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28/9/2017 Mari, Syria - Wikipedia

Mari, Siria
Coordenadas: 34 32'58 "N 40 53'24" E

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Mari (moderno Tell Hariri ), era una ciudad semtica antigua en


Siria . Sus restos constituyen un tell situado 11 kilmetros al Mari
noroeste de Abu Kamal en la orilla occidental del ro Eufrates , ( en rabe)
unos 120 kilmetros al sureste de Deir ez-Zor . Floreci como un
centro de comercio y estado hegemnico entre 2900 AC y 1759
AC. [nota 1] Como una ciudad construida a propsito, la existencia
de Mari estaba relacionada con su posicin en el centro de las
rutas comerciales ufrates; esta posicin lo convirti en un
intermediario entre Sumer en el sur y Levante en el oeste.

Mari fue abandonada por primera vez a mediados del siglo 26 aC,
pero fue reconstruida y se convirti en la capital de un estado
hegemnico este-semita antes de 2500 aC. Este segundo Mari
particip en una larga guerra con su rival Ebla , y es conocido por
su fuerte afinidad con la cultura sumeria. Fue destruido en el 23ro
siglo AC por los Akkadians que permitieron que la ciudad fuera Ziggurat en Mari
reconstruida y nombraron a un gobernador militar llevar el ttulo
de Shakkanakku("gobernador militar"). Los gobernadores ms
tarde se independizaron con la rpida desintegracin del imperio
akkadiano y reconstruyeron la ciudad como un centro regional en
el valle medio del Eufrates. El Shakkanakkus gobern Mari hasta
la segunda mitad del siglo 19 aC cuando la dinasta se derrumb
por razones desconocidas. Poco tiempo despus del colapso de
Shakkanakku, Mari se convirti en la capital de la dinasta
Amorita Lim. El Amorite Mari fue de corta vida como fue
anexado por Babilonia en c. 1761 AC, pero la ciudad sobrevivi
como un pequeo asentamiento bajo el gobierno de los babilonios
y los asirios antes de ser abandonado y olvidado durante el
perodo helenstico .
Se muestra dentro de Siria
The Mariotes worshiped both Semitic and Sumerian deities and Nombre Dile a Hariri
established their city as a center of old trade. However, although alternativo
the pre-Amorite periods were characterized by heavy Sumerian
cultural influence, Mari was not a city of Sumerian immigrants Ubicacin Abu Kamal , Gobernacin de Deir
but rather a Semitic speaking nation that used a dialect similar to ez-Zor , Siria
Eblaite. The Amorites were West-Semites who began to settle the Regin Mesopotamia
area before the 21st century BC; by the Lim dynasty's era (c.
Coordenadas 34 32'58 "N 40 53'24" E
1830 BC), they became the dominant population in the Fertile
Crescent. Tipo Asentamiento
Zona 60 hectreas (150 acres)
Mari's discovery in 1933 provided an important insight into the
geopolitical map of ancient Mesopotamia and Syria, due to the Historia
discovery of more than 25,000 tablets that contained important Fundado do. 2900 aC
information about the administration of state during the second
Abandonado Siglo III aC
millennium BC and the nature of diplomatic relations between the
political entities in the region. They also revealed the wide Perodos Edad de Bronce
trading networks of the 18th century BC, which connected areas Culturas Oriente-Semita (civilizacin Kish)
as far as Afghanistan in Southern Asia and Crete in the , Amorita
Mediterranean region.
Notas del sitio
Arquelogos Andr Parrot
Contents Condicin Arruinado
Propiedad Pblico
1 Name
2 History Acceso S
2.1 The first kingdom pblico
2.2 The second kingdom
2.2.1 Mari-Ebla war
2.3 The third kingdom
2.3.1 The Shakkanakku dynasty
2.3.2 The Lim dynasty
2.3.2.1 The Assyrian era and the Lim
restoration
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2.4 Later periods


3 People, language and government
3.1 Kings of Mari
4 Culture and religion
5 Economy
6 Excavations and archive
6.1 Mari tablets
7 Current situation
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
10.1 Citations
10.2 Sources
11 External links

Name
The name of the city can be traced to Mer, an ancient storm deity of northern Mesopotamia and Syria who was
considered the patron deity of the city,[1] Georges Dossin noted that the name of the city was spelled identically
like the name of the storm god and concluded that Mari was named after him.[2]

History
The first kingdom

Mari is not considered a small settlement that later grew,[3] but


rather a new city that was purposely founded during the
Mesopotamian Early Dynastic period I c. 2900 BC, to control the
waterways of the Euphrates trade routes that connect the Levant
with the Sumerian south.[3][4] The city was built about 1 to 2
kilometers away from the Euphrates river to protect it from
floods,[3] and was connected to the river by an artificial canal that
was between 7 and 10 kilometers long depending on which old
meander it used to be attached with, which is hard to identify
today.[5]

The city is difficult to excavate, as it is buried deep under the later


layers of habitation.[4] A defensive system against floods, Mari's landmarks
composed of a circular embankment was unearthed,[4] in addition
to a circular 6.7 m thick internal rampart to protect the city from
enemies.[4] An area of 300 meters long filled with gardens and craftsmen quarters,[5] separated the outer
embankment from the inner rampart which had a height of 8 to 10 meters, and was strengthened by defensive
towers.[5] Other findings include one of the city gates, a street beginning at the center and ending at the gate, in
addition to residential houses.[4] Mari had a central mound,[6] however no temple or palaces have been
unearthed,[4] although a large building that seems to have been an administrative one was unearthed which had
stone foundations and dimensions of (32 meters X 25 meters), with rooms up to 12 meters long and 6 meters
wide.[7] The city was abandoned at the end of the Early Dynastic period II c. 2550 BC for unknown reasons.[4]

The second kingdom

Around the beginning of the Early Dynastic period III (earlier than 2500
BC),[8] Mari was rebuilt and populated again.[4][9] The new city kept Second Mariote Kingdom
many of the first city exterior features, including the internal rampart and Mari
gate.[4][10] Also kept was the outer circular embankment measuring
1.9 km in diameter, which was topped by a wall that is two meters c. 2500 BCc.
thick,[10] which is suitable for the protection of archers.[4] 2290 BC

However, the internal structure was completely changed,[11] the city was
carefully planned; first to be built were the streets that descended from
the elevated center into the gates, ensuring the drainage of rain water.[4]

At the heart of the city, a royal palace was built which also served as a
temple.[4] Four successive architectural levels from the second kingdom's
palace have been unearthed (the oldest is designated P3, while the latest
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is P0), and the last two levels are dated to


the Akkadian period.[12] The first two levels
were excavated;[12] the findings include a
temple named Enceinte Sacre,[note 2] which
was the largest in the city but it is unknown
for whom it was dedicated.[12][13] Also
unearthed were a pillared throne room and a
hall that have three double wood pillars
leading to the temple.[12] The second kingdom during the reign of
Iblul-Il
Six more temples were discovered in the
city, including the temple called the Massif Capital Mari
Rouge (to whom it was dedicated is
Statue of Ebih-Il. (25th Languages Mariote dialect
unknown), and temples dedicated for Ninni-
century BC)
Zaza, Ishtarat,[14] Ishtar, Ninhursag and Religion Mesopotamian
Shamash.[13] All the temples were located in Government Monarchy
the center of the city except for the Ishtar temple and the area between the
Enceinte Sacre and the Massif Rouge is considered the administrative Historical era Bronze Age
center of the high priest.[13] Established c. 2500 BC
Disestablished c. 2290 BC
The second kingdom appears to be a powerful and prosperous political
center,[8] kings held the title of Lugal,[15] and many are attested in the Succeeded by
city, but the most important source is the letter of king Enna-Dagan c.
Akkadian Empire
2350 BC,[note 3][17] which was sent to Irkab-Damu of Ebla,[note 4] and in
it, the Mariote king mentions his predecessors and their military
achievements.[19] However, the reading of this letter is still problematic Today part of Syria
and many interpretations have been presented by scholars.[20][21][22] Iraq

Mari-Ebla war

The earliest attested king in the letter of Enna-Dagan is Ansud,


who is mentioned as attacking Ebla, the traditional rival of Mari
with whom it had a long war,[23] and conquering many of Ebla's
cities, including the land of Belan.[note 5][22] The next king
mentioned in the letter is Saumu, who conquered the lands of
Ra'ak and Nirum,[note 6][22] but king Kun-Damu of Ebla defeated
Mari in the middle of the 25th century BC.[26] The war continued
Cylinder seal from the second kingdom's era. (25th
with Ihtup-Iar of Mari conquest of Emar,[22] at a time of Eblaite
century BC)
weakness in the mid-24th century BC. King Igrish-Halam of Ebla
had to pay tribute to Iblul-Il of Mari,[26][27] who is mentioned in
the letter conquering many of Ebla's cities and campaigning in the
Burman region.[22]

Enna-Dagan also received tribute,[27] and his reign fell entirely within the reign of Irkab-Damu of Ebla,[28] who
managed to defeat Mari and end the tribute.[18] Mari defeated Ebla's ally Nagar in year seven of the Eblaite vizier
Ibrium's term, causing the blockage of trade routes between Ebla and southern Mesopotamia via upper
Mesopotamia.[29] The war reached a climax when the Eblaite vizier Ibbi-Sipish made an alliance with Nagar and
Kish to defeat Mari in a battle near Terqa.[30] Ebla itself suffered its first destruction a few years after Terqa in c.
2300 BC,[31] during the reign of the Mariote king Hidar.[32]

According to Alfonso Archi, Hidar was succeeded by Isqi-Mari whose royal seal was discovered and it depicts
battle scenes, causing Archi to suggest that he was responsible for the destruction of Ebla while still a
general.[32][33] Just a decade after Ebla's destruction (c. 2300 BC middle chronology), Mari itself was destroyed
and burned by Sargon of Akkad,[30] Michael Astour give the date as c. 2265 BC (short chronology).[34]

The third kingdom

Mari was deserted for two generations before being restored by the
Akkadian king Manishtushu.[35] A governor was appointed to Third Mariote Kingdom
govern the city who held the title Shakkanakku (military Mari
governor).[36] Akkad kept direct control over the city, which is
evident by Naram-Sin of Akkad's appointment of two of his c. 2266 BCc. 1761
daughters to priestly offices in the city.[36] BC

The Shakkanakku dynasty


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The first member of the


Shakkanakku dynasty on
the lists is Ididish who was
appointed in c. 2266
BC,[note 7][38] according to
the lists, Ididish ruled for
60 years,[39] and was
succeeded by his son
making the position
hereditary.[40]
The third kingdom during the reign of Zimri-Lim
The third Mari followed c. 1764 BC
the second city in terms of
The lion of Mari. (22nd century BC) general structure,[41] phase Capital Mari
P0 of the old royal palace Languages Akkadian, Amorite
was replaced by a new
palace for the Shakkanakku. [42] Another smaller palace was built Religion Levantine Religion
[6]
in the eastern part of the city, and contained royal burials that Government Monarchy
date to the former periods.[43] The ramparts were rebuilt and
strengthened while the embankment was turned into a defensive Historical era Bronze Age
wall that reached 10 meters in width.[42] The former sacred Established c. 2266 BC
Disestablished c. 1761 BC
inclosure was maintained,[42] so was the temple of Ninhursag.
However, the temples of Ninni-Zaza and Ishtarat disappeared,[42] Preceded by Succeeded by
while a new temple called the "temple of lions" (dedicated to
Dagan),[44] was built by the Shakkanakku Ishtup-Ilum and Akkadian First
Empire Babylonian
attached to it, was a rectangular terrace (ziggurat) that measured 40
Dynasty
x 20 meters for sacrifices.[42][6][45]
Today part of Syria
Akkad disintegrated during Shar-Kali-Sharri's reign,[46] and Mari
Iraq
gained its independence, but the use of the Shakkanakku title
continued during the following Third Dynasty of Ur period.[47] A
princess of Mari married the son of king Ur-Nammu of Ur,[48][49] and Mari was nominally under Ur hegemony.[50]
However, the vassalage did not impede the independence of Mari,[51][52] and some Shakkanakkus used the royal
title Lugal in their votive inscriptions, while using the title of Shakkanakku in their correspondence with the Ur's
court.[53] The dynasty ended for unknown reasons not long before the establishment of the next dynasty, which
took place in the second half of the 19th century BC.[54][55][56]

The Lim dynasty

The second millennium BC in the Fertile Crescent was characterized by the expansion of the Amorites, which
culminated with them dominating and ruling most of the region,[57] including Mari which in c. 1830 BC, became
the seat of the Amorite Lim dynasty under king Yaggid-Lim.[56][58] However, the epigraphical and archaeological
evidences showed a high degree of continuity between the Shakkanakku and the Amorite eras.[note 8][48]

Yaggid-Lim was the ruler of Suprum before establishing himself in Mari,[note 9][note 10][61] he entered an alliance
with Ila-kabkabu of Ekallatum, but the relations between the two monarchs changed to an open war.[60][62] The
conflict ended with Ila-kabkabu capturing Yaggid-Lim's heir Yahdun-Lim and according to a tablet found in Mari,
Yaggid-Lim who survived Ila-kabkabu was killed by his servants.[note 11][60] However, in c. 1820 BC Yahdun-Lim
was firmly in control as king of Mari.[note 12][62]

Yahdun-Lim started his reign by subduing seven of his rebelling tribal leaders, and rebuilding the walls of Mari and
Terqa in addition to building a new fort which he named Dur-Yahdun-Lim.[64] He then expanded west and claimed
to have reached the Mediterranean,[65][66] however he later had to face a rebellion by the Banu-Yamina nomads
who were centered at Tuttul, and the rebels were supported by Yamhad's king Sumu-Epuh, whose interests were
threatened by the recently established alliance between Yahdun-Lim and Eshnunna.[51][65] Yahdun-Lim defeated
the Yamina but an open war with Yamhad was avoided,[67] as the Mariote king became occupied by his rivalry
with Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria, the son of the late Ila-kabkabu.[68] The war ended in a defeat for Mari,[68][69] and
Yahdun-Lim was assassinated in c. 1798 BC by his possible son Sumu-Yamam,[70][71] who himself got
assassinated two years after ascending the throne while Shamshi-Adad advanced and annexed Mari.[72]

The Assyrian era and the Lim restoration

Shamshi-Adad appointed his son Yasmah-Adad on the throne of Mari, the new king married Yahdun-Lim's
daughter,[73][74] while the rest of the Lim family took refuge in Yamhad,[75] and the annexation was officially
justified by what Shamshi-Adad considered sinful acts on the side of the Lim family.[76] To strengthen his position
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against his new enemy Yamhad, Shamshi-Adad married Yasmah-Adad to


Betlum, the daughter of Ishi-Addu of Qatna.[74] However, Yasmah-Adad
neglected his bride causing a crisis with Qatna, and he proved to be an
unable leader causing the rage of his father who died in c. 1776
BC,[74][77][78] while the armies of Yarim-Lim I of Yamhad were advancing
in support of Zimri-Lim, the heir of the Lim dynasty.[note 13][78]

As Zimri-Lim advanced, a leader of


the Banu-Simaal (Zimri-Lim's
tribe) overthrew Yasmah-Adad,[80]
opening the road for Zimri-Lim
who arrived a few months after
Yasmah-Adad's escape,[81] and
married princess Shibtu the
daughter of Yarim-Lim I a short
time after his enthronement in c. Investiture of Zimri-Lim. (18th century
1776 BC.[78] Zimri-Lim's ascension BC)
to the throne with the help of
Yarim-Lim I affected Mari's status,
Zimri-Lim referred to Yarim-Lim as his father, and the Yamhadite king was
able to order Mari as the mediator between Yamhad's main deity Hadad and
Zimri-Lim, who declared himself a servant of Hadad.[82]

Zimri-Lim started his reign with a campaign against the Banu-Yamina, he


also established alliances with Eshnunna and Hammurabi of Babylon,[75]
and sent his armies to aid the Babylonians.[83] The new king directed his
expansion policy toward the north in the Upper Khabur region, which was
Goddess of the vase. (18th century BC) named Idamaraz,[84] where he subjugated the local petty kingdoms in the
region such as Urkesh,[85] and Talhayum, forcing them into vassalage.[86]
The expansion was met by the resistance of Qarni-Lim, the king of
Andarig, [87] whom Zimri-Lim defeated, securing the Mariote control over the region in c. 1771 BC,[88] and the
kingdom prospered as a trading center and entered a period of relative peace.[78] Zimri-Lim's greatest heritage was
the renovation of the Royal Palace, which was expanded greatly to contain 275 rooms,[6][89] exquisite artifacts
such as The Goddess of the Vase statue,[90] and a royal archive that contained thousands of tablets.[91]

The relations with Babylon worsened with a dispute over the city of Ht that consumed much time in
negotiations,[92] during which a war against Elam involved both kingdoms in c. 1765 BC.[93] Finally, the kingdom
was invaded by Hammurabi who defeated Zimri-Lim in battle in c. 1761 BC and ended the Lim dynasty,[94] while
Terqa became the capital of a rump state named the Kingdom of Hana.[95]

Later periods

Mari survived the destruction and rebelled against Babylon in c. 1759 BC,
causing Hammurabi to destroy the whole city.[96] However, Mari was
allowed to survive as a small village under Babylonian administration, an
act that Hammurabi considered merciful.[96] Later, Mari became part of
Assyria and was listed among the territories conquered by the Assyrian
king Tukulti-Ninurta I (reigned 12431207 BC).[97] Afterward, Mari
constantly changed hands between Assyria and Babylon.[97]

In the middle of the eleventh century BC, Mari became part of Hana whose
king Tukulti-Mer took the title king of Mari and rebelled against Assyria,
causing the Assyrian king Ashur-bel-kala to attack the city.[97] Mari came
Shamash-Risha-Usur (c. 760 BC)
firmly under the authority of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and was assigned
in the first half of the 8th century BC to a certain Nergal-Erish to govern
under the authority of king Adad-Nirari III (reigned 810783 BC).[97] In c.
760 BC, Shamash-Risha-Usur,[98] an autonomous governor ruling parts of the upper middle Euphrates under the
nominal authority of Ashur-dan III, styled himself the governor of the lands of Suhu and Mari, so did his son
Ninurta-Kudurri-Usur.[97] However, by that time, Mari was known to be located in the so-called Land of
Laqe,[note 14] making it unlikely that the Usur family actually controlled it, and suggesting that the title was
employed out of historical reasons.[97] The city continued as a small settlement until the Hellenistic period before
disappearing from records.[97]

People, language and government


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The founders of the first city may have been Sumerians or more probably East Semitic
speaking people from Terqa in the north.[3] I. J. Gelb relates Mari's foundation with the
Kish civilization,[100] which was a cultural entity of East Semitic speaking populations,
that stretched from the center of Mesopotamia to Ebla in the western Levant.[101]

At its height, the second city was the home of about 40,000 people.[102] This population
was East-Semitic speaking one, and used a dialect much similar to the language of Ebla
(the Eblaite language),[9][103] while the Shakkanakku period had an East-Semitic
Akkadian speaking population.[104] West Semitic names started to be attested in Mari
since the second kingdom era,[105] and by the middle Bronze-Age, the west Semitic
Amorite tribes became the majority of the pastoral groups in the middle Euphrates and
Khabur valleys.[106] Amorite names started to be observed in the city toward the end of
A Mariote from the
the Shakkanakku period, even among the ruling dynasty members.[107]
second kingdom. (25th
century BC)
During the Lim era, the population became predominantly Amorite but also included
Akkadian named people,[note 15] and although the Amorite language became the
dominant tongue, Akkadian remained the language of writing.[108][109][110] The
pastoral Amorites in Mari were called the Haneans, a term that indicate nomads in general,[111] those Haneans
were split into the Banu-Yamina (sons of the right) and Banu-Simaal (sons of the left), with the ruling house
belonging to the Banu-Simaal branch.[111] The kingdom was also a home to tribes of Suteans who lived in the
district of Terqa.[112]

Mari was an absolute monarchy, with the king controlling every aspect of the administration, helped by the scribes
who played the role of administrators.[113][114] During the Lim era, Mari was divided into four provinces in
addition to the capital, the provincial seats were located at Terqa, Saggaratum, Qattunan and Tuttul. Each province
had its own bureaucracy,[114] the government supplied the villagers with ploughs and agricultural equipments, in
return for a share in the harvest.[115]

Kings of Mari

The Sumerian King List (SKL) records a dynasty of six kings from Mari enjoying hegemony between the dynasty
of Adab and the dynasty of Kish.[116] The names of the Mariote kings were damaged on the early copies of the
list,[23] and those kings were correlated with historical kings that belonged to the second city.[9] However, an
undamaged copy of the list that date to the old Babylonian period was discovered in Shubat-Enlil,[23] and the
names bears no resemblance to any of the historically attested monarchs of the second city,[23] indicating that the
compilers of the list had an older and probably a legendary dynasty in mind, that predate the second city.[23]

The chronological order of the kings from the second kingdom era is highly uncertain; nevertheless, it is assumed
that the letter of Enna-Dagan lists them in a chronological order.[117] Many of the kings were attested through their
own votive objects discovered in the city,[118][119] and the dates are highly speculative.[119]

For the Shakkanakkus, the lists are incomplete and after Hanun-Dagan who ruled at the end of the Ur era c. 2008
BC (c. 1920 BC Short chronology), they become full of lacunae.[120] Roughly 13 more Shakkanakkus succeeded
Hanun-Dagan but only few are known, with the last known one reigning not too long before the reign of Yaggid-
Lim who founded the Lim dynasty in c. 1830 BC.[55][121]

Ruler Length of reign Notes

Kings from the SKL

Anbu 30 years This name is also read as Ilshu.[122]


Anba 17 years His epithet was given as "the son of Anbu" on the list.[123]
Bazi 30 years His epithet was given as "the leatherworker" on the list.[123]
Zizi 20 years His epithet was given as "the fuller" on the list.[123]
Limer 30 years His epithet was given as "the 'gudug' priest" on the list.[note 16][123]
Sharrum-iter 9 years

"Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.[123]"

The second kingdom

Ikun-Shamash Reigned before the reign of Ur-Nanshe of Lagash.[116]


Ikun-Shamagan c. 2453 BC His name was inscribed on a votive statue offered by his official "Shibum".[125]
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Ansud c. 24232416 His name is inscribed on a jar (as Hanusum) sent to Mari by Mesannepada of Ur.[9][23] The
BC name was read by Pettinato as Anubu.[20][126]
c. 24162400
Saumu He was attested in Enna-Dagan's letter as conquering many lands.[22]
BC
Ihtup-Iar c. 2400 BC He was attested in Enna-Dagan's letter as conquering Emar and other Eblaite vassals.[22]
Ikun-Mari This name is inscribed on a jar in Mari.[127]
Iblul-Il c. 2380 BC He forced Ebla to pay tribute.[22]
Nizi His reign lasted three years.[128]
Enna-Dagan c. 2340 BC He wrote a letter to Irkab-Damu of Ebla to assert Mari's authority.[19]
Ikun-Ishar c. 2320 BC He is attested in the Eblaite archives.[129]
Hidar c. 2300 BC He is attested in the archives of Ebla, which was destroyed during his reign.[130]
Isqi-Mari His name was previously read as Lamgi-Mari.[131] Hypothetically the last king.[29]

The Shakkanakkus

c. 22662206
Ididish
BC
c. 22062200
Shu-Dagan He was the son of Ididish.[40]
BC
c. 21992154
Ishme-Dagan He ruled for 45 years.[39][132]
BC
c. 21532148
Nr-Mr He was the son of Ishme-Dagan.[39]
BC
c. 21472136
Ishtup-Ilum He was the brother of Nr-Mr.[39]
BC
Iddin-El statue. (c. 2090 BC)
c. 21352127
Ishgum-Addu He reigned for eight years.[39]
BC
c. 21262091 He was the son of Ishme-Dagan.[39][133] Was designated with the royal title Lugal in a
Apl-kn
BC votive inscription set by his daughter.[134]
c. 20902085
Iddin-El His name is also read as Iddi-Ilum; his name was inscribed on his votive statue.[135]
BC
c. 20842072
Ili-Ishar His name is inscribed on a brick.[136]
BC
c. 20712051
Turam-Dagan He was the son of Apl-kn and the brother of Ili-Ishar.[137]
BC
c. 20502025
Puzur-Ishtar He was the son of Turam-Dagan.[39] Used the royal title.[138]
BC
c. 20242017
Hitlal-Erra He was the son of Puzur-Ishtar.[139] Used the royal title.[138]
BC
c. 20162008
Hanun-Dagan He was the son of Puzur-Ishtar.[140] Used the royal title.[138]
BC
Isi-Dagan c. 2000 BC This name is inscribed on a seal.[141]
Ennin-Dagan He was the son of Isi-Dagan.[142]
Itur-(...) Puzur Ishtar,
This name is damaged, a gap separate him from Ennin-Dagan. [55] Shakkanakku of Mari. (c.
2050 BC)
Amer-Nunu This name is inscribed on a seal.[143][144]
Tir-Dagan He was the son of Itur-(...).[145]
Dagan-(...) This name is damaged and is the last attested Shakkanakku.[146]

The Lim dynasty

c. 18301820
Yaggid-Lim He may have ruled in Suprum rather than in Mari.[60][63]
BC
c. 18201798
Yahdun-Lim
BC
c. 17981796
Sumu-Yamam
BC
Yahdun-Lim inscription. (c. 1810 BC)
Assyrian period

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Yasmah-Adad c. 17961776 He was the son of Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria.[74]


BC
He was an Assyrian official who usurped the throne for a few months between Yasmah-
Ishar-Lim c. 1776 BC
Adad's escape and Zimri-Lim's arrival.[81]

Lim restoration

c. 17761761
Zimri-Lim
BC

Culture and religion A tablet of Zimri-Lim. (c. 1770 BC)

The first and second kingdoms were heavily


influenced by the Sumerian south.[147] The society was led by an urban oligarchy,[148]
and the citizens were well known for elaborate hair styles and dress.[149][150] The
calendar was based on a solar year divided into twelve months, and was the same
calendar used in Ebla "the old Eblaite calendar".[151][152] Scribes wrote in Sumerian
language and the art was indistinguishable from Sumerian art, so was the architectural
style.[153]

Mesopotamian influence continued to affect Mari's culture during the Amorite


period,[154] which is evident in the Babylonian scribal style used in the city.[155]
A Mariote woman. (25th However, it was less influential than the former periods and a distinct Syrian style
century BC) prevailed, which is noticeable in the seals of kings, which reflect a clear Syrian
origin.[154] The society was a tribal one,[156] it consisted mostly of farmers and
nomads (Haneans),[157] and in contrast to Mesopotamia, the temple had a minor role
in everyday life as the power was mostly invested in the palace.[158] Women enjoyed a relative equality to
men,[159] queen Shibtu ruled in her husband's name while he was away, and had an extensive administrative role
and authority over her husband's highest officials.[160]

The Pantheon included both Sumerian and Semitic deities,[161] and throughout most of its history, Dagan was
Mari's head of the Pantheon,[162] while Mer was the patron deity.[1] Other deities included the Semitic deities;
Ishtar the goddess of fertility,[161] Athtar,[163] and Shamash, the Sun god who was regarded among the city most
important deities,[164] and believed to be all-knowing and all-seeing.[165] Sumerian deities included
Ninhursag,[161] Dumuzi,[166] Enki, Anu, and Enlil.[167] Prophecy had an important role for the society, temples
included prophets,[168] who gave council to the king and participated in the religious festivals.[169]

Economy
The first Mari provided the oldest wheels workshop to be discovered in Syria,[170] and was a center of bronze
metallurgy.[3] The city also contained districts devoted to smelting, dyeing and pottery manufacturing,[12] charcoal
was brought by river boats from the upper Khabur and Euphrates area.[3]

The second kingdom's economy was based on both agriculture and trade.[109] The economy was centralized and
directed through a communal organization,[109] where grains were stored in communal granaries, and distributed
amongst the population according to social statues.[109] The organization also controlled the animal herds in the
kingdom.[109] Some people were directly connected to the palace instead of the communal organization, those
included the metal and textile producers and the military officials.[109] Ebla was an important trading partner and
rival,[171] Mari's position made it an important trading center as it controlled the road linking between the Levant
and Mesopotamia.[172]

The Amorite Mari maintained the older aspects of the economy, which was still largely based on irrigated
agriculture along the Euphrates valley.[109] The city kept its trading role and was a center for merchants from
Babylonia and other kingdoms,[173] it received goods from the south and east through riverboats and distributed
them north, north west and west.[174] The main merchandises handled by Mari were metals and tin imported from
the Iranian Plateau and then exported west as far as Crete. Other goods included copper from Cyprus, silver from
Anatolia, woods from Lebanon, gold from Egypt, olive oil, wine, and textiles in addition to precious stones from
modern Afghanistan.[174]

Excavations and archive

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Mari was discovered in 1933, on the eastern flank of Syria, near the
Iraqi border.[175] A Bedouin tribe was digging through a mound called
Tell Hariri for a gravestone that would be used for a recently deceased
tribesman, when they came across a headless statue.[175] After the news
reached the French authorities currently in control of Syria, the report
was investigated, and digging on the site was started on December 14,
1933 by archaeologists from the Louvre in Paris.[175] The location of
the fragment was excavated, revealing the temple of Ishtar, which led to
the commencing of the full scale excavations.[176] Mari was classified
by the archaeologists as the "most westerly outpost of Sumerian Parts of the walls
culture".[177]

Since the beginning of excavations, over 25,000 clay tablets in Akkadian language written in cuneiform were
discovered.[178] Finds from the excavation are on display in the Louvre,[179] the National Museum of Aleppo,[180]
the National Museum of Damascus,[165] and the Deir ez-Zor Museum. In the latter, the southern faade of the
Court of the Palms room from Zimri-Lim's palace has been reconstructed, including the wall paintings.[181]

Mari has been excavated in annual campaigns in 19331939, 19511956, and since 1960.[182] Andr Parrot
conducted the first 21 seasons up to 1974,[183] and was followed by Jean-Claude Margueron (19792004),[184] and
Pascal Butterlin (starting in 2005).[182] A journal devoted to the site since 1982, is Mari: Annales de recherches
interdisciplinaires.[185][186] Archaeologists have tried to determine how many layers the site descends, according
to French archaeologist Andr Parrot, "each time a vertical probe was commenced in order to trace the site's
history down to virgin soil, such important discoveries were made that horizontal digging had to be resumed."[187]

Mari tablets

The tablets were written in Akkadian,[188] and they give information about the kingdom, its customs, and the
names of people who lived during that time.[58] More than 3000 are letters, the remainder includes administrative,
economic, and judicial texts.[189] Almost all the tablets found were dated to the last 50 years of Mari's
independence (c. 1800 1750 BC),[189] and most have now been published.[190] The language of the texts is
official Akkadian but proper names and hints in syntax show that the common language of Mari's inhabitants was
Northwest Semitic.[191]

Current situation
As a result of the Syrian Civil War, excavations stopped,[192] and the site came under the control of armed gangs,
and witnessed a large scale looting. An official report revealed that the robbers are focusing on the royal palace, the
public baths, the temple of Ishtar and the temple of Dagan.[193]

See also
Tourism in Syria
Cities of the Ancient Near East
Short chronology timeline
Statue of Iddi-Ilum
Ornina

Notes
1. All of the dates in the article are estimated through the Middle chronology unless otherwise stated.
2. French name that means the sacred inclosure.[12]
3. In old readings, it was thought that Enna-Dagan was a general of Ebla. However, the deciphering of Ebla's
tablets showed him in Mari and receiving gifts from Ebla during the reigns of his Mariote predecessors.[16]
4. Irkab-Damu is not named in the letter but it is almost certain that he was the receiver of it.[18]
5. Located 26 km west of Raqqa.[24]
6. Located in the Euphrates middle valley close to Sweyhat.[25]
7. According to Jean-Marie Durand, this Shakkanakku was appointed by Manishtushu, other opinions consider
Naram-Sin as the appointer of Ididish.[37]
8. This ruled out the former theory that there was an abandonment of Mari during the transition period.[48]
9. Suprum is 12 kilometers upstream from Mari, perhaps the modern Tel Abu Hasan.[59]
10. It is not certain that Yaggid-Lim controlled Mari, however he is traditionally considered the first king of the
dynasty.[60]
11. The credibility of the tablet is doubted as it was written by Yasmah-Adad who was Ila-kabkabu grandson.[60]

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12. The transition of the Lim family from Suprum to Mari could have been the work of Yahdun-Lim after the
war with Ila-kabkabu.[63]
13. Although officially a son of Yahdun-Lim, in reality he was a grandchild or nephew.[79]
14. An ancient designation for the land that include the confluence of the Khabur and the Euphrates rivers.[99]
15. Jean-Marie Durand, although not speculating the fate of the East-Semitic population, believe that the
Akkadians during the Lim dynasty are not descended from the East-Semites of the Shakkanakku period.[104]
16. Gudug was a rank in the hierarchy of the Mesopotamian temple workers, a guduj priest was not specialized
to a certain deity cult, and served in many temples.[124]

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181. Bonatz, Khne & Mahmoud 1998, p. 93.
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187. McLerran 2011.
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189. Fleming 2004, p. 48 (https://books.google.com/books?id=C32xAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA48).
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190. Feliu 2003, p. 63 (https://books.google.com/books?id=IN9_IRYKKUMC&pg=PA63).


191. Gates 2003, p. 62 (https://books.google.com/books?id=--x-3W2R_QwC&pg=PA62).
192. Simons 2016.
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External links
Mari (http://www.dgam.gov.sy/index.php?d=245&id=701) Mari passage on the Syrian ministry of culture
website (in Arabic).
Syrie - Mari (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/364795/Mari) Mari page on Britannica.
Mari (Tell Hariri) (http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1294/) Suggestion to have Mari (Tell Hariri)
recognized as a UNESCO world heritage site, in 1999

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