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Touchstone 2nd Edition Language summary Level 3

Unit 2 Lesson A: Hopes and dreams


Vocabulary
Have you ever?
a few times (adv)
many / several times (adv)
(never / not) before (adv)
once (adv)
twice (adv)

Irregular past participles


been (be) (v)
done (do) (v)
gone (go) (v)
had (have) (v)
seen (see) (v)

Outdoor activities
go hang gliding (v)
go sailing (v)
go surfing (v)
go rock climbing (v)

Other words
afraid (of heights) (adj)
fun (adj)
(secret) dream (n)
hopes and dreams (n)
sailboat (n)
waterfall (n)

Cambridge University Press 2014 Unit 2, Lesson A, Page 1


Touchstone 2nd Edition Language summary Level 3

Grammar
Present perfect statements
Use the present perfect for events at an indefinite time before now:

I've traveled in Asia.


(= I've traveled in Asia in the past, but I don't say when.)

Affirmative statements

Use a form of have + past participle:

I've been to Europe.

He's surfed in Hawai'i.

Remember, the contracted form of have for he, she, and it is 's (= has).

When people talk about travel destinations, they generally use been as an alternative to gone
to mean "gone somewhere and come back":

I've been to Paris (= I went and came back.)

She's gone to Paris (= She's still in Paris.)

Negative statements

Use a form of have not + past participle:

I haven't been to Paris.

She hasn't tried surfing before.

Remember, the contracted form of have not for he, she, and it is hasn't (= has not).

Cambridge University Press 2014 Unit 2, Lesson A, Page 2


Touchstone 2nd Edition Language summary Level 3

Frequency expressions with the present perfect


The present perfect is often used with these frequency expressions:

always
I've always wanted to study acting.
(= This was my dream a long time ago, and it's still my dream today.)

once / twice / many times


We've gone sailing once / twice / many times.

never . . . before
She's never tried it before.
(= She didn't do this at any time in the past.)

Past participles

Regular past participles

Regular verbs have the same form for the simple past and past participle. They end in -ed:

travel traveled traveled

try tried tried

Remember, for verbs ending in a consonant and a -y, change the y to i before you add -ed.

Irregular past participles

Irregular verbs sometimes have different forms for the simple past and past participle:

be was / were been

do did done

go went gone

have had had

see saw seen

Cambridge University Press 2014 Unit 2, Lesson A, Page 3