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vised 1971) establishes a range of thin-walled sizes for stainless-steel pipe, fluids, and1-isespecially useful for handling corrosive

rosive or hazardous gases and I

identified by schedules 5s and 10s. These sizes are included in table P-1. dilute mineral acids. Plastics aye employed in three ways: as all-plastic pipe,
. 1.
as 'filled' plastic materials (glass-fiber-reinforced, carbon-filled, etc.) and as i :
lining or coating materials. Plastic pipe is made from polypropylene, poly- [

REFERENCES ethylene (PE), polybutylene (PB), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylonitrile-
butadiene-styrene (ABS), cellulose acetatebutyrate (CAB), polyolefins, and
'Metallic piping'. Masek J.A. 1968. Chemical Engineering, Jun 17. 215-29 polyesters. Pipe made from polyester and epoxy resins is frequently glass-
'Materials of construction: 19th Biennial CE Report'. Aldrich C.K. 1960.
Chemical Enqineering, Nov 14 fiber-reinforced ('FRP') and commercial products of this type have good
'Lined pipe systems'. ~ a r d ] . ~1968.
. Chemical Engineering, Jun 17. 238-42 resistance to wear and chemical attack.
'Non-metallic pipe: promise and problems'. Wright C.E. 1968. Chemical
Engineering, Jun 17. 230-7

Engineering companies have materials engineers to determine materials to

be used in piping systems. Most pipe is of carbon steel and (depending on
service) is manufactured to ASTM A-53.
Grade C SM LS
Grade B SMLS

Grade A E Ri2
BS 3601
HFS 27 & CDS 27
BS 3601
ERW 22
DIN 1629
51 4 5
DIN 1626
Btall 3 St 34-2 ERW
SIS 123305
SIS 1434-05
Blart 3 St 37-2 RW

STEEL PlPE Straight-seam-welded and spiral-welded pipe is made from

I I Grade 8 E RN
ERN 27
BS 3601
BW22 .
DIN 1626
Blau 3 SI 34-2 FBW I
ASTM A106 BS 3602 DIN 17175'
plate, and seamiess pipe is made by piercing solid billets. -G FiFS 23 SI 35-8 SIS 1234-05
Grade R- HFS 27 S1 4 5 4 SIS 1435-05
Carbon-steel pipe is strong, ductile, weldable, machineable, reasonably dur- Grade C HFS 75
, ASTM A134 BS 3601 DIN 1626
able and is nearly always cheaper than pipe made from other materials. If EFW Blait 2 EFW
DIN 1626
carbon-steel pipe can meet the requirements of pressure, temperature, ASTM A1 35
Grade A
BS 3601
E RM' 22 BI~II3 St 34-2 ERW SIS 123306
corrosion resistance and hygiene, i t is the natural choice. Grade B , ERW27 Blat~3 St 37-2 ERW SIS 143446
ASTM A1 39 ' BS 3601 DIN
2 SI 37
Grade A EFW 22
The most readily-available carbon-steel pipe is made to ASTM A-53 in Graae E 4 EFW27 Blat1 2 St 42

schedules 40, 80, STD, and XS sizes, in electric-resistance-welded (Grade A ASTM A155
Class 2
' BS 3602 DIN 1626, Bbn 3, with
certification C
and Grade 4-the latter grade has the higher tensile strength) and in seamless C 45
C 50
Sl 34-2
SI 37.2
(Grades A and B) constructions. Common finishes are 'black' ('plain' or C 55 E FVJ28 51 42.2
SI 42.2 '
'mill' finish) and galvanized.
Most sizes and weights are also available in seamless carbon steel to ASTM API 5L BS 3601 DIN 1629
Gradt A SMLS HFS 22 L CDS 22 St 35 SIS 123305
A-106, which is a comparable specification to A-53, but prescribing more Grade B SMLS HFS 27 S CDS 27 Sl 45 SIS 1434-05
stringent tes~ing.Three grades of A-106 are available-Grades A, B, and C, in API 5L BS 3601 DIN 1625
SIS 123306
Grade A ERM ERV: 22 Blat~3 St 34-2 E RW
order of increasing tensile strength. Charts 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 indicate pipe Grade I3 ERW ERn'27 r Blarl 4 St 37-2 ERW SIS 1434-06 t
DIN 1626
specifications most used industrially. API 5L BS 3601

- Steel specifications in other countries may correspond with USA specifi-

Grade A EFVI' .
Grade 6 E FW
EFV. 22
EFM 27 '
Blall 3 St 34-2 FW
Blatr 4 St 37-2 F W
API 5L BS 3601 DIN 1626
cations. Some corresponding european standards for carbon steels and F BW BW 22 Blall 3 St 34.2 FBW

stainless ~teelsare listed in table 2.1. 'Specify 'Si-killes' tSpecily AP15L Grade B resring procedures for these steels

ASTM A312 BS 3605 WSN Designatioa:
IRON pipe is made from cast-iron and ductile-iron. The principal uses are TP 304 Grade 801 4301 X 5 CrN6 18 9 SIS 2333-02
TP 304H Gradr 61 l
for water, gas, and sewage lines. Wrought-iron pipe is seldom employed. TP 304L Graoe S O i L 430C. X 2 C,N, 18 9 SIS 2352-02
TP 310 Grade 605 4841 X 15 C~NISI25 20 SIS 2361-02
TP 316 Gradt 635 4401. X 5 CINIMG 18 10 SIS 2343-02
;OTHER M E T A L S & ALLOYS Pipe or tube made from copper, lead, 4436

T P 316H Grade 855
nickel, brass, aluminum and various stainless steels can be readily obtained. TP 316L Grade S45L 44O-r X :C~Ntlvlo18 10 SIS 2353-02
TP 317 Graoe RJF.
These materials are relatively expensive arid are selected usually either because TP 321 Graor S?? TI 4531 X 10 CrNiTl 18 9 SIS 2337.02
TP 321 H Grade 622 Ti
of their pa~ticularcorrosion resistance to the process chemical, their good TP 347 Grade E22 Nb 4550 X 10 CrNlNb 18 9 SIS 733-O?
TP 347H Graoe 622 i'lb
heat transfer, or for their tensile strength at high temperatures. Copper and t J I
Amertcan Nallonal S~anaardslnsl~tute 1430 Broadway Nwr York NY 10018 USA
c e p e r alloys are traditional for instrument lines, food processing, and heat B ~ I I I SStandards
~ Insi~iul~sn
Sales B r k c h 101 ~entonillleRoad iondon N1 '~ngland
ADDRESSES Deulscner ~ormenau~~ih.,SS' 1 Berl~n15 ~hlandslr175 Wesl ~ e r m a n v
transfer equipment, but stainless steels are increasingly being used for these Sver~ge~randardlserln~kommlsrlos. 80; 3295. 10366. stocaholm 3. Sweden