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Spain

1230 - 1506 1506 - 1701 (as Jack to 1785) c.1520 - c.1701


Castille and Len (Carlist flag 1833 - 1860, 1872 - 1876) Civil and War Ensign

25 May 1785 - 11 Feb 1873,


1701 - 1759 1759 - 25 May 1785
29 Dec 1874 - 27 Apr 1931

11 Feb 1873 - 29 Dec 1874 27 Apr 1931 - 1 Apr 1939 (Republic) 29 Apr 1936 - 2 Feb 1938 (Nationalist)

2 Feb 1938 - 11 Oct 1945 (Nationalist) 11 Oct 1945 - 21 Jan 1977 21 Jan 1977 - 19 Dec 1981
Adopted 19 Dec 1981

Text of National Anthem


Hear National Anthem
3 Sep 1770-1822, 1823-1931, Constitution
Map of Spain "Marcha Real"
Re-adopted 1939/Jul 1942 (29 Dec 1978)
(Royal March)
(No Lyrics)
Former National Anthem
Former Constitutions
Spanish Civil "Himno de Riego" Republic Constitution
(1808, 1812, 1837, 1845,
War Map (Riego's Anthem) (1931-1939)
1869, 1876)
(1822-23, 1931-1939)
Capital: Madrid
(Toledo 1479-May 1561;
Madrid 1561 - 1600;
Valladolid 1600-1604; Currency: Euro (EUR); National Holiday: 12 Oct (1492)
Republic: Valencia to 1 Jan 2002: Spanish National Day Population: 40,491,052 (2008)
Nov 1936-Oct 1937; Peseta (ESP) (Da de la Hispanidad)
Barcelona Oct 1937-1939;
Nationalist: Burgos
Jul 1936- Oct 1939)
Ethnic groups: Spaniard 44.9%, Catalonian 28%,
Exports: $292.8 billion (2008) Galician 8.2%, Basque 5.5%, Aragonese 5%,
GDP: $1.37 trillion (2008)
Imports: $444.9 billion (2008) Extremaduran 2.8%, Roma (Gitanos/Gypsy) 2%,
other 3.6% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 147,255 (2006) Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Muslim 2.5%,
Merchant marine: 158 ships (2008) Protestant 1%, other (mostly nonreligious) 19.5% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BCIE
(nonregional), BIS, BTWC, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC,
KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
SECI (observer), SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU,
WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Spain Index Chronology
Autonomous
Communities 19 Jul 711 Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula begins.
(from 1978) 718 Kingdom of Asturias founded.
c.824 Kingdom of Navarre founded.
Canary Islands 910 Asturias split into three kingdoms: Asturias
The (extinct 925), Galicia (1157), and Len (1230).
"Resistance" 18 Oct 1035 Upon dynastic split the county of Aragn becomes
an independent kingdom (from 1137 united with
(1808-1813) county of Barcelona).
Republic in 22 Jun 1038 County of Castilla (Castille) becomes a Kingdom.
Exile 24 Sep 1230 Castille and Len united.
(1939-1977) 19 Jan 1479 Accession of Fernando II of Aragn, who was
married to Isabel I, Queen of Castille.
Navarra 2 Jan 1492 Annexation of Granada the last Muslim state.
(1556-1841) 25 Jul 1512 Lower Navarre annexed.
Minorca 23 Jan 1516 Under the Habsburg dynasty.
16 Jan 1556 Spanish Monarchy (dated conventionally to the
(1708-1802)
Historical
Maps
of Spain

accession of Felipe II; the term Espaa acquires


Constitutional status only 1808).
17 Jul 1580 - 1 Dec 1640 Portugal in personal union with the Spanish
monarchy.
16 Nov 1700 Under the Borbn dynasty.
24 Mar 1808 - 11 Dec 1813 French occupation.
6 May 1808 The kings of the Borbn dynasty abdicate in favor
of Napolon I, emperor of the French and king
of Italy.
6 Jun 1808 Napolon I proclaims his brother Joseph Napolon,
king of the Two Sicilies, as king of Spain.
8 Feb 1810 - 1 Dec 1813 Catalonia annexed to France.

Note: The dates of the rulers of the intermittent Carlist insurrections correspond to the
actual presence of the rulers or their forces in the territory of the Spanish Monarchy.

Kings (17 Jul 1580 - 1 Dec 1640 also Kings of Portugal)- of Castilla -
12 Dec 1474 - 26 Nov 1504 Isabel I "la Catlica" -Queen (b. 1451 - d. 1504)
12 Dec 1474 - 1479 Juana la Beltraneja, (b. 1462 - d. 1532)
princessa de Asturias (pretender)
27 Nov 1504 - 12 Apr 1555 Juana "la Loca" -Queen (b. 1479 - d. 1555)
(from 1506, incapacitated)
27 Nov 1504 - 25 Sep 1506 Felipe I "el Hermoso" (b. 1478 - d. 1506)
25 Sep 1506 - 1507 Francisco Jimnez de (b. 1436 - d. 1517)
Cisneros -Regent
- jointly with following -
- of Aragn -
19 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516 Fernando II "el Catlico" (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
(from 1507 regent for Juana [s.a.])
- of Aragn and Castilla -
23 Jan 1516 - 16 Jan 1556 Carlos I "el Emperador" (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
(Holy Roman Emperor Karl V)
Governors/Regents
23 Jan 1516 - 8 Nov 1517 Francisco Jimnez de Cisneros, (b. 1436 - d. 1517)
arzobispo de Toledo
17 Mar 1520 - 9 Jan 1522 Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens, (b. 1459 - d. 1523)
bishop of Tortosa
(from 9 Jan 1522, Pope Hadrian VI)
1529 - 1533 Isabel de Portugal (f)(1st time) (b. 1503 - d. 1539)
1535 - 1536 Isabel de Portugal (f)(2nd time) (s.a.)
1538 - 1 May 1539 Isabel de Portugal (f)(3rd time) (s.a.)
1539 - 1541 Felipe (Felipe II) (1st time) (b. 1527 - d. 1598)
+ Juan Pardo de Tavera, (b. 1472 - d. 1545)
arzobispo de Toledo (acting)
1543 - 1548 Felipe (2nd time) (s.a.)
1548 - 1551 Maria (f) (b. 1505 - d. 1558)
1551 - 25 Jul 1554 Felipe (3rd time) (s.a.)
25 Jul 1554 - 1556 Juana (f) (b. 1537 - d. 1573)
Kings
- of Spanish monarchy -
16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598 Felipe II (s.a.)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621 Felipe III (b. 1578 - d. 1621)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665 Felipe IV (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
17 Sep 1665 - 1 Nov 1700 Carlos II "el Hechizado" (b. 1661 - d. 1700)
17 Sep 1665 - 6 Nov 1675 Mariana de Austria (f) -Regent (b. 1635 - d. 1696)
1 Nov 1700 - 16 Nov 1700 Governing Board
16 Nov 1700 - 15 Jan 1724 Felipe V (1st time) (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
27 Sep 1711 - Mar 1713 Regency
- Elisabeth Christine von (b. 1691 - d. 1750)
Braunschweig-Wolfenbttel (f)
- Guido, Graf von Starhemberg (b. 1657 - d. 1737)
12 Sep 1703 - 7 Sep 1714 Carlos (III) (in rebellion) (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
(recognized in Aragn, Catalonia and Valencia)
15 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724 Luis I (b. 1707 - d. 1724)
31 Aug 1724 - 6 Sep 1724 Vacant
6 Sep 1724 - 9 Jul 1746 Felipe V (2nd time) (s.a.)
9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759 Fernando VI (b. 1713 - d. 1759)
10 Aug 1759 - 14 Dec 1788 Carlos III (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808 Carlos IV (b. 1748 - d. 1819)
(abdication retracted 21 Mar 1808,
final abdication 5 May 1808)
19 Mar 1808 - 6 May 1808 Fernando VII (1st time) (b. 1784 - d. 1833)
Lieutenant-general and Governor of the Realm
4 May 1808 - 6 Jun 1808 Joaqun Murat, gran duque de Berg (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
y de Cleves
Kings
6 Jun 1808 - 11 Dec 1813 Jos I Napolen (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
(on flight in Spain 1 Aug 1808 - 22 Dec 1808
and 16 Aug 1812 - 2 Nov 1812; left Spain 27 Jun 1813)
25 Sep 1808 - 22 Mar 1814 the Supreme Governing Junta
(in opposition to Jos I Napolen)
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833 Fernando VII (2nd time) (s.a.)
(prisoner in Valenay, France
18 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813;
returned to Spain 22 Mar 1814)
Set up by the Cortes:
11 Jun 1823 - 15 Jun 1823 Provisional Regency
(for "morally incapacitated" Fernando VII)
- Cayetano Valds y Flores Bazn (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
(president)
- Gabriel de Cscar y Cscar (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
- Gaspar de Vigodet (b. 1747 - d. 1834)
Set up by the invading Powers:
9 Apr 1823 - 25 May 1823 Francisco Ramn de Egua Letona (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
(President of the Provisional Government Junta)
25 May 1823 - 1 Oct 1823 Pedro Alcntara de Toledo y (b. 1768 - d. 1841)
Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado
(President of the Regency)
Queen
29 Sep 1833 - 30 Sep 1868 Isabel II (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1833 - 12 Oct 1840 Queen Mara Cristina -Regent (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839 Carlos V -King (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
(Carlist insurrection)
12 Oct 1840 - 23 Jul 1843 Joaqun Baldomero Fernndez (b. 1792 - d. 1879) Mil
Espartero, conde de Luchana
(president of the Provisional Regency to 10 May 1841;
from 10 May 1841, regent)
(continuing in dissidence to 30 Jul 1843)
30 Jul 1843 - 10 Nov 1843 Joaqun Mara de la Asuncion Lpez (b. 1798 - d. 1855) PM
y Lpez -Regent
(president of the [Provisional] Government acting as regent)
1860 Carlos VI -King (b. 1818 - d. 1861)
(Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Interim Revolutionary Junta
30 Sep 1868 - 3 Oct 1868 Pascual Madoz Ibez (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
3 Oct 1868 - 8 Oct 1868 Joaqun Aguirre de la Pea (b. 1807 - d. 1869)
(from 5 Oct 1868, President of the Revolutionary Superior Junta)
President of the Provisional Government
8 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (b. 1810 - d. 1885) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio
(from 25 Feb 1869, President of the Executive Power)
Kings
18 Jun 1869 - 4 Dec 1870 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio -Regent
4 Dec 1870 - 11 Feb 1873 Amadeo I (b. 1845 - d. 1890)
1872 - 28 Feb 1876 Carlos VII (b. 1848 - d. 1909)
(Carlist insurrection)
Presidents of the Executive Power
11 Feb 1873 - 12 Feb 1873 Blas Nicols Mara Rivero (b. 1813/14 - d. 1878)
(president of the National Assembly)
12 Feb 1873 - 24 Feb 1873 Estanislao Figueras y Moragas (b. 1819 - d. 1882) PD
(1st time)
24 Feb 1873 Cristino Martos Balbi (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
(president of the National Assembly)
24 Feb 1873 - 11 Jun 1873 Estanislao Figueras y Moragas (s.a.) PD
(2nd time)
11 Jun 1873 - 18 Jul 1873 Francisco Pi y Margall (b. 1824 - d. 1901) PRF
18 Jul 1873 - 7 Sep 1873 Nicols Salmern y Alonso (b. 1838 - d. 1908) PRF
7 Sep 1873 - 3 Jan 1874 Emilio Manuel Castelar Ripoll (b. 1832 - d. 1899) PR
3 Jan 1874 - 30 Dec 1874 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio
Kings
30 Dec 1874 - 25 Nov 1885 Alfonso XII "el Pacificador" (b. 1857 - d. 1885)
(in exile to 8 Jan 1875)
25 Nov 1885 - 17 May 1886 Queen Mara Cristina -Regent (b. 1858 - d. 1929)
17 May 1886 - 14 Apr 1931 Alfonso XIII (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
17 May 1886 - 17 May 1902 Queen Mara Cristina -Regent (s.a.)
Presidents of the (until 31 Jul 1931, Provisional) Government of the Republic
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931 Niceto Alcal-Zamora y Torres (b. 1877 - d. 1949) PRC
14 Oct 1931 - 11 Dec 1931 Manuel Azaa Daz (b. 1880 - d. 1940) AR
Presidents (from 23 Jul 1936, in Republican Zone only)
11 Dec 1931 - 7 Apr 1936 Niceto Alcal-Zamora y Torres (s.a.) PRC
7 Apr 1936 - 11 May 1936 Diego Martinez Barrio (interim) (b. 1883 - d. 1962) UR
(interim)
11 May 1936 - 3 Mar 1939 Manuel Azaa Daz (s.a.) IR
(from 5 Feb 1939 in France)
President of the National Council of Defense (Republican Zone)
5 Mar 1939 - 27 Mar 1939 Jos Miaja Menant (b. 1878 - d. 1958) Mil
Chairman of the National Defense Council (Nationalist Zone)
23 Jul 1936 - 1 Oct 1936 Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer (b. 1862 - d. 1938) Mil
Head of state (to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only)
1 Oct 1936 - 20 Nov 1975 Francisco Franco Bahamonde (b. 1892 - d. 1975) Mil/FET
(self-styled el Caudillo [Leader])
19 Jul 1974 - 2 Sep 1974 Prince Juan Carlos de Borbn (b. 1938) Non-party
(1st time) (acting for Franco)
30 Oct 1975 - 20 Nov 1975 Prince Juan Carlos de Borbn (s.a.) Non-party
(2nd time) (acting for Franco)
Chairman of the Regency Council
20 Nov 1975 - 22 Nov 1975 Alejandro Rodrguez de Valcrcel (b. 1917 - d. 1976)
y Nebreda
King
22 Nov 1975 - Juan Carlos I (s.a.)

Grand Chancellors
17 Jan 1515 - 7 Jun 1518 Jean de Sauvage (d. 1518)
15 Oct 1518 - 5 Jun 1530 Mercurino Arborio de Gattinara (b. 1465 - d. 1530)
5 Jun 1530 - 1550 Nicols Perrenot de Granvelle (b. 1486 - d. 1550)
(Prime Consejero del reino)
Secretarios de Estado (Secretaries of State)
1524 - Dec 1528 Jean Lallemand, senor de Bouclans (d. 1528)
24 Oct 1529 - 10 May 1547 Francisco de los Cobos y Molina (b. c.1477 - d. 1547)
1547 - 1556 Juan Vzquez de Molina
6 Feb 1556 - 1567 Gonzalo Prez (b. c.1500 - d. 1567)
1566 - 28 Jul 1579 Antonio Prez (b. c.1540 - d. 1611)
(acting to 17 Jul 1567)
1579 - 1583 Antoine Cardenal Perrenot de (b. 1517 - d. 1586)
Granvelle
31 Aug 1579 - 1586 Juan de Idiquez y Garca de (b. 1540 - d. 1614)
Olazabal
1580 - 1598 Cristbal de Moura y Tavara, (b. 1538 - d. 1613)
marqus de Castel Rodrigo
1582 - 17 Nov 1583 Juan de Zigay Avellaneda, (b. 1535 - d. 1583)
principe de Pietraprecia
Sep 1598 - 4 Oct 1618 Francisco Gmez de Sndoval y (b. 1553 - d. 1625)
Rojas, duque de Lerma
4 Oct 1618 - 1621 Cristbal Gmez de Sndoval y (b. 1577 - d. 1624)
Rojas, duque de Uceda
Mar 1621 - 1622 Baltasar de Ziga (b. 1561 - d. 1622)
Oct 1622 - Dec 1625 Junta
- Agustn Messa (b. 1555 - d. 1629)
- Juan Manuel de Mendoza y Luna, (b. 1571 - d. 1628)
marqus de Montesclaros
- Hernando Girn de Salcedo, (b. 1562 - d. 1630)
marqus de Montesclaros
Dec 1625 - Jan 1643 Gaspar de Guzmn, conde de (b. 1587 - d. 1645)
Olivares, duque de San Lucar de
Barrameda
Jan 1643 - Nov 1661 Luis Menndez de Haro, (b. 1598 - d. 1661)
marqus del Carpio
Nov 1661 - Sep 1665 Prime councillors of the king
- Ramiro Nez Felipez de Guzmn, (d. 1668)
duque de Medina de las Torres,
marqus de Foral, marqus de Eliche
- Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y (b. 1589 - d. 1665)
Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
(to 18 Sep 1665)
- Garca de Haro Sotomayor, (b. 1588 - d. 1670)
conde de Castrillo
- Gaspar de Teves de Guzmn, (b. 1608 - d. 1678)
marqus de la Fuente
- Gaspar de Bracamonte y Pacheco, (b. 1596 - d. 1676)
conde de Pearanda
Junta para la Gobernacin Universal de la Monarquia
(Junta for the Universal Government of the Monarchy)
Sep 1665 - 1665 Baltasar Cardenal Moscoso y (s.a.)
Sandoval, arzobispo de Toledo
1665 - 1668 Garca de Haro Sotomayor, (s.a.)
conde de Castrillo
Jan 1666 - 1668 Johann Eberhard Cardenal Nithard (b. 1607 - d. 1689)
1665 - 17 Mar 1670 Guillermo Ramn de Moncada, (d. 1670)
marqus de Aytona
1665 - 22 Feb 1672 Cristbal Cresp de Valldaura y (b. 1599 - d. 1672)
Brizuela
1665 - 1676 Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmn, (s.a.)
conde de Pearanda
1665 - Dec 1676 Pascual Cardenal de Aragn de (b. 1626 - d. 1677)
Cardona y Crdoba,
arzobispo de Toledo
1666 - 16.. Blasco de Loyola
1668 - Dec 1676 Fernano de Valenzuela, (b. 1636 - d. 1692)
marqus de Villasierra
Dec 1676 - Jan 1677 Junta
- Pascual Cardenal de Aragn de (s.a.)
Cardona y Crdoba,
arzobispo de Toledo
- Igo Melchor Fernndez de (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
Velasco y Tovar
- Juan Gaspar Enrquez de Cabrera (b. 1625 - d. 1691)
y Sandoval, duque de Medina de
Rioseco, conde de Modico, Osona
y Melgar, vizconde de Cabrera y de Bas
- Juan Francisco Toms de la Cerda (b. 1637 - d. 1691)
Enrquez Afn de Ribera y
Portocarrero, duque de Medinaceli
Presidentes del Consejo de Castilla (Presidents of the Council of Castile)
Jan 1677 - 17 Sep 1679 Juan Jos de Austria (b. 1629 - d. 1679)
21 Feb 1680 - 1685 Juan Francisco Toms de la Cerda (s.a.)
Enrquez Afn de Ribera y
Portocarrero, duque de Medinaceli
2 Jun 1685 - 24 Jun 1691 Manuel Joaqun lvarez de Toledo y (d. 1708)
Portugal, conde de Oropesa, de
Deleitosa y Alcaudete, marqus de
Frechilla, de Jarandilla y del Villar
1691 - 1700 Juan Toms Enriquez de Cabrera, (b. 1646 - d. 1705)
conde de Melgar, duque de Medina
de Rioseco, alm. de Castilla
1693 - 1699 Juan Domingo Mndez de Haro y (b. 1640 - d. 1716)
Guzmn, conde de Monterrey,
Fuentes y Ayuala, marqus de
Tarazona
Sep 1700 - 1700 Diego Felipe de Guzmn, marqus (d. 1711)
de Legans
1700 - 11 Jul 1705 Luis Manuel Fernndez Cardenal (b. 1635 - d. 1709)
de Portocarrero, arzobispo de Toledo
Secretarios del despacho universal (Secretaries of the Universal Office)
11 Jul 1705 - 15 Apr 1714 Pedro Fernndez del Campo y (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
Angulo, marqus de Mejorada
15 Apr 1714 - 30 Nov 1714 Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco (b. 1659 - d. 1729)
30 Nov 1714 - 14 Jan 1724 Jos de Grimaldo y Gutirrez de (b. 1664 - d. 1733)
Solrzano, marqus de Grimaldo
(1st time)
14 Jan 1724 - 4 Sep 1724 Juan Bautista Orendayn y
Azpilcueta (1st time)
4 Sep 1724 - 12 Dec 1725 Jos de Grimaldo y Gutirrez de (s.a.)
Solrzano, marqus de Grimaldo
(2nd time)
12 Dec 1725 - 14 Apr 1726 Juan Guillermo Ripperd, (b. 1682 - d. 1737)
baron Ripperd
14 Apr 1726 - 1 Oct 1726 Jos de Grimadlo y Gutirez de (s.a.)
Solrzano, marqus de Grimaldo
(3rd time)
1 Oct 1726 - 21 Nov 1734 Juan Bautista Orendayn y
Azpilcueta, marqus de la Paz
(2nd time)
First Secretaries of State
21 Nov 1734 - 26 Nov 1736 Jos de Patio y Rosales (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
26 Nov 1736 - 4 Dec 1746 Sebastin de la Cuadra y Llerena, (b. 1687 - d. 1766)
marqus de Villaras
4 Dec 1746 - 9 Apr 1754 Jos de Carvajal y Lancster (b. 1698 - d. 1754)
9 Apr 1754 - 15 May 1754 Fernando de Silva y lvarez de
Toledo, duque de Huscar (acting)
15 May 1754 - 9 Oct 1763 Ricardo Wall y Devreux (b. 1695 - d. 1778)
9 Oct 1763 - 19 Feb 1777 Pablo-Jernimo de Grimaldi y (b. 1706 - d. 1789)
Pallavicini, marqus de Grimaldi
19 Feb 1777 - 28 Feb 1792 Jos Moino y Redondo, (b. 1728 - d. 1808)
conde de Floridablanca
28 Feb 1792 - 15 Nov 1792 Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y (b. 1718 - d. 1798)
Ximenez de Urrea, conde de
Aranda (acting)
15 Nov 1792 - 30 Mar 1798 Manuel Godoy y lvarez de Faria, (b. 1767 - d. 1851)
duque de Alcudia, (from 27 Sep 1795)
prncipe de la Paz
30 Mar 1798 - 21 Feb 1799 Francisco de Saavedra y (b. 1746 - d. 1819)
Sangronis (1st time)
(acting to 6 Sep 1798)
21 Feb 1799 - 13 Dec 1800 Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga (b. 1768 - d. 1817)
(acting) (1st time)
13 Dec 1800 - 3 Mar 1808 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (1st time) (b. 1764 - d. 1840)
3 Mar 1808 - 19 Mar 1808 Gonzalo O'Farrill y Herrera (b. 1754 - d. 1831)
(acting)
19 Mar 1808 - 7 Jul 1808 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (2nd time) (s.a.)
7 Jul 1808 - 27 Jun 1813 Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga (s.a.)
(2nd time)
10 Oct 1813 - 17 Oct 1813 Juan O'Donoj O'Ryan (acting) (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
17 Oct 1813 - 3 Dec 1813 Fernando de Laserna (acting)
3 Dec 1813 - 4 May 1814 Jos Luyando (1st time) (acting) (b. 1773 - d. 1835)
4 May 1814 - 15 Nov 1814 Jos Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y (b. 1771 - d. 1828) Abs
Manrique, duque de San Carlos
15 Nov 1814 - 24 Jan 1816 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (3rd time) (s.a.)
24 Jan 1816 - 26 Jan 1816 Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres
26 Jan 1816 - 30 Oct 1816 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (4th time) (s.a.) Abs
30 Oct 1816 - 14 Sep 1818 Jos Garca de Len y Pizarro (b. 1770 - d. 1835) Abs
14 Sep 1818 - 12 Jun 1819 Carlos Fernando Martnez de Irujo (b. 1765 - d. 1824) Abs
y Tacn, marqus de Casa-Irujo,
duque de Sotomayor
(1st time)(acting)
12 Jun 1819 - 12 Sep 1819 Manuel Gonzlez Salmn y Gmez (b. 1778 - d. 1832) Abs
de Torres (1st time) (acting)
12 Sep 1819 - 18 Mar 1820 Joaqun Jos Melgarejo y Saurn, (b. 1780 - d. 1835) Abs
duque de San Fernandode Quiroga
18 Mar 1820 Juan Jabat Aztal (acting)
18 Mar 1820 - 2 Mar 1821 Evaristo Prez de Castro Brito (b. 1778 - d. 1848) Lib
2 Mar 1821 - 23 Apr 1821 Joaqun Anduaga Cuenca (acting)
23 Apr 1821 Francisco de Paula Escudero (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
(acting)
23 Apr 1821 - 8 Jan 1822 Eusebio Bardaj y Azara (2nd time) (s.a.) Lib
8 Jan 1822 - 24 Jan 1822 Ramn Lpez Pelegrn (1st time)
(acting)
24 Jan 1822 - 30 Jan 1822 Jos Gabriel de Silva y Bazn, (b. 1782 - d. 1839) Mod
marqus de Santa Cruz
30 Jan 1822 - 28 Feb 1822 Ramn Lpez Pelegrn (2nd time)
(acting)
28 Feb 1822 - 5 Aug 1822 Francisco Martnez de la Rosa (b. 1787 - d. 1862) Mod
5 Aug 1822 - 25 Apr 1823 Evaristo Fernndez San Miguel y (b. 1785 - d. 1862) Lib
Valledor (acting from 28 Feb 1823)
25 Apr 1823 - 7 May 1823 Jos Manuel Vadillo (acting) (d. 1858)
7 May 1823 - 13 May 1823 Santiago Usoz y Moz (acting)
13 May 1823 - 29 Aug 1823 Jos Mara Pando de la Riva y (b. 1787 - d. 1840) Lib
Ramrez de Laredo
29 Aug 1823 - 4 Sep 1823 Luis Mara de Salazar y Salazar (b. 1758 - d. 1838) Lib
(acting) (1st time)
4 Sep 1823 - 6 Sep 1823 Juan Antonio Yandiola y Garay Lib
(acting)
6 Sep 1823 - 1 Oct 1823 Jos Luyando (2nd time) (s.a.) Lib
25 Apr 1823 - 2 Dec 1823 Vctor Daman Sez y Snchez-Mayor (b. 1776 - d. 1839) Abs
(acting to 7 Aug 1823)
(counter-government to 1 Oct 1823)
2 Dec 1823 - 18 Jan 1824 Carlos Martnez de Irujo y Tacn, (s.a.) Abs
marqus de Casa-Irujo,
duque de Sotomayor (2nd time)
18 Jan 1824 - 11 Jul 1824 Narciso de Heredia y Begines (b. 1777 - d. 1843) Lib
de los Ros, conde de Ofalia
11 Jul 1824 Luis Mara de Salazar y Salazar (s.a.)
(2nd time) (acting)
11 Jul 1825 - 24 Oct 1825 Francisco Cea Bermdez (1st time) (b. 1779 - d. 1850) Lib
24 Oct 1825 - 19 Aug 1826 Pedro Alcntara lvarez de (s.a.)
Toledo y Salm-Salm,
duque de Infantado
19 Aug 1826 - 20 Jan 1832 Manuel Gonzlez Salmn y Gmez (s.a.) Abs
de Torres (2nd time)
(acting to 15 Oct 1830)
20 Jan 1832 - 22 Feb 1832 Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arra (b. 1773 - d. 1842)
(acting)
20 Jan 1832 - 1 Oct 1832 Antonio de Saavedra y Frigola,
conde de Alcudia (acting)
1 Oct 1832 - 29 Nov 1832 Jos Cafranga Costilla (acting)
29 Nov 1832 - 15 Jan 1834 Francisco Cea Bermdez (2nd time) (s.a.) Lib/PL
Prime ministers (presidents of the council of ministers)
15 Jan 1834 - 7 Jun 1835 Francisco Martnez de la Rosa (b. 1789 - d. 1862) PL
7 Jun 1835 - 14 Sep 1835 Jos Mara Queipo de Llano Ruz (b. 1786 - d. 1843) PL
de Saravia, conde de Toreno
14 Sep 1835 - 25 Sep 1835 Miguel Ricardo de lava Esquivel (b. 1771 - d. 1843) PL
25 Sep 1835 - 15 May 1836 Juan lvarez Mendizbal (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853) PM
15 May 1836 - 14 Aug 1836 Francisco Javier Istriz y Montero (b. 1790 - d. 1871) PL
(1st time)
14 Aug 1836 - 18 Aug 1837 Jos Mara Calatrava (b. 1781 - d. 1846) PL
18 Aug 1837 - 18 Oct 1837 Joaqun Baldomero Fernndez (s.a.) Mil
Espartero, conde de Luchana
(1st time)
18 Oct 1837 - 16 Dec 1837 Eusebio Bardaj y Azara (s.a.) PL
16 Dec 1837 - 6 Sep 1838 Narciso de Heredia y Begines (s.a.) PL
de los Ros, conde de Ofalia
6 Sep 1838 - 9 Dec 1838 Bernardino Fernndez de Velasco (b. 1783 - d. 1851) PL
Enrquez de Guzmn,
duque de Fras
9 Dec 1838 Isidro Alaix (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1853) PL
9 Dec 1838 - 18 Jul 1840 Evaristo Prez de Castro Brito (b. 1771 - d. 1849) PL
20 Jul 1840 - 12 Aug 1840 Antonio Gonzlez y Gonzlez (b. 1792 - d. 1876) PL
(1st time)
12 Aug 1840 - 28 Aug 1840 Valentn Ferraz y Barrau (b. 1793 - d. 1866) PL
29 Aug 1840 - 11 Sep 1840 Modesto Cortzar (acting)
11 Sep 1840 - 16 Sep 1840 Vicente Sancho (b. 1784 - d. 1868) PPg
(designated but did not take office)
16 Sep 1840 - 10 May 1841 Joaqun Baldomero Fernndez
Espartero, duque de la Victoria (s.a.) Mil/PPg
(2nd time)
10 May 1841 - 20 May 1841 Joaqun Mara Ferrer Cafranga (b. 1777 - d. 1861)
(acting)
20 May 1841 - 17 Jun 1842 Antonio Gonzlez y Gonzlez (s.a.) PM
(2nd time)
17 Jun 1842 - 9 May 1843 Jos Ramn Rodil y Gallosa, (b. 1789 - d. 1853) PM
marqus de Rodil
9 May 1843 - 19 May 1843 Joaqun Mara Lpez y Lpez (s.a.) PM
(1st time)
19 May 1843 - 23 Jul 1843 lvaro Gmez Becerra (b. 1771 - d. 1855)
23 Jul 1843 - 20 Nov 1843 Joaqun Mara Lpez y Lpez (s.a.) PM
(2nd time)
20 Nov 1843 - 5 Dec 1843 Salustiano de Olzaga y Almandoz (b. 1805 - d. 1873) PM
5 Dec 1843 - 3 May 1844 Luis Gonzlez Bravo (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1871) PM
3 May 1844 - 12 Feb 1846 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos, (b. 1800 - d. 1868) PM
duque de Valencia (1st time)
12 Feb 1846 - 16 Mar 1846 Manuel Pando Fernndez de Pineda, (b. 1792 - d. 1872) PM
marqus de Miraflores (1st time)
16 Mar 1846 - 5 Apr 1846 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos, (s.a.) PM
duque de Valencia (2nd time)
5 Apr 1846 - 28 Jan 1847 Francisco Javier Istriz y Montero (s.a.) PM
(2nd time)
28 Jan 1847 - 28 Mar 1847 Carlos Fernando Martnez de Irujo (b. 1804 - d. 1889) PM
y McKean, marqus de Casa-Irujo,
duque de Sotomayor
28 Mar 1847 - 31 Aug 1847 Joaqun Francisco Pacheco y (b. 1808 - d. 1865) PM
Gutirrez Caldern
31 Aug 1847 - 12 Sep 1847 Jos de Salamanca y Mayol (b. 1811 - d. 1883) PM
12 Sep 1847 - 4 Oct 1847 Florencio Garca Goyena (b. 1783 - d. 1855) PM
4 Oct 1847 - 19 Oct 1849 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos
duque de Valencia (3rd time) (s.a.) PM
19 Oct 1849 - 20 Oct 1849 Serafn Mara de Soto y Abacu,
conde de Cleonard (b. 1793 - d. 1862) PM
20 Oct 1849 - 14 Jan 1850 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos, (s.a.) PM
duque de Valencia (4th time)
14 Jan 1850 - 14 Dec 1852 Juan Bravo Murillo (b. 1803 - d. 1873) PM
14 Dec 1852 - 14 Apr 1853 Federico Roncali y Ceruti, (b. 1809 - d. 1875) PM
conde de Alcoy
14 Apr 1853 - 19 Sep 1853 Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea (b. 1817 - d. 1874) PM
19 Sep 1853 - 17 Jul 1854 Luis Jos Sartorius Tapia, (b. 1817 - d. 1871) PM
conde de San Luis
17 Jul 1854 - 18 Jul 1854 Fernando Fernndez de Crdova y (b. 1809 - d. 1883) PM
Valcrcel (1st time)
18 Jul 1854 - 19 Jul 1854 ngel de Saavedra y Ramrez de (b. 1791 - d. 1865) PM
Baquedano, duque de Rivas
(acting)
19 Jul 1854 - 14 Jul 1856 Joaqun Baldomero Fernndez (s.a.) Mil/PPg
Espartero, duque de la Victoria
(3rd time)
14 Jul 1856 - 12 Oct 1856 Leopoldo O'Donnell Jorris, (b. 1809 - d. 1867) UL
conde de Lucena (1st time)
12 Oct 1856 - 15 Oct 1857 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos, (s.a.) PM
duque de Valencia (5th time)
15 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1858 Francisco Armero y Fernndez (b. 1804 - d. 1867) UL
Pearanda, marqus de Nervin
14 Jan 1858 - 30 Jun 1858 Francisco Javier Istriz y Montero (s.a.) UL
(3rd time)
30 Jun 1858 - 2 Mar 1863 Leopoldo O'Donnell Jorris, (s.a.) UL
(from 1860) duque de Tetun
(2nd time)
2 Mar 1863 - 17 Jan 1864 Manuel Pando Fernndez de Pineda, (s.a.) UL
marqus de Miraflores (2nd time)
17 Jan 1864 - 1 Mar 1864 Lorenzo Arrazola Garca (b. 1797 - d. 1873) UL
1 Mar 1864 - 16 Sep 1864 Alejandro Mn Menndez (b. 1801 - d. 1882) UL
16 Sep 1864 - 21 Jun 1865 Ramn Mara Narvezy Campos, (s.a.) UL
duque de Valencia (6th time)
21 Jun 1865 - 10 Jul 1866 Leopoldo O'Donnell Jorris, (s.a.) UL
duque de Tetun (3rd time)
10 Jul 1866 - 23 Apr 1868 Ramn Mara Narvez y Campos, (s.a.) PM
duque de Valencia (7th time)
23 Apr 1868 - 19 Sep 1868 Luis Gonzlez Bravo (2nd time) (s.a.) UL
19 Sep 1868 - 30 Sep 1868 Jos Gutirrez de la Concha (b. 1809 - d. 1895) UL
Irigoyen
3 Oct 1868 - 18 Jun 1869 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) UL/PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio (1st time)
18 Jun 1869 - 27 Dec 1870 Juan Prim y Prats, marqus de (b. 1814 - d. 1870) PPg
Castillejos, conde de Reus,
vizconde del Bruch
27 Dec 1870 - 4 Jan 1871 Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo (b. 1821 - d. 1885) PL
(1st time) (acting)
4 Jan 1871 - 24 Jul 1871 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio (2nd time)
24 Jul 1871 - 5 Oct 1871 Manuel Ruz Zorrilla (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1895) PPg
5 Oct 1871 - 21 Dec 1871 Jos Malcampo y Monge, marqus (b. 1828 - d. 1880) PL
de San Rafael, conde de Jolo
21 Dec 1871 - 26 May 1872 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (b. 1825 - d. 1903) PL
Escolar (1st time)
26 May 1872 - 4 Jun 1872 Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo (s.a.) PL
(2nd time)(acting)
4 Jun 1872 - 13 Jun 1872 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio (3rd time)
13 Jun 1872 - 16 Jun 1872 Fernando Fernndez de Crdova y (s.a.) PM
Valcrcel (2nd time)(acting)
16 Jun 1872 - 12 Feb 1873 Manuel Ruz Zorrilla (2nd time) (s.a.) PPg
4 Jan 1874 - 26 Feb 1874 Francisco Serrano y Domnguez, (s.a.) PL
duque de la Torre,
conde de San Antonio (4th time)
26 Feb 1874 - 3 Sep 1874 Juan de Zavala y de la Fuente, (b. 1804 - d. 1879) Non-party
conde de Paredes de Nava,
marqus de Sierra Bullones
3 Sep 1874 - 30 Dec 1874 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
Escolar (2nd time)
31 Dec 1874 - 12 Sep 1875 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (b. 1828 - d. 1897) PL
(1st time)
12 Sep 1875 - 2 Dec 1875 Joaqun Jovellar y Soler (b. 1819 - d. 1892) Non-party
2 Dec 1875 - 7 Mar 1879 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (s.a.) PL
(2nd time)
7 Mar 1879 - 9 Dec 1879 Arsenio Martnez Campos y Antn (b. 1831 - d. 1900) PL
9 Dec 1879 - 8 Feb 1881 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (s.a.) PL
(3rd time)
8 Feb 1881 - 13 Oct 1883 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
Escolar (3rd time)
13 Oct 1883 - 18 Jan 1884 Jos Posada Herrera (b. 1815 - d. 1885) PPg
18 Jan 1884 - 27 Nov 1885 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (s.a.) PL
(4th time)
27 Nov 1885 - 5 Jul 1890 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
Escolar (4th time)
5 Jul 1890 - 11 Dec 1892 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (s.a.) PL
(5th time)
11 Dec 1892 - 23 Mar 1895 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
(5th time)
23 Mar 1895 - 8 Aug 1897 Antonio Cnovas del Castillo (s.a.) PL
Escolar (6th time)
8 Aug 1897 - 4 Oct 1897 Marcelo de Azcrraga y Palmero (b. 1832 - d. 1915) PL
(1st time)(acting to 21 Aug 1897)
4 Oct 1897 - 4 Mar 1899 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
Escolar (6th time)
4 Mar 1899 - 23 Oct 1900 Francisco Silvela y le Vielleuze (b. 1843 - d. 1905) PC
(1st time)
23 Oct 1900 - 6 Mar 1901 Marcelo de Azcrraga y Palmero (s.a.) PC
(2nd time)
6 Mar 1901 - 6 Dec 1902 Prxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y (s.a.) PL
Escolar (7th time)
6 Dec 1902 - 20 Jul 1903 Francisco Silvela y le Vielleuze (s.a.) PC
(2nd time)
20 Jul 1903 - 5 Dec 1903 Raimundo Fernndez Villaverde (b. 1848 - d. 1905) PC
(1st time)
5 Dec 1903 - 16 Dec 1904 Antonio Maura y Montaner (1st time)(b. 1853 - d. 1925) PC
16 Dec 1904 - 27 Jan 1905 Marcelo de Azcrraga y Palmero (s.a.) PC
(3rd time)
27 Jan 1905 - 23 Jun 1905 Raimundo Fernndez Villaverde (s.a.) PC
(2nd time)
23 Jun 1905 - 1 Dec 1905 Eugenio Montero Ros (b. 1832 - d. 1914) ID
1 Dec 1905 - 6 Jul 1906 Sigismundo Moret y Prendergast (b. 1838 - d. 1913) PL
(1st time)
6 Jul 1906 - 30 Nov 1906 Jos Lpez Domnguez (b. 1829 - d. 1911) PL
30 Nov 1906 - 4 Dec 1906 Sigismundo Moret y Prendergast (s.a.) PL
(2nd time)
4 Dec 1906 - 25 Jan 1907 Antonio Aguilar y Correa, (b. 1824 - d. 1908) PL
marqus de la Vega de Armijo
25 Jan 1907 - 21 Oct 1909 Antonio Maura y Montaner (2nd time)(s.a.) PC
21 Oct 1909 - 9 Feb 1910 Sigismundo Moret y Prendergast (s.a.) PL
(3rd time)
9 Feb 1910 - 12 Nov 1912 Jos Canalejas y Mndez (b. 1854 - d. 1912) PL
12 Nov 1912 - 14 Nov 1912 Manuel Garca Prieto, marqus de (b. 1859 - d. 1938) PL
Alhucemas (1st time) (acting)
14 Nov 1912 - 27 Oct 1913 lvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, (b. 1863 - d. 1950) PL
conde de Romanones (1st time)
27 Oct 1913 - 9 Dec 1915 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 1921) PC
9 Dec 1915 - 19 Apr 1917 lvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, (s.a.) PL
conde de Romanones (2nd time)
19 Apr 1917 - 11 Jun 1917 Manuel Garca Prieto, (2nd time) (s.a.) PL
marqus de Alhucemas
11 Jun 1917 - 3 Nov 1917 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (2nd time) (s.a.) PC
3 Nov 1917 - 22 Mar 1918 Manuel Garca Prieto, (3rd time) (s.a.) PL
marqus de Alhucemas
22 Mar 1918 - 9 Nov 1918 Antonio Maura y Montaner (3rd time)(s.a.) PC
9 Nov 1918 - 5 Dec 1918 Manuel Garca Prieto, (4th time) (s.a.) PL
marqus de Alhucemas
5 Dec 1918 - 15 Apr 1919 lvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, (s.a.) PL
conde de Romanones (3rd time)
15 Apr 1919 - 20 Jul 1919 Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.) PC
20 Jul 1919 - 12 Dec 1919 Joaqun Snchez de Toca Calov (b. 1852 - d. 1942) PC
12 Dec 1919 - 5 May 1920 Manuel Allendesalazar Muoz (b. 1856 - d. 1923) PC
de Salazar (1st time)
5 May 1920 - 8 Mar 1921 Eduardo Dato y Iradier (3rd time) (s.a.) PC
8 Mar 1921 - 13 Mar 1921 Gabino Bugalial Araujo, (b. 1861 - d. 1932) PC
conde de Bugallal (acting)
13 Mar 1921 - 14 Aug 1921 Manuel Allendesalazar Muoz (s.a.) PC
de Salazar (2nd time)
14 Aug 1921 - 8 Mar 1922 Antonio Maura y Montaner (4th time)(s.a.) PC
8 Mar 1922 - 7 Dec 1922 Jos Snchez Guerra y Martnez (b. 1859 - d. 1935) PC
7 Dec 1922 - 15 Sep 1923 Manuel Garca Prieto, (5th time) (s.a.) PL
marqus de Alhucemas
15 Sep 1923 - 30 Jan 1930 Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, (b. 1870 - d. 1930) Mil
marqus de Estella (from 1925)
y de Ajdir
(president of the Military Directory to 3 Dec 1925)
30 Jan 1930 - 18 Feb 1931 Dmaso Berenguer y Fust, (b. 1873 - d. 1953) Non-party
conde de Xauen
18 Feb 1931 - 14 Apr 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabaas (b. 1860 - d. 1933) Non-party
14 Apr 1931 - 14 Oct 1931 Niceto Alcal-Zamora y Torres (s.a.) PRC
14 Oct 1931 - 12 Sep 1933 Manuel Azaa Daz (1st time) (s.a.) AR
12 Sep 1933 - 8 Oct 1933 Alejandro Lerroux Garca (b. 1864 - d. 1949) PRR
(1st time)
8 Oct 1933 - 16 Dec 1933 Diego Martnez Barrio (1st time) (s.a.) PRR
16 Dec 1933 - 28 Apr 1934 Alejandro Lerroux Garca (s.a.) PRR
(2nd time)
28 Apr 1934 - 4 Oct 1934 Ricardo Samper Ibez (b. 1881 - d. 1938) PRR
4 Oct 1934 - 25 Sep 1935 Alejandro Lerroux Garca (3rd time)(s.a.) PRR
25 Sep 1935 - 14 Dec 1935 Joaqun Chapaprieta y Torregrosa (b. 1871 - d. 1951) Non-party
14 Dec 1935 - 19 Feb 1936 Manuel Portela Valladares (b. 1867 - d. 1952) PC
19 Feb 1935 - 10 May 1936 Manuel Azaa Daz (2nd time) (s.a.) IR
10 May 1936 - 13 May 1936 Augusto Barcia Trelles (interim) (b. 1881 - d. 1961) IR
13 May 1936 - 19 Jul 1936 Santiago Casares Quiroga (b. 1884 - d. 1950) IR
19 Jul 1936 Diego Martnez Barrio (2nd time) (s.a.) UR
19 Jul 1936 - 4 Sep 1936 Jos Giral Pereira (b. 1879 - d. 1962) IR
4 Sep 1936 - 17 May 1937 Francisco Largo Caballero (b. 1859 - d. 1946) PSOE
17 May 1937 - 31 Mar 1939 Juan Negrn Lpez (b. 1894 - d. 1956) PSOE
Chairmen of the Technical Junta (Nationalist Zone)
3 Oct 1936 - 3 Jun 1937 Fidel Dvila Arrondo (b. 1878 - d. 1962) Mil
3 Jun 1937 - 31 Jan 1938 Francisco Gmez Jordana y Souza (b. 1876 - d. 1944) Mil
Prime ministers (presidents of the Government)(to 31 Mar 1939 in Nationalist Zone only)
31 Jan 1938 - 8 Jun 1973 Francisco Franco Bahamonde (s.a.) Mil/FET
8 Jun 1973 - 20 Dec 1973 Luis Carrero Blanco (b. 1903 - d. 1973) Mil/FET
20 Dec 1973 - 2 Jan 1974 Torcuato Fernndez Miranda Hevia (b. 1915 - d. 1980) FET
(acting)
2 Jan 1974 - 1 Jul 1976 Carlos Arias Navarro (b. 1908 - d. 1989) FET
1 Jul 1976 - 5 Jul 1976 Fernando de Santiago y Daz de (b. 1910 - d. 1994) Mil
Mendivil (acting)
5 Jul 1976 - 25 Feb 1981 Adolfo Surez Gonzlez (b. 1932) UCD
25 Feb 1981 - 2 Dec 1982 Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo y Bustelo (b. 1926 - d. 2008) UCD
2 Dec 1982 - 5 May 1996 Felipe Gonzlez Mrquez (b. 1942) PSOE
5 May 1996 - 17 Apr 2004 Jos Mara Aznar Lpez (b. 1953) PP
17 Apr 2004 - Jos Luis Rodrguez Zapatero (b. 1960) PSOE

The "Resistance" 1808-1814

May 1808 The abdication of Fernando VII (s.a.) on 6 May 1808 is not
recognized by the "Resistance"; Supreme Governing Juntas
are established in the provinces (ultimately numbering 18),
as well as in the Indies, ruling in the name of Fernando VII.
25 Sep 1808 The Supreme Central Governing Junta is established, ruling
in the name of Fernando VII, and gradually superseding the
previously established Juntas.
31 Jan 1810 A Supreme Council of Regency is established, governing in
the name of Fernando VII.
22 Mar 1814 Upon the return of Fernando VII the Regency is dissolved.

Presidents of the Supreme Central Governing Junta


25 Sep 1808 - 30 Dec 1808 Jos Moino y Redondo, conde de (s.a.)
Floridablanca
(interim to 1 Oct 1808)
30 Dec 1808 - 1 Nov 1809 Vicente Isabel Osorio de Moscoso (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
y lvarez de Toledo, marqus de
Astorga (interim to 1 May 1809)
1 Nov 1809 - 31 Jan 1810 Juan Acisclo de Vera y Delgado, (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
arzobispo de Laodicea
Presidents of the Supreme Council of Regency
1 Feb 1810 - 29 May 1810 Francisco Javier Castaos y (b. 1758 - d. 1852)
Aragorri
29 May 1810 - 26 Sep 1810 Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano, (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
obispo de Orense
27? Sep 1810 - 28 Oct 1810 Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis (s.a.)
Presidents of the Council of Regency
28 Oct 1810 - 8 Dec 1810 Pedro Agar y Bustillo (1st time) (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
8 Dec 1810 - 8 Apr 1811 Joaqun Blake y Joyes (b. 1739 - d. 1827)
8 Apr 1811 - 8 Aug 1811 Pedro Agar y Bustillo (2nd time) (s.a.)
8 Aug 1811 - 8 Dec 1811 Gabriel de Cscar y Cscar (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
8 Dec 1811 - 22 Jan 1812 Pedro Agar y Bustillo (3rd time) (s.a.)
Presidents of the Regency
22 Jan 1812 - 15 Jun 1812 Joaqun de Mosquera y Figueroa (b. 1748 - d. 1830)
15 Jun 1812 - 15 Dec 1812? Pedro Alcntara de Toledo y
Salm-Salm, duque del Infantado (s.a.)
15 Dec 1812? - 8 Mar 1813 Juan Mara de Villavicencio (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
President of the (to 22 Mar 1813, Provisional) Regency
8 Mar 1813 - 10 May 1814 Cardenal Luis Mara de Borbn y (b. 1777 - d. 1823)
Vallabriga, arzobispo de Toledo,
primado de las Espaas

First Secretaries of State


15 Oct 1808 - 5 Jan 1809 Pedro Cevallos Guerra (s.a.)
5 Jan 1809 - 13 Oct 1809 Martn de Garay Perales (acting) (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
13 Oct 1809 - 30 Oct 1809 Pedro Rivero (acting)
30 Oct 1809 - 31 Jan 1810 Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis (s.a.)
(2nd time)
31 Jan 1810 - 20 Mar 1810 Nicols Ambrosio de Garro y
Arizcn, marqus de las Hormazas
(acting)
20 Mar 1810 - 6 Feb 1812 Eusebio Bardaj y Azara (1st time) (s.a.)
(acting to 27 May 1810)
6 Feb 1812 - 12 May 1812 Jos Garca de Len y Pizarro (s.a.)
(acting)
12 May 1812 - 23 Jun 1812 Ignacio de la Pezuela y Snchez (d. 1850)
(acting)
23 Jun 1812 - 27 Sep 1812 Carlos Fernando Martnez de Irujo
y Tacn, marqus de Casa Irujo (s.a.)
(1st time)
27 Sep 1812 - 11 Jul 1813 Pedro Gmez-Labrador Avelo (b. 1765 - d. 1850)
11 Jul 1813 - 10 Oct 1813 Antonio Cano Manuel y Ramrez de
Arellano (acting)

Spanish Republic in Exile

Presidents
1940 - 17 Aug 1945 lvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana (b. 1879 - d. 1959) IR
(acting)
17 Aug 1945 - 1 Jan 1962 Diego Martnez Barrio (s.a.) UR
11 Feb 1962 - 16 Nov 1970 Luis Jimnez de Asa (b. 1889 - d. 1970) Non-party
Nov 1970 - 1 Jul 1977 Jos Antonio Maldonado (b. 1901 - d. 1985) IR

Prime ministers
4 Mar 1939 - 17 Aug 1945 Juan Negrn Lpez (s.a.) PSOE
17 Aug 1945 - 9 Feb 1947 Jos Giral Pereyra (s.a.) IR/Non-party
9 Feb 1947 - 8 Aug 1947 Rodolfo Llopis Ferrndiz (b. 1895 - d. 1983) PSOE
8 Aug 1947 - 13 Aug 1951 lvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana (s.a.) IR/Non-party
13 Aug 1951 - 9 May 1960 Flix Gordn Ords (b. 1885 - d. 1973) Non-party
9 May 1960 - 28 Feb 1962 Emilio Herrera Linares (b. 1876 - d. 1967) Non-party
28 Feb 1962 - 28 Feb 1971 Claudio Snchez-Albornoz y (b. 1893 - d. 1984) UR/Non-party
Menduia
28 Feb 1971 - 23 Jul 1977 Fernando Valera Aparicio (b. 1899 - d. 1981) Non-party

FET Party flag 1938-1977

What we usually think of as Spain had no constitutional identity until 1808. The style
Monarqua Espaola gradually came into use for the whole complex, while several of the
component units maintained (in some cases fanatically) their political identity, with their own
Cortes, their own charters of rights (fueros), etc. Espaas (or Espaas e Indias) more closely
reflects usage before 1808 than Espaa.

In official documents the ruler used a full style that included effective and titular non-
Hispanic titles (e.g., Archduke of Austria) the following is a typical form, while variants are
not uncommon:
(a) Por la gracia de Dios, Rey/Reina de Castilla, de Len, de Aragn, de las dos Sicilias, de
Jerusaln, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Menorca,
de Sevilla, de Cerdea, de Crdoba, de Crcega, de Murcia, de Jan, del Algarve, de Algeciras,
de Gibraltar, de las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y
Tierrafirme del Continente Ocenico, Archiduque/Archiduquesa de Austria, Duque/Duquesa de
Borgoa, de Brabante y de Miln, Conde/Condesa de Abspurg, de Flandes, del Tirol y de
Barcelona, Seor/Seora de Vizcaya y de Molina, etc ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of
Castille, of Leon, of Aragon, of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarre, of Granada, of
Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mallorca, of Minorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Cordoba
of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarve, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary
Islands, of the East and West Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Continent,
Archduke/Archduchess of Austria, Duke/Duchess of Burgundy, of Barabant and Milan,
Count/Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, and of Barcelona, Lord/Lady of Vizcaya and
of Molina, etc.") The following short style gradually comes into official use before 1808: Por
la gracia de Dios Rey/Reina de las Espaasy de las Indias ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of
the Spanish and of the Indies").
(b) from 1978: Rey Constitucional de Espaa, Rey de Castilla, de Len, de Aragn, de las Dos
Sicilias, de Jerusaln, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Cerdea,
de Crdoba, de Crcega, de Murcia, de Jan, de los Algarves, de Algerciras, de Gibraltar, de
las Islas Canarias, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, de las Islas y Tierra Firme del
Mar Ocano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoa, de Brabante, de Miln, de Atenas y
Neopatria; Conde de Habsburgo, de Flandes, del Tirol, del Roselln, y de Barcelona; Seor de
Vizcaya y de Molina; Capitn General de las Reales Fuerzas Armadas y su Comandante Supremo;
Soberano Gran maestre de la Insigne Orden del Toisn de Oro, y de cuantas Ordenes discierne el
Estado Espaol ("Constitutional king of Spain, king of Castile, king of Leon, king of Aragon,
king of the Two Sicilies, king of Jerusalem, king of Navarra, king of Granada, king of Toledo,
king of Valencia, king of Galicia, king of Sardinia, king of Cordoba, king of Corsica, king of
Murcia, king of Jan, king of the Algarves, king of Algeciras, king of Gibraltar, king of the
Canaries Islands, king of the West and East Indies, king of the Islands and Mainland of the
Ocean Sea [the Americas]; Archduke of Austria; duke of Burgundy, duke of Brabant, duke of
Milan, duke of Athens and duke of Neo-Patras, count of Habsburg, count of Flanders, count of
Roussillon, count of Barcelona; lord of Viscaya, lord of Molina; Captain-General and Supreme
Head of the Royal Armed Forces, Sovereign Grand-Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece,
Grand-Master of the orders awarded by the Spanish State").

The Governing Board (Junta de Gobierno) had no formal chairman, but only one of its members
was con voto de calidad, i.e., with "preferred vote," namely the widow of Carlos II: Mara Ana
de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hessen-Darmstadt, Reina de las Espaas y de las Indias (b. 1667 - d.
1740).

Noble titles: archiduque/archiduquesa = archduke/archduchess; barn/baronesa = baron/baroness;


conde/condesa = count/countess; duque/duquesa = duke/duchess; marqus = marquis;
rey/reina = king/queen; seor/seora = lord/lady; vizconde = viscount;
prncipe/princesa = prince/princess

Territorial Disputes: Since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum in 2002


against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the U.K. and Spain over the
fate of the 300-year old U.K. colony have stalled; Spain disapproves of U.K. plans to grant
Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of
Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Pen de Vlez de la Gomera, Pen de Alhucemas, Isla de
Alborn, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco serves as the primary
launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize
Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of
the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz.

Party abbreviations: PP = Partido Popular (People's Party, center-rightist, to 1989 called


Popular Alliance [AP]); PRC = Partido Republicano Conservador (Conservative Republican Party);
PSOE = Partido Socialista Obrero Espaol (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, social-
democratic); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Abs = Absolutist (royalist, right-wing reactionary); AR = Agrario (Agrarian);

FET = Falange Espaola Tradicionalista-Juntas de Ofensivas Nacional Sindicalistas (Spanish


Phalange Traditionalists-Junta of National Syndicalist Offensive, main party of the National
Movement, authoritarian, fascist, only legal party 1939-75); ID = Izquierda Democratico (Left-
Democratic Party); IR = Izquierda Republicana (Republican Left, ex-UR); IU = Izquierda Unido
(United Left, leftist-communist-greens coalition including PCE); Lib = Liberal;
Mod = Moderato (Moderate); PC = Partido Liberal Conservador (Liberal Conservative Party,
conservative); PD = Partido Democratic (Democratic Party); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal
Party); PM = Partido Monrquico Constitutional (Constitutional Monarchy Party, moderate, 1834-
73]); PPD= Partido Progresista-Democrtico (Progressive Democratic Party, 1849-73);
PPg = Partido Progresista (Progressive Party, 1834-73); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican
Party, conservative); PRF = Partido Republicano Federalista (Federalist Republican Party);
PRR = Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party); UCD = Unin Centro Democrtico
(Union of Democratic Center, centrist, 1977-83); UL = Unin Liberal (Liberal Union); UR = Unin
Republicana (Republican Union)

Navarra

to 16 Aug 1841

Map of Kingdom of Navarra Capital: Pamplona Population: N/A (1841)

c.824 Kingdom of Navarra (Basque: Nafarroa, French: Navarre).


1200 Southern Basque province of Gipuzkoa (Guipzcoa) united
with the Kingdom of Castile.
1332 Southern Basque province of Araba (lava) part of Castile.
1379 Southern Basque province of Bizkaia (Vizcaya) part of
Castile.
1451 Northern Basque province of Lapurdi (Labourd) under
French rule.
1510 Northern Basque province of Zuberoa (Soule) united with France
25 Jul 1512 Lower Navarre (Kingdom of Navarra south of the Pyrenees)
fully part of the Spanish monarchy, but retaining many
privileges (fueros).
1581 Northern Basque province of Benapara (Fr.: Basse-Navarre)
under French rule
Aug 1589 Northern or Lower Navarre (Basse-Navarre) inherited by the
Kings of France.
1790 Benapara, Lapurdi and Zuberoa merged with neighboring Barn into
the French department Basse-Pyrnes.
6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813 Separate identity disrupted by French invasion.
16 Aug 1841 Kingdom of Navarra fully incorporated into the Spain.
1874 Last remaining fueros are abolished.

Kings
16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598 Felipe IV (Felipe II in Spain) (s.a.)
13 Sep 1589 - 31 Mar 1621 Felipe V (Felipe III in Spain) (s.a.)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665 Felipe VI (Felipe VI in Spain) (s.a.)
17 Sep 1665 - 1 Nov 1700 Carlos V (Carlos II in Spain) (s.a.)
1 Nov 1700 - 16 Nov 1700 Governing Board
16 Nov 1700 - 14 Jan 1724 Felipe VII (1st time) (Felipe V in Spain) (s.a.)
14 Jan 1724 - 31 Aug 1724 Luis II (Luis I in Spain) (s.a.)
31 Aug 1724 - 6 Sep 1724 Vacant
6 Sep 1724 - 9 Jul 1746 Felipe VII (2nd time) (s.a.)
9 Jul 1746 - 10 Aug 1759 Fernando II (Fernando VI in Spain) (s.a.)
10 Aug 1759 - 14 Dec 1788 Carlos VI (Carlos III in Spain) (s.a.)
14 Dec 1788 - 19 Mar 1808 Carlos VII (1st time) (Carlos IV in Spain) (s.a.)
19 Mar 1808 - 6 May 1808 Fernando III (1st time) (Fernando VII in Spain)(s.a.)
6 May 1808 Carlos VII (2nd time) (s.a.)
6 May 1808 - 11 Dec 1813 interruption
11 Dec 1813 - 29 Sep 1833 Fernando III (2nd time) (s.a.)
29 Sep 1833 - 16 Aug 1841 Isabel I -Queen (Isabel II in Spain) (s.a.)
1 Oct 1833 - 31 Aug 1839 Carlos VIII (Carlos V in Spain) (s.a.)
(Carlist insurrection)

Minorca

24 Sep 1708 - 28 May 1756;


10 Feb 1763 - 20 Jan 1782;
15 Nov 1798 - 27 Mar 1802
Map of Minorca Capital: Port Mahon Population: N/A (1802)

28 Sep 1706 - 13 Jun 1715 Mallorca (Majorca) occupied by Austria.


24 Sep 1708 Minorca (Menorca) Island occupied by Britain.
13 Jul 1713 Formally ceded to Britain by Treaty of Utrecht.
1714 British colony.
28 May 1756 - 10 Feb 1763 French occupation.
5 Feb 1782 Spanish occupation.
20 Jan 1783 Restored to Spain by Treaty of Paris.
15 Nov 1798 British colony.
27 Mar 1802 Restored to Spain by Peace of Amiens.

Governors
24 Sep 1708 - 1711 James Stanhope (b. 1673 - d. 1721)
1711 - 1713 John Campbell, Duke of Argyll (b. 1680 - d. 1743)
(1st time)
1713 - 1714 Charles Mordaunt, (b. 1658 - d. 1735)
Earl of Peterbough
1714 - 1716 John Campbell, Duke of Argyll (s.a.)
(2nd time)
1716 - 1718 George Carpenter (b. 1657 - d. 1732)
1718 - 1719 George Forbes (b. 1685 - d. 1765)
1720 - 1736 Richard Kane (b. 1666 - d. 1736)
1737 - 1742 Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford (b. 1684 - d. 1750)
1742 - 1747 John Dalrymple, Earl of Stair (b. 1673 - d. 1747)
1747 - 28 May 1756 James O'Hara, Earl of Tyrawley (b. c.1682 - d. 1773)
1756 - 1758 Hyacinthe Gatan de Lannion (b. 1719 - d. 1762)
(1st time)
1 May 1758 - 2 Apr 1759 Jean Toussaint de la Pierre de (b. 1697 - d. 1759)
Frmeur, marquis de Frmeur
1759 - 1760 Louis-Flicien de Boffin (d. 1778)
d'Argenson et Pusignieu (1st time)
1760 - 2 Oct 1762 Hyacinthe Gatan de Lannion (s.a.)
(2nd time)
1762 - 1763 Louis-Flicien de Boffin (s.a.)
d'Argenson et Pusignieu (2nd time)
1763 - 1766 Richard Lyttelton (b. 1718 - d. 1770)
1766 - 1768 George Howard (b. 1718 - d. 1796)
1768 - 1778 John Mostyn (b. 1710 - d. 1779)
1778 - 5 Feb 1782 James Murray (b. 1721 - d. 1795)
5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798 Spanish rule
15 Nov 1798 - 1800 Charles Stuart (b. 1753 - d. 1801)
1800 - 27 Mar 1802 Henry Edward Fox (b. 1755 - d. 1811)

Lieutenant governors (sometimes acting for governors)


1711 - 1712 John Fermor
1712 - 1729 Richard Kane (s.a.)
1736 - 1739 William Pinfold
1739 - 1742 Philip Anstruther (b. c.1680 - d. 1760)
1742 - 1744 Roger Handasyde (b. c.1684 - d. 1763)
1744 - 1748 John Wynyard
1748 - 28 May 1756 William Blakeney (b. 1672 - d. 1761)
Intendant
1759 - 1763 Antoine de Causan
Lieutenant governors
1763 - 1774 James Johnston
1774 - 1779 James Murray (s.a.)
1779 - 5 Feb 1782 Sir William Draper (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
5 Feb 1782 - 15 Nov 1798 Spanish rule
1798 William Anne Villettes (b. 1754 - d. 1808)
1798 - 1801 Sir James St. Clair Erskine (b. 1762 - d. 1837)
1801 John Broderick
1801 - 27 Mar 1802 William Douglas McLean Clephane (b. 17.. - d. 1805)

2000 Ben Cahoon