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PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Different materials possess different properties in varying degree and therefore behave in different ways under given conditions. These properties includes Mechanical properties, Electrical properties, ‘Thermal properties, Chemical properties, Magnetic properties and Physical properties. A design engineer is interested in the behaviour of materials under load which is mechanical in nature, for the design of machines & structures. Any material subjected to a load either deforms, yield, or break, depending upon the magnitude of the load. ‘We are basically interested in knowing as to how a particular material will behave under applied load ie. in knowing the mechanical properties. 1.2 STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAMS @) Stress-Strain Curves for Ductile Materials Ifa mild steel bar of uniform cross-sectional area is subjected to gradually increasing axial tensile force (generally is done in Universal Testing Machine) till failure of the bar occurs, and if we plot the graph for stress and strain, the following curve (Fig. 1.1) may be obtained: ‘The curve may be divided into following parts: Portion (4: This portion is absolutely straight where the stress is proportional to strain and the material obeys Hooke’s law. The value of stress at point A is called proportional limit, Portion AB: In this portion, Hook's law is not yess obeyed, although the material may still be elastic. (©) ‘The point B indicates the elastic limit Portion BC: In this portion, the metal shows an appreciable strain even without further increase 4n stress and the strain is not fully recoverable when load is removed. o Portion CC’: Yielding commences in this Propertonaty Limit Elsste Lint Maximum or Upper iol Point Utbmate Part Fracture 9 Bc Lowst Wels Breaking Svength Point Plastic Zone Elastic Zone Modulus of Resilience ‘srane)—— > Fig. 4: 6~e Diagram for Ductile Material