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Helwan University

Faculty of Engineering
Electrical Power and Machine Department

Electrical Substation
Protection and Sizing
Under Supervision of
Prof.Ass.Saady Abd-El Hameed

Graduation Project 2014


Helwan University
Faculty of Engineering
Electrical Power and Machine Department

Electrical Substation
Protection and Sizing

Under Supervision of
Prof.Ass.Saady abd-el Hameed

The Project Group:

1 - Ahmed Basiouny Fayoud


2 - Ahmed Abo el Alla El Sayed
3 - Ahmed khaled Salah Ali
4 - Mahmoud Abd El Fattah Korany
5 - Mohammed Nabil Ali
6 - Eslam Abdulah Fahiem
7 - Ahmed Mohammed Mahmoud kellany
8 - Khaled Saeed Abd El Rahman
9 - Ahmed khaled Salah Ali
10 - Gomaa Shaker Abd El Samd
11 - Ahmed Farrag Dahy

Graduation Project 2014


UCTION TO SUB-STATION1

Group2014 | Confidential
Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Substation definition
An electrical sub-stations an assemblage of electrical
components including bus-bars, switchgear, power
transformers, auxiliaries etc. substation is a part of an
electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.
Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the
reverse, or perform any of several other important
functions. Electric power may flow through several
substations between generating plant and consumer, and
its voltage may change in several steps.
Briefly, Sub-stations are integral parts of a power system
and form important links between the generating station,
transmission systems, distribution systems and the load
points.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Functions of Substations
Substations serve the following functions;
Substations serve as sources of energy supply for
the local areas of distribution in which these are
located

Power Transfer
in power

Supply of power (to loads)

The energy transmitted at high voltage from the


generating stations is reduced to low voltage for local
distribution.
Some substations are simply switching stations where
different connections between various transmission lines
are made and it made disconnecting to other
components also. Switching is done for maintenance
purpose or disconnection of line at the time of fault.
Measurements of currents, voltages and powers and
the measurements are shown on the measurement
panel.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Connected CT Line
to control Operated by
CB Line
and protection control and
system. protection
Local and system
remote
VT
SA

Double busbars to permit


CB: Circuit breaker work on one busbar
CT: Current transformer
VT: Voltage transformer sconnectors and earthing switches
SA: Surge arrester permit work on lines, transformers etc

Protective devices are installed at the substations to


disconnect equipment or circuit in the event of fault.
Voltage on the outgoing distribution feeders can be
regulated at the substation.
A substation is convenient place for installingshunt
capacitors at the end of the transmission line to improve
the power factor and make measurements to check the
operation of the various parts of the power system

Transformers
with tap changers

Shunt Shunt
reactor capacitor

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Types of substation

According to voltage 3- According to the


level: constructional features:

-A.C. Substation 1- Indoor substation


-HVDC Substation 2-- Outdoor substation
3- Underground substation
4- Pole mounted substation
-2-According to the 4-according to insulating
service requirement medium
1 - Transformer
substation AIS(air insulated
2- Switch substations substation)
3 - Power factor GIS(gas insulated
correction substations substation)
4- Frequency change
substation
5- Converting substation
6-industrial substation

1-according to voltage levels


A.C. Substation: EHV, HV, MV, LV; HVDC Substation.
NOTE:-
It is economically preferable to use HVAC for short distances
and use HVDC for longer distances than (700:800) Km

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

This separating distance between using of HVAC or HVDC is


reduced by reduction of converters price.

One of the substations of the new 1,500 kilometer HVDC transmission line in
China

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

2-according to service requirement:


- Transformer sub stations: these are used to
Change the voltage levels of supply
- switching sub stations:
They simply perform switching operations of power lines
- Power factor sub stations:
They improve the power factor of the system by using
synchronous condensers
- Frequency substations:
Those sub stations which change supply frequency
- Converting sub stations:
Those sub stations which change A.c power to D.C.
power

Industrial sub stations:


Those sub stations which supply power to industries
----------------------------------------------------------------------

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

2-1-transformer substations
They are known as transformer substations as because
transformer is the main component employed to change the
voltage level, depending upon the purposed served
.transformer substations may be classified into:
2-1-1STEP UP SUBSTATION
Associated with generating station as the generating
voltage is low, the generation voltage is steeped up to high
voltage to affect economy in transmission of electric
power. These are generally located in the power houses
and are of outdoor type.
2-1-2 Step Down Substation
Uses a transformer to convert high voltage to lower levels,
although the voltages in step down substations are lower
than at a power plant, the levels at this stage are still much
too high to be used directly by consumers, Some industrial
factory installations are able to use these high voltages,
and can tap directly into power from a step down
substation without needing additional substations.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

2-1-3 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION


These substations are located near the consumers localities
and step down to 400V, 3-phase, and 4-wire for supplying to
the consumers. The voltage between any two phases is
400V & between any phase and neutral it is 230V

3-According to construction features


Indoor substation: is inside a building
Outdoor substation: is under open sky
U U

Underground substations: in thickly populated areas,


the space available is less so we install these types of
substations
While designing a underground substation the following points are
to be followed:
The size of substation should be minimum.
There should be reasonable access for both equipment

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

There should be provision for emergency lights and


protection against fire.
-There should be good ventilation

Pole mounted substations: this is an outdoor substation


with equipment installed overhead on h-pole or 4 pole
structure
This is a schematic view of pole mounted substation

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

4- according to insulating medium

Air

AIS

GI Gas Insulated Switchgear

1-Conventional air insulated outdoor substation (AIS)


An electric power sub-station that has the bus-bars and
equipment terminations generally open to air and utilize
insulation properties of ambient air for insulation to ground
are installed in the outdoor. Bus bars are supported on the
post Insulators or Strain Insulators.
Substations have galvanized Steel Structures for
supporting the equipment, insulators and incoming and
outgoing lines. Clearances are the primary criteria for
these substations and occupy a large area for installation.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS)


Compressed SF6 gas used in MV and HV switchgears as
an insulating medium has led to the development of
compact gas-insulated substation (CIS) technology

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

1. Bus bar
2. Disconnector
3. Maintenance Earthing Switch
4. Current Transformer
5. Circuit Breaker
6. Current Transformer
7. Maintenance Earthing Switch
8. Disconnector
9. Earthing Switch
10. Voltage Transformer
11. Bushing

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Substation layout and panels

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Switchyard
Control & Protection House
Includes:
1. AC/DC room
2. Battery room
3. Telecom room
4. Control & protection room
Main Office Building:
Administrative Building.
Conference Room - etc.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Switch Yard
It is the field where components used in controlling
supply and measuring supply (incoming and outgoing)
are placed.
Switchyards generally have Breakers, Isolators , CTs
,PTs , Bus bars, protection and control equipment,
transformers ,grounding wires and switches, disconnects
and metering devices, etc.

CONTROL &PROTECTION HOUSE


The control & protection house is one of the most
important components of the substation. It is a building
that houses the control apparatuses for the substation.
This can include switchboard panels, batteries, battery
chargers, supervisory control, power-line carrier, meters
and relays. It provides shelter for all of this equipment as
well as easy access.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Ac/Dc Board
It provides ac supply for station (for lighting & heater
&sockets) and provides DC supply which is the more
important than A.C. supply as it feed the relays.
NOTE
That the digital relays become blind (useless) if D.C
drops so D.C supervision relay is used to check D.C
continuity.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Battery Room
In normal operation:
The battery supply intermittent medium-rate and momentary
high-rate loads, such as trip coils and dc motors of C.B. &
Disconnectors.
When we lost D.C. supply or failure of charger , the battery
Supply D.C. for all loads for hours i.e. 8 hours then it needs
re-charging

To obtain D.C for control & protection house


By converting apart of A.C to D.C through an Auxiliary
Transformer and Rectifiers to charge Batteries

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Aux transformer

Protection panels
Contain protective relays that are very essential part of the
substation, that is capable of detecting faults and isolating
them selectively and quickly from the network as a whole,
so that the consequences of the fault are limited as much
as possible.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Substation control, measuring, alarm and


annunciation
Purpose of Control
To change a defined actual condition into a specified
desired condition (Switching).
Control Cable
Control cables are used in substations for connecting control
,systems, measurements, signalling devices
Protection circuits etc. rated below 1000volts. They have a
copper conductor. They may have another rubber insulation
or PVC insulation. Control cables have several cores, each
having independent insulation. To avoid interference due to
stray magnetic fields, the control cables should be properly
laid and their sheath should be properly earthed.
Control levels and panels
Local control

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Remote control

LCC is the interfaces to all secondary systems of a


substation which are represent a station control and
protection.
LCC includes control and alarm functions as well as the
correct distribution of auxiliary power supply for the
relevant GIS bay
Mimic Diagram
Colored mimic diagram and symbols showing exact
representation of the system are provided in the front panel

Measuring and metering systems


It is the system for measure the following:
- Three Phase Currents.
- Three Phase Voltages.
- Active and Reactive Powers.
- Energy.
- Sending Samples of Currents, Voltages,
Active and Reactive Powers to RTU

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

An indicating AC amperes meter recording power meter

Alarm system:
Substation operator must be informed by:
1. Switchgear status.
2. Switchgear settings.
3. Faults.
Alarm Annunciate Panels are widely used as a central
indicator of status of equipment or systems in an aircraft,
industrial process, building and installation. These Alarm
Annunciate devices provide a visual indication of a
number of electric circuits

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Substation

Telecom room
Like SCADA system in the station which take signal from
protection panel.
Supervisory control refers to equipment that allows for
remote control of a substation's functions from a system
control center or other point of control. Supervisory
control can be used to:

operate circuit breakers,


operate tap changers on power transformers,

supervise the position and condition of equipment, and

Telemeter the quantity of energy in a circuit or in

substation equipment.
Supervisory control room

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage


Substation

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Contents
1- Overview
2- Instrument Transformers
3- Disconnecting Switches
4- Circuit Breaker

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2 Instrument Transformer


Electrical instrument transformers transform high currents
and voltages to standardized low and easily measurable
values that are isolated from the high voltage.

Instrument transformers are high accuracy class electrical


devices used to isolate or transform voltage or current levels.
The most common usage of instrument transformers is to
operate instruments or metering from high voltage or high
current circuits, safely isolating secondary control and
measuring circuits from the high voltages or currents.

Primary winding of the transformer is connected to the high


voltage or high current circuit, and the meter or relay is
connected to the secondary circuit.

When used for Metering purposes, instrument transformers


provide voltage or current signals that are very accurate
representations of the transmission line values in both
magnitude and phase. These signals allow accurate
determination of generated power.

When used for Protection purposes, the instrument


transformer outputs must accurately represent the
transmission line values during both steady-state and
transient conditions.
These critical signals provide the basis for circuit-breaker
operation under fault conditions, and as such are fundamental
to network reliability and security.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Instrument transformers used for network control, it supplies


important information for determining the state of the
operating conditions of the network.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1 Current Transformer


When current in a circuit is too high to apply directly to
measuring instruments, a current transformer is used to
produce a reduced current accurately proportional to the
current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to
measuring and recording instruments.

Current transformers are primarily used to provide isolation


between Secondary measuring and protective instruments and
the main Primary high voltage circuit.

These isolations achieved by magnetically coupling the two


circuits. The two main uses of Current Transformers are
metering of current in a high voltage line and sensing faulty
power conditions so as to trigger the relevant protection
systems.

Arteche - 420 kV Current Transformers with Gray Silicone Rubber insulator

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Primary winding of current transformer is connected in series


in the circuit in which the current is to be measured. Current
transformer translates the current from the primary to the
secondary side, inversely proportional to the turns so as to
maintain the relationship

IP = n IS

Where, n is the turns ratio of turns between the secondary


and primary winding. Mostly, the primary of a CT is a straight-
through bar, meaning the number of turns on the primary is
just 1. Hence n is often the number of turns of the secondary.

Current transformers are commonly used in metering


and protective relays in the electrical power industry.

As such, they are strategic components of the High Voltage


Grid. Failure, in any form, can be very damaging and very
expensive.

Current transformers are typically described by its current


ratio from primary to secondary and its accuracy class.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.1 Operation
Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a
primary winding, a magnetic core and a secondary winding.
The alternating current in the primary produces an alternating
magnetic field in the core, which then induces an alternating
current in the secondary winding circuit.

An essential objective of current transformer design is to


ensure the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently
coupled, so the secondary current is linearly proportional to
the primary current.

Care must be taken that the secondary of a current


transformer is not to be disconnected from its load while
current is in the primary, as the transformer secondary will
attempt to continue driving current across the effectively
infinite impedance up to its core saturation voltage. This will
produce a high voltage across the open secondary into the
range of several kilovolts, causing arcing and failure of current
transformer.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.2 Construction

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.3 Current Transformer When Saturated:


Current transformer saturation is associated with many
protection problems encountered in power systems

Magnetic characteristic of the CT is shown in Figure 1


(hysteresis not shown). In the linear region, the CT will behave
almost like an ideal ratio changer; the CT secondary current is
an identical but scaled down replica ( ) of the primary
current.

However, if the CT saturates, more current is required to


magnetize the core and as a result the secondary current
available as the input to the relay may not be an identical
scaled down replica of the actual primary current. This can
lead to protection issues and should be given consideration.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Current transformer is saturated when the primary current,


passing through the CT, is greater than the nominal rating of
the CT.

As the primary current increases, the linearity of current


transformation between the primary and secondary sides
decreases, so error increases.

2.2.1.4 How to Select Current Transformer:


To correctly select current transformer (measurement or
protection), the following information must be verified:
1 - The application for which it is intended (measurement or
protection).
2 - Features of the operating environment, or conditions of
use (indoors or outdoors, maximum operating
temperature, etc.).
3 - Specifications of the line that the CT will be installed
through:
Size of cables or buss bar
Primary current range to include maximum and
minimum current to be measured
Percentage of overload, range and time
System voltage (low, medium or high)
Short circuit current
System frequency
4 - Specication of the measurement / protection device
associated with the CT to include accuracy and nominal
current.
5 - Distance between the transformer and the device, plus
the cable diameter used to connect the CT to the device

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.5 Power of Current Transformer:


In current transformer, the primary current has to generate
(induce) the power required for the secondary side to transmit
the secondary current to the measurement device.

Induced power has to be equal to or greater than the losses in


the line plus consumption of the measurement device itself.

Power losses in the line appear as a heat generated by the


passage of current through the resistance in the cables of the
transformers secondary circuit.

Factors to be taken into account:


Secondary current.
Cable diameter: Cable resistance is inversely
proportional to the square of the
diameter.
Cable length: Cable resistance is proportional to the
length of cabling (there and back).

According to Standards, for apparent power greater than or


equal to 5 VA, the power factor is 0.8 inductive. For apparent
power less than 5 VA the power factor is considered to be one.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.6 Applicable Standards:


With the event of a global market, Current Transformers are
manufactured to a number of different standards:
Australian Standards AS 1675, 60044-1:2003 60044-1:2007
IEC standards 185, 60044-1 & 60044-6
ANSI standard C57-13

Standard current transformer secondary winding is rated at


5A as per ANSI standards. Other rated currents such as 1A
also exist.

2.2.1.7 Standard Ranges of Current Transformers:


Reference values for rated primary currents are 0.5, 2.5, 5,
10, 100, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 800, 1000, 1250, 3000,
4000, 5000, 6000, 7500, 10000 Amps.

Reference values for rated secondary currents are 1, 2, 5


Amps.

Reference values for rated output are 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30
and up to 200 VA.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.8 Types of Current Transformers:


Measure Current Transformers are used for measurement
purposes with ammeters, wattmeters, and KVA meters and for
reducing line current to 1A or 5A.
Protective Current Transformers are used for protective and
control system, with over-current protection, earth fault
protection, differential protection, impedance protection.

Main Differences
1 - Accuracy Class:
Metering CTs require high accuracy at rated full load current.
Protection CTs don't have to be with high accuracy.
2 - Difference in Operating Conditions:
Protection CTs will have to carry the fault currents which may
reach to 10 and 20 times the normal full load current. So it is
designed at much bellow the saturation point (knee) in order to
avoid saturation.
Metering CTs used for metering will have to carry only full load
current. So it is designed near to knee point

Saturation of Measurement and Protection Current Transformer

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

3 - Safety Factor: It determines the multiplicity of full load current


at which the CT saturates and describes CT
behavior when an overload occurs on the
primary side.
Metering CTs get saturated when there is an overload or fault
current in primary current in order to protect the equipment on
the secondary side.
Protection CTs do not get saturated until there is a very high
current on the primary side, it withstand high fault currents to be
sensed back to the relays.

Warning !! The use of metering class CTs with protection


devices is strongly undesirable as the characteristics are
totally different.

2.2.1.9 Current Transformer and Protective Relays:


Generally, protective relays are designed for sine wave
operation and their performance is not specified for other
waveforms. So, in protective relay application, the voltage and
burden of the CT should be specified to ensure undistorted
secondary current for the maximum fault condition.
IEEE/ANSI Standard C57.13 suggests that CTs for relaying
should be designed on the basis that the maximum
symmetrical fault Current not exceed 20 times the CT current
rating and that its Burden Voltage not exceed the accuracy
class voltage of the CT.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.10 Types According to Insulation


2.2.1.10.1 Oil Insulated Type

Inverted Oil Insulation Current Transformer LVB Model 110 Up to 330 KV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Oil Insulated High Voltage Current Transformer 300KV

Alstom - High Voltage Current Transformer - Model KOTEF - 72.5 - 420 kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.10.2 SF6 Gas Insulated Type


General Features:
Explosion proof design with compressible SF6
insulation system and rupture disc
Excellent seismic performance
Cast aluminum housing
Excellent short-circuit performance/capability
Low reactance bar-type primary permits high short
circuit currents
Perfect transient performance
Stable accuracy over a long period of time
Maintenance free
No insulation ageing
Remote supervision of insulation condition by
monitoring internal gas density

SF6 110 kV Current Transformer TGFM Series - Russia

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Trench - Sf6 insulated Current Transformer - TAG Type - 72.5 to 550 kV

Trench - Sf6 insulated Current Transformer - SAS Type - 72.5 to 800 kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.10.3 Dry Insulated Type

General Features:
Dry Type Insulation Maintenance Free
Metering accuracy class: 0.2, 0.2S, 0.5, 0.5S
Protection accuracy class: 5P, 10P, TPY
Easy Operation and Maintenance
No risk of explosion - protect your people and equipment
Excellent Seismic Performance
Lighter than conventional technologies
No risk of toxic leakage - environmentally friendly
No Oil Filling, No Gas Filling and No ceramic
Silicone Rubber Outer Insulation
Dramatic Weight Reduction Compared to Porcelain or Glass
Insulators
Can be used at Temperatures Ranging From -40C to Over
+100C

RHM International - Rating 550 kV 5000A - DryShield Insulation

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Dry Type Current Transformer Model LGB 33 - 245 KV

Dry Type Current Transformer Model LGB 35 - 220 KV


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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Dry Type Current Transformer


Model LGB 35 - 220 KV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.4 Bushing Current Transformer BCT


2.2.1.4.1 External Type

Application
Outdoor bushing current transformers are used for relaying
on existing Power Transformers, Bulk Oil Circuit Breakers and
other Dead Tank Circuit Breakers.

This Type is mounted externally over the apparatus bushing


on the cover of the apparatus.

Installation time is minimum; since it is not necessary to


remove bushings or open the tank for mounting.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

The core and coil assemblies are housed in an aluminum case


and filled with polyurethane; this aluminum case protect the
winding in case of bushing flashover.

General Features:
Weather proof outdoor terminal box
Stainless steel or aluminum, nameplate
Weather resistant Easy installed
High mechanical impact and dielectric strength
Clearly identified secondary terminals
Ratios may be single-ratios, dual-ratio, or multi-ratios
This design can be manufactured to customer specified size
and electrical rating
The core and coils are all completely encapsulated in
polyurethane which Provide excellent electrical, physical
and chemical protection for Outdoor Installation
Corrosion resistant outdoor termination box

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Bushing Current transformer Installed over circuit breaker outlet bushing to


supply measuring and protective signals of current

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.2.1.4.1 Internal Type


Application
Used around apparatus bushings indoor, or internally
mounted in transformer oil, or above the oil, or inside of
circuit breakers or power transformers.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3 Voltage Transformer


Voltage or potential transformers are used for measurement
and protection and they may be single phase or three phase.

They transform the high voltage into low voltage value to be


processed in measuring and protection instrument such as
relays and recorders.

Primary of voltage transformer is connected directly to power


circuit between phase and ground depending upon rated
voltage and application.

Voltage transformers are necessary for voltage, directional,


distance protection.

The VA rating of voltage transformers is lesser as compared


with that of power transformers.

Potential transformers are parallel connected type of


instrument transformer.

Potential Transformers are typically described by its voltage


ratio from primary to secondary. A 600:120 PT would provide
an output voltage of 120 volts when 600 volts are impressed
across its primary winding.

Standard secondary voltage ratings are 120 volts and 70 volts,


compatible with standard measuring instruments.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Potential transformer get used in electrical power system for


stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can
be fed to low ratings meters and relays. Commercially
available relays and meters used for protection and metering,
are designed for low voltage.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1 Types of Voltage Transformer


2.3.1.1 Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT)
In which the primary voltage is applied to a series capacitor
group where the voltage across one of the capacitors is
taken to auxiliary Voltage transformer and the secondary of
auxiliary voltage transformer is taken for measurement or
protection.

Capacitor Voltage Transformers are used for Line


Voltmeters, Synchroscopes and protective meters.

Capacitor Voltage Transformer is more economical to


use than electromagnetic voltage transformer when the
system nominal voltage is Extra High Voltage (EHV) or
Ultra High Voltage (UHV).

Capacitor Voltage Transformer is used in power systems to


step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low
voltage signal, for measurement and to operate a protective
relay.

Capacitor Voltage Transformer is also useful in communication


systems, where CVTs in combination with Wave Traps are used
for filtering high-frequency communication signals from power
frequency and this forms a carrier communication
network throughout the transmission network.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Capacitors are connected in series act like potential dividers


provided the current taken by the burden is negligible compared
with the current passing through the series connected capacitors.
However, the burden current becomes relatively larger and ratio
error and also phase error is introduced.
Compensation is carried out by tuning. The reactor connected in
series with the burden is adjusted to such value that at supply
frequency it resonates with voltage divider.

General Arrangement of Capacitor Voltage Transformer

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1.2 Construction

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Capacitor Voltage Transformers Coupling Capacitors 72.5-300 kV

Circuit Diagram for a Simple Capacitor Voltage Transformer

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 55


Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Arteche - 420 kV - Oil Insulated Capacitive Voltage Transformer

Trench - Capacitive Voltage Transformer 46 - 1200 kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.3 Main applications of CVT in High Voltage


Networks:
Voltage Measuring: They accurately transform
transmission voltages down to useable levels for
revenue metering, protection and control purposes
Insulation: They guarantee the insulation between HV
network and LV circuits ensuring safety condition to
control room operators
High Frequency Transmissions: They can be used for
Power Line Carrier (PLC) coupling
Transient Recovery Voltage: When CVT is installed in close
proximity to HV/EHV Circuit Breakers, High Capacitance of
CVT enhance CB short line fault.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1.2 Inductive Voltage Transformer

Inductive voltage transformer is constructed similar to power


transformer.

Secondary low voltage winding has few turns wound over the
magnetic core and the primary high voltage winding is
comprised of several turns wound over the secondary
winding.

Cross sectional area of conductor of secondary low voltage


winding is considerably more than the conductor of primary
high voltage winding.

Voltage transformers can have several secondary windings


for metering and/or protection. The primary winding and all the
secondary windings are wound around the same core, which
is loaded with the total burden.

For example the VT secondary may be connected to a


voltmeter, a watt meter, Integrating meter, a Synchroscope and
some relays. The sum of the burdens of all these equipments
should be less than the rated burden of the VT.

Moreover if the conductor lead used for connecting to these


instruments is very long, then the burden due to this long lead
should also be added to the burdens of all the equipments
connected to the secondary of the Voltage Transformer.
The burden of the VT can also be specified by impedance
value in Ohm.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Load on the secondary side of the voltage transformer is


called as burden. The rated burden is specified in volt ampere
or VA.

The Total burden of all the instruments connected to the


secondary of the voltage transformer (VT) should be less than
the rated burden.

A sketch of voltage transformer is shown in the following


figure.

Porcelain insulator provides required creepage distance for


HV terminal from ground.

Tank made from galvanized steel filled with oil contains the
magnetic core wound with primary and secondary windings of
VT.
In a voltage transformer the core size is comparatively large so
that a low flux is maintained at operating point.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1.2.1 Standard Values of Rated Output


According to IEC 60044-2, the standard values of rated
output at a power factor of 0.8 lagging, expressed in volt-
amperes, are:
10, 15, 25, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 VA.
The values underlined are preferred values.

2.3.1.2.2 Voltage Error / Ratio Error


Error which a transformer introduces into the measurement of a
voltage and which arises when the actual transformation ratio is
not equal to the rated transformation ratio.

According to IEC 60044-2, the voltage error, expressed in per


U U

cent, is given by the formula:


Voltage Error % = ( kn * Vs - Vp ) *100 / Vp

Where
Kn is the rated transformation ratio;
Vp is the actual primary voltage;
Vs is the actual secondary voltage.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1.2.3 Accuracy Class


The Accuracy Class of voltage transformer (VT & CVT) is defined
by the IEC. The table below displays the specified limits for the
accuracy classes according to IEC 60044-2

Accuracy Voltage Phase Error


Application
Class Error (%) (Minutes)
Precise
0.1 +0.1 +5
Measurement
0.2 +0.2 +10 Measurement
0.5 +0.5 +20 Measurement
1.0 +1.0 +40 Measurement
3.0 +3.0 --- Measurement
3P +3.0 +120 Protection
6P +6.0 +240 Protection

Voltage Transformer Accuracy Classes

Note: Phase angle Error expressed in Minutes. One degree = 60 minutes.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1.2.4 Construction

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Trench SF6 Insulated Inductive SF6 Insulated Inductive Voltage


Voltage Transformer 72.5-45 kV Transformer 72.5 to 800 kV

Trench Oil insulated Inductive


Voltage Transformers 72.5-550 kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3 Isolators and Earthing Switches


Disconnecting switch is a high-voltage switching device used
to disconnect and switch individual sections of electrical
networks when the sections are not carrying a current.

Disconnect switches can be defined quite simply as


mechanical devices which conduct electrical current and
provide an open point in a circuit for isolation.

Isolators play an important role in maintenance of substation;


they are installed in such away that apart of substation circuit
can be isolated from other live parts for maintenance
operations.

Isolators can take out any of the following devices: circuit


breaker, power transformer, transmission lines, capacitor
bank, reactor, or other, out of service when any of this
equipment has a problem.

Isolators are disconnecting switches are used for


disconnecting of the circuit under no load conditions.

The three most important functions that disconnect switches


must perform are:
(1) To open and close reliably when called upon to do so.
(2) To carry current continuously without overheating.
(3) To remain in the closed position under fault current
conditions.

An isolator switch can be opened only after opening the


circuit breaker and should be closed before closing the circuit
breaker.
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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Disconnecting switch operates under no load condition; it


does not have any specified current breaking capacity or
current making capacity.

Isolator is not even used for breaking load or fault currents,


while load break Switches can be used for breaking load
currents only.

Disconnecting switches must be capable of passing the rated


load current for a long period. They must have excellent
thermal and transient stability when passing short-circuit
currents.

In some cases isolators were used for breaking charging


current of transmission lines.

Circuit breaker can make and break electric under normal


current and short circuit condition.

Disconnecting switches should not be operated while the


circuit in which they are connected is energized, but only after
the circuit is de-energized. As a further precaution, they may
be opened by means of an insulated stick that helps the
operator keep a distance from the switch.

Locking devices are sometimes provided to keep the


disconnecting switch from being opened accidentally during
normal operation or from being blown up during periods of
heavy fault currents passing through them.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

In high voltage substations disconnecting switches are used


primarily to ensure safety during maintenance and repair work
on the disconnected sections.

In some cases, moderate currents are interrupted by means of


disconnecting switches, for example, the magnetizing currents
of low-power transformers or the currents of short, unloaded
lines. Disconnecting switches are also used for sectionalizing
buses and switching electric lines from one bus system to
another.

Disconnecting switch consists of movable and stationary


contacts mounted on insulators. A movable contact is
actuated by using an insulator to connect it with a conductor.

To avoid malfunction operation, disconnecting switches are


provided with mechanical, electrical, or combination interlocks
that prevent the opening of the disconnecting switch when the
associated high-voltage switches are closed.

Disconnector is usually not intended for normal control of the


circuit, but only for safety isolation. Disconnector can be
operated either manually or automatically by using motors.

Disconnector simply uses the natural dielectric properties of


air. In close position the disconnector allows the current to
flow. While in open position it creates an air gap between
conductors, thus ensuring visible and reliable circuit breaking.

Size of disconnecting switch varies according to the voltage


level of the substation.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Disconnectors can be operated by means of a motor-operated


drive mechanism or a manual-operated drive mechanism

Disconnectors may be equipped with earthing switches. The


earthing switch consists of an Aluminum tubes with silver
plated contacts.

Disconnectors and/or earthing switches can be single-pole or


three-pole operated by means of a motor-operated drive
mechanism or a manual-operated drive mechanism. In case
only one drive mechanism is used for three-pole operation, the
poles are interconnected by means of adjustable coupling
rods.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.3.1 Types of Isolator Switches


There are eight principal types of operated disconnect
switches used in electric power systems:
1- Vertical break 2- Double end break 3- Center Break
4- Double end break Vee 5- Center break Vee
6- Single side break 7- Pantograph Type 8- Knee Type
9- Semi Pantograph Type

Each of these has specific ratings, features, and


characteristics which define the types of applications they are
best suited for.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

1- Vertical Disconnector Type


Vertical-break disconnector consists of one arm which, by
moving on the plane of the insulators supporting it, it closes
the circuit on a fixed contact located on the side insulator.

Vertical break disconnect switches are the most widely used


group operated switch design. They are also the most versatile
design.

Vertical break switches can be installed on minimum phase


spacing since their disconnect switch blades open upward
rather than outward to the side.

Due to their rotating blade design which pivots about its long
axis, vertical break switches are excellent for application in
environments which experience formation large amount of ice.

Southern States - Model EV-2 Ratings 161kV / 2000A - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Southern States - Whip Type Arcing Horns Increase the Speed of Contact
Separation during the Opening of Switch

Coelme Egic - Vertical Break Disconnector - Model SLOB - Rating 72.5 - 550kV -
Open Position
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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2- Double End Break / Double Side Break /


Center Rotate Type
Double Break Disconnector consists of one arm which is
moved by the central insulator supporting it to close the
circuit with two fixed contacts; each of them is placed on one
of two side insulators. It Require minimal phase spacing.

When double end break switches is in open position, they are


disconnected from both the source and the load. Bit in the
open position the blades are not complete de-energized, but
instead it is at a floating potential of about 30% of system
voltage. ( Reference Southern States Research Paper )

An advantage that double end break switches enjoy over


vertical break switches is that they can be installed in
locations which have minimal overhead clearance as the
blades swing open to the side rather than lifting upward.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Operating Technique
There are 2 Models available for double end break switch:
Central Arm moves only perpendicularly to the plane of the
insulators up to direct engagement of the moving contacts
into the fixed ones happened.
Central Arm upon completing its movement perpendicularly
to the plane of the insulators, it rotates around its own
longitudinal axis leading to complete engagement and
locking of the moving contacts into the fixed ones.

First Model is characterized by an extremely simple design


and it is rather cheap; while the Second Model can provide
very high performance levels.

ITG LLC - Reliable Energy Solutions - 72.5-300kV Disconnecting Switch - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Sieyuan - Rated Voltage 72.5 - 550kV - High Short Circuit Carrying Capacity Up to 63kA -
Close Position

Coelme Egic - Model TCB - Rating 72.5 - 300 kV - Open Position


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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Liaoning Mec - Model GW4 - Ratings 40.5 - 252 kV / Current 630 - 3150 A - Open Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

3- Center Break Type


Centre-break disconnector consists of two arms which by
moving in such a coordinated way, they close the circuit at a
point which is located approximately mid-way.

Centre-break disconnector is the most commonly used type


of disconnector in the world, thanks to the simplicity of its
design, which makes it particularly cheap.

However it requires greater phase spacing compared to other


disconnectors with the same rated voltage as when center
break switches is in open position, one of the two
disconnected blades per phase is still energized.

An economic advantage of center break switches is that they


only require a total of six insulators per three phase switch
versus the nine insulators required for vertical break switches,
double end break switches, and double end break Vee switch.

Sieyuan - GW4 - Ratings 40.5-252kV - High Short Circuit Carrying Capacity Up


to 50kA - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Coelme Egic - Centre Break Disconnector - Model CBD - Rating 36-52 kV -


Close Position

Alstom - S2DA Centre Break Disconnector 72.5 to 550kV - Open Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Switch in Open Position Switch in Close Position

XD - GW4 Center Break Disconnect Switch / Ratings 72.5 - 800kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

4- Double End Break Vee Type


Double end break Vee disconnectors have all the same
features and characteristics that double end break switches
have, however, the jaw end insulators are inclined, and so, the
cable conductors establish electrical clearance from the base.

Moreover double end break Vee disconnectors can fit on


center break Vee switch style structures and on vertical break
switch phase spacing producing the most compact disconnect
switch installation possible in the marketplace today.

This capability can be particularly desirable when trying to


Install a disconnect switch into an existing substation that was
not originally designed to have one there, and can also be very
desirable for use in any location where the cost of land is
significantly high.

Southern States - Model RDA - Ratings 345kV / 5000A - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

A Pair of Double End Break Vee Switches in Closed Position Feeding a Circuit Breaker

Double End Break Vee Switch in Open Position

Southern States - Center Rotate Switch - Ratings 121 - 362 kV / 1200 - 4000 Amps

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

5- Center Break Vee Type


Center break Vee switch is a two-insulator, outdoor, group-
operated side opening two insulator, air disconnect switch
with both insulators rotating and it is constructed primarily of
aluminum.

Center break Vee switch consists of two arms which by


moving in a coordinated way, they close the circuit at a point
which is located approximately mid-way.

Center break Vee switches have all the same features and
characteristics that center break switches have but with one
additional feature which is space saving advantage, producing
one of the most compact disconnect switch installation
possible.

Contacts are fabricated from hard drawn copper and coated


with silver to guarantee minimal wear over years of operation

Sieyuan - Rating 40.5 - 126kV / Short Circuit Carrying Capacity 40kA - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Southern States - Ratings 15.5 - 242 kV / 1200 - 3000 Amps - Close Position

Coelme Egic - Model CBVD - Rating 72.5-170 kV - Earthing Switch Shown - Open Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

6- Single Side Break / Side Break Type


Single side break switch is a two insulator, group operated,
side-opening, air-break disconnect switch, with one rotating
insulator per phase for operation.

Single side break switch enjoys the same economic advantage that
center break and center break Vee switches do. Moreover it just
require only six insulators versus nine insulators required for vertical
`

Cleaveland Price - Model RL-C - Ratings 7.2-69kV / 600-2000A - Close Position - Horizontal Mounted

Southern States - Model ES-1 - Ratings 115kV / 1200A - Close Position - Horizontal Mounted

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Southern States - Ratings 15.5 - 72.5kV / 600 - 2000A - Vertical Mounted

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

7- Pantograph Type
Pantograph disconnector consists of two half-arms which
move in a coordinated way vertically on the plane of the
insulators to close the circuit on a fixed contact connected the
upper Busbar.
Pantograph disconnectors are an ideal solution for
connection to Busbar systems, since they allow minimizing
the substation area and ensure free maintenance.

Compared to the semi-pantograph disconnector, the


pantograph model provides a wider contact zone which makes
it suitable for substations with busbars made up with flexible
conductors.

Coelme Egic - Model VR2D - Ratings 72.5 - 550kV - Close Position

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

EB Elektro - Ratings 145 - 420kV / 2000 - 3150 A -


Open Position

1 -Scissors Arms
2 -Bearing Frame
3 -Support Insulator
4 -Rotating Insulator
5 -Motor Operating Mechanism

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

8- Knee / Folding Vertical Break / Horizontal


Pantograph Type
Knee-type disconnector consists of one articulated ()
arm which, by moving horizontally on the plane of the
insulators, it closes the circuit on a fixed contact located on
the side insulator.

Since the movement of the arm takes place on the same plane
as that of the insulators, the phase-to-phase spacing is
minimized.

Compared to the vertical-break disconnector, the dimensions


of the knee-type model in open position are reduced, thus
allowing for top metal structures (if any) to be placed at lower
heights.

Knee disconnector is composed of three poles operated


simultaneously either by a single operating mechanism and
mechanical linkages between the poles, or by one single
operating mechanism for each pole

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Coelme Egic - OH and DOH Models - 245 - 800 kV Knee Disconnector

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 87


Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Alstom - Model SPOL - Knee type Disconnectors 245 - 1200 kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

9- Semi Pantograph Type


Semi pantograph disconnector consists of one articulated
arm which, by moving vertically on the plane of the insulators,
it closes the circuit on a fixed contact connected to the upper
Busbar.

Semi pantograph disconnectors are an ideal solution for


connection to Busbar systems, since they allow minimizing
the substation area and ensure the maintenance (disconnector
arms included) of the bay inside which the equipment is
installed, without putting the upper Busbar out of service.

Emspec - Model SP15506 - Ratings 123-420kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Coelme Egic - Model SSP - Ratings 170 - 800kV

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4 Circuit Breakers

Siemens - SF6 Insulated - Rating 400kV Outdoor High Voltage Circuit Breaker

Circuit Breakers are switching devices which open during


fault conditions and interrupt the short circuit currents
automatically.

Circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch


designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused
by overload or short circuit.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

High voltage circuit breakers are usually arranged


with protective relay devices to sense fault condition and send
trip signal to circuit breaker to operate the trip opening
mechanism.

Vamp Protection Relays

On high voltage circuit breakers, once a fault is detected,


contacts of circuit breaker open to interrupt the circuit; a
mechanically-stored energy spring is used to separate the
contacts and trip circuit.

Siemens - Open Contacts Sequence

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Notes: Trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by


a separate battery
Electric motors are used to restore energy to the springs.

Low voltage circuit breakers have 2 basic functions:


(1) To detect a fault condition.
(2) To interrupt current flow.
And this is usually done within the breaker enclosure unlike
fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, low
voltage circuit breaker can be reset to resume normal its
operation.

Korps - Low Voltage Molded Case Circuit Breaker

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Circuit breaker contacts must carry the full load current


without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of
the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit.
Contacts are made of copper, copper alloys, silver alloys and
other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts
is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while
interrupting the current.

Western Electrical Services - High Voltage Circuit Breaker Contacts and Cluster

Zensol - Make Break Contacts in Power Circuit Breakers in Close and Open Positions

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.1 Construction
High Voltage Circuit Breakers are mounted on support
structures made of Aluminum.
The part of circuit breaker connected in one phase is called
pole while the circuit breaker that suitable for three phase
system is called triple-pole circuit breaker.

A pole of circuit breaker comprises one or more identical


interrupter units for arc quenching, and mounted on a single
support porcelain insulators in T or Y formation, such
structural form is preferred in outdoor minimum oil, air-blast
and SF6 circuit breakers.

Interrupter encloses a set of fixed and moving contact, where


the moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the
operating mechanism, in most cases motorized spring, in the
operating medium.

Current transformers on Left and SF6 Circuit Breakers on Right

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.2 Circuit Breaker Operating Mechanism


Operating mechanism of the circuit breaker gives the
necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the
circuit breakers and it is usually a spring mechanism.

Circuit breakers for voltages up to 800 kV are equipped with


stored-energy spring mechanisms. It is based on the same
principle that has been proving its worth in low voltage and
medium voltage circuit breakers for decades.

Siemens - Circuit Breaker Operating Mechanism

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

This design is simple and robust (), with few moving parts
and a vibration-isolated latch system of the highest reliability.
All components of the operating mechanism, the control and
monitoring equipment and all terminal blocks are arranged in a
compact and convenient way in one cabinet.

Siemens - Circuit Breaker Control Cabinet

Advantages of the stored-energy spring mechanism are:

Highest degree of operational safety: It is a simple design


and uses the same principle for rated voltages from
72.5kV up to 800 kV with just a few moving parts.

Availability and long service life: Minimal stressing of the


mechanisms and contact bearings in the operating
mechanism ensure reliable and wear-free transmission.

Maintenance-free design: The spring charging gear is fitted


with wear-free spur gears, enabling load-free decoupling.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.3 Circuit Breaker Ratings


In indoor, metal-clad switchgear, medium voltage systems, the
three poles of the circuit breaker are mounted on a withdraw-
able truck (Retrofit) and this configuration is commonly used
for rated voltages up to 36 kV.

Elmor - Rated Voltage 12kV - Rated Current 2500A - Breaking Current

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

For 36 kV and above, outdoor circuit breakers are preferred


where the structure form of outdoor circuit breaker in this case
depends on rated voltage.

Circuit breakers of rated voltages up to 145 kV generally have


a single interrupter per pole. In such structural form, the
interrupter porcelain and support porcelain should withstand
the power frequency and impulse test voltage internally and
externally.

XD - Outdoor Porcelain SF6 Circuit Breaker - Spring Operating Mechanism

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Circuit breakers of rated voltages up to 245 kV generally have


one or two identical interrupter units per pole where the
number of interrupters per pole depends on rated voltage and
rated breaking current of the circuit breaker.

XD - Outdoor Porcelain SF6 Circuit Breaker - Hydraulic Operating Mechanism

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.4 Arc Interruption


When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc
generate a great amount of heat energy, most often
destructive for the breaker's contacts, so technology had to
find ways to limit the arc duration and develop contacts that
can withstand the arc effect time after time.

Arc must be contained, cooled and extinguished in a


controlled way in interrupter unit, so that the gap between the
contacts can withstand the voltage in the circuit.

Arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts


is interrupted by a suitable medium and by suitable techniques
for arc extinction. So, the circuit breakers can be classified on
the basis of arc extinction medium at interruption.

Different techniques are used for quenching and cooling of


arc including:
Lengthening of the Arc
Intensive Cooling
Division into Partial Arcs
Zero Point Quenching: Contacts open at the zero current
time crossing point of the AC waveform, effectively
breaking at no load current at the time of opening. The zero
crossing occurs at twice the line frequency (i.e. 100 times
per second for 50 Hz and 120 times per second for 60 Hz)
Connecting Capacitors in Parallel with Contacts in DC
circuits.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.4.1 Precaution
A tripped circuit-breaker often indicates that fault has
occurred somewhere down the line from the panel. The fault
must usually be isolated before switching the power on, or an
arc flash can easily be generated.

If the voltage is high enough, and the wires leading to the fault
are large enough to allow a substantial amount of current, an
arc flash can form within the panel when the switch is turned
on

And so precautions must be taken on switching circuit


breakers, such as:
Standing off to the side while switching to keep the body out
of the way.
Wearing protective clothing.
Turning-off equipment, circuits and panels down-line prior to
switching.
In multi-break type construction, voltage-grading capacitor is
connected across each interrupter for equalizing the voltage
shared by the interrupter during interruption process

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.5 Circuit Breaker Types


Structure form of a circuit breaker depends on its rated
voltage, type of design, type of operating mechanism and type
of quenching medium.
According to their services the circuit breaker can be
divided as:
1. Outdoor Circuit Breaker.
2. Indoor Circuit Breaker.
According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they
can be divided as:
1. Spring operated Circuit breaker.
2. Pneumatic Circuit Breaker.
3. Hydraulic Circuit Breaker.
According to the voltage level of installation types of circuit
breaker are referred as:
1. High Voltage Circuit Breaker (> 72 kV).
2. Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker (1-72 kV).
3. Low Voltage Circuit Breaker (< 1 kV).
According to their arc quenching media the circuit breaker can
be divided as:
1. SF6 Circuit Breakers.
2. Air Blast Circuit Breakers.
3. Vacuum Circuit Breakers.
4. Air Circuit Breakers.
5. Bulk Oil Circuit Breakers.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very


quickly, typically the arc is extinguished between 30 ms and
150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped, depending
upon age and construction of the device.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.4.6 High Voltage Circuit Breaker Definitions


2.4.4.1 High Voltage Circuit Breakers

Based on IEC 62271-100 IEC 62271-1 IEC 60059

Rated voltage (Ur)


The rated voltage is equal to the maximum system voltage for
which the equipment is designed to withstand.
Standard values of rated voltages are given below:
3.6 7.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.5 100 123 145
170 245 300 362 420 550 800 kV.

Rated Insulation level


39T

It is the standard value of rated withstand voltage across the


open circuit-breaker.

Rated Frequency (Fr ) R R

The standard values of the rated frequency are 25 Hz, 50 Hz


and 60 Hz.

Rated Normal Current (Ir ) R R

The rated normal current of switchgear and controlgear is the


R.M.S. value of the current which switchgear and controlgear
shall be able to carry continuously under specified conditions.
According to IEC 60059 the values of rated normal currents
are:
630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 A.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Rated Short Time Withstand Current (Ik )


It is the R.M.S value of the current which the switchgear and
controlgear can carry in the closed position during a specified
short time under prescribed conditions of use and behaviour.
The rated short-time withstand current is equal to the rated
short-circuit breaking current.
Rated Short Circuit Breaking Current (I sc)
The rated short-circuit breaking current is the highest short
circuit current which the circuit breaker shall be capable of
breaking under specific conditions.
Short circuit breaking current of circuit breaker is the
maximum electric fault current that can flow through the
breaker from time of occurring short circuit to the time of
clearing the short circuit without any permanent damage in
circuit breaker.
The value of short circuit breaking current is expressed in
RMS.
The rated short-circuit breaking current is characterized by
two values:
The RMS value of its AC component;
The DC time constant of the rated short-circuit breaking
current which results in a percentage of DC component at
contact separation.
According to IEC 60059 the values of Rated short-circuit
breaking currents are:
12.5 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 kA

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Transient Recovery Voltage


The transient recovery voltage (TRV) is related to the rated
short-circuit breaking current in. It is the reference voltage
which constitutes the limit of the prospective transient
recovery voltage of circuits which the circuit-breaker shall be
capable of withstanding under fault conditions.
Transient recovery voltage is the transient voltage that
appears across the contacts of circuit breaker after
interruption, and this voltage has damaging effects on the
circuit breaker.
It is a critical parameter for fault interruption in high-voltage;
its characteristics (amplitude, rate of rise and frequency) can
lead either to a successful current interruption or to a failure.
Typically, every transient TRV has high amplitude and high
frequency.

Transient recovery voltage is affected by various parameters


of the system, such as:
1 - Inductance and capacitance in the system
2 - Fault current level of the system at point of study of TRV.
3 - Bushing capacitance of circuit breakers, voltage transformers etc.
4 - Number of transmission lines terminating at a bus and their impedance.
5 - Internal factors of the circuit breaker like the first pole to clear the fault.
6 - System grounding.

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Rated Short Circuit Making Current


It is the value of maximum short-circuits current that the
circuit breaker can withstand as it is closing where the act of
closing initiates the fault.
Rated short circuit making current of circuit breaker is
expressed in maximum peak value, it is always more than
rated short circuit breaking current of circuit breaker. Normally
value of short circuit making current is 2.5 times more than
short circuit breaking current.
Rated Operating Sequence
The rated characteristics of the circuit-breaker are referred to
the rated operating sequence.
There are two alternative rated operating sequences as
follows:
O t CO t' CO
t = 3 min For circuit-breakers not intended for rapid auto-reclosing.
t = 0.3 s For circuit-breakers intended for rapid auto-reclosing.
t' = 3 min.
CO t'' CO
t'' = 15 s For circuit-breakers not intended for rapid auto-reclosing.
Where
U

O Represents an opening operation.


U U

CO Represents a closing operation followed by immediately


U U

without any intentional delay an opening operation.


U U

t, t' and t'' are time intervals between successive operations.


t and t' should always be expressed in minutes or in seconds.
t'' should always be expressed in seconds.

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Rated Duration of Short Circuit (tk)


It is the interval of time for which switchgear and controlgear
can carry, in the closed position, a current equal to its rated
short-time withstand current.
The standard value of rated duration of short circuit: 0.5 s, 1 s,
2 s and 3 s.

2.4.7 Short Circuit Current


Circuit breakers are rated both by the normal current that they
are expected to carry, and the maximum short-circuit current
that they can safely interrupt.

Maximum short-circuit current (Prospective Short Circuit


Current) that a breaker can interrupt is determined by testing
in special labs, but it is generally many times greater than
normal

Application of breaker in a circuit with a prospective short-


circuit current higher than the breaker's interrupting capacity
rating may result in failure of the breaker to safely interrupt a
fault.

When electrical contacts open to interrupt a large current,


there is a tendency for current to continue to flow and as a
result an arc is formed between the opened contacts. This
condition can create conductive ionized gases and molten or
vaporized metal. So, if the rated breaking capacity of circuit
breaker is exceeded, it will not extinguish the arc and current
will continue to flow, resulting in damage, fire or explosion of
the circuit breaker and the equipment that it is installed

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2.4.8 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

These types of circuit breaker were used for the system


voltage of 245 KV, 420 KV and even more, especially where
faster breaker operation was required.
Air blast circuit breaker has some specific advantages over oil
circuit breaker which are listed as follows,
1 - There is no chance of fire hazard caused by oil.
2 - The breaking speed of circuit breaker is much higher during operation of air
blast circuit breaker.
3 - Arc quenching is much faster during operation of air blast circuit breaker.
4 - The duration of arc is same for all values of small as well as high currents
interruptions.
5 - As the duration of arc is smaller, so lesser amount of heat realized from arc to
current carrying contacts hence the service life of the contacts becomes
longer.
6 - The stability of the system can be well maintained as it depends on the speed
of operation of circuit breaker.
7 - Requires much less maintenance compared to oil circuit breaker.

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There are also some disadvantages of air blast circuit


breakers-
1 - In order to have frequent operations, it is necessary to have sufficiently high
capacity air compressor.
2 - Frequent maintenance of compressor, associated air pipes and automatic
control equipments is also required.
3 - Due to high speed current interruption there is always a chance of high rate of
rise of re-striking voltage and current chopping.
4 - There also a chance of air pressure leakage from air pipes junctions.

Air Circuit Breakers Utilize high pressure compressed air to


blow out the arc, so they need compressed air plant

Construction of Air Blast Circuit Breaker

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2.4.9 Bulk Oil Circuit Breakers


Bulk oil circuit breaker is a type of breakers where oil is
used as arc quenching media as well as insulating media
between current carrying contacts and earthed parts of the
breaker. The oil used here as same as transformer
insulating oil. These types of breakers are designed up to
330 kV

Construction and Internal Parts of Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker

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Basics of Construction and Operation


Basic construction of bulk oil circuit breaker is quite simple.
Here all moving contacts and fixed contacts are immerged in
oil inside closed iron vessel or iron tank.

Whenever the current carrying contacts are being open


within the oil the arc is produced in between the separated
contacts. The large energy will be dissipated from the arc in
oil which vaporizes the oil as well as decomposes it.

Because of that a large gaseous pressure is developed inside


the oil which tries to displace the liquid oil from surrounding
of the contacts. The inner wall of the oil tank has to withstand
this large pressure of the displaced oil. Thus the oil tank of
bulk oil circuit breaker has to be sufficiently strong in
construction.

An air cushion is necessary between the oil surface and tank


roof to accommodate the displaced oil when gas forms
around the arc. That is why the oil tank is not totally filled up
with oil it is filled up to certain level above which the air is
tight in the tank.

The breaker tank top cover should be securely bolted on the


tank body and total breaker must be properly locked with
foundation otherwise it may jump out during interruption of
high fault current. There is a gas vent fitted on the tank cover.

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Oil Circuit Breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil


to blast a jet of oil through the arc.

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66kV Oil Circuit Breaker

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2.4.10 Minimum Oil Circuit Breakers


In minimum oil breakers the oil is used only for extinguishing
of the arc. The arc control devices are the same as for the
bulk-oil breakers.
However, unlike bulk oil circuit breakers, these designs place
the interrupting units in insulating chambers at live potential.
The insulating oil is available only in interrupting chamber. The
features of designing MOCB is to reduce requirement of oil.
To improve breaker performance, oil is injected into the arc.
The interrupter containers of the minimum oil breakers are
made of insulating material and are insulated from the ground.
This is usually referred to as live tank construction; these
breakers are used up to withstanding voltage of 132kV.

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Operation Mechanism

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2.4.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers


Gas Properties
Sulfur-hexafluoride SF6 is an excellent gaseous dielectric for
high voltage power applications. SF6 is a colorless non-toxic
gas, with good thermal conductivity and density
approximately five times that of air, It does not react with
materials commonly used in high voltage circuit breakers. It
has been used extensively in high voltage circuit breakers and
other switchgear employed by the power industry.
Applications for SF6 include gas insulated transmission lines
and gas insulated power distribution substations.
The combined electrical, physical, chemical and thermal
properties offer many advantages when used in power
switchgear. Some of the outstanding properties of SF6 which
make its use in power applications desirable are:
1. High dielectric strength
2. Unique arc-quenching ability
3. Excellent thermal stability
4. Good thermal conductivity

The SF6 gas is identified as a greenhouse gas, safety


regulation are being introduced in many countries in order to
prevent its release into atmosphere.

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Breaker Properties and Operation


The principle of operation is similar to the air blast breakers,
except that SF6 is not discharged in the atmosphere. A closed-
circuit, sealed construction is used.
There are mainly three types of SF6 CB depending upon the
voltage level of application:
1 - Single interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 245 kV
2 - Two interrupters SF6 CB applied for up to 420 kV
3 - Four interrupters SF6 CB applied for up to 800 kV

During the opening operation the gas contained inside a part


of the breaker is compressed by a moving cylinder that
supports the contacts or by a piston. This forces the SF6
through the interrupting nozzle.
When the contacts separate, an arc is established. If the
current is not very high, it is extinguished at the first zero
crossing by the pushing the SF6 through the arc by the piston.
If the short circuit current is high, the arc extinction may not
occur at the first zero crossing, but the gas pressure will
increase sufficiently to blow the arc out. By connecting several
interrupting heads in series, SF6 breakers can be constructed
for voltages of up to 765 kV.

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Circuit Breaker Types Based on Connection with


Current Transformer:

1. Live Tank Circuit Breakers:


The interrupter chamber is placed in insulator, which can be
either porcelain or composite type and this type needs
separate current transformer to be attached with it.

2. Dead Tank Circuit Breakers:


The interrupter chamber is accommodated in a metal housing
and a ring type current transformer is placed on its bushings.

Live Tank Circuit Breaker Dead Tank Circuit Breakers

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Main Differences Between 2 Types:


1. Location of switching unit
A. Dead-tank type: inside metallic container.
B. Live-tank type: inside insulator bushing.
2. Amount of SF6
A. Dead-tank type: 100%
B. Live-tank type: 10:15%
3. Height from the earth
A. Dead-tank type: lower to the earth.
B. Live-tank type: higher from the earth.
4. Location of Current Transformer
A. Dead-tank type: Current Transformer can be located
in bushings.
B. Live-tank type: Current Transformer should be
located separately.

Live Tank Circuit Breaker Dead Tank Circuit Breakers

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Live Tank Circuit Breaker

Siemens - Model 3AP1FG - Rating 145KV SF6 Live Tank Circuit Breaker

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Dead Tank Circuit Breakers:

Siemens - Model 3AP2/3 DT - Rating 363-550kV Dead Tank Circuit Breaker

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Chapter 2 Element of high voltage substation

2.5 Transformer

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2.5.1. Introduction

A clear understanding of how transformers work is necessary


in order to wire them properly in an electrical system.
An important property of electricity is that a magnetic field is
produced around a wire in which electrical current is flowing
as shown in fig (2.5.1).

Fig(2.5.1)

The more current that flows, the stronger is the magnetic field.
stronger magnetic field can be produced by winding the wire
into a coil.

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Another property of electricity is important to the operation of


a transformer. When a magnetic field moves across a wire, a
voltage is induced into the wire as shown in fig(2.5.2). If the
wire forms a closed circuit, current will flow in the wire.

Fig (2.5.2)

If a second coil of wire is placed in a moving magnetic field,


then a voltage will be induced in this second coil, This
phenomenon is called mutual induction, as shown in fig
(2.5.3).
Alternating current in one winding produces a moving
magnetic field that induces a voltage in a second winding.
Electrical energy is converted into' magnetic field and then
converted back into electrical energy in a second winding. The
trick is to do this with little or no loss of energy.

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The magnetic field loses strength quickly in air


therefore, a special steel core is used.

Fig (2.5.3)
The electrical current flowing in a transformer is alternating
current. The current flows first in one direction, stops, then
reverses and flows in the other direction, as shown in
fig(2.5.4). The magnetic field around the winding is constantly
in motion.

Fig(2.5.4)

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The core is composed of thin sheets of a silicon-steel alloy.


The magnetic field is concentrated in the core, and energy
losses are reduced to a minimum. As shown in fig (2.5.5).
Most transformers have one winding placed directly over the
other to further reduce the loss of energy, as shown in
Fig(2.5.5)

Fig (2.5.5)

2.5.2. Voltage and turns ratio:


The input winding to a transformer is called the primary
winding. The output winding is called the secondary winding.
If there are more turns of wire on the primary than on the
secondary, the output voltage will be lower than the input
voltage. This is shown at Fig (2.5.6)

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Fig (2.5.6)

It is important to know the ratio of the number of turns of wire


on the primary winding as compared to the secondary
winding. Equation (2.5.1) shows the turns ratio equation, The
actual number of turns is not important, just the turns ratio.



= (. . )

The step-down transformer of Figure (2.5.6) has 14 turns on


the primary, and 7 turns on the secondary; therefore, the turns
ratio is 2 to l, or just 2. The step-up transformer has 7 turns on
the primary and 14 on the secondary; therefore, the turns ratio
is 1 to 2, or 0.5. If one voltage and the turns ratio are known,
the other voltage can be determined with Equation (2.5.2).


= (. . )

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2.5.3. Transformer ratings:

Transformers are rated in volt-amperes (VA) or kilovolt-


amperes (kVA). This means that the primary and the
secondary winding are designed to withstand the VA or kVA
rating stamped on the transformer nameplate.
The primary and secondary full-load currents usually are not
given. The installer must be able to calculate the primary and
secondary currents from the nameplate information.
When the volt-ampere (or kilovolt-ampere) rating is given,
along with the primary voltage, then the primary full-load
current can be determined, using Equation (2.5.3) (for a single-
phase transformer) or Equation (2.5.4) (for a 3-phase
transformer).

= (. . )


= (. . )

It may seem strange at first, but the transformer current will be


higher in the winding which produces the lower voltage. This
concept is important to understand in order
to avoid transformer or conductor overloading. The primary
and secondary transformer full-load currents are also related
by the turns ratio, as shown in Equation (2.5.5).

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= (. . )

2.5.4. Basic principles:

2.5.4.1. Ideal Transformer:


It is very common, for simplification or approximation
purposes, to analyze the transformer as an ideal transformer.
An ideal transformer is theoretical ,linear transformer that is
lossless and perfectly coupled; that is, there are no energy
losses and flux is completely confined within the magnetic
core. Ideal transformer shown in Figures (2.5.7) & (2.5.8)

Fig (2.5.7) Fig(2.5.8)

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2.5.4.2. How the transformer works?

A varying current in the transformer's primary winding


creates a varying magnetic flux in the core and a varying
magnetic field impinging on the secondary winding. This
varying magnetic field at the secondary induces a varying
electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding.
The primary and secondary windings are wrapped around a
core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so that all of the
magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary
windings. With voltage source connected to the primary
winding and load impedance connected to the secondary
winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated
directions.

2.5.4.3. Polarity:
A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit
diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the
relative polarity of transformer windings. Positively-increasing
instantaneous current entering the primary winding's dot end
induces positive polarity voltage at the secondary winding's
dot end.

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2.5.4.4. Real Transformers:


a. Deviations from ideal:

The ideal transformer model neglects the following basic


linear aspects in real transformers. Core losses, collectively
called magnetizing current losses, consist of
Hysteresis losses due to nonlinear application of the voltage
applied in the transformer core and
Eddy current losses due to joule heating in the core that are
proportional to the square of the transformer's applied voltage.
Whereas windings in the ideal model have no resistances and
infinite inductances, the windings in a real transformer have
finite non-zero resistances and inductances associated with:
Joule losses due to resistance in the primary and secondary
windings
Leakage flux that escapes from the core and passes through
one winding only resulting in primary and secondary reactive
impedance.

b.Leakage flux:
The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated
by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding,
including itself.

In practice, some flux traverses paths that take it outside the


windings. Such flux is termed leakage flux, and results

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Chapter 2 Element of high voltage substation

in leakage inductance in series with the mutually coupled


transformer windings.
Leakage flux results in energy being alternately stored in and
discharged from the magnetic fields with each cycle of the
power supply. It is not directly a power loss, but results in
inferior voltage regulation, causing the secondary voltage not
to be directly proportional to the primary voltage, particularly
under heavy load. Figure (2.5.9) shows the concept of leakage
flux.

Fig (2.5.9)

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c. Equivalent circuit:

Referring to Figure(2.5.10) , a practical transformer's physical


behavior may be represented by an equivalent circuit model,
which can incorporate an ideal transformer.
Winding joule losses and leakage reactances are represented
by the following series loop impedances of the model:
primary winding: RP, XP
Secondary winding: RS, X S
Core loss and reactance is represented by the following shunt
leg impedances of the model:
Core or iron losses: RC
Magnetizing reactance: XM

Fig (2.5.10)

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2.5.5. Basic transformer parameters and


construction:

2.5.5.1 Effect of frequency:


Transformer emf voltages vary according to the time
derivative of flux with respect to time
= .
The ideal transformer's core behaves linearly with time for any
non-zero frequency.
Flux in a real transformer's core behaves non-linearly in
relation to magnetization current as the instantaneous flux
increases beyond a finite linear range resulting in magnetic
saturation associated with increasingly large magnetizing
current, which eventually leads to transformer overheating.

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2.5.5.2 Energy losses:


Transformer losses arise from:
Winding joule losses:
Current flowing through winding conductors causes joule
heating. As frequency increases, skin effect and proximity
effect causes winding resistance and, hence, losses to
increase.
Core losses:
1. Hysteresis losses:
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of
energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core.
2. Eddy current losses:
Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors and a core
made from such a material also constitutes a single short-
circuited turn throughout its entire length. Eddy
currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal
to the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core
material. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the
square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material
thickness.

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2.5.5.3 Core form and shell form transformers:

Fig (2.5.11)

As shown in figure (2.5.11) Closed-core transformers are


constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings
surround the core, the transformer is core form; when
windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell
form. Shell form design may be more common than core form
design for distribution transformer applications due to the
relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils.
Core form design tends to, as a general rule, be more
economical, and therefore more prevalent, than shell form
design for high voltage power transformer applications at the
lower end of their voltage and power rating ranges (less than
or equal to, nominally, 230 kV or 75 MVA).

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2.5.6. Construction:

2.5.6.1. Cores :
a. Laminated steel cores:
The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to
highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so
reduce their magnitude. Thinner laminations reduce
losses, but are more laborious and expensive to
construct.
Thin laminations are generally used on high-frequency
transformers, with some of very thin steel laminations
able to operate up to 10 kHz.
Laminated steel cores are shown in figures (2.5.12) &
(2.5.13).

Fig (2.5.12) Fig (2.5.13)

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b. Solid cores:
Powdered iron cores are used in circuits such as
switch-mode power supplies that operate above mains
frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz.
These materials combine high magnetic permeability
with high bulk electrical resistivity.

c. Toroidal cores:
Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped
core, which, depending on operating frequency, is
made from a long strip of silicon
steel or permalloy wound into a coil, powdered iron,
or ferrite.
A strip construction ensures that the grain
boundaries are optimally aligned, improving the
transformer's efficiency by reducing the
core's reluctance.
The cross-section of the ring is usually square or
rectangular, but more expensive cores with circular
cross-sections are also available.
The primary and secondary coils are often wound
concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core.
Toroidal core is shown in figure (2.5.14).

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Chapter 2 Element of high voltage substation

Fig (2.5.14)

d. Air cores :
A physical core is not an absolute requisite and a
functioning transformer can be produced simply by
placing the windings near each other, an arrangement
termed an 'air-core' transformer.
The air which comprises the magnetic circuit is
essentially lossless, and so an air-core transformer
eliminates loss due to hysteresis in the core material.
The leakage inductance is inevitably high, resulting in
very poor regulation, and so such designs are
unsuitable for use in power distribution.

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2.5.6.2. Windings :
The conducting material used for the windings
depends upon the application, but in all cases the
individual turns must be electrically insulated from
each other to ensure that the current travels
throughout every turn.
For small power and signal transformers, in which
currents are low and the potential difference between
adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound
from enamelled magnet wire.
Larger power transformers operating at high voltages
may be wound with copper rectangular strip
conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and
blocks of pressboard.
High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to
hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of
braided Litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and
proximity effect losses.
Large power transformers use multiple-stranded
conductors as well, since even at low power
frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would
otherwise exist in high-current windings. Each strand
is individually insulated, and the strands are arranged
so that at certain points in the winding, or throughout
the whole winding, each portion occupies different
relative positions in the complete conductor.

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The windings of signal transformers minimize leakage


inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-
frequency response. Coils are split into sections, and
those sections interleaved between the sections of the
other winding.
Power-frequency transformers may have taps at
intermediate points on the winding, usually on the
higher voltage winding side, for voltage adjustment.
Taps may be manually reconnected, or a manual or
automatic switch may be provided for changing taps.
Dry-type transformer winding insulation systems can
be either of standard open-wound 'dip-and-bake'
construction or of higher quality designs that
include vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI), vacuum
pressure encapsulation (VPE), and cast coil
encapsulation processes.

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Fig(2.5.15)

2.5.7. Cooling:
To place the cooling problem in perspective, the
accepted rule of thumb is that the life expectancy of
insulation in all electric machines including all
transformers is halved for about every 7 C to 10 C
increase in operating temperature, this life expectancy
halving rule holding more narrowly when the increase
is between about 7 C to 8 C in the case of transformer
winding cellulose insulation.

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Small dry-type and liquid-immersed transformers are often


self-cooled by natural convection and radiation heat
dissipation.
As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by
forced-air cooling, forced-oil cooling, water-cooling, or
combinations of these.
Large transformers are filled with transformer oil that both
cools and insulates the windings.
Transformer oil is a highly refined mineral oil that cools the
windings and insulation by circulating within the transformer
tank.
Air-cooled dry transformers can be more economical where
they eliminate the cost of a fire-resistant transformer room.

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Chapter 2 Element of high voltage substation

Transformer Fans For cooling

For accelerating cooling different transformer cooling


methods are used depending upon their size and
ratings. We will discuss these one by one below.

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2.5.7.1. Different cooling methods:


a. ONAN cooling:
This is the simplest cooling system. ONAN is a brief
of Oil Natural Air Natural". Here natural convectional
flow of hot oil is utilized for cooling. In convectional
circulation of oil, the hot oil flows to the upper
portion of the transformer tank and the vacant place
is occupied by cold oil. This hot oil which comes to
upper side, will dissipate heat in the atmosphere by
natural conduction, convection & radiation in air
and will become cold. In this way the oil in the
transformer tank continually circulate when the
transformer put into load. As the rate of dissipation
of heat in air depends upon dissipating surface of
the oil tank, it is essential to increase the effective
surface area of the tank. So additional dissipating
surface in the form of tubes or radiators connected
to the transformer tank. This is known as radiator of
transformer.

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b.ONAF cooling:
Heat dissipation can obviously be increased, if
dissipating surface is increased but it can be make
further faster by applying forced air flow on that
dissipating surface. Fans blowing air on cooling
surface is employed. Forced air takes away the heat
from the surface of radiator and provides better
cooling than natural air. The full form of ONAF is
"Oil Natural Air Forced". As the heat dissipation rate
is faster and more in ONAF transformer cooling
method than ONAN cooling system, electrical power
transformer an be put into more load without
crossing the permissible temperature limits.

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c. OFAF cooling:
In oil forced air natural cooling system of
transformer, the heat dissipation is accelerated by
using forced air on the dissipating surface but
circulation of the hot oil in transformer tank is
natural convectional flow. The heat dissipation rate
can be still increased further if this oil circulation is
accelerated by applying some force. In OFAF
cooling system the oil is forced to circulate within
the closed loop of transformer tank by means of oil
pumps. OFAF means "Oil Forced Air Forced"
cooling methods of transformer. The main
advantage of this system is that it is compact
system and for same cooling capacity OFAF
occupies much less space than farmer two systems
of transformer cooling. Actually in oil natural
cooling system, the heat comes out from
conducting part of the transformer is displaced from
its position, in slower rate due to convectional flow
of oil but in forced oil cooling system the heat is
displaced from its origin as soon as it comes out in
the oil, hence rate of cooling becomes faster.

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d.OFWF cooling:
We know that ambient temperature of water is much
less than the atmospheric air in same weather
condition. So water may be used as better heat
exchanger media than air. In OFWF cooling system
of transformer, the hot oil is sent to a oil to water
heat exchanger by means of oil pump and there the
oil is cooled by applying sewers of cold water on
the heat exchanger's oil pipes. OFWF means "Oil
Forced Water Forced" cooling in transformer.

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e. ODAF cooling:
ODAF or oil directed air forced cooling of
transformer can be considered as the improved
version of OFAF. Here forced circulation of oil
directed to flow through predetermined paths in
transformer winding. The cool oil entering the
transformer tank from cooler or radiator is passed
through the winding where gaps for oil flow or pre-
decided oil flowing paths between insulated
conductor are provided for ensuring faster rate of
heat transfer. ODAF or oil directed air forced
cooling of transformer is generally used in very high
rating transformer.

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f. ODWF cooling:
ODAF or oil directed water forced cooling of
transformer is just like ODAF only difference is that
here the hot oil is cooled in cooler by means of
forced water instead of air. Both of these
transformer cooling methods are called forced
directed oil cooling of transformer.

2.5.8. Classification parameters:


Transformers can be classified in many ways, such as
the following:
Power capacity: From a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA)
to over a thousand MVA.
Duty of a transformer: Continuous, short-time,
intermittent, periodic, varying
Frequency range: Power-frequency, audio-frequency,
or radio-frequency.
Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of
kilovolts.
Cooling type: Dry and liquid-immersed - self-cooled,
forced air-cooled; liquid-immersed - forced oil-cooled,
water-cooled.
Circuit application: Such as power supply,
impedance matching, output voltage and current
stabilizer or circuit isolation.

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Utilization: Pulse, power, distribution, rectifier, arc


furnace, amplifier output, etc.
Basic magnetic form: Core form, shell form.
Constant-potential transformer descriptor: Step-up,
step-down, isolation.
General winding configuration: By EIC vector group
various possible two-winding combinations of the
phase designations delta, wye or star, and zigzag or
interconnected star; other - autotransformer,
Scott-T, zigzag grounding transformer winding.
Rectifier phase-shift winding configuration:
2-winding, 6-pulse; 3-winding, 12-pulse; . . . n-
winding, [n-1]*6-pulse; polygon; etc..

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2.5.9. Types of Transformers:


Autotransformer: Transformer in which part of the
winding is common to both primary and secondary
circuits.
Capacitor voltage transformer: Transformer in which
capacitor divider is used to reduce high voltage before
application to the primary winding.
Distribution transformer, power transformer:
International standards make a distinction in terms of
distribution transformers being used to distribute
energy from transmission lines and networks for local
consumption and power transformers being used to
transfer electric energy between the generator and
distribution primary circuits.
Phase angle regulating transformer: A specialized
transformer used to control the flow of real power on
three-phase electricity transmission networks.
Scott-T transformer: Transformer used for phase
transformation from three-phase to two-phase and vice
versa.
Polyphase transformer: Any transformer with more
than one phase.
Grounding transformer: Transformer used for
grounding three-phase circuits to create a neutral in a
three wire system, using a wye-delta transformer, or
more commonly, a zigzag grounding winding.

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Leakage transformer: Transformer that has loosely


coupled windings.
Resonant transformer: Transformer that uses
resonance to generate a high secondary voltage.
Audio transformer: Transformer used in audio
equipment.
Output transformer: Transformer used to match the
output of a valve amplifier to its load.
Instrument transformer: Potential or current
transformer used to accurately and safely represent
voltage, current or phase position of high voltage or
high power circuits.

2.5.10. Types of transformers:


Transformers are of the dry type or oil filled. From
2% to 5% of the electrical energy is lost in a
transformer, mostly due to the resistance of the
windings. Large trans formers circulate oil through the
windings to remove the heat.
Dry transformers use air for cooling. Heat is moved
from the windings to the case by conduction in smaller
sizes of the dry type.
Dry transformers use air for cooling. Heat is moved
from the windings to the case by conduction in smaller
sizes of the dry type.

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2.5.11. CONNECTING TRANSFORMER


WINDINGS:
Transformer wiring diagrams are printed on the
transformer nameplate which may be affixed to the
outside of the transformer or printed inside the cover to
the wiring compartments
The lead wires or terminals are marked with the letters
Hand X. Those lettered H are the primary (high-voltage)
leads, and those lettered X are the secondary (low-
voltage) leads.
Some transformers have two primary and two
secondary windings (as shown in Figure 2.5.16) so they
can be used for several applications. These are called
dual voltage transformers.

Fig (2.5.16)

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Another connection shown in Figure (2.5.17)

Fig (2.5.17)

2.5.12. Three-phase transformers:


Changing the voltage of a 3-phase system can be
done with a 3-phase transformer or with single-phase
transformers.
Three-phase transformers are generally designed and
constructed for specific voltages.

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A typical nameplate for this type of transformer is


shown in Figure (2.5.18)

Fig (2.5.18)

The 3-phase transformer has one core with three sets


of windings. A primary and a secondary winding are
placed one on top of the other on each of the three legs of
the core, Figure (2.5.19)

Fig (2.5.19)

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The secondary windings are connected in either wye or delta,


as required by the load to be supplied.
The primary is connected in wye or delta, depending upon the
type of electrical system available.
Common 3-phase transformer connections, listing primary
windings first, are: delta-delta, wye-delta, and delta-wye.
A wye-wye connection is usually not recommended, as in a
wye-wye connection, a third harmonic current may occur,
causing possible current overloading and damage to the
primary neutral wire.
A delta-wye transformer can usually be substituted. Always
be sure to consult the transformer manufacturer before
installing a wye-wye connection.

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2.6 Air-Insulated Substations


Bus Switching Configurations
Various factors affect the reliability of a substation or
switchyard, one of which is the arrangement of the buses and
switching devices. In addition to reliability, arrangement of the
buses/switching devices will impact maintenance, protection,
initial substation development, and cost.
There are six types of substation bus/switching arrangements
commonly used in air insulated substations:
1. Single bus
2. Double bus, double breaker
3. Main and transfer (inspection) bus
4. Double bus, single breaker
5. Ring bus
6. Breaker and a half

2.6.1- Single Bus:

This arrangement involves one main bus with all circuits


connected directly to the bus.
The reliability of this type of an arrangement is very low.
When properly protected by relaying, a single failure to the
main bus or any circuit section between its circuit breaker and
the main bus will cause an outage of the entire system.

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In addition, maintenance of devices on this system requires


the de-energizing of the line connected to the device.
Maintenance of the bus would require the outage of the total
system, use of standby generation, or switching to adjacent
station, if available.
Since the single bus arrangement is low in reliability, it is not
recommended for heavily loaded substations or substations
having a high availability requirement.
Reliability of this arrangement can be improved by the
addition of a bus tiebreaker to minimize the effect of a main
bus failure.

2.6.2- Double Bus, Double Breaker:

This scheme provides a very high level of reliability by having


two separate breakers available to each circuit. In addition,
with two separate buses, failure of a single bus will not impact
either line. Maintenance of a bus or a circuit breaker in this

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arrangement can be accomplished without interrupting either


of the circuits.
This arrangement allows various operating options as
additional lines are added to the arrangement; loading on the
system can be shifted by connecting lines to only one bus.
A double bus, double breaker scheme is a high-cost
arrangement, since each line has two breakers and requires a
larger area for the substation to accommodate the additional
equipment.
This is especially true in a low profile configuration. The
protection scheme is also more involved than a single bus
scheme.

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2.6.3- Main and Transfer Bus:

This scheme is arranged with all circuits connected between a


main (operating) bus and a transfer bus (also referred to as an
inspection bus). Some arrangements include a bus tie breaker
that is connected between both buses with no circuits
connected to it. Since all circuits are connected to the single,
main bus, reliability of this system is not very high.
However, with the transfer bus available during
maintenance,de-energizing of the circuit can be avoided. Some
systems are operated with the transfer bus normally de-
energized.
When maintenance work is necessary, the transfer bus is
energized by either closing the tie breaker, or when a tie
breaker is not installed, closing the switches connected to the

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transfer bus. With these switches closed, the breaker to be


maintained can be opened along with its isolation switches.
Then the breaker is taken out of service. The circuit breaker
remaining in service will now be connected to both circuits
through the transfer bus. This way, both circuits remain
energized during maintenance.

Since each circuit may have a different circuit configuration,


special relay settings may be used when operating in this
abnormal arrangement. When a bus tie breaker is present, the
bus tie breaker is the breaker used to replace the breaker
being maintained, and the other breaker is not connected to
the transfer bus.
A shortcoming of this scheme is that if the main bus is taken
out of service, even though the circuits can remain energized
through the transfer bus and its associated switches, there
would be no relay protection for the circuits. Depending on the
system arrangement, this concern can be minimized through
the use of circuit protection devices (reclosure or fuses) on
the lines outside the substation.
This arrangement is slightly more expensive than the single
bus arrangement, but does provide more flexibility during
maintenance. Protection of this scheme is similar to that of the
single bus arrangement.
The area required for a low profile substation with a main and
transfer bus scheme is also greater than
that of the single bus, due to the additional switches and bus.

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2.6.4-Double Bus Single Breaker

. This scheme has two main buses connected to each line


circuit breaker and a bus tie breaker.
Utilizing the bus tie breaker in the closed position allows the
transfer of line circuits from bus to bus by means of the
switches.
This arrangement allows the operation of the circuits from
either bus.
In this arrangement, a failure on one bus will not affect the
other bus. However, a bus tie breaker failure will cause the
outage of the entire system.
Operating the bus tie breaker in the normally open position
defeats the advantages of the two main buses.
It arranges the system into two single bus systems, which as
described previously, has very lowreliability.
Relay protection for this scheme can be complex, depending
on the system requirements, flexibility, and needs

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

. With two buses and a bus tie available, there is some ease in
doing maintenance, but maintenance on line breakers and
switches would still require outside the substation switching
to avoid outages

2.6.5-Ring Bus

In this scheme, as indicated by the name, all breakers are


arranged in a ring with circuits tapped between breakers.
For a failure on a circuit, the two adjacent breakers will trip
without affecting the rest of the system.
Similarly, a single bus failure will only affect the adjacent
breakers and allow the rest of the system to remain energized.
However, a breaker failure or breakers that fail to trip will
require adjacent breakers to be tripped to isolate the fault.
Maintenance on a circuit breaker in this scheme can be
accomplished without interrupting any circuit, including the
two circuits adjacent to the breaker being maintained.
The breaker to be maintained is taken out of service by
tripping the breaker, then opening its isolation switches.

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Since the other breakers adjacent to the breaker being


maintained are in service, they will continue to supply the
circuits.
In order to gain the highest reliability with a ring bus scheme,
load and source circuits should be alternated when
connecting to the scheme.
Arranging the scheme in this manner will minimize the
potential for the loss of the supply to the ring bus due to a
breaker failure.
Relaying is more complex in this scheme than some
previously identified.
Since there is only one bus in this scheme, the area required
to develop this scheme is less than some of the previously
discussed
Schemes. However, expansion of a ring bus is limited, due to
the practical arrangement of circuits.

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2.6.6- Breaker-and-a-Half:

The breaker-and-a-half scheme can be developed from a ring


bus arrangement as the number of circuits increases.
In this scheme, each circuit is between two circuit breakers,
and there are two main buses.
The failure of a circuit will trip the two adjacent breakers and
not interrupt any other circuit.
With the three breaker arrangement for each bay, a center
breaker failure will cause the loss of the two adjacent circuits.
However, a breaker failure of the breaker adjacent to the bus
will only interrupt one circuit.
Maintenance of a breaker on this scheme can be performed
without an outage to any circuit.
Furthermore, either bus can be taken out of service with no
interruption to the service.
This is one of the most reliable arrangements, and it can
continue to be expanded as required.

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Relaying is more involved than some schemes previously


discussed. This scheme will require more area and is costly
due to the additional components.

2.6.7- Comparison of Configurations:

In planning an electrical substation or switchyard facility, one


should consider major parameters as discussed above:
reliability, cost, and available area.
Table has been developed to provide specific items for
consideration.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

In order to provide a complete evaluation of the configurations


described, other circuit-related factors should also be
considered.
The arrangement of circuits entering the facility should be
incorporated in the total scheme.
This is especially true with the ring bus and breaker-and-a-half
schemes, since reliability in these schemes can be improved
by not locating source circuits or load circuits adjacent to
each other.
Arrangement of the incoming circuits can add greatly to the
cost and area required.
Also, the profile of the facility can add significant cost and
area to the overall project. A high-profile facility can
incorporate multiple components on fewer structures. Each
component in a low-profile layout requires a single area, thus
necessitating more area for an arrangement similar to a high-
profile facility.
Therefore, a four-circuit, high-profile ring bus may require less
area and be less expensive than a four circuit, low-profile main
and transfer bus arrangement.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.7 Capacitor bank

the capacitor is
A device for storing electric charge. It comprises of two electrodes
separated by an
insulation medium called the dielectric.

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It is quantified by capacitance which is the


ratio of the charge (Q) to the potential difference (V) between the
conductors, having
the unit farad (F) (coulomb/volt).

K is the dielectric constant and 0 is the permittivity of free


space. and is the permittivity of the dielectric material.
Therefore, a certain capacitance can be made by specifying
the length, width and distance of separation for a known
dielectric

Capacitor units are made of series and parallel combinations of


capacitor packs or elements put together . Capacitor elements
have sheets of polypropylene film, less than one mil thick,
sandwiched between aluminum foil sheets.

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Capacitor Application
Capacitors provide tremendous benefits to distribution system
performance.
Most noticeably, capacitors reduce losses, free up capacity,
and reduce voltage drop:

Losses; Capacity
By canceling the reactive power to motors and other loads with low
power factor, capacitors decrease the line current.
Reduced current frees up capacity; the same circuit can serve more
load. Reduced current also significantly lowers the I2R Line losses.

Voltage drop
Capacitors provide a voltage boost, which cancels
part of the drop caused by system loads. Switched capacitors can
regulate voltage on a circuit.

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Improve voltage profile


The best location for voltage support depends on where the voltage
support is needed. a capacitor changes the voltage profile along a
circuit. Unlike a regulator, a capacitor changes the voltage profile
upstream of the bank.

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Improving the power factor


In addition to reducing losses and improving voltage, capacitors
release capacity. Improving the power factor increases the amount
of real-power load the circuit can supply. Using capacitors to supply
reactive power reduces the amount of current in the line, so a line
of a given ampacity can carry more load.

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Reducing Line Losses


One of the main benefits of applying capacitors is that they
can reduce distribution line losses. Losses come from current
through the resistance of conductors. Some of that current
transmits real power, but some flows to supply reactive power.
Reactive power provides magnetizing for motors and other
inductive loads. Reactive power does not spin kWh meters and
performs no useful work, but it must be supplied. Using
capacitors to supply reactive power reduces the amount of
current in the line. Since line losses are a function of the
current squared, I2R, reducing reactive power flow on lines
significantly reduces losses.

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Some Forms of Capacitor banks


Capacitor banks type SCB, ACB are used for individual or central
power factor correction in medium voltage power networks

Capacitor banks type SCA are used for individual or central


power factor correction in medium voltage power networks.

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Shunt Capacitor Banks

The principles of reactive power compensation, particularly on the


technology of shunt capacitor bank protection. The application of
shunt capacitor banks from both a primary (main equipment and
system layout) and secondary (control and protection) engineering
perspective is investigated.

Application of Shunt Capacitor Banks:

1) A Need for Reactive Power Compensation


Shunt capacitor banks are a source of reactive power and are
essential for economic operation of electrical systems. By
virtue of the components that make up the electrical system,
the system is inherently resistive-inductive. Capacitance (C)
and inductance (L) are reactive power components. Capacitive
reactive power input is equivalent to inductive reactive power
output and vice-versa. Inductive reactance can be calculated
by:

The inductive component can be offset and therefore the


overall current can be reduced by adding an appropriately
sized shunt capacitor.
The principle of shunt compensation contributes to improving
the transmission capacity, and reducing losses in the network.
Therefore further volt drops are reduced. Shunt compensation
also has the capability to lower the resonant frequency and
provide damping of harmonic components. Consequently, the
power factor is corrected towards unity.

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2) Location Considerations

A network study is performed in order to determine the most


economical and technically viable solution. The results of the study
aid with selecting the type, size and location of the compensation
system. The objectives are; to maintain a desired voltage profile, to
improve the power factor and to reduce the losses along feeder
circuits. The process to optimize a large electrical system is
complex and requires iterative
A large compensator can be positioned at the supply point of
common coupling to the network. This will improve the overall
power factor, voltage support and transmission capability
Compensation positioned at the load has the advantage of
offsetting inductance directly at the load thereby reducing losses in
the load.

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Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters

Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters)


A device connected between phases and earth or between
phases to protect electrical
equipment from
- Transient over-voltages
- limit the duration of the follow current.
- It diverts the transient over-voltage surges to the earth and
protects the substation equipment
from lightning and switching over-voltages surges.

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A lightning
arrester is a
device used on
electrical power
systems and
telecommunicati
ons systems to
protect the
insulation and
conductors of
the system from
the damaging
effects of
lightning

The typical
lightning arrester
has a High-voltage
terminal and a
ground terminal.
When a lightning
surge travels along
the power line to
the arrester, the
current from the
surge is diverted
through the
arrestor, in most
cases to earth.

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There are two types of designs:


(1) Conventional Gapped Arrestors (Valve Type Arrestors)
(2) Metal-Oxide (Zno) Arrestors.

1-Conventional Gapped Arrestors (Valve Type


Arrestors):
It consists of resistor elements in series with gap elements.
The resistor elements offer nonlinear resistance such that for
normal frequency power system voltages the resistance is
high. For discharge currents the resistance is low. The gap
units consists of air gaps of appropriate length.
During normal voltage the Lightning
Arrestors does not conduct. When
a surge-wave
travelling along over head transmission
line , line comes to the arrestor ,
the gap breaks down.
The resistance offered being low the surge
is diverted to the earth.
This high voltage surge
is discharged to earth, so the insulation of
equipment connected to line is protected.

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2-Metal-Oxide Arrestors (MOAs) (Zinc-Oxide


Arrestors):
Conventional surge arrestors are mostly of the valve type,
with series gap and resistors elements consisting mainly
of silicon-carbon. When an over-voltage causes spark
over in a surge arrestor, follow currents flows through its
terminal from the power sources of electric power
distribution system. This current continues to flow, as per
voltage current characteristics of each MOA element, until
the voltage across the MOA terminals falls to a level at
which the inflow of power frequency current drops to zero.

A great number of arresters which are gapped arresters


with resistors made of silicon-carbide (SiC), are still in
use, the arresters installed today are almost all metal-
oxide (MO) arresters without gaps, which means arresters
with resistors made of metal-oxide. The distinctive feature
of an MO resistor is its extremely non-linear voltage-
current , rendering unnecessary the disconnection of the
resistors from the line through serial spark-gaps, as is
found in the arresters with SiC resistors. The currents
passing through the arrester within the range of possibly
applied power-frequency voltages are so small that the
arrester almost behaves like an insulator. If, however,
surge currents in the kilo ampere range are injected into
the arrester, such as is the case when lightning or
switching over voltages occurs, then the resulting voltage
across its terminals will remain low enough to protect the

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insulation of the associated device from the effects of


overvoltage.

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The different types of lightning relays:


There are several types of lightning arresters in general use.
They differ only in constructional details but operate on the
same principle via, providing low resistance path for the
surges to the ground.

Following are the different types of lightning


relays:

1- Rod arrester.
2- Horn gap arrester.
3- Multi gap arrester.
4- Expulsion type lightning arrester.
5- Valve type lightning arrester.

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Operation for surge arrestor:


Three significant causes can allow the voltage at the terminals
of the equipment to be protected to take on a considerably
higher value:

a) Traveling wave processes:


Rapidly increasing over voltages spread in the form of
traveling waves on the line. In those places where the surge
impedance of the line changes, refraction and reflection occur.
The voltage level
at every instant and at every point on the line results from the
sum of the different instantaneous values of each individual
voltage wave. Thus, at the terminated end this value will be
doubled. A connected transformer appears similar to an
unterminated end since its winding inductivity for rapid
functions exhibits a great impedance compared with the surge
impedance of the line the arrester does not change until the
voltage at its terminals has reached the limiting value of 806
kV. In accordance with the starting assumption, a higher value
cannot be taken on. According to the rules of traveling wave
processes, this can only be reached if,

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b) Inductive voltage drops:


The current path shown in Figure 6 of the discharge current
from the termination of the arrester to the overhead line
conductor, down to the effective earth, is ten meters long. At a
specific value of 1 H per meter (guide value for the typical
inductance of a stretched conductor at a great distance from
other live or earthed parts) its inductivity is 10 H. A steepness
of 10 kA/s of a lightning current impulse can typically be
expected. Under these conditions the inductive voltage drop of
the shown arrangement is

This does not necessarily appear exactly simultaneously at the


peak value of the arrester residual voltage. However, this value
of 100 kV demonstrates the order of magnitude of possible
inductive voltage drops which can superimpose the arrester
residual voltage.

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c) Discharge currents higher than the arrester


Nominal discharge current: the protective level of the
arrester is defined as its residual voltage at the nominal
discharge current. Higher discharge currents may also occur.
The arrester can withstand this undamaged, but it results in a
higher residual voltage across its terminals depending on the
shape of the U-I-characteristic (5% to 15% increase for double
the current amplitude).
Thus, when choosing an arrester protective level, certain
details must be considered, such as the distance between the
arrester and the device to be protected, the particular
substation configuration or the typical overvoltage stress in
the system. If the distances
are not chosen too large, a factor of at least 1.4 between the
standard lightning impulse withstand voltage of the device to
be protected and the lightning impulse protective level of the
arrester normally leads to safe protection against fast-front
overvoltage.

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Arresters to protect transformer neutral points:

Arresters to protect transformer neutral points from


overvoltage, or
"neutral point arresters" for short, are the most common
special application of arresters. For example,
the IEC 60099-5 application guide recommends the use of an
arrester to protect each
unearthed neutral point from lightning and switching
overvoltage if the neutral point is accessible through a
bushing.

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

The following statements apply in all cases:


The line discharge class of neutral point arresters should
at least be the same as theline discharge class of the
associated phase arresters.
The 1-kA residual voltage level can be used as the
protective level because higher currents do not occur.
The safety margin between the lightning impulse
withstand voltage (LIWV) of the transformer neutral point
and the arrester protective level can be smaller than for
the phase arresters because the voltage increases are not
fast enough for traveling wave processes to become a
concern.
For a fully insulated transformer neutral point, IEC 60099-
5 recommends choosing a rated voltage for neutral point
arresters that is equal to about 60% that of the related
phase arresters Ur, Np-A 0.6 Ur, Ph-A
However, to provide relief for the phase arresters, neutral
point arresters and phase arresters can be coordinated so
that in the case of intermittent earth faults, for example,
the neutral point arresters act more quickly than the phase
arresters

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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Configuring MO Arresters
In order to configure an MO arrester, it is first of all necessary
to understand how the different requirements and parameters
affect the operational performance of the arrester.
With knowledge of the basic principles and interdependencies

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Example on sizing Arrester : "Solidly earthed


neutral 66-kV-system"
(All the information which is asterisked are typical.
Individually, however, these are manufacturer-dependent
values.)
Tacitly assumed, if no further information is given and no
special requests are made:
- Us = 72.5 kV
- LIWV = 325 kV
- Earth fault factor k = 1.4
- Maximum duration of temporary overvoltage: 10 s
- required nominal discharge current In = 10 kA
- Required line discharge class: 1
- Pollution level: b ("light")
- Maximum short-circuit current: 20 kA
Determining the minimally required continuous operating and
rated voltage
- Uc, min = 1.05 . Us/ 3 = 1.05 . 72.5/ 3 kV = 44 kV
- Url, min = 1.25* . Uc, min = 1.25* . 44 kV = 55 kV
- Ur2, min = 1.4 . (Us/ 3 ) / ktov, 10 s = 1.4 . (72.5/ 3 ) / 1.075* kV
= 55 kV
Establishing the actual continuous operating and rated
voltage:
- Ur = Url, min rounded up to the next value divisible by 3 = 57
kV
Normally an arrester with a rated voltage of at least 60 kV is
used in this system.
This leads to a more stable layout, and nevertheless offers a
sufficiently low protective
level.
- Ur = 60 kV
- Uc = Ur/1.25* = 60 kV/1.25* = 48 kV
Selecting an MO resistor suitable for In = 10 kA and LD-class 1
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- MO diameter: 40* mm
- 10 kA/Ur = 2.65* (This factor is characteristic for the MO
resistor used when
configuring it for the line discharge class 1.)
The resulting protective characteristics*:
- lightning impulse protective level (10 kA, 8/20 ms): 159 kV
- switching impulse protective level (0,5 kA, 30/60 ms): 122
kV
- steep current impulse protective level (10 kA, 1/<20 ms):
169 kV
62 CONFIGURING MO ARRESTERS
Checking the protective values:
- LIWV/10 kA, 8/20 s = 325 kV/159 kV = 2.04 definitely
sufficient
Height of the MO resistor column:
- hMO = 400* mm
Selecting a Housing
Minimal requirements:
- lightning impulse withstand voltage =
1.3 . lightning impulse protective level = 1.3 . 159 kV = 207 kV
- power-frequency withstand voltage 1 min, wet =
1.06/ 2 . switching impulse protective level = 1.06/ 2 . 122 kV =
92 kV
- creepage distance: 16 mm/kV . 72.5 kV (27.7 mm/kV 41.9 kV)
= 1160 mm
- permissible head load static (SLL): 350 N
- permissible head load dynamic (SSL): 500 N
- rated short-circuit current (rated short-circuit (withstand)
current Is): 20 kA
- possible length of the active part: 400 mm
- number of units: 1
- grading ring: no
IEC arrester standards:
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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

The selection below describes the current state of the most


important IEC (and some
other) standards on arresters
a) IEC 60099-1, Edition 3.1, 1999-12
(Edition 3: 1991 consolidated with amendment 1: 1999)
Surge arresters Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge
arresters for a.c.
systems
Note: This standard is no longer updated and may be
withdrawn in the near future.
b) IEC 60099-4, Edition 2.2, 2009-05
Surge arresters Part 4: Metal-oxide surge arresters without
gaps for a.c. systems
c) IEC 60099-5, Edition 1.1, 2000-03
Surge arresters Part 5: Selection and application
recommendations
Note: A completely new edition of IEC 60099-5 (Edition 2) is
currently being drafted
by IEC TC37 MT10 ("Maintenance Team 10") and is undergoing
approval. The current
version is IEC document 37/371/CDV. After introduction of
several necessary changes
the FDIS will be published by end of 2011.
d) IEC 60099-6, First Edition, 2002-08
Surge arresters Part 6: Surge arresters containing both
series and parallel
gapped structures Rated 52 kV and less
78 CONFIGURING MO ARRESTERS
Note: This standard was not accepted by CENELEC, and
therefore no European Standard
(EN) version exists. The standard covers a very specific
design of internally
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Chapter 2 Elements of High Voltage Substation

gapped MO arresters, which are applied mainly in the


American market.
e) IEC 60099-8 Ed. 1.0, 2011-01
Surge arresters - Part 8: Metal-oxide surge arresters with
external series gap
(EGLA) for overhead transmission and distribution lines of a.c.
systems above
1 kV

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.9 Introduction to GIS:

2.9.1 Definition
GIS is a substation that uses a superior dielectric gas,
sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) for insulation high-voltage
gas-insulated substations have been in service since
the early 1960s. Operation of 800 kV equipment have
proved successful

2.9.2 Differences between AIS-GIS:


The atmospheric air insulation used in a conventional, air-
insulated substation
(AIS) requires meters of air insulation to do what SF6 can do
in centimeters, the
insulation distances determine the main sizes of the classic
distribution substation.
GIS can therefore be smaller than AIS by up to a factor of 10 A
GIS is mostly
Used where space is expensive or not available. In a GIS the
active parts are protected
from the deterioration from exposure to atmospheric air,
moisture, contamination, etc.

As a result, GIS is more reliable and requires less


maintenance than AIS.

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2.9.3 GIS Advantages:

1. Reduced required space

The space occupied by SF6 installation is only about 8% to 10


% of that conventional outdoor substation High cost is partly
compensated by saving in cost

EXAMPLE:
A typical space (420/525) kV SF6 GIS requires only
920m2 site area against 30000 m2 for a conventional air
insulated substation

The complete enclosure of all live parts guards against any


impairment of the insulation system

2. Reliable:
The complete enclosure of all live parts guards against any
impairment of the insulation system.

3- The installations are dielectrically and totally tested


site (unlike conventional substations)

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

4. Reduced erection and assembly times:


The principle of building block construction reduces the
installation ntime to a few weeks
Each conventional substation requires several months for
installation.
In SF6 substations, The time-consuming is highly cost for
galvanized steel structures and it is eliminated.
Heavy foundations for galvanized steel structures,
equipment support structures ...etc are also eliminated.
The results are economy and reduced project execution time.
Modules are factory assembled, tested and dispatched with
nominal SF6 gas.
Site erection time is reduced to final assembly of modules

5-Reduced maintenance and consequently, lower


cost
6. The safety is increased:
As the enclosures are at earth potential there is no possibility
of accidental contact by service personnel to live parts.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.9.4 GIS Disadvantages:


1. Excessive damage in case of internal fault. Long outage
periods as the repair of damaged part at site may be difficult.
2. Requirement of cleanliness is very stringent. Dust or
moisture can cause internal flashovers.
3. Such substations are generally indoor, so they need a
separate building. This is generally not required for
conventional outdoor substations.
4. Procurement of gas and supply of gas to site is
problematic, adequate stock of gas must be maintained.

5. Project needs almost total imports including SF6 Gas.


Spares conventional substation is totally indigenous up to
400 kV.

2.9.5 GIS Applications:

1. Main distribution stations inside cities


2. Main distribution stations for important customerers
3. Main distribution stations in zones with pollution salt, or
risk of explosion.
4. Main distribution stations with special characteristics
(underground stations, shelters of reinforced concrete, etc.).
5. Classic installation expansion, in case of reduced space.
6. Mobile transformation stations.

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2.9.6 GIS Requirements:

The following requirement are important to satisfy,


the requirement of GIS can be summarized as :
1. Conductors which conduct the main circuit current and transfer
power these are of copper or aluminum tubes.
2. Conductors need insulation above grounded enclosures,
conductors also need phase to phase insulation, in SF6 GIS these
insulation requirements are met by cast resin insulators and SF6 gas
insulation.
3. Gas filled modules have nonmagnetic enclosures, enclosures are
of aluminum alloy or stainless steel, a adjacent modules are joined by
means of multi-bolts tightened on flanges.
4. Various circuit components in main circuit are: CB, Isolator,
Earthing switches for conductors, CTs, VTs, cable-ends, Bushing-
ends and Bus-
Bars, each of these main components has its own gas -filled metal
enclosed module.
5. Gas filling, monitoring system.
6. Auxiliary low voltage DC system, low voltage AC supply system,
control, protection and monitoring systems.
7. The bus-bars are conducting bars to which various incoming and
outgoing bays are connected. In SF6 GIS the bus-bars are laid
longitudinally in GIS hall. The bays are connected to bus-bars
crosswise, bus-bars are either with a three-phase enclosure or single
phase enclosure

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2.9.7 GIS COMPONENTS

2.9.7.1Switchgear Definition
A sitchgear is a general term that covering switching devices
and their combination with associated control, measuring,
protective and regulating equipment, also assemblies of such
devices and equipment with associated inter
connections,accessories, enclosures and supporting
structures, intended in principle for use in connection with
generation, transmission, distribution and conversion of
electric energy,
A switchgear installation contains all the apparatus and
auxiliary equipment necessary to ensure reliable operation of
the installation and a secure supply of electricity.
Three phase AC High-voltage switchgear installations with
operating voltages of up to 800 kV are used for distributing
electricity in towns and cities , regions ,industrial centers, and
also for power transmission.

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The voltage level employed is determined by the transmission


capacity and the short-circuit capacity of the power system.

2.9.7.2 The main switchgear


equipments:

1- Circuit Breaker
2-Disconnector switch
3- Earthing switch
4-Instruement transformer
a- current transformer
b- voltage transformer
5- cable connection
6- Transformer connection

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1- Circuit Breaker:
are mechanical switching devices able to make, carry and
interrupt currents occurring in the circuit under normal
conditions, and can make, carry for a specified time and break
currents occurring in the circuit (e.g. short circuit) under
specified abnormal conditions.
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch
designed to protect an electrical from damage caused by
overload or short circuit.
Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by
interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical
flow.\
Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be
replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or
automatically) to resume normal operation

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2.9.7.2.1 Design of Circuit Breaker:


Each CB comprises three single-phase metal enclosed breaker
poles.
Each Pole consists of operating mechanism, the interrupter
column with 2 interrupting chambers in series & the enclosure
with the basic support structure.
To guarantee simultaneous interruption, the chambers are
mechanically connected in series.One grading capacitor
guarantees an equalized voltage distribution.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

2- Disconnector Switch:
are used for galvanic isolation of networks or sections of
switchgear installations.
As an independent air-insulated device, they form a visible
isolating distance in their open position.
They are suitable for switching small currents ( 0.5A) or also
larger currents if the voltage does not change significantly
between the contacts of a disconnector pole during switching
(commutation currents).
Disconnectors have a moving contact that opens or closes a
gap between stationary contacts when activated by an
insulating operating rod that is itself moved by a sealed shaft
coming through the enclosure wall, the Figure 3.2 shows a
disconnector with its main parts.
The stationary contacts have shields that provide the
appropriate electric field distribution to avoid too high a
surface stress.
The moving contact velocity is relatively low compared to a
circuit breaker moving contact,
And the disconnector can interrupt only low levels of
capacitive current (e.g. disconnecting a section of GIS bus) or
small inductive currents (e.g. transformer magnetizing
current).

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Disconnectors can carry currents under operating conditions


continuously and under abnormal conditions, such as short
circuit, for a specified time (1s, 3s)
Disconnectors are safety devices used to open or to close a
circuit when there is no current through them.
They are used to isolate a part of a circuit, a machine, a part of
an overhead line or an underground line so that maintenance
can be safely conducted..
Disconnectors are almost entirely actuated by motor driven
operating mechanisms,
But manual mechanisms are also used for earthing switches.
The operating mechanism is either mounted directly on the
base frame of the disconnector or earthing switch or placed at
operator level (1.20 m above ground level).

Motor operated mechanisms may also have an emergency


manual actuator in case of failure of auxiliary power or for
adjustments.

The mechanisms of the disconnectors and earthing switches


can be interlocked relative to each other and to the associated
circuit-breakers to prevent maloperation.
Motor operated mechanisms have an indicator switch contact
for the relevant device incorporated into the control circuit of
the mechanism.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

Manual and motor operated mechanisms can also be fitted


with a locking solenoid, which prevents manual switching
when there is no power and also breaks the control circuit of
the motor mechanism with a separate auxiliary contact.
Mechanical interlocking between disconnectors and earthing
switches is also possible with directly mounted earthing
switches.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

3-Earthing switches:
are used for earthing and short-circuiting de-energized station
components
Earthing switches can withstand currents during a specified
time (1s, 3s) under abnormal conditions, such as a short
circuit,
But they are not required to carry continuous operating
currents.
In general, earthing switches are combined with the adjacent
disconnectors to form one unit.
However, earthing switches can also be installed separately.
The earthing switches can be adapted to diverse components,
and according to the layout and the buyer specifications, can
be mounted in any point of the installation, as maintenance
earthing switches or as fast-closing earthing switches.
Locking bolts provided with padlocks or similar devices
ensure the locking in the desired position.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

There are three Fundamental earth switches can


be used in a GIS substation:
Maintenance Earth Switch (MES).
Portable Maintenance Earth Device (PMED).
Fault Making Earth Switch (FMES)

4-Instrument transformers
Their function is to transform high voltages and currents to
values that can be unified or measured safely with low internal
losses.
With current transformers, the primary winding carries the
load current, while with voltage transformers, the primary
winding is connected to the service voltage
The voltage or the current of the secondary winding is
identical to the value on the primary side in phase and ratio
except for the transformer error.
Current transformers operate almost under short circuit
conditions while voltage transformers operate at no-load
Primary and secondary sides are nearly always electrically
independent and insulated from one another as required by
the service voltage. Above a service voltage of 110 kV,
Instrument transformers are frequently manufactured as
combined current and voltage transformers.

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The main functions of the instrument transformers


can be summarized in the following:
Measuring current and voltage in high voltage transmission
lines and switchgears during normal and fault conditions.
Insulate the control circuits from the network.
Transform the current and voltages to standardized levels for
control equipment as relays and meters, currents are
converted to (1A or 5A), and the voltages are converted to
(100V, 110V or 120V)

In modern substation and bay control systems:


current and voltage transformers can be replaced by sensors.
They offer the same accuracy as conventional instrument
transformers.
The output signal, A/D-converted, is processed by the digital
bay control units

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

A- Current transformers:

The GIS conductor is the single turn primary for the CT


CTs inside the enclosure must be shielded from the electric
field produced by the high voltage conductor or high transient
voltages can appear on the secondary through capacitive
coupling.
For CTs outside the enclosure, the enclosure itself must be
provided with an insulating joint, and enclosure currents
shunted around the CT. Both types of construction are in wide
use.

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B-Voltage Transformer :
VTs are one-phase (phase-to-ground connection) and can be
inductive or capacitive

The primary winding is supported on an insulating plastic film


immersed in SF6.
The VT should have an electric field shield between the
primary and secondary windings to prevent capacitive
coupling of transient voltages.
The VT is usually a sealed unit with a gas barrier insulator.
The VT is either easily removable so the GIS can be high
voltage tested without damaging the VT, or the VT is provided
with a disconnect switch or removable link.
The insulation among the layers of the primary winding is
elaborated with plastic sheets, and the insulation between the
primary winding, covered by a shielding electrode, and the
external casing is SF6.
The voltage transformer is accommodated in an independent
gas compartment separated from the others by a conical
fastening insulator.
The high voltage connection is performed through an
interconnection bolt, the opposite extreme of the primary
winding, connected to ground
AS well as the extremes of the secondary windings, are
carried in a gas-tight fashion out of the transformer casing,

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

and jointed to the terminals for the external connections of the


connection box.
In the capacitive voltage transformer, the core and the
windings are replaced by a capacitive divider, created between
the metallic casing and the conductor.
The capacitive divider is coupled to an operational amplifier
that provides the signalling to the protection and
measurement devices.

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

5- CABLE TERMINATION:
High-Voltage cables of various types are connected to SF6
switchgear via cable connection assembly & also it enables
the GIS & Cables to be tested separated

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Chapter 1 Elements of High Voltage Substation

6- Transformer connection:
consists of Oil/SF6 bushing, the enclosure, the main circuit
end terminal & removable connection.

For High-Voltage test on GIS, transformer is isolated from


switchgear by dismantling the removable connection

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 216


Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Chapter (3) Protective relays

All electric power systems constitute certain basic components


such as generators, transformers, transmission lines and motors.
But we all know that for proper and efficient functioning the power
system incorporates many other important components,
protective Relays are one of those vital constituents of the power
system.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Faults on power systems risk


Severe damage to the faulted equipment:
Excessive current may flow;
Causes burning of conductors or equipment windings;
Arcing - energy dissipation;
Risk of explosions for oil - filled switchgear, or when in
hazardous environments.
Damage to adjacent plant :
-As the fault evolves, if not cleared quickly;
-Due to the voltage depression / loss of supply.
Mechanical damage during Short Circuits
Very destructive in bus bars, isolators, supports, transformers,
and machines
Damage is instantaneous

Relays
Relay is a device when detects the fault supplies information to the
breaker for circuit interruption
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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Working principal of relay


When a fault takes place, the current, voltage, frequency, and
other electrical variables behave in a peculiar way. For
example -Current suddenly increases
-Voltage suddenly decreases
Relays can measure the currents and the voltages and detect that
there is an over current, or an under voltage, or a combination of
both. Many other detection principles determine the design of
protective relays.

CTs CB

Protected
Control Equipment

Relay

VTs

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Functions of Protective Relay


To sound an alarm or to close the trip circuit
To disconnect the abnormally operating part so as to
prevent subsequent faults
To isolate or disconnect faulted circuits or equipment
To localize the effect of fault to improve system stability,
service continuity and system performance
To minimize hazards to personnel

Desirable Qualities of Protective Relaying


Selectivity (Discrimination)
The ability to detect a fault within a specified zone of a network and
to trip the appropriate CB(s) to clear this fault with a minimum
disturbance to the rest of that network.

Reliability: System reliability consists of two elements:


dependability and security.
Dependability: The probability of not having a failure to
operate under given conditions for a given time interval.
Security: The probability of not having an unwanted
operation under given conditions for a given time
interval.
Speed & Time
The clearance of faults in the shortest time is a fundamental
requirement (transmission system), but this must be seen in
conjunction with the associated cost implications and the
performance requirements for a specific application.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Stability:
The term stability is usually associated with unit protection
schemes and refers to the ability of the protection system to remain
unaffected by conditions external to the protected zone, for
example through load current and external fault conditions.

Below Fig. is a typical example of power system sections with their


protection systems. WhereG1 is a generator. T1 is a transformer.
B1... B5 are bus bars. L45 is a transmission line (TL),
RG is a generator protective relay. RT is a transformer protective
relay. RB is a bus protective relay. RL-4... RL-9
are TL protective relays. C1... C9 are CBs.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

History of protective relay

Electromechanical Relays(EMR) : In electromechanical


relays contacts are open or closed by a magnetic force

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Solid State Relays(SSR): In solid state Relays there are no


contacts and switching is totally electronics

advantages
Electromagnetic Relays Solid-state Relays

Simplicity No mechanical movements


Not expensive Faster than EMR
Mechanical Wear No sparking between
contacts
Low Power Consumption

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Digital relays

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers (from ANSIC37.2

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Now we will state some relays which used in our project:


(1) Differential protection (87)
(2) Over current Relays (50, 51)
(3)) earth fault protection
(4) Lock out relay (86)

Differential protection principles

Differential principle is applicable to all part of the power system:


generation, motor, buses, transformer, line capacitor, reactor and
sometimes combination of these.
Differential protection as its name implies, compares the current
entering and leaving the protected zone and operates when the
difference between these currents exceeds a pre-determined
magnitude.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Operation

No Relay Operation if CTs Are


Considered Ideal
. During normal condition or However incase of internal fault
external fault the sum of the current condition the net current into the
flowing into the relays circuit is relay circuit is not zero
almost zero
.
Biased differential protection
Large external fault may cause false operation of simple differential
relay. To make the differential relay more stable to external faultsand
improve relay quality, its respectively to operation was increased by
inserting restraining coils. Two restraining coils and one operatingare
used. Restraining coil will opposite the operation of operating coil.
The relay will operate only when the operating force is higher than
restraining force.
PROTECTIVE RELAYS

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Biased differential relay c/cs

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

MAKE I set to increase relay sensitivity for


small internal fault

Transformer diff-relay connection


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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Over current protection


Over current relays are used for protection of lines, transformer,
generators and motors.
There are two types of over current relays:
instantaneous
TIME DELAY over current

Over current protection is that protection which the relay picks up


when the magnitude of the current exceeds the pickup level.
Over current protection includes the protection from overloads,
which means that equipment takes more current than its rated
current. This is usually protected by thermal relays.
Overload and maximum permissible temperature rise have limits
based on insulation class. When excessive current flows in a circuit,
it is necessary to trip the circuit breaker protecting that circuit. This
type of protection is usually provided by either time-delay or
instantaneous over current relays.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Time delay over current:


This device will trip its breaker if a short-circuit current exists for a
certain time, but not if the same current exists for a shorter time. This
allows much more flexibility in coordination by adjustment of current
setting and time, using the most applicable of several time-
characteristics.
The relay time characteristics differ by the rate at which the time of
operation of the relay decreases as the current increases. The time
characteristics for each family of over current relay consist of inverse,
moderately inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse, definite time.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Time-delay over current relay operating characteristic

The application of over current relay is generally more difficult and


less permanent than that of other types of relaying. This is because
the operation of over current relays is affected by variations of
short-circuit current magnitudes. These magnitude variations in
short-circuit current are caused by changes in system operation
and system configuration.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Instantaneous over current relay


To protect against very severe short circuits, such as three-phase
short circuit close to the source. Here instantaneous means with no
intentional time delay. Obviously, this is an example of a pure
magnitude type relay, which lacks flexibility to protect against low-
level short-circuit currents, However, the most damaging faults may
be detected much more quickly by instantaneous over current than
any other type of relay.
Consequently, this relay is often used with relatively high settings
to detect very severe faults, in conjunction with other types of
relays to detect the other faults.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Earth-Fault Protection
When the fault current flows through earth return path, the fault is
called Earth Fault. Other faults which do not involve earth are called
phase faults. Since earth faults are relatively frequent, earth fault
protection is necessary in most cases. When separate earth fault
protection is not economical, the phase relays sense the earth fault
currents. However such protection lacks sensitivity.
Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided. Earth
fault protection senses earth fault current. Following are the
method of earth fault protection.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection


1. Residually connected Earth-fault Relay
Referring to Fig1in absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three
line currents is zero. Hence the vector sum of three secondary
currents is also zero.
IR +I Y +I B =0
The sum (IR +I Y +I B ) is called residual current .The earth-fault relay is
connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs.1 and
Fig. 2), in the absence of earth-fault, Therefore, the residually connected
earth-fault relay does not operate. However, in presence of earth fault the
conditions is disturbed and (IR +I Y +I B ) is no more zero. Hence flows
through the earth-fault relay. If the residual current is above the pick-up
value, the earth-fault relay operates. In the scheme discussed here the
earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause
the residual current flow. Hence the protected zone is not definite. Such
protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection.

(Fig.1) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

(Fig.2) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault


protection
Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. 3).
Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig (3).
The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected
in neutral to earth connection.
Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting
earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level.
The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows
through the neutral-to-earth connected.
The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthling
(resistance, reactance or solid) and location of fault. In this type of
protection, the zone of protection cannot be accurately defined.
The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator
winding alone. The relay senses the earth faults beyond the
transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called
unrestricted earth-fault protection. The earth-fault protection by
relay in neutral to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Earthling. In case of large generators, voltage transformer is


connected between neutral and earth.

(Fig.3) Earth-fault protection by earth-fault-


relay connected
in neutral-to-earth circuit.

2- Restricted Earth Fault Protection


Restricted earth fault relay is that relay which can be defined
as half differential relay. Figure shows a connection diagram
for the restricted earth fault relay.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Trans.-REFR

This definition is due to its connection. This is relay compare the


current flow in:-
1-The neutral path
2- Current flow in the phases

- For internal faults


There is differential current which is transformed to volt by a very
high shunt resister and this value of volt is sufficient for operation
of the relay.
- For external faults

As example: outgoing feeders faults), the differential current in


this case is zero and the relay will not operate, and no tripping
for circuit breakers will occur.

A percentage differential relay has a certain minimum value of


pick up for internal faults. Faults with current below this value
are not detected by the relay.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Transformer Winding-to-core faults, which are single phase to


ground type, involving high resistance, fall in this category.
Therefore for such type of faults RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT
PROTECTION is used. The reach of such a protection must be
restricted to the winding of the transformer; otherwise it may
operate for any ground fault, anywhere in the system, beyond the
transformer, hence the name of this scheme.

REFR FOR TRANSFORMER

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Earth fault Protection with Core Balance Current


Transformers. (Zero Sequence CT)
In this type of protection (Fig.4) a single ring shaped core of magnetic
material, encircles the conductors of all the three phases. A secondary coil
is connected to a relay unit.

(Fig4) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault


protection

The cross-section of ring-core is Ample, so that saturation is not a


problem. During no-earth-fault condition, the components of fluxes
due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the
secondary current is negligible.
During earth faults, such a balance is disturbed and current is
induced in the secondary. Core-balance protection can be
conveniently used for protection of low-voltage and medium voltage
systems.
The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. Very
large cross-section of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10
A. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. Instantaneous relay


unit is generally used with core balance schemes.
Theory of Core Balance CT
. Let IA , IB and I C , be the three line currents and a , b and c be
corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core. Assuming
linearity, we get resultant flux as,
=k (IA + IB + I C )
Where k is a constant = K * Ia. Referring to theory of symmetrical
components
(IA + IB + I C )= 3 I c= I n
Where, Io is zero sequence current and In, is current in neutral to
ground circuit. During normal condition, when earth fault is absent,
(I A + IB+ IC) = 0
Hence r = 0 and relay does not operate
During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return
neutral path. For example for single line ground fault,
If = 3I o = In
Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant
flux r in the core. Hence core balance current transformer is also
called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT)

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Lock out relay


Lock out Relay is considered to be the Master Trip relay. It is a
latch relay once operated we have to reset it by manual operation.
Lock out relay is used for Generator protection, feeder protection,
Transformer protection, Turbine protection.
It is fixed in indoor Panel, Standard manufacturer only making
those relays. After clearing the entire fault that exists at anywhere
in the zone where the relay is located, we have to reset it by hand.
Normally available at 110Volts or 220Volts DC
Locks out relays are having multiple contacts for various trip
circuits to satisfy the customer requirements.

Why we need Lockout :


1- while we are focusing on Transformer Protection which it has
two ways in protection mechanical-electrical and we need to
guarantee if any fault (mechanical or electrical) takes place, the CB
trips so we have to connect the coils of two ways in parallel with
lock out relay which is connected to CB trip coil .
2- The Circuit Breakers trip coil requires high current, which cant
be achieved by normal relays coils, so we connect all coils to the
lockout relay which is capable of carrying high current
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-In Digital relays the Lockout relay becomes a function, not a
separate device.

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Function of lock out relay in the protection system:


(1) Trip: as mentioned before, its main function is to trip the circuit breaker
which is connected to it.
(2) Initiate breaker failure (IBF).
(3) Block close function
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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Initiate Breaker Failure

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Figure show how lock out relay can be used in tripping & in
initiating breaker failure (The Sequence for initiate breaker failure
signal)

As if internal fault exist at the transformer, differential relay


(87) Will detect the fault & send signal to lockout relay (86) which
will send trip signal to the trip coil (TC) of the circuit breaker and
one of its normally open contact will be closed in order to complete
the path of the dc supply energizing the over current relay (50).

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

So if the (TC) is successfully tripped, the over current relay


(50) will not detect any current so it wont operate and there is
no initiate breaker failure signal will be produced.

PROTECTIVE

4
If fault is not cleared, the over current relay(50) will detect
current which will be higher than its setting as fault current is
very high, so the (OC) relay will operate and its normally open
contacts will be closed.
One of its contacts will send another trip signal to the (TC) of
the circuit breaker and at the same time and another contact
will energize a timer (62).
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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

The time setting is set to give sufficient time to the (TC) to be


tripped.
If the (TC) is not tripped after the timer time is finished, it will
send a signal to another lockout relays (86) which will trip the
other (TC)s to isolate the faulty breaker.

PROTECTIVE

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Chapter 3 Transformer Protective Relays

Block close

Block close function is one of the important function that


lockout relay should do.
It prevents the closure of circuit breaker as long as the fault in
not cleared to protect the circuit breaker and other components
of the system form being damaged.
It is done by using a normally closed contact of the lock out
relay and adjusts it to be in series connection with the closing
coil of the circuit breaker (CC) as shown at the previous figure.
At the instant that 86 (LO) received a signal to trip the circuit
breaker, this normally closed contact which was mentioned
before will be open so there is no close signal will reach the
(CC) as the current path is open.

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Transformer Protection Schemes


Scheme 1 - Auxiliary Transformer Scheme
Drawings used to identify the connections in the
sub-station between all components and panels
Local control panel
Before talking about transformer protection we should
mention transformer local control panel

Types of transformer protection

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Protective relays in our scheme


1-Electrical protection
1. Differential relay.
2. over current relay.

3. Lock out relay (86).


4. Restricted earth fault relay.
5- Lock out relay.

2- Mechanical protection
1- Buchhloz relay.

2- Pressure relief device.


3- Oil temperature.
4- Winding temperature.

5- Oil level.

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Notes about Scheme


Short Isolate Facility
A current transformer should never be open-circuited while
main current is passing through the primary winding.
If the load is removed from the secondary winding while the
main circuit current is flowing, most of the primary winding
current becomes magnetizing current, Because the main
circuit is now mostly magnetizing current, the flux in the
core shoots up to a high level and a very high voltage
appears across the secondary.
Due to the high turn ratio usually found in these
transformers, the voltage in this condition can reach a
dangerously high level, which can break down the
insulation.
It also becomes a hazard to personnel. The high flux can
saturate the core and result in strong residual magnetism
left in the core, thereby increasing magnetization current
and introducing error in the transformation ratio. One has to
put a short on the secondary winding before removing the
secondary load while the main current is flowing through the
primary winding.

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Test Socket

Test links are an important accessory for Protection,


metering & control panels. They enable test technicians to
quickly & safely isolate protection relays so that test Signals
may be injected & system Performance verified.

Features

1. Reduction in down time of the equipment under test-

2. Testing does not cause disturbance to wiring, terminals, or


equipment setting.

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

3.
Exi
sti
ng
au
xili
ary
su
ppl
y
to
th
e
eq
uip
me
nt
un
de
r
tes
t
ma
y
be
Iso
lat
ed.

4. Ct shorting &connect test equipment

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Schemes Arrange:
AC Supply Scheme

DC Supply Scheme

Differential Relay Scheme

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Over Current & Restricted Earth Fault Relay Scheme

Mechanical Protection Scheme

Mechanical Protection Trip Scheme

Electrical Protection Trip Scheme

Breaker Failure & Trip Coil & S/S Trip Scheme

ANNUNCIATION CARD

SCADA System

Z-sheet

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Transformer Protection Schemes


Scheme 2 - Medium voltage 33KV Switchgear
Scheme Introduction
U

About Medium voltage (33KV) switchgear:


It contains of (2 LBS +2CB) with 2 incoming and 2 outgoing.
It contains Power Transformer with rating 10 MVA.
it is protected by Digital Relay with multi function.
It contains Metering Devices(Voltmeter-Ammeter).

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Ac and Dc Supply:
The AC supply in this scheme is provided by one winding
Transformer with rating 33kv/220v

The Ac supply provides:

1-Heating and lightning circuit


2-CB motor circuit
3-Power supply unit
4-Control circuit Supply

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

Scheme in Details Single Line Diagram

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

2- The DC supply

-using for feeding the Relay coils with Dc current


- If the Relay coils does not feeded with Dc , the relay will not
operate .

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

2-Metering:
- It is required to measure Power Quantities like (voltage
Ampere-Power)
-We achieve that by using Instrument transformers
connecting to measuring devices

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

For Current :

-The CT has one core designed for measuring connecting


to Ammeter through Switch .

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

For Voltage :

-The VT has only core for measuring with rating


(33KV-110V) connecting to Voltmeter with rate (0-110v)
through Switch.
-Also, we have anther connection for remote metering in
protection and control room .
- There is an device called capacitive Voltage indicator which
used to indicate voltage .

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

3-Incoming cell
Incoming cell consists of :
1- 3-ph transimission line

2- Load break switch to provide making or breaking of specified


currents

3- Earthing switch : is necessary to earth the conducting parts


before maintenance and also to provide deliberate short-
current while testing.

4- Capacitive voltage indicator: to detect the presence of voltage


in a wire or piece of equipment without actually making direct
contact with the conductor or energized part .

5- Zero sequence CT: used for ground fault sensing and can be
used to detect a ground fault on a circuit by summing the
current on the three phase legs.

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

4-Trip Circuit

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

5-Alarm

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

6-CT and Relay connection

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Chapter 4 Transformer Protection Schemes

6- Outgoing Cell

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Part 1 - How to Size Transformer

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Steps of Sizing a transformer:

1.Characterize the load:


Obtain the voltage required by the load. With this
information, the scaling required in the transformer can be
determined as the ratio of the AC mains voltage to the needed
load voltage. Keep in mind that the utility company will only
guarantee the voltage accuracy of the AC mains to plus or
minus 10 percent.
Determine the current required by the load under normal
operating circumstances.

Define the short circuit current that the load will present.
Many loads, such as motors, require a large burst of current
(referred to as inrush current) to break the load free of a
standing start and transition the load to normal operating
conditions.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

2.Determine the transformer size needed to


support normal load operations:
The answer will be different for single phase transformers
versus 3 phase transformers. Utilities provide 3 phase mains,
using 3 wires. Often at the point of entry into a building only 1
of the 3 phases is supplied, using 2 wires.

Figure the transformer size needed for a single phase


transformer. This size is determined as voltage required by the
load under normal operating conditions times current required
by the load under normal operating conditions , divided by
1000 and the unit of the result will be (KVA)




Calculate the transformer size needed for a 3 phase
transformer. The 3 phase power requirements are determined
as

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

3-Make transformer size allowance for inrush


current:
Find the rated full load output capability of the transformer
Irated in amperes
The rated full output capability of a single phase transformer
is determined as transformer divided by V.
The rated full load output capability of a 3 phase transformer
is determined as KVA divided by (V*3). KVA

4-Characterize the impedance of the transformer:



The impedance of a transformer (Z) ; =

Calculate the short circuit capacity (Isc) of the transformer

=

5-Recalculate the required transformer size:


The transformer Isc must support the inrush requirement of
the load.
If the load short circuit current found when the load was
characterized is more than the calculated Isc of the
transformer kVA chosen for normal operating conditions, the
next larger KVA size transformer must be chosen and the
calculations redone.
Continue iterating to higher KVA transformers until the Isc of
the transformer can support the load short circuit current.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Part 2 - Cable Sizing

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

1-Introduction:
Cable (or conductor) sizing is the process of selecting
appropriate sizes for electrical power cable conductors. Cable
sizes are typically described in terms of cross-sectional area,
American Wire Gauge (AWG) or kcmil, depending on
geographic region.

2-Why I need these calculations?


The proper sizing of cables is important to ensure that
the cable can:
A-Operate continuously under full load without being
damaged
B-Provide the load with a suitable voltage
(and avoid excessive voltage drops)
c-Withstand the worst short circuits currents flowing
through the cable

3-When to do the calculation?


This calculation can be done individually for each
power cable which needed to be sized, or
alternatively, it can be used to produce cable sizing
waterfall charts for groups of cables with similar
characteristics (e.g. cables installed on ladders
feeding induction motors)

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

4-General Methods:
When sizing a cable, the following general process is typically
followed:

A-Gather data about the cable, its installation conditions and


the load that it will carry, etc

B-Determine the minimum cable size based on Ampacity (


continuous current carrying capacity)

C-Determine the minimum cable size based on voltage drop


considerations

D-Determine the minimum cable size based on short circuit


temperature rise

E-Select the cable based on the highest of the sizes calculated


in the steps above

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Data Gathering
you will need to obtain the following data:

1-Basic cable data


The basic characteristics of the cable's physical
construction, which includes:
A - Conductor material - e.g. copper or Aluminum

B-Insulation or cable type - e.g. PVC, XLPE, EPR (for


IEC cables), TW, THHW, XHH, etc (for NEC cables)

C-Number of cores - single core or multi-core (e.g.


2C, 3C or 4C)

2- Load data

The characteristics of the load that the cable will supply, which
includes:

A- Number of phases, e.g. three phases or single phase

B- System / source voltage

C- Full load current (A) - or calculate this if the load is


defined in terms of power (kW)

D- Full load power factor


E- Distance / length of cable run from source to load - this
length should be as close as possible to the actual route of
the cable and include enough contingency for vertical
drops / rises and termination of the cable tails

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Cable installation

How the cable will be installed, which includes:

A-Installation method - e.g. cable tray / ladder, in


conduit / raceways, against a wall, in air, directly
buried, etc

B-Ambient or soil temperature at the installation site

C-Cable grouping, i.e. the number of other cables


that are bunched together or installed in the same
area
D-Cable spacing, i.e. whether cables are installed
touching or spaced

E- Soil thermal resistivity (for underground cables)

F-For single core three-phase cables, are the cables


installed in trefoil or laid flat?

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

2. Cable Selection Based on Ampacity, Hint:


what is the meaning of Ampacity?

The Ampacity of a cable is the maximum current that can flow


continuously through a cable without damaging the insulation.
It is sometimes also referred to as the continuous current
rating or current carrying capacity of a cable.

Current flowing through a cable generates heat through the


resistive losses in the conductors, dielectric losses through
the insulation and resistive losses from current flowing
through any cable screens / shields and armouring.

A cable's constituent parts (particularly the insulation) must be


capable of withstanding the temperature rise and heat
emanating from the cable
Cables with larger conductor cross-sectional areas (i.e. more
copper or aluminum have lower resistive losses and are able
to dissipate the heat better than smaller cables. Therefore a 16
mm2 (or 6 AWG) cable will have a higher Ampacity than a 4
mm2 (or 12 AWG) cable.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Installed / De-rated Ampacities


When the proposed installation conditions differ from the
base conditions, de-rating (or correction) factors can be
applied to the base ampacities to obtain the actual installed
current ratings.
International standards and cable manufacturers will provide
de-rating factors for a range of installation conditions, for
example ambient / soil temperature, grouping or bunching of
cables, soil thermal resistivity, etc. The installed current rating
is calculated by multiplying the base current rating with each
of the de-rating factors, i.e.
Ic = Ib . kd
Where
Ic is the installed / de-rated Ampacity of the cable (A)
Ib is the base cable Ampacity (A)
k d are the product of all the de-rating factors
For example, suppose a cable had an ambient temperature de-
rating factor of k amb = 0.94 and a grouping de-rating factor of
k g = 0.85, then the overall de-rating factor k d = 0.94x0.85 =
0.799. For a cable with a base Ampacity of 42A, the installed /
de-rated Ampacity would be Ic = 0.799x42 = 33.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

4-Cable Selection Based on Voltage Drop

A cable's conductor can be seen as an impedance and as a


result, whenever current flows through a cable, there will be a
voltage drop across it, derived by Ohm's Law (i.e. V = IZ). The
voltage drop will depend on two things:
1-Current flow through the cable - the higher the current flow,
the higher the voltage drop
2-Impedance of the conductor - the larger the impedance, the
higher the voltage drop

The impedance of the cable is a function of the cable size


(cross-sectional area) and the length of the cable. Most cable
manufacturers will quote a cable's resistance and reactance in
Ohms/km or Ohms/ft.

For AC systems, the method of calculating voltage drops


based on load power factor is commonly used. Full load
currents are normally used, but if the load has high startup
currents (e.g. motors), then voltage drops based on starting
current (and power factor if applicable) should also be
calculated.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

For a three phase system:

For a single phase system:

Where
V is the three phase or single phase voltage drop (V)
I is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)
Rc is the ac resistance of the cable (Ohms/km or Ohms/ft)
Xc is the ac reactance of the cable (Ohms/km or Ohms/ft)
Cos(phi) is the load power factor (pu)
L is the length of the cable (m or ft)

When sizing cables for voltage drop, a maximum voltage drop


is specified, and then the smallest cable size that meets the
voltage drop constraint is selected. For example, suppose a
5% maximum voltage drop is specified. 16mm2, 25mm2 and
35mm2 cables have calculated voltage drops of 6.4%, 4.6%
and 3.2% respectively. The 25mm2 cable is selected as it is the
smallest cable that fulfils the maximum voltage drop criteria of
5%.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Maximum voltage drops are typically specified because load


consumers (e.g. appliances) will have an input voltage
tolerance range. This means that if the voltage at the appliance
is lower than its rated minimum voltage, then the appliance
may not operate correctly.

In general, most electrical equipment will operate normally at a


voltage as low as 80% nominal voltage. For example, if the
nominal voltage is 230VAC, then most appliances will run at
>184VAC. Cables are typically sized for a more conservative
maximum voltage drop, in the range of 5 to 10% at full load.

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

5. Cable Selection Based on Short Circuit


Temperature Rise

Note that short circuit temperature rise is not


required for cable sizing to NEC standards.
- During a short circuit, a high amount of current can flow
through a cable for a short time.
- This surge in current flow causes a temperature rise within
the cable.
- High temperatures can trigger unwanted reactions in the
cable insulation, sheath materials and other components,
which can prematurely degrade the condition of the cable.
- As the cross-sectional area of the cable increases, it can
dissipate higher fault currents for a given temperature rise.
Therefore, cables should be sized to withstand the largest
short circuit that it is expected to see.
-The minimum cable size due to short circuit temperature rise
is typically calculated with an equation of the form:

Where
A is the minimum cross-sectional area of the cable (mm2)
i is the prospective short circuit current (A)
t is the duration of the short circuit (s)
k is a short circuit temperature rise constant

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

The temperature rise constant is calculated based on the


material properties of the conductor and the initial and final
conductor temperatures. IEC 60364-5-54 calculates it as
follows:

For copper cables:

For Aluminum cables:

Where
theta-i and theta-f are the initial and final conductor
temperatures respectively.

As a rough guide, the following temperatures are common for


the different insulation materials:

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

ETAP CALCULATIONS
Single line diagram

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

ETAP Example

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

1-Adjust settings of (power grid - Lumped load)

Power Grid

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

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Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Lumped Load

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 307


Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

Cable Sizing

1- Length

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 308


Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

2-select cable type

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 309


Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

3 - Loading

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 310


Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

4 - Ampacity

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 311


Chapter 5 Transformer and Cable Sizing

5 - Sizing

| Electric Substation Protection and Sizing 312