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FRAME ANALYSIS

By:
Mohammad Soffi bin Md. Noh

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Introduction

 In the design of RC structures based on BS 8110 it has to analyse


the structure subjected to all probable combinations of loads,
considering the ultimate limit state.
Reinforced Concrete Design 2

 Once the bending moment, shear force etc. were obtained,


reinforcements can be designed according to the standard.
 Generally, three dimensional wide frame analysis is the most
accurate method to analyse the frame building.
 3-D frame is complex and need to be carried out using relevant
computer software. Clause 3.2.1.1 BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 states that
the analysis may be simplified appropriately sub-frame.
 Hence there are 3 levels sub-frames:
 Complete sub-frame
 Simplified sub-frame
 Simplified sub-frame at point
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Method of Frame Analysis

1) Complete sub-frame

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


The frame consists of
all beams at each level
with columns top and
bottom of beams.

Moments at columns
and beams are
tabulated by analyzing
the complete sub-
frame.

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Method of Frame Analysis

2) Simplified sub-frame
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The frame consists of a


selected beam with
columns and neighbouring
beams at both sides of
selected beam.
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Method of Frame Analysis

3) Simplified sub-frame at point

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The frame consists of a
selected point or node with
columns at top and
bottom, and neighbouring
beams coming into the
point.

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Analysis of Braced Frame

 A building is saying as braced


frame when the horizontal loadings
are resisting by the shear walls or
Reinforced Concrete Design 2

bracing.
 The analysis of braced frame is
only considered for the vertical
loads which are dead and imposed
load.
 For the combination of dead load
and imposed load, the following
loading patterns are considered:
 All spans loaded with maximum
dead plus imposed loads
 Alternate spans loaded with
maximum dead load and imposed
load and all other spans loaded
with minimum dead load
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Analysis of Braced Frame

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

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1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.0Gk 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.0Gk

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk


1.0Gk 1.0Gk

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Example 1.1

A four storey braced building is given in Figure P1.1. Perform the


analysis for ABCD. Given the following data:
All columns = 350 mm x 300 mm Gk = 25 kN/m
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All beams = 300 mm x 600 mm Qk = 10 kN/m


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Example 1.1

Solution
 Beam Stiffness

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


 Column Stiffness

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Example 1.1

Completed Sub-Frame Analysis


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Max load = 1.4(25) + 1.6(10) = 51 kN/m


Min Load = 1.0(25) = 25 kN/m
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Example 1.1

 Load Case 1

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All spans loaded with maximum dead plus imposed loads

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Reinforced Concrete Design 2
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Example 1.1

 Load Case 2
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Example 1.1

 Load Case 3
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Simplified sub-frame
Example 1.1

 Load Case 1
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Example 1.1

Example 1.1

 Load Case 2
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Example 1.1

Example 1.1

 Load Case 3
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Simplified Sub-Frame at Point


Example 1.1

Example 1.1

 Point A & D
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Example 1.1

 Point B & C

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Example 1.2

 Figure P1.2 shows the four spans sub frame. Given:


UDL (all spans): Concentrated load (span BC):
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Gk = 20 kN/m Gk = 30 kN
Qk = 15 kN/m Qk = 15 kN
Sketch the loadings arrangement.
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Example 1.2

 Solution
UDL

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


Max = 1.4(20) + 1.6(15) = 52 kN/m Min = 1.0(20) = 20 kN/m
Concentrated Load
Max = 1.4(30) + 1.6(15) = 66 kN Min = 1.0(30) = 30 kN

Load Case 1

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Example 1.2

Load Case 2
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Load Case 3
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Analysis of Unbraced Frame

 For unbraced frame, the greatest of the following moments and


shearing forces are to be taken for design purposes:
 Three cases loading arrangements as braced sub-frame (max =

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


1.4Gk + 1.6Qk, min = 1.0Gk)

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Analysis of Unbraced Frame

 (i) Vertical loads (1.2Gk + 1.2Qk) for sub-frame +


(ii) Wind load (1.2Wk) for complete frame
Reinforced Concrete Design 2
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Analysis of Unbraced Frame

Analysis of Horizontal Load Using Portal Method

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


 The following assumptions have to be made:
 Loads applied at beam-column junction.
 Total horizontal shear at any level is carried by columns at the
points of contraflexure immediately below the level.
 The points of contraflexure occur at the mid-heights of columns
and at midspans of beams.
 Each bay acts as a separate portal and the horizontal load is
divided between bays in proportion to span.

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Example 1.3

 Draw the bending moment diagram of the 5 storey building frame


subjected to 3 kN/m wind load as shown in Figure P1.3.
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Example 1.3

 Solution

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Example 1.3

Analysis of horizontal load


Roof floor = (1.2 x 3) x (3.5/2) = 6.30 kN
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rd th
3 and 4 Floor = (1.2 x 3) x [(3.5/2) +(3.5/2)] = 12.6 kN
2nd Floor = (1.2 x 3) x [(3.5/2) + (4/2)] = 13.5 kN
1st Floor = (1.2 x 3) x [(4/2) + (4/2)] = 14.4 kN
Ground Floor = (1.2 x 3) x (4/2) = 7.2 kN

Ratio of axial force in column


Axial Force of external column : Axial force of internal column
N1 : N2
8 : 2
4P : 1P
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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


 Axial Force in column:

 Shear force in beam

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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)

 Horizontal Force in Column:


MF1 = 0 MF2 = 0
H1 (1.75) 0.65(3) = 0 ( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) 0.65(8) 0.16(2) = 0
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1.95 H 2 = 3.15 1.11 = 2.04kN


H1 = = 1.11kN
1.75
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Example 1.3 (Roof Floor)

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)


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 Axial force in Column:

N1 = 4 P = 3.24kN = N 4
N 2 = P = 0.81kN = N 3
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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)

 Shear force in beam


Fy = 0
F1 + 0.65 3.24 = 0

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F1 = 3.24 0.65 = 2.59kN

Fy = 0
F2 + 0.65 + 0.16 3.24 0.81 = 0
F2 = 3.24 + 0.81 0.65 0.16 = 3.24kN

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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)

 Horizontal force in column


MF1 = 0
H1 (1.75) + 1.11(1.75) + 0.65(3) 3.24(3) = 0
Reinforced Concrete Design 2

H1 = 3.33kN

 MF2 = 0
( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) + (1.11 + 2.04)(1.75) (3.24 0.65)(8)
(0.81 0.16)(2) = 0
( H1 + H 2 ) = 9.43kN
H 2 = 9.43 3.33 = 6.10kN
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Example 1.3 (4th Floor)

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)


Reinforced Concrete Design 2

 Axial force in Column:


Ms = 0
P(6) P(10) 4P(16) + 6.3(8.75) + 12.6(5.25) + 12.6(1.75) = 0
P = 2.11 kN N1 = 4P = 8.44 kN = N4 N2 = 1P = 2.11 kN = N3
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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)

 Shear force in beam


 Fy = 0
F1 + 3.24 8.44 = 0

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


F1 = 8.44 3.24 = 5.20kN

 Fy = 0
F2 + 3.24 + 0.81 8.44 2.11 = 0
F2 = 8.44 + 2.11 3.24 0.81 = 6.5kN

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Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)

 Horizontal force in column


MF1 = 0
H1 (1.75) + 3.33(1.75) + 3.24(3) 8.44(3) = 0
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H1 = 5.58kN

 MF2 = 0
( H1 + H 2 )(1.75) + (3.33 + 6.10)(1.75) (8.44 3.24)(8)
(2.11 0.81)(2) = 0
( H1 + H 2 ) = 15.83kN
H 2 = 15.83 5.58 = 10.25kN
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Example 1.3 (2nd Floor)


Example 1.3 (3rd Floor)
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Example 1.3 (1st Floor)
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Simplified Approach

 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk
 1.4(25) + 1.6(10) = 51 kN/m

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Simplified Approach

 1.2Gk + 1.2Qk
 1.2(25) + 1.2(10) = 42 kN/m
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Result of Portal Analysis at 3rd Floor

Reinforced Concrete Design 2


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Vertical Load + Horizontal Load

1.2Gk + 1.2Qk
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27.03 13.67 13.67 27.03


31.53
16.07 16.07 31.53

1.2Wk
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