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The 8th Tank & Refinery Conference

In-service Inspection of
Sealing Surfaces of Flanges
The 4 Basic Elements of Corrosion

(c) Electrolyte

Fe2+ OH- O2
(a) Anode (b) Cathode
Fe e-

(d) Electrical
contact
Crevice corrosion

1) Corrosive conditions oxygen consumed in crevice cathode


reaction stops
2) Cathode process continues on free surfaces pH drops in crevice.
3) Low pH = favourable conditions for the anode.
4) Occurs in all metallic materials but stainless steel is especially
sensitive.
Small anode + LARGE CATHODE anode corrodes RAPIDLY

Cathode

Cathode
Crevice corrosion in flange joints

Flange Joints are typical examples


of origins for Crevice corrosion

O2
OH- e-
Cl- Fe++
e-
O2
OH-
Crevice corrosion cases

Duplex flange exposed to seawater with too high temperature!!


SMO Flange

SMO flange exposed to seawater service. Incorrect heat


treatment of the material.
Corrosion of hubs

Corrosion
Corrosion of hubs

Noble facing
Crevice corrosion Ring Type Joint (RTJ)

Erosion-corrosion. Aggressive media with abrasive particles and high


flow velocities.
Leakage in flanges

Leakage in pipe flanges:

Product loss

Safety problems

Environmental problems
Inspection of flanges

Flanges in pipe facilities are usually


inspected visually, which requires:

- Shut down of production

- Disassemblement of flanges

Delivery time of replacement flanges


are often long.
Alternative Inspection Methods

Visual inspection.. Reliable method- but time consuming and


requires shutdown

Radiography Not possible

Conventional ultrasound Not possible, due to the complex geometry


and poor accessibility

Phased array technology Possible, but in order to position and size


flaws correctly, advanced evaluation is
necessary
Phased Array Technology

Phased array is an Ultrasonic test method

The main advantage of phased array is the


possibility to focus and steer beam angle
electronically
Phased Array Technology

A Phased Array Probe Consist of many small Ultrasonic elements


Each Element is Controlled Seperately
The Multiple waves add up to one single Electronically controllable wave

Phased array probe

Element
History of PA Flange Scanner

The Preliminary test with Flange scanning were perfomed with


manual Phased array, and subsequent a guiding tool.

Not reliable in real-live conditions

Not possible to position and size flaws


Types of Flanges
Types of Flanges
Final Flange Scanner System

Flange Scanner System:

- Phased Array Technology

- Automated Magnetic Wheel Scanner

- Collection of Ultrasound and Position Data

- 3D Phased Array Evaluation Software


Flange Inspection

Ray tracing verify that the volume of interest is covered


Beam simulation
3D Phased array analysis

3D Phased array analysis takes specimen geometry into account

The final result gives accurate position and size of flaws


3D Phased array

The phased array technology enables inspection of complex geometries,


even if the accesibility is poor, as for a flange.

3D phased array analysis takes the complex geometry of the flange into
account, and makes it possible to position and size areas with corrosion.
Raised face (RF) Flanges

Area with corrosion


Ring type Joints (RTJ) Flanges

1
3

2 3
2

2
Grayloc hubs

A second flange scanner is designed to


inspection of Grayloc hubs with clamps.
Grayloc hubs