netherlands Zone

22 Mar 1949 By the Treaty of Paris, The Netherlands are auhorized to occupy
and annex some frontier parts of Germany as a compensation
for the German occupation 1940-45 (effective 21 Apr 1949).
23 Apr 1949 Dutch administration begins in two frontier areas of (West)
Germany, as authorized by Treaty of Paris as compensation
for the 1940-45 German occupation of The Netherlands;
two Drostambten come into existence (including - municipalities
of Havert, Hillensberg, Millen, Ssterseel, Tddern [Dutch:
Tudderen], Wehr, parts of Hngen, Gangelt, Schmm, Saeffelen as
and Elten and Hoch-Elten).
26 Sep 1951 The areas are annexed to neighbouring Netherlands provinces:
Elten to Gelderland, Tudderen to Limburg; the landdrosten
continue in office.
1 Aug 1963 Elten and Tudderen are returned to (West) Germany in exchange
for the payment of a war indemnity.

Landdrost of Tudderen (subordinated to the Dutch government, from 26 Sep 1951


to the Queen's commissioners for Limburg)
23 Apr 1949 - 1 Aug 1963 Hubert Michiel Jozef Dassen (b. 1909 - d. 1978)

Landdrosten of Elten (subordinated to the Dutch government, from 26 Sep 1951


to the Queen's commissioners for Gelderland)
23 Apr 1949 - 28 Oct 1961 Adriaan Blaauboer (b. 1906 - d. 1961)
5 Nov 1961 - 1 Aug 1963 Hans Georg Inundat baron van Tuyll (b. 1917 - d. 1988) VVD
van Serooskerken

Party abbreviations: VVD = Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (People's Party for Freedom
and Democracy, conservative-liberal, est.1948)

Federal Republic of Germany

Adopted 9 May 1949

Note: For data on Germany since 3 Oct 1990 see the table at the top of the entry.
Hear Former Anthem
"Hymne an Deutschland"
Hear National Anthem (Hymn to Germany)
"Einigkeit und Recht (1950-1952)
Constitution (Basic Law)
Map of West Germany und Freiheit" ------------------------
(23 May 1949)
(Unity and Right and Liberty) Hear Former Anthem
Adopted May 1952 "Ich hab mich ergeben"
(I Am Devoted To You)
(1949-1950)
National Holidays: 17 Jun
(1953)
National Day
Currency: Deutsche Mark (celebrates East German Population: 62,168,200 (1990)
W. Ger. Capital: Bonn
(DEM) uprising) (includes West Berlin)
-------------------------------------
1949 -1953: 23 May (1949)
Republic Day
Exports: $323.4 billion (1988)
GDP: $945.7 billion (1989) Ethnic groups: primarily German, Danish minority
Imports: $250.6 billion (1988)
Total Armed Forces: 495,000 (1990) Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, Protestant 44%,
Merchant marine: 422 ships (1990) other 11%
International Organizations/Treaties 1949-1990: ADB, AG, ANT, BTWC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CTBT, DC (observer), EC,
EIB, ENMOD, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NPT, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
States

7 Sep 1949 Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to 2 Oct 1990).

Presidents
7 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1949 Karl Arnold (acting) (b. 1901 - d. 1958) CDU
12 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1959 Theodor Heuss (b. 1884 - d. 1963) FDP
13 Sep 1959 - 30 Jun 1969 Karl Heinrich Lbke (b. 1894 - d. 1972) CDU
1 Jul 1969 - 30 Jun 1974 Gustav Heinemann (b. 1899 - d. 1976) SPD
1 Jul 1974 - 30 Jun 1979 Walter Scheel (b. 1919) FDP
1 Jul 1979 - 30 Jun 1984 Karl Carstens (b. 1914 - d. 1992) CDU
1 Jul 1984 - 30 Jun 1994 Richard von Weizscker (b. 1920) CDU
1 Jul 1994 - 30 Jun 1999 Roman Herzog (b. 1934) CDU
1 Jul 1999 - 30 Jun 2004 Johannes Rau (b. 1931 - d. 2006) SPD
1 Jul 2004 - Horst Khler (b. 1943) CDU

Chancellors
16 Sep 1949 - 16 Oct 1963 Konrad Adenauer (b. 1876 - d. 1967) CDU
16 Oct 1963 - 1 Dec 1966 Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (b. 1897 - d. 1977) CDU
1 Dec 1966 - 21 Oct 1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (b. 1904 - d. 1988) CDU
21 Oct 1969 - 7 May 1974 Willy Brandt (b. 1913 - d. 1992) SPD
7 May 1974 - 16 May 1974 Walter Scheel (acting) (s.a.) FDP
16 May 1974 - 1 Oct 1982 Helmut Schmidt (b. 1918) SPD
1 Oct 1982 - 27 Oct 1998 Helmut Kohl (b. 1930) CDU
27 Oct 1998 - 22 Nov 2005 Gerhard Schrder (b. 1944) SPD
22 Nov 2005 - Angela Dorothea Kasner Merkel(f)(b. 1954) CDU

Overall Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors


of the United Economic Area
2 Mar 1948 - 15 Sep 1949 Hermann Pnder (b. 1888 - d. 1976) CDU

Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian-Democratic Union,


conservative christian-democratic); FDP = Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party,
liberal); PDS =Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (Party of Democratic Socialism, extreme
left); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-
democratic)

German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

7 Oct 1949 - 1 Oct 1959 1 Oct 1959 - 3 Oct 1990

Hear National Anthem


Text of National Anthem Constitution
Map of East Germany "Auferstanden aus Ruinen"
Adopted 1952 (6 Apr 1968; in German)
(Risen from Ruins)
Capital: East Berlin National Holiday: 7 Oct (1949)
Currency: East German Mark
(not officially recognized Foundation of the German Population: 16,307,170 (1990)
(DDM)
by US, UK, or France) Democratic Republic
Exports: $30.7 billion (1988)
GNP: $159.5 billion (1989) Ethnic groups: German 99.7%, Slavic and other 0.3%
Imports: $31.0 billion (1988)
Religions: Protestant 47%, Roman Catholic 7%,
Total Armed Forces: 225,300 (1987)
unaffiliated or other 46%; less than 5% of Protestants
Merchant marine: 145 ships (1990)
and about 25% of Roman Catholics active participants
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, BTWC, CCC, Comecon, ENMOD, IAEA, IBEC, ICRM, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NPT, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WP, WToO
Districts
7 Oct 1949 German Democratic Republic ("East Germany").
3 Oct 1990 Incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany.

General Secretaries of the Socialist Unity (Communist) Party (SED)


22 Apr 1946 - 25 Jul 1950 Wilhelm Pieck (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
+ Otto Grotewohl (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
(co-chairmen)
25 Jul 1950 - 3 May 1971 Walter Ulbricht (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
3 May 1971 - 18 Oct 1989 Erich Honecker (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
18 Oct 1989 - 3 Dec 1989 Egon Krenz (b. 1937)
("leading role" of the party abolished 1 Dec 1989)
18 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990 Gregor Gysi (b. 1948)
(Chairman of the SED-PDS)

Co-Chairmen of the Presidium of the German People's Council


19 Mar 1948 - 7 Oct 1949 Wilhelm Pieck (s.a.) SED
+ Wilhelm Klz (to 10 Apr 1948) (b. 1875 - d. 1948) LDPD
+ Otto Nuschke (to 18 Mar 1949) (b. 1883 - d. 1957) CDU
+ Ernst Goldenbaum (b. 1898 - d. 1990) DBD
(from 18 Mar 1949)
+ Lothar Bolz (from 18 Mar 1949) (b. 1903 - d. 1986) NDPD
+ Hermann Kastner (from 18 Mar 1949)(b. 1886 - d. 1957) LDPD
Presidents
7 Oct 1949 - 11 Oct 1949 Johannes Dieckmann (1st time) (b. 1893 - d. 1969) LDPD
(acting)
11 Oct 1949 - 7 Sep 1960 Wilhelm Pieck (s.a.) SED
7 Sep 1960 - 12 Sep 1960 Johannes Dieckmann (2nd time) (s.a.) LDPD
(acting)
Chairmen of the Council of State
12 Sep 1960 - 1 Aug 1973 Walter Ulbricht (s.a.) SED
1 Aug 1973 - 3 Oct 1973 Friedrich Ebert (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1979) SED
3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 Willi Stoph (b. 1914 - d. 1999) SED
29 Oct 1976 - 24 Oct 1989 Erich Honecker (s.a.) SED
24 Oct 1989 - 6 Dec 1989 Egon Krenz (s.a.) SED
6 Dec 1989 - 5 Apr 1990 Manfred Gerlach (acting) (b. 1928) LDPD
President of the People's Chamber
5 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (f) (b. 1946) CDU

Chairman of the German Economic Council


9 Mar 1948 - 11 Oct 1949 Heinrich Rau (b. 1899 - d. 1961) SED
Prime minister
12 Oct 1949 - 8 Oct 1958 Otto Grotewohl (s.a.) SED
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (premiers)
8 Oct 1958 - 21 Sep 1964 Otto Grotewohl (s.a.) SED
21 Sep 1964 - 3 Oct 1973 Willi Stoph (1st time) (s.a.) SED
(acting to 24 Sep 1964; acting
for Grotewohl Nov 1960 - 21 Sep 1964)
3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976 Horst Sindermann (b. 1915 - d. 1990) SED
29 Oct 1976 - 13 Nov 1989 Willi Stoph (2nd time) (s.a.) SED
13 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990 Hans Modrow (b. 1928) SED/NFDDR
Prime minister
12 Apr 1990 - 2 Oct 1990 Lothar de Maizire (b. 1940) CDU/AD

Commanders of Soviet Forces in Germany


9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949 Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
29 Mar 1949 - 26 May 1953 Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
27 May 1953 - 16 Nov 1957 Adrey Antonovich Grechko (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
17 Nov 1957 - 14 Apr 1960 Matvey Vasilyevich Zakharov (b. 1898 - d. 1972)
15 Apr 1960 - 9 Aug 1961 Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky (b. 1912 - d. 1976)
(1st time)
9 Aug 1961 - 18 Apr 1962 Ivan Stepanovich Konev (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
19 Apr 1962 - 26 Jan 1965 Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky (s.a.)
(2nd time)
27 Jan 1965 - 31 Oct 1969 Petr Kirillovich Koshevoy (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
1 Nov 1969 - 13 Sep 1971 Viktor Georgyevich Kulikov (b. 1921)
14 Sep 1971 - 19 Jul 1972 Semyon Konstantinovich Kurkotkin (b. 1917 - d. 1990)
20 Jul 1972 - 25 Nov 1980 Evgeny Filippovich Ivanovski (b. 1918 - d. 1991)
26 Nov 1980 - 6 Jul 1985 Mikhail Mitrofanovich Zaytsev (b. 1923 - d. 2009)
7 Jul 1985 - 11 Jul 1986 Pyotr Georgyevich Lushev (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
12 Jul 1986 - 12 Nov 1987 Valery Aleksandrovich Belikov (b. 1925 - d. 1987)
26 Nov 1987 - 13 Dec 1990 Boris Vasilyevich Snetkov (b. 1925)
13 Dec 1990 - 31 Aug 1994 Matvey Prokopyevich Burlakov (b. 1935)

Territorial Disputes: It is U.S. policy that the final borders of Germany have not been
established; the U.S. is seeking to settle the property claims of U.S. nationals against the
G.D.R.; East Berlin is not officially recognized as the capital of the G.D.R. by France, U.K.,
and U.S., which together with the U.S.S.R. have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin.

Party abbreviations: SED = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of


Germany, communist -major govt. party 1946-1989, which 4 Feb 1990 became the PDS = Partei des
Demokratischen Sozialismus [Party of Democratic Socialism], from 15 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990 called
SED-PDS);
- the Four "bloc parties" below were in alliance with the SED until 1989 (all 5 Parties, along
with some mass organizations, formed the NFDD = Nationale Front des Demokratischen Deutschland
[National Front of Democratic Germany], which from 1971 was the NFDDR = Nationale Front der
Deutschen Demokratischen Republik [National Front of the German Democratic Republic]) -
LDPD = Liberaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, 1947-1990,
from 9 Feb 1990 as LDP = Liberaldemokratische Partei, from 27 Mar 1990 BFD, which 11 Aug 1990
merges with FDP); CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands (Christian Democratic Union
of [East] Germany, 1945-Oct 1990, merged into West German CDU); NDPD = Nationaldemokratische
Partei Deutschlands (National Democratic Party of Germany, 1948-1990, merged into FDP); DBD =
Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (Democratic Farmer's Party of Germany, 1948-15 Sep 1990,
merged into CDU);
- new parties from 1989 -
DA = Demokratischer Aufbruch (Democratic Awakening, est.1 Oct 1989, merged into CDU 1 Oct 1990);
DSU = Deutsche Soziale Union (German Social Union, est. 20 Jan 1990); FDP = Freie Demokratische
Partei (Free Democratic Party, est.4 Feb 1990); DFP = Deutsche Forumpartei (German Forum Party,
11 Aug 1990 merged into FDP); SDP = Sozialdemokratische Partei in der Deutschen Demokratischen
Republik (Social Democratic Party in the German Democratic Republic, est.7 Oct 1989, which is
renamed on 13 Jan 1990 the SPD or Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands [Social Democratic
Party of Germany]); AD = Allianz fr Deutschland (Alliance for Germany, electoral alliance for 18
Mar 1990 elections by the CDU, DA, and DSU); BFD = Bund Freier Demokraten (Alliance of Free
Democrats, est.27 Mar 1990 by former LDP/NDPD, merged into the FDP 11 Aug 1990)

Heligoland (Helgoland)

5 Sep 1807 - 1 Jul 1890 1814 - 1 Jul 1890 Civil Flag and Ensign 1814 - 1 Jul 1890 Optional Civil Flag and
Ensign
Capital: Heligoland Population: 13,000 (1936)
Map of Heligoland
(In the Town) 12,307 (1900); 2,000 (1810)

1402 Part of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein.


10 Aug 1490 Part of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp.
7 Aug 1714 Part of Denmark.
5 Sep 1807 British occupation.
14 Jan 1814 British colony (officially ceded to U.K. by Treaty of Kiel).
9 Aug 1890 Formal handover to Germany by U.K.
15 Dec 1890 Annexed to Germany (from 18 Feb 1891 part of Prussian
province of Schleswig-Holstein).
8 May 1945 - 1 Mar 1952 British occupation (population evacuated).

Lieutenant governors
5 Sep 1807 - 1808 Corbet James d'Auvergne (b. 1765? - d. 1826)
1808 - 1815 William Osborne Hamilton (b. 1750? - d. 1818)
1815 - 1840 Henry King (b. c.1770 - d. af.1849)
28 Sep 1840 - 7 Mar 1857 John Hindmarsh (b. 1775 - d. 1860)
(from 1851, Sir John Hindmarsh)
1857 - 1863 Richard Pattinson
2 Jun 1863 - 1868 Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse (b. 1832 - d. 1883)
Governors
1868 - 1881 Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse (s.a.)
(from 1877, Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse)
1881 - 1888 John Terence Niolls O'Brien (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
27 Nov 1888 - 9 Aug 1890 Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly (b. 1843 - d. 1890)
German Imperial Commissioner
9 Aug 1890 - 1891 Adolf Wermuth (b. 1855 - d. 1927)

Saarland (Saargebiet, Saarbecken)

28 Jul 1920 - 1 Mar 1935 1920 - 1935 Government Flag 17 Dec 1947 - 1 Jan 1957

Hear National Anthem Text of National Anthem Constitution


Map of Saarland
"Saarlied" (The Saar Song) (1921-1935, 1947-1957) (17 Dec 1947; in German)
Population: 1, 019, 000 (1957)
Currency 1945-6 Jul 1959: 812, 000 (1933)
National Holiday: 15 Dec
French Franc (FRF); --------------------------------
Capital: Saarbrcken (1947)
1920-1935 French Religions: Roman Catholic
Constitution Day
Franc Germinal (FRG) 72.2%, Protestant 25.7%,
Jewish 0.5% (1927)
International Organizations/Treaties: 1920-35: ITU, UPU; 1947-57: CE (associate), IOC, UPU

Oct 1792 French rule.


1814 - 20 Nov 1815 Allied occupation.
20 Nov 1815 Annexed to Prussia (part of Rhine province); small parts
annexed to Bavaria (part of Pfalz [Palatinate] province).
11 Nov 1918 - 26 Feb 1920 Allied (French) occupation.
26 Feb 1920 League of Nations administration (Saargebiet/Saar Territory/
Territoire de la Sarre).
13 Jan 1935 In a plebiscite 90.73% vote to re-join Germany.
1 Mar 1935 Re-incorporated into Germany.
20 Mar 1945 - 31 Jul 1945 U.S. occupation.
31 Jul 1945 French administration (Saargebiet = Territoire de la Sarre),
"Saarland" gradually enters into official use after 8 Oct 1946.
17 Dec 1947 Saarland constituted as an autonomous state in economic
union with France.
23 Oct 1955 Referendum votes against proposal for an independent Saarland
under West European Union (WEU) protection, 67.7% to 32.3%
1 Jan 1957 Incorporated into Federal Republic of Germany as a state.

Administrators-superior (Supreme Administrators)


20 Nov 1918 - 17 Feb 1919 Henri Wirbel (France)(1st time) (b. 1861 - d. 1948)
17 Feb 1919 - 20 Nov 1919 Joseph Louis Marie Andlauer (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
(France)
20 Nov 1919 - 7 Mar 1920 Henri Wirbel (France)(2nd time) (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Commission of Government
26 Feb 1920 - 31 Mar 1926 Victor-Michel-mile-Marie Rault (b. 1858 - d. 1930?)
(France)
1 Apr 1926 - 9 Jun 1927 George Washington Stephens (Canada)(b. 1866 - d. 1942)
31 Mar 1927 - 20 Jun 1927 Frantisek Vezensky (Czechoslovakia)
(acting for absent Stephens, then Wilton)
9 Jun 1927 - 31 Mar 1932 Sir Ernest Colville Collins Wilton (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
(U.K.)
1 Apr 1932 - 28 Feb 1935 Geoffrey George Knox (U.K.) (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
(from 1 Mar 1935, Sir Geoffrey George Knox)
President of the Tripartite Committee of the League of Nations for the Saar Territory
28 Feb 1935 - 1 Mar 1935 Barone Pompeo Aloisi, conte di (b. 1847 - d. 1949)
Allumiere (Italy)
Reichskommissar fr die Rckgliederung des Saarlandes (from 17 Jun 1936,
Reichskommissar fr das Saarland; from 8 Apr 1940, Reichskommissar fr
die Saarpfalz; from 11 Mar 1941, Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark)
1 Mar 1935 - 28 Sep 1944 Josef Brckel (b. 1895 - d. 1944) NSDAP
29 Sep 1944 - 21 Mar 1945 Willi Sthr (b. 1903 - d. 1994) NSDAP
Military commander
1945 Louis G. Kelly (U.S.)
Military governor
1945 Louis-Constant Morlire (France) (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
Governors
30 Aug 1945 - 10 Jan 1948 Gilbert-Yves-dmond Grandval (b. 1904 - d. 1981) Mil
(takes office 7 Sep 1945)
High Commissioner of the French Republic in the Saar
10 Jan 1948 - 5 Mar 1952 Gilbert-Yves-dmond Grandval (s.a.)
Chiefs of the Diplomatic Mission of the French Republic in the Saar
1 Jan 1952 - 8 Jul 1955 Gilbert-Yves-dmond Grandval (s.a.)
8 Jul 1955 - 27 Oct 1956 Charles-Marie-Eric de Carbonnel (b. 1910 - d. 1965)

President of the Government


4 May 1945 - 8 Oct 1946 Hans Neureuter (b. 1901 - d. 1953) Non-party
(in Saarbrcken only to 31 Jul 1947)
Chairman of the Administration Commission
8 Oct 1946 - 20 Dec 1947 Erwin Mller (b. 1906 - d. 1968) Non-party
Minister-presidents
15 Dec 1947 - 29 Oct 1955 Johannes Hoffmann (b. 1890 - d. 1967) CVP
29 Oct 1955 - 10 Jan 1956 Heinrich Welsch (b. 1888 - d. 1976) Non-party
10 Jan 1956 - 1 Jan 1957 Hubert Ney (b. 1892 - d. 1984) CDU

Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union); CVP =


Christliche Volkspartei des Saarlandes (Saarland Christian People's Party, 1945-56, merged into
CDU); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's
Party, Nazi fascist); Mil = Military

Allied Occupation of the Rhineland


1 Dec 1918 Allied occupation (Belgian zone: Aachen, Jlich, Neuss, Moers,
and Kleve; British zone: Cologne; French zone: Mainz;
and U.S. zone: Trier, Coblenz and Eifel).
8 Mar 1921 - 25 Aug 1924 Allied occupation of Dsseldorf and Duisburg ("Sanktionsstdte").
24 Jan 1923 U.S. zone taken over by France.
11 Jan 1923 - 1 Aug 1924 Allied (French) occupation of the Ruhr.
Dec 1929 Withdrawal of British forces.
30 Jun 1930 End of Allied occupation, Rhineland demilitarized.
7 Mar 1936 Rhineland re-militarized by Germany.

Chairman of the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission (in Coblenz)


14 Oct 1919 - 30 Jun 1930 Paul Tirard (France) (b. 1879 - d. 1945)

Chairman of the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission


1919 - 1922 Charles Marie Edouard Nollet (b. 1865 - d. 1941)
(France)
Chairmen of the Inter-Allied Military Commission for Germany
1922 - 30 Jul 1924 Charles Marie Edouard Nollet (s.a.)
(France)
1 Jul 1924 - 31 Jan 1927 Camille Welch (France) (b. 1870 - d. 1947)

American Zone

Commanding General of the Allied Expeditionary Force


1 Dec 1918 - 1 Jul 1919 John Joseph Pershing (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
Commanding General of American Forces in Germany
2 Jul 1919 - 24 Jan 1923 Henry Tureman Allen (b. 1859 - d. 1930)

U.S. Civil Commissioners


Apr 1919 - 10 Jan 1920 Pierrepont Burt Noyes (b. 1870 - d. 1959)
10 Jan 1920 - 24 Jan 1923 ....

Belgian Zone

Commanders
Nov 1918 - 19.. King Albert I (b. 1875 - d. 1934)
c.Oct 1923 Deckers
c.1923 - 30 Jun 1930 ....

British Zone
Military Governor
26 Nov 1918 - 1919 Sir Charles Fergusson (b. 1865 - d. 1951)
British Commanders
Nov 1918 Sir Douglas Haig (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
Nov 1918 - 22 Apr 1919 Sir H. Plummer
22 Apr 1919 - 1920 Sir William Robert Robertson (b. 1860 - d. 1933)
3 Mar 1920 - 1922 Sir Thomas Lethbridge Napier (b. 1865 - d. 1925)
Morland
8 Mar 1922 - 1924 Sir Alexander John Godley (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
17 Jun 1924 - 1927 Sir John Philip Du Cane (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
30 Apr 1927 - Dec 1929 Sir William Thwaites (b. 1868 - d. 1947)

French Zone

Commanders
19.. - 19.. Marie Emile Fayolle (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
19.. - 19.. Paul Andr Marie Maistre (b. 1858 - d. 1922)
19.. - 19.. Nol Marie Joseph Edouard de (b. 1851 - d. 1944)
Curieres de Castelnau
Chief of the Allied Administration of the Ruhr
Mar 1923 - 31 Jul 1924 Jean Marie Joseph Degoutte (b. 1866 - d. 1938)

Rhineland Republic

1 Jun 1919 - 1919; Also reported in use at the same times


21 Oct 1923 - 17 Feb 1924

1 Jun 1919 - 1919 Rhineland Republic, centered in Wiesbaden, proclaimed


(failed French attempt to back a separatist Rhineland state
as a buffer between Germany and France).
21 Oct 1923 - 26 Nov 1924 Rhineland Republic proclaimed as a confederation of three
states: North (Lower Rhine), South (Upper & Middle Rhine)
and Rhur, with its capital at Cologne; supported by French
and Belgian occupation forces.
12 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924 Palatine Republic proclaimed at Speyer.

Chairman of the Government of the Rhenish Republic


1 Jun 1919 - 1919 Johannes Adam Dorten (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
Plenipotentiaries of the Government of the Rhenish Republic
22 Oct 1923 - 27 Feb 1924 Johannes Adam Dorten (s.a.)
+ Josef Friedrich Matthes (b. 1886 - d. 1943)

Chairmen of the Palatine Republic


12 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924 Franz-Josef Heinz-Orbis (b. 1884 - d. 1924)
French Dpartements in Germany 1797-1814
2 Oct 1794 French invasion of the Rhineland begins (Aachen on 6 Oct 1794,
Cologne 26 Oct 1794, Bonn 8 Nov 1794).
Nov 1794 French create central administration (Pays d'entre Meuse et Rhin).
18 Oct 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio cedes de facto Rhineland territories
to France.
4 Nov 1797 A French commissioner is appointed to supervise and organize
the territories into dpartements (not yet considered to be
part of France); Roer, Sarre, Mont Tonnerre, Rhin-et-Moselle.
9 Feb 1801 By the Treaty of Lunville the Rhineland is de jure annexed
to France.
30 Jun 1802 Rhine dpartements become regular dpartements of France.
23 Sep 1802 Unified administration terminated.
1813 - 1815 Allied administration; territories later restored to Prussia,
Bavaria, Oldenburg, etc.

Commanders of the Army of the Sambre and Meuse (northern zone)


2 Jul 1794 - 20 Dec 1794 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (1st time) (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
21 Dec 1794 - 28 Feb 1795 Jacques Maurice Hatry (b. 1742 - d. 1802)
1 Mar 1795 - 21 Jan 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (2nd time) (s.a.)
22 Jan 1796 - 28 Feb 1796 Jean Baptiste Klber (1st time) (b. 1753 - d. 1800)
29 Feb 1796 - 30 Jul 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (3rd time) (s.a.)
31 Jul 1796 - 7 Aug 1796 Jean Baptiste Klber (2nd time) (s.a.)
8 Aug 1796 - 23 Sep 1796 Jean Baptiste Jourdan (4th time) (s.a.)
23 Sep 1796 - 23 Jan 1797 Pierre Riel de Beurnonville (b. 1752 - d. 1821)
- together with -
14 Dec 1796 - 23 Jan 1797 Jean Baptiste Klber (3rd time) (s.a.)
26 Feb 1797 - 18 Sep 1797 Louis Lazare Hoche (b. 1768 - d. 1797)
Commander of the Army of the Rhine (southern zone)
14 Jan 1794 - 10 Apr 1795 Claude Ignace Franois Michaud (b. 1751 - d. 1835)
Commander of the Army of the Moselle
2 Jul 1794 - 9 Feb 1795 Jean Victor Moreau (b. 1763 - d. 1813)
Commanders of the Army of the Rhine and Moselle
20 Apr 1795 - 4 Mar 1796 Jean Charles Pichegru (b. 1761 - d. 1804)
21 Apr 1796 - 9 Sep 1797 Jean Victor Moreau (s.a.)
10 Sep 1797 - Sep 1797 Louis Lazare Hoche (s.a.)
Sep 1797 - 7 Oct 1797 ....
Commander of the Army of Germany
7 Oct 1797 - 12 Dec 1797 Charles Pierre Francois Augereau (b. 1757 - d. 1816)
French Government Commissioners
4 Nov 1797 - 179. Franois Joseph Rudler (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
179. - 1799 Joseph Lakanal (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
1799 - 1800 Henri She (b. 1739 - d. 1820)
22 Sep 1800 - 1801 Jean-Baptiste Mois Jollivet (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
20 Dec 1801 - 22 Sep 1802 Andr Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint- (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
Andr

Bouches-de-l'Elbe

13 Dec 1810 French dpartement of Bouches-de-l'Elbe formed from


free cities of Hamburg and Lbeck and parts of Holstein.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefects
13 Dec 1810 - Mar 1813 Patrice Charles Ghislain de (b. 1770 - d. 1827)
Coninck
15 Mar 1813 - 1814 Achille Stanislas mile Le (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil

Bouches-du-Weser

13 Dec 1810 French dpartement of Bouches-du-Weser formed from


free city of Bremen, duchy of Oldenburg, county of
Hoya and part of Hanover.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefect
13 Dec 1810 - 1814 Charles Philippe Alexandre (b. 1776 - d. 1814)
d'Arberg

Ems-Oriental

Jul 1807 Principality of East Frisa (Ostfriesland), Barony of Kniphausen


(Knyphausen) and Huptlingschaft Jever ceded to France
by Prussia and Russia respectively.
11 Nov 1807 Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland as dpartement
of Oost-Friesland (East Friesland).
1 Jan 1811 Incorporated into France as dpartement of Ems-Oriental
(Eastern Ems).

Governors-general
24 Nov 1806 - 6 Feb 1807 Henri Damas Bonhomme (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
6 Feb 1807 - 11 Nov 1807 ....
Landdrost
11 Nov 1807 - 5 Feb 1808 ....
5 Feb 1808 - 22 Dec 1808 Godert Alexander Gerard Philip (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
van der Capellen
22 Dec 1808 - 25 Feb 1811 Willem Queysen (arrived 1 Jan 1809)(b. 1754 - d. 1817)
Prefect
25 Feb 1811 - 8 Nov 1813 Sbastien Louis Joseph Jannesson (b. 1779 - d. 1864)
(arrived 1 Mar 1811)

Ems-Suprieur

13 Dec 1810 French dpartement of Ems-Suprieur formed from bishopric


of Minden (Prefecture Osnabrck).
Oct 1813 End of French rule.

Prefect
13 Dec 1810 - Oct 1813 Charles Louis Joseph Keverberg (b. 1768 - d. 1841)

Lippe

27 Apr 1811 French dpartement of Lippe formed from parts


of Bouche-l'Yssel, Ems-Occidental and Yssel-Suprieur.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefect
13 Jun 1811 - 1813 Jean Charles Annet Victorin de (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
Lasteyrie du Saillant

Mont-Tonnerre

9 Mar 1801 French dpartement of Mont-Tonnerre (German: Donnersberg)


formed from southern parts of electorate of Mainz and parts
of bishoprics of Speyer and Worms and of Palatinate and
duchy of Zweibrcken.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefects
9 Mar 1801 - 1801 Henri She (b. 1739 - d. 1820)
1801 - 20 Dec 1801 Jean-Baptiste Mose Jollivet (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
20 Dec 1801 - 10 Dec 1813 Andr Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint- (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
Andr (from 9 Jan 1810, Andr Jeanbon,
baron de Saint-Andr)

Rhin-et-Moselle

9 Mar 1801 French dpartement of Rhin-et-Moselle (Rhine and Moselle)


formed from parts of electorates of Trier and Cologne.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefects
9 Mar 1801 - 1803 Philippe Boucqueau de Villeraie (b. 1773 - d. 1834)
1803 - 1805 Franois Louis Ren Mouchard (b. 1757 - d. 1814)
de Chaban
1 Feb 1805 - 3 May 1806 Alexandre Thodore Victor (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
de Lameth
15 Jun 1806 - 1810 Paul Adrien Franois Marie de (b. 1769 - d. 1814)
Lezay-Marnsia
7 Aug 1810 - 1813 Jean Marie Thrse Doazan (b. 1774 - d. 1839)

Roer

9 Mar 1801 French dpartement of Roer formed from duchies of Jlich,


Guelders, and Kleve, principality of Meurs, parts of
electorate of Cologne, and free cities of Cologne and Aachen.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefects
9 Mar 1801 - 4 Mar 1802 Nicolas Sbastien Simon (b. 1749 - d. 1802)
9 Jul 1802 - 1804 Alexandre Edme Mchin (b. 1772 - d. 1849)
15 Sep 1804 - 1806 Jean Charles Joseph Laumond (b. 1753 - d. 1825)
3 May 1806 - 19 Feb 1809 Alexandre Thodore Victor (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
de Lameth
31 Mar 1809 - 1814 Jean Charles Franois de (b. 1772 - d. 1848)
Ladoucette (from 3 May 1809, Jean
Charles Franois, chevalier de
Ladoucette [from 31 Dec 1809, Jean
Charles Franois, baron de Ladoucette])

Sarre

9 Mar 1801 French dpartement of Sarre formed from parts of electorate


of Trier and duchy of Zweibrcken.
1814 End of French rule.

Prefects
22 Jun 1800 - 1803 Joseph Bexon d'Ormschwiller
22 Apr 1803 - 1810 Maximilien Xavier Kpler (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
(from 16 Sep 1808, Maximilien Xavier,
chevalier Kpler [from 14 Feb 1810,
Maximilien Xavier, baron Kpler])
7 Aug 1810 - 1813 Alexandre Franois de Bruneteau (b. 1769 - d. 1853)
de Sainte Suzanne (from 19 Jan
1812, Alexandre Franois de
Bruneteau, baron de Sainte Suzanne)

German New Swabia Land (German Antarctica)


Map of Deutsch
Neuschwabenland

19 Jan 1939 20E to 10W claimed by Germany as Deutsch Neuschwabenland


(German New Swabia Land), this claim overlaps Norwegian claim
(claim not recognized).
8 May 1945 Claim abandoned.

2000 Ben Cahoon