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A Grammar

Biblical Hebrew
Revised Edition
Abingdon Press
A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew, Revised Edition
Copyright 199 5 Choon-Leong Seow
All rights reserved.
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or in writing to Abingdon Press, z.01 Eighth Avenue South, Nashville,
TN 37z.oz..
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Scow, C. L. (Choon-Leong)
A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew IC. L. Scow. - Rev. ed.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-687-15786-z. (cloth: alk. paper)
1. Hebrew language - Grammar. I. Title.
PJ4567.S4z.4 1995
49z..4'8z.4z.1 - de2.o
ISBN 13:978-o-687-15786-0
Composition by Kelby Bowers, Compublishing, Cincinnati, Ohio.
United Stares of America.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
JO JI 12-19 18
IX Preface
XI Abbreviations
Lesson I
I 1. The Alphabet 2.. The Writing 3. The Dages 4. The Bigagki(Jat Letters
5 1. Syllables 2.. The Simple Vowels 3. The Matres Lectionis 4. Full and
Defective Spellings 5. Stress 6. The Sewa:) 7. The Composite Sewa:>s
8. Stops vs. Spirants 9. The Qame? lfarufJ IO. The Furtive Pata~
11. The Quiescent :iAlep 12. Syllabification
17 1. The Noun: Gender and Number 2.. Changes in Nouns with Endings
23 1. Hebrew Roots and Patterns 2.. Weak Radicals 3. Nouns With Prefixes
38 I. Geminate Nouns 2. Segolate Nouns 3. Irregular Plurals
Excursus A
Introduction to the Dictionary
54 1. The Definite Article 2.. The Prefixed Prepositions 3. The Rule of Sewa:>
4. Other Prepositions 5. The Preposition yr,, 6. The Conjunction,
7. Loss of the Strong Dages 8. The Verbless Clause
Excursus B
Reading Markers and Pausal Forms
70 1. The Inflection of the Adjective 2.. Adjectival Patterns 3. Uses of the
Adjective 4. Agreement of the Adjective 5. Special Uses of yr,, 6. The
Adjective with 1N7? 7. Nouns in Apposition
iv I Contents
78 1. The Verbal Patterns 2. The Inflection of the Participle 3. The Qal
Active Participle 4. Uses of the Participle 5. The Qal Passive Participle
Excursus C
89 Nomenclature for Verbal Patterns and Root Types
92 1. The Independent Personal Pronouns 2. The Suffixed Pronouns 3. The
Marker of Definite Direct Object 4. The Object Pronouns 5. i1~;:J
I 04 1. The Demonstratives 2. Relative Clauses 3. The Particle of Existence
IV~ 4. The Particle of Negation T'~ 5. T'~ vs. N7 6. Interrogative Clauses
7. Exclamations and Emphatic Questions 8. iw~
as a Conjunction
I I 6 1. The Construct Chain 2. Construct Noun Forms 3. Participles and Ad-
jectives in Construct Chains 4. Translation of the Construct Chain
5. The Forms and Uses of 17:~ 6. The Superlative
Excursus D
129 Reference Grammars
I 32 I. Nouns with Pronominal Suffixes 2. Forms of the Noun before Suffixes
I 45 1. The Afformatives of the Perfect 2. The Qal Perfect 3. Uses of the Per-
fect 4. Syntax of the Verbal Clause 5. Negation of the Perfect 6. The
Directive i1T - 7. Construct Chains (cont.)
Excursus E
157 Poetic Hebrew
I 60 1. The Qal Perfect of Guttural Verbs 2. The Qal Perfect of III-:>AJep
Verbs 3. The Qal Perfect of III-He Verbs 4. The Qal Perfect of
11-Waw I Yog Verbs 5. Stative Verbs 6. Uses of i1~~ 7. Impersonal
Contents Iv
Excursus F
170 Orientation to the Hebrew Bible
173 r. The Piel Perfect 2. The Meaning of Verbs in Piel 3. The Piel Perfect
of II-Guttural and II-Res Verbs 4. The Piel Perfect of IJI-)Alep Verbs
5. The Piel Perfect of III-He Verbs 6. The Piel Perfect of II-Waw/Yoci
Verbs 7. The Piel Participle
l 8l 1. The Hiphil Perfect 2. The Meaning of Verbs in Hiphil 3. The Hiphil
Perfect of I-Guttural Verbs 4. The Hiphil Perfect of III-Guttural Verbs
5. The Hiphil Perfect of III-)Alep Verbs 6. The Hiphil Perfect of III-He
Verbs 7. The Hiphil Perfect of I-Nun Verbs 8. The Hiphil Perfect of
r-Waw Verbs 9. The Hiphil Perfect of I-Yoci Verbs 10. The Hiphil Per-
fect of II-Waw/Yoci Verbs 11. Hiphil Verbs as Causatives 12. The
Hiphil Participle
l 93 1. The Perfect with Object Suffixes 2. The Perfect of I I I-He Verbs with
Suffixes 3. Irregular Vocalization 4. Redundant Object Suffix
20 5 r. The Imperfect Inflection 2. The Qal Imperfect 3. The Uses of the Im-
perfect 4. Expressions of Will 5. Negation of Imperfects, Jussives, and
Cohortatives 6. The lot~ Particle
214 r. The Qal Imperfect of I-Guttural Verbs 2. The Qal Imperfect of I I l-
)Alep Verbs 3. The Qal Imperfect of III-He Verbs 4. The Qal Imperfect
of I-Nun Verbs 5. The Qal Imperfect of 1-Waw Verbs 6. The Qal Im-
perfect of I-Yoci Verbs 7. The Qal Imperfect of II-Waw/Yoci Verbs
8. The Verb';::,:
22 5 r. The Preterite 2. Discourse on Past Situations 3. Discourse on Future
Situations 4. The Waw-Consecutive Forms 5. Narrative Contexts
6. Concomitant Circumstances
vi I Contents
235 1. Distinctive Qal Jussive Forms 2. The Qal Cohortative of Weak Verbs
3. The Qal Imperative 4. Imperative Forms with Final ilT - 5. Negative
Commands 6. Imperatives as Interjections 7. The Imperative with a Re-
dundant 7 8. Commands in Narrative Sequence
24 7 1. The Imperfect and Imperative with Object Suffixes 2. The Qal Infini-
tive Absolute 3. Uses of the Infinitive Absolute
2 55 1. The Qal Infinitive Construct 2. The Qal Infinitive Construct of Weak
Verbs 3. Uses of the Infinitive Construct 4. The Negation of Infinitives
5. Synopsis of Verbs in Qal
264 1. The Piel Imperfect 2. The Piel Jussive, Waw-Consecutive, and Cohor-
tative 3. The Piel Imperative 4. The Piel Infinitives 5. Synopsis of Verbs
in Piel 6. The Numerals 7. The Distributive
2 75 1. The Hiphil Imperfect 2. The Hiphil Jussive, Waw-Consecutive, and
Cohortative 3. The Hiphil Imperative 4. The Hiphil Infinitives 5. Syn-
opsis of Verbs in Hiphil 6. Translation of 1
288 1. The Niphal Pattern 2. The Meaning of Verbs in Niphal 3. The
Niphal Perfect 4. The Niphal Imperfect 5. The Niphal Imperative
6. The Niphal Infinitives 7. The Niphal Participle 8. Synopsis of Verbs
in Niphal
298 1. The Hithpael Pattern 2. The Meaning of Hithpael Verbs 3. The Hith-
pael of the Strong Verb 4. The Metathesis and Assimilation of the In-
fixed Taw 5. The Hithpael of Weak Verbs 6. Synopsis of Verbs in
Hithpael 7. The Hishtaphel Pattern 8. Oaths
308 1. Geminate Verbs in Qal 2. Geminate Verbs in Niphal 3. Geminate
Verbs in Hiphil 4. Geminate Roots and Other Roots
Contents I vii
3 20 I. The Pua! Pattern 2. The Hophal Pattern 3. The Qal Passive 4. Condi-
tional Sentences
3 28 r. Pole!, Pola!, Hithpolel 2. Pilpel, Pol pal, Hithpalpel 3. Minor Patterns
4. Uses of~
3 34 r. Strong Verbs 2. I-Guttural Verbs 3. II-Guttural Verbs 4. III-Guttural
Verbs 5. IIl-)Alep Verbs 6. III-He Verbs 7. I-Nun Verbs 8. 1-Waw/ Yog
Verbs 9. 11-Waw Verbs 10. Geminate Verbs
354 English-Hebrew Glossary
3 57 Scripture Index
36 r Subject Index
The purpose of the book is to teach Biblical Hebrew grammar
through a combination of deductive and inductive methods.
The general outline of the book is deductive; elements of gram-
mar are presented systematically. Yet the approach adopted is
inductive, inasmuch as it utilizes biblical texts in the examples
and in the exercises. The student encounters a biblical text as
early as in Lesson I I and, by the end of the book, will have read
something from every book of the Hebrew Bible, including sev-
eral full chapters of prose and poetry.
A salient feature of the second edition of this grammar is its
emphasis on the use of the Hebrew-English dictionary. In order
to prepare for this task, some of the early lessons discuss in some
detail the idiosyncrasies of the so-called "weak radicals;' conso-
nants that are susceptible to changes in certain environments.
A thorough understanding of these radicals will make it much
easier to learn the large number of forms that appear to be irreg-
ular; otherwise, these forms will simply have to be learned by
rote. The purpose of the historical reconstructions of various
forms, then, is not academic but pedagogical: it is to equip the
student to work independently with the lexical tools as quickly as
possible. Moreover, following Lesson V, there is an excursus on
the use of the Hebrew-English dictionary, where the rules learned
in Lessons IV and V are reviewed inductively. From this point on
in the book, the student is expected and required to use the dic-
tionary constantly. There is, therefore, no Hebrew-English glos-
sary provided; the student is encouraged to use the dictionary
whenever there is a need, for only through constant practice will
one become comfortable with this important tool.
The major reading markers are introduced in Excursus B, fol-
lowing Lesson VI. Biblical texts cited after that excursus will in-
clude the markers. With the guidance of an instructor, the student
should learn to read the texts out loud, discerning the meaningful
units in each case. The instructor may, of course, want to supple-
ment the information provided in this grammar, or emphasize
certain of the markers.
x I Preface
The texts used to illustrate various grammatical points have
been carefully chosen. In most instances, the vocabulary and
forms in the examples should be familar to the student, thus giv-
ing one the opportunity to review. On the other hand, it is not
necessary to know all the words in order to get the point illus-
trated by the example. In each case, the student should pay atten-
tion to the issue at hand, focusing on any italicized word or words
in the illustration.
The emphasis from the beginning to the end of this book is on
reading actual biblical texts. The student encounters Biblical He-
brew with all its peculiarities. One will not, therefore, have to
move later on from the artificial language of an introductory text-
book to the "real world" of the Hebrew Bible. Thus, this text-
book endeavors to introduce the student not only to the grammar,
but to the language of the Hebrew Bible. Ideally the student
should have a teacher who serves as a knowledgeable guide and
commentator, who points to the pitfalls and promises of reading
the Bible in Hebrew.
This book is written primarily for my students. I write it to pass
on the love and knowledge of Hebrew imparted to me by my
teachers, particularly Professor Thomas 0. Lambdin, whose in-
fluence on me is evident at every turn. In the writing of this edi-
tion, I am grateful for the many helpful suggestions and words of
encouragement sent to me by colleagues who have used the first
edition. In particular, I want to thank Gordon]. Hamilton,
F. W. Dobbs-Allsopp, Richard E. Whitaker, Gerald Bilkes, and
Leslie Traylor, all of whom read through some version of the man-
uscript and helped save me from many errors. Richard Whitaker
and Gregory Glover spent countless hours helping me sort
through seemingly insurmountable computer problems. Jeffrey
Rogers went beyond the call of duty and friendship in his editorial
work. I remain, of course, solely responsible for the content of
this book and whatever failings there remain. Finally I must also
acknowledge the contribution of my wife, Lai-King, without
whose support and understanding this book would never have
been completed.
abs. absolute state
B DB Brown, Driver, Briggs, Lexicon
(see Excursus A)
B HS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
(see Excursus F)
C consonant
Chron Chronicles
cp common plural
consec. consecutive
cs common singular
cs. construct state
Dan Daniel
Deut Deuteronomy
du dual
Eccl Ecclesiastes
Esth Esther
Exod Exodus
Ezek Ezekiel
Ezr Ezra
fd feminine dual
fp feminine plural
fs feminine singular
Gen Genesis
GKC Gesenius-Kautzsch-Cowley, Grammar
(see Excursus D)
Hab Habakkuk
Hag Haggai
Hi. Hip hi I
Hisht. Hishtaphel
Hith. Hithpael
Ho. Hophal
Hos Hosea
impf. imperfect
xii I Abbreviations
1mpv. imperative
inf. infinitive
Isa Isaiah
Jer Jeremiah
Josh Joshua
Judg Judges
)USS. jussive
Kgs Kings
Lam Lamentations
Lev Leviticus
Mal Malachi
Mic Micah
md masculine dual
mp masculine plural
ms masculine singular
MT Massoretic Text
Nah Nahum
Neh Nehemiah
Ni. Niphal
Num Numbers
Obad Obadiah
Prov Proverbs
Ps Psalms
Pu. Pua!
Sam Samuel
v verse
Zech Zechariah
Zeph Zephaniah
Lesson I
1. The Alphabet
The Hebrew alphabet consists only of consonants.
Classical Modern I
Sign Name Trans/it. pronunciation pronunciation
N :ifilep :)
see Note i below
::i bet b b, as in "ban"
:i t, v, as in "van"
~ gimel g g, as in "god"
l g g, as in "dog" g, as in "god"
':'f d!ile! d
d, as in "day"
th, as in "they" d, as in "day"
il he:,
h, as in "hay"
w, as in "way" v, as in "van"
T zciyin z z, as in "Zion"
n !Je! h ch, as in "Bach"
t, re! t, as in "stop" t, as in "tank"
' yorJ y y, as in "yet"
, ::,


k, as in "king"
ch, as in "Bach"
I, as in "lake"
c~ mem m m, as in "moth"
7J nun n n, as in "neck"
0 same~ s s, as in "sack"
'j) Cayin c see Note ii below
~ pe(h) p p, as in "pat"
~ ~ p f, as in "fat"
r :ll ~arje(h) ts, as in "bets"
,v qop
q, as in "plaque"
r, as in "rash"
k, as in "king"
iv sin s s, as in "seen"
tv sin s sh, as in "sheen"
r-, taw t, as in "tank"
r, th, as in "thank" t, as in "tank"
1. Only pronunciations that differ from the classical are given.
2 I Lesson I
1. N is produced by a momentary stoppage of breath in the
throat; it may be compared with the silent h in English
(e.g., an heir).
11. Y is like N, but has a slightly rougher sound. Most students of
Hebrew do not distinguish Y from N in pronunciation, but one
must take care never to confuse the two in spelling.
2. The Writing
a. Most of the letters fit within an imagirn;iry square frame.
Compare the relative sizes and shapes of the letters.
b. Hebrew is written from right to left, but the characters are
represented in transliteration from left to right.
il'~nl nl;myh
c. When a kap, mem, nun, pe(h), or ~ac}.e(h) occurs at the end of
a word, it always takes the final form (1, C, T, ~. f); when it occurs
independently, or at the beginning or in the middle of a word, it
has the "medial" form (:1, ~. l, !>,~).In transliteration, however,
no distinction is made between medial and final forms.
C'~ mym Tnl ntn
d. There are several letters that are easily confused with one
another. One must take care to distinguish them both in reading
and in writing.
:J I? : :, ls !) p , ls Tn
lg l n Cm Os
1g , r , ls ~ ~ y c
i1 h
"~ nr tz,, s lV s
iw Tz Tn
Dages 1 3
The diiges is a dot put within a consonant, usually to indicate one
of two things.
a. The consonant is a stop (articulated with a momentary stoppage
of air, as in English b and p), not a spirant (articulated with the
friction of air through the lips, as in English v and f). This rule ap-
plies only to the six consonants to be discussed in l.4 below.
b. The consonant is doubled (e.g.,~= mm, 3 = nn, W= ss).
Note: When a diiges indicates only a stop (as in a.), it is called
weak (diiges Lene); when it indicates doubling (as in b.), it is called
strong (diiges forte).
4. The Begat},ke[Jat Letters
a. The consonants bet, gimel, dale!, kap, pe(h), and tiiw, known
as the begat;/kepaf letters, were originally each capable of two pro-
nunciations: they could be stops or spirants. (As indicated in the
chart in I.r, however, Modern Hebrew makes a distinction in pro-
nunciation between the stops and the spirants only in bet, kap,
and pe[h].)
Stops vs. Spirants
Stops Spirants
Voiced Unvoiced Voiced Unvoiced
!I b :::, t>
1 g l g
':J d , g
:::, k
!:) p
.r:, t
Note: A voiced consonant is one pronounced with a vibration of
the vocal chords.
4 I Lesson I
b. Only stops may be doubled; spirants are never doubled. Thus,
::2 may represent either b or bb, but never bb.
c. Since bega<},kepat letters may be doubled when they are stops,
adages within such a consonant may be weak (indicating only a
stop, but not doubling) or strong (indicating a doubled stop).
The rules for distinguishing the strong dages from the weak will
be given in I 1.8.
Note: A dages within a non-bega<},kefjat letter is always strong.
Exercise 1
a. Recite the alphabet from beginning to end and write it out in
its proper order, including the final forms in parentheses.
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. ysr:J[ 6. nptly rr. twbyhw
2. ycqb 7. ntn 12. mP~y
3. mlky~<},q 8. byt l~m 13. y~zq:J/
4. yrbcm 9. :Jsp 14 ~gy
5. :Jstr ro. :Jmws 15. dwc},
c. Transliterate the following:
I. C?tV1i' 6. ?M1~tV I I. i1',:)T
2. Ci1i::JM 7. 17~'nM 12. J1Y~tV
3 i1itv 8. l1'l 13. T'~'J::2
4. vnl' 9. J1!:ll 14. i1i'::J,
5 ,n, IO. y,i::Jn I 5 Y,J::J?
Lesson II
1. Syllables
Each Hebrew word may have one syllable or more.
a. Every syllable begins with one, and only one, consonant.
Hence, with only one exception (the conjunction u), a syllable
cannot begin with a vowel: thus, Pe/re~ (not Perle~).
b. Every syllable has one, and only one, vowel.
c. A syllable may end in a vowel or a consonant. When it ends in
a vowel, it is said to be open (e.g., Pe-); when it ends in a conso-
nant, it is said to be closed (e.g., -re~).
d. A syllable may be stressed (accented) or unstressed
2. The Simple Vowels
a. There are three classes of vowels in Hebrew: a, i, and u. In each
class there are vowels that are short and vowels that are long.
Short vowels have no special mark in transliteration; long vowels
are marked by a horizontal stroke above the letter, known as a
b. The following is a summary of the simple vowels. To indicate
the relative position of the vowel points, we show them with the
letter ::!. Our concern is with the vowels only, so ::! is not repre-
sented in transliteration.
6 I Lesson II
Long and Short Vowels
Class Sign Trans/it. Name Pronunciation
a ~ a pafab a, as in "car"
:::iT a qame? a, as in "car"
:::i',' e segol e, as in "met"
; e ?ere e, as in "they"
~ i Ii l;freq i, as in "unique"
:::iT 0 qame? IJiitufJ o, as in "loft"
u :::i... u/u qibbu? u, as in "rule"
::2 6 /Jo/em o, as in "role"
1. The vowel sign is usually placed under the consonant and
pronounced after it: 011$ ::,ii<}.iim, =mt CeniiQ.
11. The IJolem is the only vowel point that is placed above the
consonant it follows - at the top left hand corner of that
consonant: uptz.; soper, Jbj? qii(on.
m. The IJolem may be confused with the supralinear dot of the
letters tv and W. Indeed, in some printed texts a l;olem imme-
diately after tv may merge with the dot at the top left corner
of that letter, so that only one dot appears. A IJolem immedi-
ately before '11) may also merge with the dot that marks that
1v. Ijireq and qibbu? may be short or long. The short is more
common. One should assume that the vowel is short unless it
is in an open syllable (e.g., ?~r! diilniPel, ',~~ tulbal) or if it
is stressed (e.g., ii, diilwi<}., ,~~ cam/mu<}.).
v. The rules for distinguishing between qame? (ii) and qame?
IJatufJ (o) will be given later (see 9, below).
v1. A vowel that follows a final Kap or Nun will ordinarily ap-
pear to the left of that consonant: e.g., 9'~~ piilne/ kii, TTMJ1'
Matres Lectionis I 7
3. The Matres Lectionis
a. The alphabetic signs il, ,, and ', in addition to their normal
use as consonants, frequently function as markers of long vowels.
When the signs are used this way, they are not consonants.
Therefore, they are called matres lectionis, "mothers of reading"
(singular: mater lectionis).
b. The following is a summary of long vowels marked by
matres. Again, we show them with the letter:!!, but we are con-
cerned here only with the vowels; the ::::i is not represented in
Long Vowels with Matres
Class '-mater 1-mater il-mater
a i1:!I a(h)
':;! l
':ll... e il:!I.. e(h)
'~ e il~ e(h)
u i::::i 6 il::2 o(h)
~::::i u
1. , and ' may be used as matres in the middle or at the end
of a word, but i1 may be a mater only at the end of a word.
11. Vowels with matres are known by the names of the vowel
plus the vowel marker: J;freq-yo<f, ('. ), l;olem-waw (i), and
so forth. Only~ (u) has a distinctive name, srireq.
111. Some scholars transliterate all matres with the circumflex C).
But this makes it difficult for the student to know if e in any
situation stands for' . . ,' .. , il.,, or il .. , or if 6 represents i or il.
We will, therefore, transliterate the il-mater as h, but keep it
in parentheses to indicate that it is not to be taken as an ac-
tual consonant; all the other matres will be transliterated
with the circumflex (i, e, 6, etc.).
8 I Lesson I I
1v. Since i1 at the end of a word may be taken as a mater or as an
actual consonant, a dot (called the mappiq) is usually put in
the i1 when it is a consonant.
susiih (her horse) ;,9~0 susii(h) (mare)
4. Full and Defective Spellings
Long vowels in certain words are always or usually written with
matres; but in other instances, long vowels are either rarely (or
never) marked in this way. With experience one learns to expect
the mater in certain words. When a word 'is written with a mater,
it is said to have full spelling; when it is written without a mater
(where one is expected), it is said to be defective. There is no dis-
tinction in meaning between the full spelling and the defective
Full Defective
,,,':J diiwicj.
,,':J diiwicj. (David)
J:,i::, ko~a/J
J:,~ kokab
- - (star)
suca1 ~Y'IV si,ciil (fox)
T '
5. Stress
Every Hebrew word has a primary stress. In this book, primary
stress on individual words (when indicated) is indicated by the
sign< over the stressed syllable of the word in Hebrew script; but
in transliteration, stress is represented by ': cel}e<},. ,;
a. The primary stress of an independent word usually falls on the
ultima (last syllable). Less frequently, it falls on the penultima
(next-to-last syllable). Since the ultima usually receives the stress,
it will not be marked in this grammar; only syllables other than
the ultima will be marked for stress.
Stress I 9
,,1 da/wi<J. (stress on ultima)
,~ ce/Je4 (stress on penultima)
b. The stressed syllable is said to be tonic; the syllable immedi-
ately before the stress is pretonic, and the syllable before the pre-
tonic syllable is propretonic.
cip~7;) mimlmalqom
tonic syllable~ j \ ~ tonic syllable
pretonic syllable ) ~ pretonic syllable
propretonic syllable propretonic syllable
6.The Sewif'
The sewa:> is the sign. placed under a consonant to indicate either
a half vowel or no vo~el at all. When it represents a half vowel,
it is said to be vocal; when it represents nothing, it is said to be
silent. The vocal sewa:> sounds like the first vowel in the English
word "careen:' It is represented bye in transliteration (e.g., n,,~
berit). The silent sewa:> has no phonetic value, and so is not rep~
resented in transliteration. It simply indicates the close of a sylla-
ble; it is present under every consonant that closes a syllable,
except at the end Of a WOrd: 7~1tp7 yisra:)e/; ,~
a. The , in a word is vocal in the following situations.
i. It is at the beginning of a word.
,~:i~v> semu:)el C':;>?7? mela~im
ii. It is the second of two , in immediate succession.
:ii7?lp~ yismeru . : : . mizbehi
'M::JT~ .
iii. It comes immediately after a consonant with a strong dages.
:i,f1 dibberu '?::m
. -
: hakkeli
10 I Lesson l l
iv. It comes immediately after a long vowel.
b. The in a word is silent in the following situations.
i. It is at the end of a word, even if it is the second of
two in immediate succession.
: : ..
test l;'l?~ yalacjt
Note: The sewa:> in the final position is actually quite excep-
tional.1 It occurs only in the rare instance when a word ends in
two consonants.
ii. It is the first of two in immediate succession.
~,7?tp: yismeru ,n:::im
. : : . mizbehi
iii. It comes immediately after a short unstressed vowel. 2
1tt7~ maFa~ ;,~~n~ merka/Ja(h)
iv. It comes immediately after a stressed vowel.
7. The Composite Sewif)'s
a. The consonants N, ;,, n, and Y are called gutturals because they
are generally pronounced in the throat (Latin guttur). Due to the
way they sound, gutturals do not take the simple vocal sewa:>. In-
stead, they prefer one of the composite sewa:>'s. 3
b. Like the majority of vowels, composite sewa:>'s appear under
the consonants. The consonant n is used below as a reminder
that composite sewa:>'s usually appear under gutturals.
1. With very few exceptions, the final consonant of a word does not receive the silent
sewa 0 Final Kap (except for '9-), however, is normally written as l, e.g., l?~, 11$7~
2.. Under the first of two identical consonants, however, the, is always vocal: ''?iJ
hale/u (not hallu ).
3. This does not mean that composite sewa 0 's occur only with gutturals; occasionally
they may also occur with other consonants.
Composite Sewif>'s I 11
Sign Trans/it. Name Pronunciation
q a ~ate(J-patah same as pata~
n e ~ate(J-segol same as segol
0 ~ate(J-qame~ same as qame~-~iitu(J
c. Although a silent . may occasionally appear with a guttural
(e.g., l~f'~ spring), a composite sewii::> is far more common (e.g.,
::ip~~ Jacob). The composite sewii::> is always pronounced, but
rule 6.b.iii above suggests that we are to take the composite
sewii::> after a short unstressed vowel as closing the syllable and,
for the purpose of syllable division, technically silent. Thus, ow-
ing to the nature of gutturals, :Jj,~~ is pronounced with an addi-
tional a sound, but we should analyze the word as having two
Note: In this book, the technically silent composite sewii::> will be
indicated in parentheses.
d. Infrequently, a composite sewii::> may also appear with a non-
guttural consonant - especially Res - instead of a simple vocal
'!\:::l~i biiraku (instead of '!\:::lli biireku)
8. Stops vs. Spirants
In addition to the rules given in I.4, note the following.
a. If a bega(jke(Jat letter is in the initial position of a word, it will
be a stop (e.g., rn::, kohen), unless the preceding word ends in a
vowel (e.g., rn=> ,~~7 lipne kohen).
b. If a bega(jke(Jat letter is in the final position of a word, it will
ordinarily be a spirant (:Jit, tab), except in the rare instance when
it is doubled (?;11$ ::>att).
12 I Lesson II
c. If a bega(jkepat letter is immediately preceded by a vowel, it
will be aspirant (:2;7 le/Jab), unless it is doubled (i~'? libbo).
d. If a bega(jkepat letter is immediately preceded by a consonant,
it will normally (but not always) be a stop {Tflp7;) miskan).
9. The Qame~ lfiitufJ
As already mentioned in 2.b.v above, T may be either qame$ (a)
or qame$ batufJ (o).
a. In a closed, unaccented syllable, T is almost always o.
b. Before T:, the T sign is always o.
c. If the small vertical stroke called the mefeg (bridle) appears
with the T , the vowel is always a.
;,'V?lf fomra(h) keep! :i11?W samera(h) she kept
;,~:;,o bo~ma(h) wisdom ;,~:m ba~ema(h) she is wise
T : IT
C'7;"1N~ bo::,(o)halim in tents
f1~# ba::,are$ on the earth
IO. The Furtive Pata!,
When a word ends in rt, n, or '!iJ, an additional pdtab appears un-
der the guttural, if the word does not already end in an a-class
vowel. This furtive pdtab is pronounced before the final guttural,
although it is written under that guttural, and in most editions of
the Hebrew Bible, slightly to the right of center: I}~, (wind, spirit).
In transliteration, the furtive pdtab is most frequently indicated by
a raised letter a, but in this book it will be indicated by the letter a
in parentheses before the guttural.
rJ.i:J~ ga/Jo(a)h tall r:p,, ru(a)b spirit, wind
Furtive Pdta/:J I I 3
The furtive pdtab is not considered a vowel, not counted as a
syllable, and not stressed; it is understood that the stress is on the
vowel before the furtive pdta&. Thus, r1_i:ia is considered to have
two syllables, while rr,,
has one.
11. The Quiescent =>Alef>
Whenever N closes a syllable it is not vocalized, even though the
Hebrew character is written in the text. The silent sewa::, never ap-
pears under the N in such a case. In transliteration we represent
this quiescent ::,alep in parentheses: C'D?N? Lee)Lohim (to/for God).
12. Syllabification
Given the rules learned so far, one may conclude that the following
combinations (where C represents any consonant and v represents
any vowel) are theoretically possible.
Unstressed Stressed
Open Cv
[CvJ Cv
Cv/Cv Cv/C~
Closed CvC CvC
ICvC/CvCJ cvct c~c
1. The parentheses in the chart above indicate that Cv unstressed
and CvC/ CvC unstressed syllables are in fact exceptional. For
now the student should assume that they are unacceptable or
must be explained in some way.
11. The conjunction~ (u) is an exception to the rules inasmuch as
it is not preceded by a consonant (see 1.a).
,~~~lp~ ulselmu.Pel (and Samuel)
14 I Lesson I I
Study the following examples carefully, paying attention to the
proper division of syllables.
- PIJl~ mer I !Jaq ,~17? me I <Jab I her
17.~ me/le~ il?::>N :,oklla(h)
T: T - . -..: kelrulbim
0':Ji::> -
i,~w so/fJet H~tp~ mis I kan C'::>77'
'~H' con/yi ,~qtp~ yislraJ:Jel C';:i7N~ bee)llolhim
i11ir-l to/ra(h)
'7'3.'l noc(o)lmi
" T:T
IJYlP7? me I sall le(a )IJ
~il'~ pflhu 'D~J way/hi ilat!~ ma!J(a)/ne(h)
Note: When a strong dages is found within a word, that dages indi-
cates a syllable division.
01~ human, humanity, people, person, Adam (the first human)
mn~ ground, land, soil
n'!f covenant, treaty, alliance
'ill nation
word, thing, affair, matter
mr:! knowledge
:Ji1T gold
new moon, month. Adjective: win new
i1~:;>IJ wisdom. Adjective: c~m wise
m::i priest
~~~ silver, money
Vocabulary I I 5
1?~ king. i977?~ kingdom. m:,7~ kingship, reign.
Verb: 1'?~ to reign, rule
N':;J~ prophet
i;~ servant, slave. ;qi:J~ service, work. Verb: 1~ to serve,
work, till, worship
c7iY eternity, perpetuity
P'W (also ilj?1~) righteousness. Adjective: P''=li righteous
W1j? holiness, sanctuary (holy place). Adjective: Wi1i? holy
?ip voice, sound, thundering
Exercise 2
a. Write the following in Hebrew:
1. :Jissa(h) 6. :>;sah 11. mizbe(a)J;
2. l;o~mii(h) 7. yehCuja(h) I 2. ma:>(a)~ii/
3 semot 8. :>ah(a)r6n I 3. keruf;,tm
4. tehillim 9. liwyiitan 14. maPati
5 ga!Jo(a)h 10. se<ie(h) I 5. boc(o)ni
b. Transliterate and translate the following:
I. i1~1N
T T-:
5. ri~~ 9. 1:J1
2. w,n TT
6. N':Jl
IO. ?ip
3 rl'if 7. rnj I I. :JilT
4. C?iY T
8. w,ii
... 12. 'ill
1 6 I Lesson I I
c. Transliterate the following passage. Divide the words into
syllables and read the passage out loud. Then pick out the words
(including proper names) that you recognize, and translate them.
'?tqtv' 170 4 "11TP i1b'?iv 7iva
i1t::l '10~ r:iry'? i91a, m~::,ry i'l-1)1;
CJ'itg'01 t:i~iva, Pl~ '?:>~iJ iOia nr:ri?'?
(Prov 1:1-4) i19ra, ml! i-l)~'? i1Qi.l) Cl'~r:,=;i'? nr,7
4. The horizontal stroke (called a maqqep) simply means that the two words are read
together - pronounced as if they constituted one word.
Vocabulary I 1 5
1?~ king. :,~???~ kingdom. m:>7~ kingship, reign.
Verb: 17~ to reign, rule
N':;J~ prophet
1~;' servant, slave. :i1i::J service, work. Verb: 1~ to serve,
work, till, worship
C?il.' eternity, perpetuity
i'1~ (also ;"lj?1:F) righteousness. Adjective: i''1i righteous
lV1P holiness, sanctuary (holy place). Adjective: tVi1j? holy
?ii' voice, sound, thundering
Exercise 2
a. Write the following in Hebrew:
1. Jissa(h) 6. Jisah 11. mizbe(a)I;
2. l;o~ma(h) 7. yehu4a(h) I 2. ma:J(a)~a/
3 semot 8. Jah(a)ron I 3. keruf?im
4. tehillim 9. liwyiitiin 14. maPii~i
5. gal}o(a )h 10. se<J.e(h) I 5. boc(o)nt
b. Transliterate and translate the following:
I. ;"11'J1N
T T-: 5 ri9~ 9. 1::21
2. w,n TT
6. N':J) T
IO. ?ii'
3 rr,:p 7. Jv:i> II. :Jin
4. C?il.'
8. w,fr
... 12. 'ill
16 I Lesson I I
c. Transliterate the following passage. Divide the words into
syllables and read the passage out loud. Then pick out the words
(including proper names) that you recognize, and translate them.
'?~nti,' 170 4
11TP i1b'?ib '?iDO
i1r::i -1~~ r::iry, ,9,~, i19~r:r n.lli'?
CJ'i~'o:i ~~iv~, p1~ '?:Jti,iJ 10:i~ nr:ri??
(Prov 1:r-4) i1~i~1 n.lli i.ll~? i19i-? Cl'~I:,~? ni:,'7
4. The horizontal stroke (called a maqqep) simply means that the two words are read
together - pronounced as if they constituted one word.
Lesson Ill
r. The Noun: Gender and Number
Hebrew nouns may be masculine or feminine in gender; and they
may be singular, dual, or plural in number. Except for the mascu-
line singular (ms) form, the gender and number of each noun are
generally marked by distinctive endings.
Masculine Feminine
Singular no ending ii T - or n-
< <
Dual c~_ - c~_ -
Plural C'. - ni-
a. Masculine singular (ms) nouns have no special endings.
o~o horse 1?~ king
b. Feminine singular (fs) nouns have either ilT - or n- endings.
i. Feminine nouns with the ilT - ending are always stressed on
the ultima.
ii. Feminine nouns with m- or n,. - endings are also stressed
on the ultima.
n'!f covenant nmJ?N
iii. Feminine nouns with the n. . - ending are stressed on the
nl~lp7;' obligation
iv. Feminine nouns with the n_ - ending may be monosyllabic,
or, if they have more than one syllable, stressed on the
n~ daughter n~i knowledge
18 I Lesson I II
v. Some feminine nouns are not marked as feminine. These are
irregular and will be noted as such in the Vocabulary.
C~ mother fl~ earth, land
Note: Parts of the body that come in pairs are almost always
feminine (e.g., '7~"). foot; hand). i:
c. Masculine plural (mp) nouns are normally marked by the
ending C'. -.
ms o~o horse mp C'l;)~O horses
d. Feminine plural (fp) nouns are normally marked by the ending
ni-. The ni- ending takes the place of the fs ending.
fs i1iir-, law
fp niiir-, laws
fs n1~o/i? obligation fp nii~tpi? obligations
Feminine nouns which are unmarked for gender in the singular
are usually marked for gender in the plural.
fs fl~ land fp niliN lands
fs 1' hand
fp n;,, hands
e. The dual (md; fd) is marked by the ending C~ :- (from original
*-aym). 1
ms Ci' a day md c~~;, two days
Before the dual ending, the feminine ending i1T - changes to
nT -, and certain internal vowel changes may take place (see
2.a below).
1. An asterisk ( *) before a form indicates that the form is hypothetical - it is recon-
structed from what we know of the history of the language.
Gender and Number I 19
fs illtv a year
fd C~O~tp two years
Not every noun has the dual form. Indeed, the dual is restricted
to the following.
i. Nouns that come in natural pairs.
C'1' two hands
c~'in two feet
ii. Certain expressions of time.
C~~;, two days . - -: - twice
iii. Measures of two.
C'nN7J two hundred
- T
A few nouns that have no clear relation to the dual number are,
nevertheless, marked as duals.
C~~ water C'~tv heaven
- T
This is true of many geographical names.
~?lp~1~ Jerusalem C~1~ Egypt
f. Some singular nouns may be used collectively.
ziiY bird or birds i17Jil::2 beast or beasts
T :
g. A few nouns may be plural in form but have singular meanings.
C'i'.1'7~ god I God or gods C'~ii~ lord or lords
2. Changes in Nouns with Endings
The addition of an ending may cause certain changes in the form
of the noun.
a. Vowel Reduction
The addition of an ending and the resultant shift of the stress
2. The name is attested five times as C'?~1i:, but most often it appears as C!?ip1i:,
(see Excursus F.2).
20 I Lesson III
from the old ultima to the new one (the ending), may cause cer-
tain vowels to be reduced to a sewcf'.
i. In the propretonic open syllable, a (T) or e (.. ) reduces to
N':;2~ prophet il~':;i~ prophetess
C'~':;i~ prophets
:i:i, heart
T ..
Gutturals, of course, prefer the composite sewif', usually a (_).
c:,n wise man
0'7:l:,n wise men
T -:
:::i~~ grape C':;2~~ grapes
ii. If there is no reduction in the propretonic syllable, e (.. ) in
a pretonic open syllable is reduced to sewa::,.
~P.W judge C'~~tzj judges
1~i7:l assembly C'"Wi7:l assemblies
Note: a (T) in a pretonic position is not reduced; only e (..) is
~~tp~ judgment C'~~tp~ judgments
b. Contraction
i. dyi contracts to e
n~! olive C'l:,'1 olives
,~~ ram c,,,~ rams
.. ~ ,..
u. awe contracts to o
n~ trouble C'~iN troubles
: T
death C'l:,i7:l deaths
c. Nouns with Final i1 ... -
Final il ... is removed before the mp, fs, or fp ending.
... seer
i1Th C'Th seers
il;'i shepherd C'~i shepherds
Vocabulary I 2I
J!N (fs; fd: c~)T~) ear
',~ god, God, (the god) El
C'ij',~ God, gods
c~ (fs; fp: ni~l':t) mother
r1~ (fs; fp: ntq~) land, earth, country
C1 T
1T! (ms or fs) way, road
::210 (fs; fp: ni::21!:!) sword
,~ (fs) hand, power
:J~? I :J? (ms; irreg. mp: ni:2~7; ni::l?) heart, mind
C~~ (always dual) water
U~tp~ judgment, justice, right, custom. UP.W judge.
Verb: U;>t_p to judge
tv~} (fs; fp: nitv~~) self, person (traditionally, "soul"),
breath, will
r~ (fs) eye, spring
., mouth
C'~~ (always plural) face, presence. Verb: i1~~ to face, turn
',~l (fs; fd: C~?n) foot
C~~t_p (always dual) heaven, sky
22 I Lesson I II
Exercise 3
a. Give the plural of the following:
I. ,,lP (song) 7. :Ji? (heart) 13. i''i~ (righteous)
2. i1iir-t (law)
8. :Jln
(locust) 14. ?~'ti (palace)
3. yii~ (lord) 9. Fl~ (priest) 15. 1~7~ (messenger)
4. :J:>i::ll (star)
IO. :J~~ (grape) 16. i11?07~ (battle)
5 1'T (hand) I I. n~! (olive) 17. i11J~'P~ (family)
6. ?~ (god) 12. :J~N (enemy) 18. i10~~ (offering)
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
1. face 5. prophets 9. nations
2. (two) hands 6. heaven IO. (two) eyes
3. kingdoms 7. priests 11. judgments
4. (two) ears 8. mothers 12. judges
c. Read the following passage out loud. Then pick out the words
that you recognize and translate them. (Note: l prefixed to a
word means "and.")
prcq ni:J:JW ct, ip~ 1i~'? ni~l c~.l)
i1-?l< rii; niiiJOO C'7~1 11~ ntl~GO ~ih ::l?
(Prov 6:17-18)
Lesson IV
1. Hebrew Roots and Patterns
Every Hebrew word is theoretically characterized by (a) its root,
usually comprised of three consonants called "radicals;' and (b)
by its pattern, the combination of the radicals with various vow-
els, prefixes, and I or suffixes, if any.
a. Roots
Consider the following forms.
119 he reigned
1',7?: he reigns, he will reign
17b reigning, one who reigns
17.~ king
i1f7~ queen
m:,7~ kingship, reign
i1i?1?~ kingdom, sovereignty
The common element in all these words is the appearance of the
consonants mlk. Hence scholars say that mlk is the root of these
words, and they theorize that this root has something to do with
reigning. Since words having the same root tend to fall within the
same semantic range, it is convenient to classify them accordingly.
b. Word Patterns
To facilitate discussion of word patterns, it is customary to use
a model root, qtf. Although not widely attested in the Bible, this
particular root is chosen because its radicals are less susceptible
to changes than some others. In discussions of roots on the q#
model, then, q stands for the first radical of any root, t for the
second, and I for the third. If the second and third radicals are
identical, the root is said to be qll.
24 I Lesson I V
Pattern Meaning
1?~ qatal he reigned
1?~: yiqtol he reigns, he will reign
1~7J qorel reigning, one who reigns
17~ qetel king
C'::>?O qeralim kings
'T :
T: -
qarla(h) queen
m::i7~ qarlut kingship, reign
i1::>?00 maqrala(h)
TT : -
This system allows us to make generalizations about word pat-
terns. For instance, qatal and yiqtol are verb patterns indicating
different aspects of a verb, the qotel pattern indicates a participle,
the form with the -ut ending indicates an abstract noun, and so
c. Root Types
Roots having the same kinds of radicals tend to behave the same
way. It is helpful, therefore, to classify roots according to their
types. To do this, it is convenient to refer to the first radical as I,
the second radical as I I, and the third radical as I I I. Consider, for
example, the following classification of roots.
I-Nun I-:iA.iep I I-Waw II-Yoq. II I-He I II-:iA.tep
1m ~ON c,p r:::i ilJ::J N::i7.l
?~J ::JilN 7,::, ,,w il?l Ni::J
i::iJ ioN n,J ?"l m,w NOt,
1lJ TON ,,o f"? il'il N?O
Roots and Patterns I 25
Roots like ',',p and :l:JO are said to be "geminate" (Latin geminus
"twin") or "II= III" because their second and third radicals
are alike.
In summary, a word may be described in terms of its root,
pattern, or root type. Examples:
Word Root Pattern Root type
1?9 ,.,~ qa~al Strong
TOl 1m qotel I-Nun
xi?;) x',~ qinel III-)Alef>
1~1$ T~N qa~el I-)Alef>
7!1 r, qanal II-Yog
c~ C~N qel Geminate
2. Weak Radicals
Word patterns can sometimes be problematic because some radi-
cals are more susceptible to change than others. Such radicals
are said to be weak, and a root with such a radical is called a
weak root. By the same token, a root with two weak radicals
is regarded as doubly weak. It is common to treat the nouns and
verbs with these radicals as irregular. But then the number of
"irregularities" in Hebrew becomes enormous, and the task
of memorizing the forms daunting. The weak radicals are, in fact,
not difficult to understand, once their idiosyncracies are isolated.
A good grasp now of how these radicals behave will greatly facil-
itate learning Hebrew forms later on.
[From time to time it will be necessary to show how a particular
form developed from a hypothetical earlier form (marked by an
asterisk, *). The sign< indicates development from, whereas the
sign> indicates development to (e.g., raglayim < *raglaym
26 I Lesson IV
means ragldyim is developed from an hypothetical earlier form,
a. Gutturals
i. Gutturals cannot be doubled by the dages. When the normal
word pattern calls for doubling at the position where the gut-
tural stands, one of the following obtains.
a. Compensatory lengthening of the vowel immediately pre-
ceding the guttural, as follows.
i. a ( - ) > a( )
qanel pattern: *ma::,:)en > ma:)en (T~~)
qinel pattern: *be:)er > be:)er (i~~)
iii. u CJ > a r )
qunal pattern: *tuhhar > tohar (ittb)
Note: , behaves like a guttural insofar as it, too, cannot
ordinarily be doubled by the dages.
qanal pattern: *pamis > paras ('IVl~)
qinel pattern: * /:Jirres > /:Jeres {'IV1.IJ)
qunal pattern: *burrak > borat (11::1)
13. Virtual doubling of the guttural. In this case, there is no
marker of doubling; one simply has to know that doubling is
C'IJ~ = *:;,a/:J/:Jim ',:)'ilil = *hahhekal
T - -
In both these examples, the first syllable should be closed,
not open (i.e., not :;,al/:Jim, and not halheltal), because Cv
unaccented syllables are "unacceptable" (I I. 12).
ii. Gutturals never take the simple vocal sewa:;,; they prefer a
composite sewa:).
Weak Radicals I 2 7
Strong root With guttural
qeralim pattern: C':J?~
qotelim pattern: C'~~tzj C'?l.'9
. -:
iii. Gutturals prefer a-class vowels (compare I I. 7).
meqarrel pattern: ,~,,;, n'rw~
-- :
qerol pattern: ibtp 'J?lp
Note: For reasons that will become apparent later, roots that
have rl, n, or l.' as the third radical are usually grouped to-
gether as "III-Guttural" roots. Even though N is a guttural,
"111-::>Alep" roots are treated separately. See Excursus Con the
classification of root types.
As a rule, a Nun standing immediately before another consonant
(i.e., without an intervening vowel) will be assimilated into the
following radical.
*mantan > mattan (Tl.;)~; maqtal pattern)
*yinpol > yippol (?9~; yiqtol pattern)
If the consonant that follows the Nun happens to be a guttural or
Res, compensatory lengthening or virtual doubling occurs in ac-
cordance with 2.a.i above.
*min::>ere$ > me::>ere$ (f1~~; see 2.a.i.a)
*minbCt$ > mibCt$ (f~n~; see 2.a.q3)
c. Waw and Yod
i. With very few exceptions,1 w cannot stand at the beginning
of a word. Words that may appear in some other Semitic Ian-
1. Notably the conjunction i (and) and the noun il (nail).
28 I Lesson IV
guages with initial w typically appear in Hebrew with initial y.
In the dictionaries, therefore, original 1-Waw roots are listed as
ii. When the w of a root is in a non-initial position, it normally
remains unchanged.
y:nz;,ry from l.'1' (originally *wdc)
n~JZ:,iJ from n:,, (originally *wkb)
In these forms, original 1-Waw roots are easily recognized as
such - when one is able to isolate the prefixes (see Lesson
XXVIII). But since initial w does become y, the root will still be
listed in the dictionaries as if it were initial y.
iii. Originally it was not uncommon to have the diphthong
*aw (the vowel -a+ the radical w). But in Biblical Hebrew
original *aw is usually treated in two ways.
a. The original diphthong *aw becomes awe when stressed.
*mciwt > mawet (rlJ~) death
*tciwk > tawe~ rn~) midst
The 1 in each of these cases is treated as a consonant.
13. The original diphthong *aw becomes o when unstressed.
mawef (nJ~) death but mofi ('?Ji~) my death
tawe~ (1J!) midst but to~i (':;>ir-i) my midst
The , in mofi and to~i is a mater.
Note: We have already learned in III.2.b.ii that the plural of
TJ~ and nJ/? are C'~iN and C'?Ji~, respectively. We see now that
the contraction of awe (< *aw) to o is according to rules.
iv.Originally it was not uncommon to have the diphthong *ay
(the vowel -a+ the radical y). But in Biblical Hebrew original
*ay is usually treated in two ways.
30 I Lesson IV .
Some nouns of this type may take the feminine ending.
Root Noun
c,p height
~,o storm-wind
vi. Some nouns with II-Waw/ Yog roots show only two conso-
nants. The middle weak radical is, thus, not evident.
Root Noun
,,) ,~ lamp
:m1 :J.l.'
c,p i17t~ standing grain
1?iN i11?N
mighty tree
vii. Many words that originally had Waw or Yo<;l as the third
radical appear with a final He. In the standard dictionaries and
grammars, such roots (original III-Waw/ Yog) are classified as
Note: Ironically, roots that originally had He as the third radi-
cal - genuine III-rl - are classified not as III-He, as one might
expect, but as III-Guttural (see above, section 2.a.iii.Note). In
other words, the label "III-He Roots" refers to roots that are
really III-Waw/ Yo<;l, but not to those that are really III-rl!
a. III-He ms nouns frequently end in :i ... -. Indeed, one may
assume that any noun ending in :i ... - is III-He (i.e., original
III-Waw or III-Yog).
Weak Radicals I 29
a. The diphthong *ay becomes -dyi- when stressed.
*cdyn > cdyin (r~) eye
* Jay/ > Jdyil (?~~) ram
The ' in each of these cases is treated as a consonant.
13. The diphthong *ay becomes e when unstressed.
Cayin (r~) eye but Cena (iJ'~) his eye
Jdyil (?~~) ram but Je/6 (i?'~) his ram
The ' in Cena and Je/6 is a mater.
Note: We have already learned in III.2.b.i that the plural of?~~
and n~! are C'7'~ and C'J:l'~, respectively. Similarly, the dual of
r~ is c~)'~ We see now that the contraction of dyi (< *ay) toe
is according to rules.
v. In other instances where 1 or ' is the second radical, the, or'
may appear as a mater (6, u, i, e). As a general rule, 11-Waw
roots have -6- or -u-, while I 1-Yog roots have -i- or -e-; but
since I 1-Waw and I 1-Y 6g roots were not always distinguished,
this can only be a rule of thumb.
Root Noun
11N 1iN light
n::::i n::i contempt
,,w ,,w song
pin I v'n j?'r.J bosom
30 I Lesson IV.
Some nouns of this type may take the feminine ending.
Root Noun
c,p height
~,o storm-wind
vi. Some nouns with I I-Waw I Yog roots show only two conso-
nants. The middle weak radical is, thus, not evident.
Root Noun
,,) ,~ lamp
:m., :J cloud
c,p :i7t~ standing grain
71N i17N
mighty tree
vii. Many words that originally had Waw or Yogas the third
radical appear with a final He. In the standard dictionaries and
grammars, such roots (original III-Waw/ Yog) are classified as
Note: Ironically, roots that originally had He as the third radi-
cal - genuine III-i-1- are classified not as III-He, as one might
expect, but as III-Guttural (see above, section 2.a.iii.Note). In
other words, the label "III-He Roots" refers to roots that are
really III-Waw/Yog, but not to those that are really III-i-1!
a. III-He ms nouns frequently end in i1 ... -. Indeed, one may
assume that any noun ending in i1 ... - is III-He (i.e., original
III-Waw or III-Yog).
Weak Radicals I 31
Root Noun
i11ll} i11tv
i1Tn i1Th
... seer
As we have seen in III.1.b, feminine forms of such nouns
take the fs ending, i1T -, instead of the ms, i1 ... -. In fact, any
ending may be added directly to the first two radicals,
after the final weak radical is dropped.
Root Noun
i1ltv i1ltv
TT year
i1lT mlT harlotry I prostitution
i1:Jtv n':itv
.: captivity
fl. A few nouns retain the original I I1-Waw I Yog. These
are, nevertheless, listed under the hypothetical IIl-i1 in
the dictionaries.
Root Noun
i1ll.' 1ll.'
poor, afflicted
i1ll.' 'll.'
i1iD '1~ fruit
"Y A few monosyllabic nouns with Tor .. are classified as
III-He: :J~ father, n~ brother, f~ tree, ll'1 friend.
Note: Since 11-Waw and 11-Yog nouns may also have forms
like these (see above), one will simply have to check
the dictionary to know which is correct - at least in the
judgment of the lexicographers.
32 I Lesson IV
viii. A few nouns related to original 1-Waw roots show only
two consonants (apart from the endings) because the first
radical has been lost.
Root Noun
3. Nouns with Prefixes
Some nouns patterns require a prefix, usually-~, -r:l, or -N.
a. Nouns with -7.l prefix
1. ma-
Root Noun
1N17 1~7~ messenger
N!)1 N~l~ health
Nouns with weak radicals behave according to the rules given
Root Noun Rules
1m T~~ (*mantan > mattan) 2.b gift
JV)' :JWi~
(*mawsab > mosab) 2.c.iii.J3 residence
Wi'' Wj?.i?J (*mawqes > moqes) 2.c.iii. J3 trap
,w, 0'1W'7.l.. (*maysarim
> mesarim) 2.c.iv.J3 equity
i1t,] i1t97J
... - ( *mante[h] > maffe[h]) 2.b, c.vii.a staff
Nouns with Prefixes I 3 3
Nouns with I I-Waw I Yog take the -7.? prefix, instead of-~; but
the addition of an ending will cause the shift from -7.? > -7?, ac-
cording to the rules for vowel reduction in III.2.a.i.
Root Noun Rules
c,p 2.c.v place
c,;, 2.c.v; III.2.a.i confusion
r, i1)'17J
T :
2.c.v; III.2.a.i province
ii. mi- or me-
Root Noun
TT ::
Nouns with weak... radicals behave according to rules .
Root Noun Rules
;,nw nr-iw1J
.: . 2.C. Vll.O'. banquet
i1t,J i1t97J
( *minta[h] > mitta[h]) 2.b, c.vii.a bed
b. Nouns with -r-i Prefix.
i. ta-
Root Noun
c,, i17J':J1r-1
T .. : -
deep sleep
34 I Lesson I V
Nouns with weak radicals behave according to the rules given.
Root Noun Rules
i11N il1NT-l
2.a.11, C.Vll.O'. desire
:Jll)' :iwir-i (*tawsii!? > tosiif?) 2.c.iii.13 alien
,,, T
r,;,7;r-, (*tawledot > tole46!) 2.c.iii.13 generations
T~' J7t'I:) (*taymiin > temiin) 2.c.iv.13 south
Nouns with 11-Waw or 11-Yog may take the-~ prefix, instead of
-1'.:.I; but the addition of an ending will cause the reduction of the
vowel from-~> -l;l, according to 111.2.a.i.
Root Noun Rule
N1:J ilN!\:JT-l
T :
2.C.V yield
:i,w il:J!\ll)J:l
T :
2.C.V return
r:i ill!\:JT-l
T :
2.C.V aptitude
ii. ti-
Root Noun Rule
1N> n1~~r:, glory
i11p i!Jpr:, 2.C. Vll.O'. hope
c. Nouns with N Prefix.
Root Noun Rule
7n, TO'~ (*:Jaytan > :Jetan) 2.c.iv.13 everflowing
Nouns with Prefixes I 3 5
The details in this lesson may seem pedantic to the student, but
they are included here because they are foundational for under-
standing many of the peculiarities of Hebrew forms. A thorough
understanding of the materials in this lesson, therefore, will save
one much trouble later on. It may be difficult to remember all the
rules at this point, but we shall be returning time and again to
them. The rules will make more and more sense as we apply them
Weak Radicals: A Summary
Gutturals and Res cannot be doubled
Gutturals prefer composite sewaj's
Gutturals prefer a-class vowels
Nun before a strong consonant is assimilated
Initial *w > y
Original *aw> awe (stressed) or 6 (unstressed)
Original *ay > ayi (stressed) ore (unstressed)
T~~ (fs; fp: C';~~) stone
Ti1~ lord, master, sir. The plural C';ii~, like C'i:f?~,
frequently has the singular meaning.
iiN (ms or fs; mp: C'"'!iN) light
?~~ ram
Wi)~ humanity, a human
3 6 I Lesson I V
?~'iJ palace, temple
?~O (irreg. mp: 0'7~q) valor, power, army, wealth
,~?t) devotion, loyalty, faithfulness, proper act
,wn darkness
: ...
bread, food
1~7~ messenger, angel
TT: '
battle, war
cip7t (mp: ni~ij:'7?) place
o~o horse, stallion
J1 (mp and fp: nil1~?) guilt, iniquity
:i7i3.' burnt offering. Verb: :1? to go up, ascend
'i~ fruit
1]~1 (fs) spirit, wind, breath
Exercise 4
a. Match the words below with the following patterns: (a) qatel,
(b) qotel, (c) qinel, (d) qanal, (e) qatol, (f) miqtal.
I. m~ priest 7. ,::i:::, heavy
13. t;~lp~ tabernacle
2. :m thief
- 8. ,w blind 14 t,P.W judge
3 Ti?.! old 9. n~~ sailor
15. ,::i,~
T %
4. I]~~ lame IO. :J3.'1 hungry r6. pinl far
,;,1 great
.. T
5 T
I I. ,~tv officer 17. w1p~ sanctuary
6. l~'T=T- fisherman 12. wii~ holy r8. ci~ mute
2. Since this is a loanword derived ultimately from Sumerian, a non-Semitic language,
the dictionaries simply list it as it is spelled (not by root).
Exercise 4 I 3 7
b. Give the probable roots of the following, according to
where they would be found in the dictionary (e.g. :Jl_pi~ - :JlV';
'"1~ - iii>).
I. Oi::) 13.
2. i:ir:J~
8. ill':::!
T '
T: .
4 ii~~ 16. il~~,r-i
T :
5 NW~ I I. iiN 17.
6. il1iY
T : '."
I 2. il1':lr
T "
r 8. ilYi
c. Translate the following into Hebrew:
I. words 6. eyes (pl.) I I. messengers
2. spirits 7. iniquities I 2. burnt offerings
3. rams 8. battles 13. (two) hands
4. lights 9. masters 14. hands (pl.)
5. stones 10. palaces I 5. places
d. Read out loud the following passage. Then pick out the words
that you recognize and translate them.
i1({7,;i r:)r:r--,tzj~ ?:i ci9$:;i ,j'i1?~1
cq~ 'i' i1tQ.PO :li)!l =-]05 Cli1'J,~l)
,~-, ~?1
cii1S ci~ l)
," T -
n:fri ~?1
- :
: T
Lesson V
1. Geminate Nouns
Geminate nouns are those with identical second and third radi-
cals (i.e., qll). In some cases, the fact that there are two identical
radicals does not pose any problem. For instance, the root of the
noun ::i;7 (heart) is obviously ::i::i,. More often than not, how-
ever, only two of the three radicals are graphically represented,
as in ::27 (heart), the root of which is also ::i::i,.
Most geminate nouns with endings are not difficult to recog-
nize, even when the third radical is not actually repeated, because
the gemination is ordinarily indicated by a strong diiges (indicat-
ing doubling). Thus the plural ni::17 is almost as easily identified
as being related to the root :::i:J, as the form ni:::i;7. It is in the sin-
gular forms that one encounters difficulties because Biblical He-
brew does not like to have a strong diiges at the end of a word
(see 11.6.b.i, note).
Study the following types of geminate nouns.
a. a-type ( *qall)
Root Singular Plural
c~ people C'l'p~ peoples
ptp sack C'j?W sacks
When the radical to be doubled is a guttural or Res, the rules in
IV.2.a.i apply (compensatory lengthening, virtual doubling).
Root Singular Plural
,,tv itp prmce C'"'1W princes
nm:, n;i trap C'l'.1;1 traps
Geminate Nouns I 39
A few *qa/1 nouns are originally *qanl (see IV.2.b).
*:Janp > *:Japp > :Jap ("J~) nose
b. i-type (*qil/)
Root Singular Plural
flJ arrow 0'1'.l arrows
c~ mother ni~~ mothers
1. In addition to the loss of gemination in the ms, the original
i-vowel lengthens toe. But when gemination is marked by a
dages, the i-vowel is retained. Thus we have the singular C~
(not *C~), but the plural is r,;~~-
11.A few *qi/I nouns are originally *qinl (see IV.2.b).
*cinz > *cizz > cez (T~) she-goat
c. u-type ( *qu/1)
Root Singular Plural
i'i'" i'" statute C'j?t' statutes
::i::i, ::ii:t bear . ,, bears
Note: In addition to the loss of gemination in the ms, the original
u-vowel lengthens to o. But when gemination is marked by a
dages, the u-vowel is retained. Thus we have the singular ph (not
* i't'), but the plural is C'j?Q.
d. Prefixed geminate nouns
Nouns with geminate roots may have prefixes, as in IV.3.
40 I Lesson V
Root Singular Plural
,,~ :i1t;)7? highway
:,1~?;1 prayer
ni~t;>7? highways
ni~~?;I prayers
2. Segolate Nouns
Segolate nouns are those that appear as disyllabic, with stress on
the penultima, and with different second .and third radicals. Orig-
inally, however, these were monosyllabic nouns in three different
vowel classes. The vowel classes are evident, for instance, in the
first syllable in the forms with suffixed pronouns (which we will
learn in XI I. 2.c). Study the following examples.
Noun With Suffix Pattern
. . foot
my foot qatli
servant my servant qarli
1~}l knee ' .1)1'.ll my knee qirli
,p vow ,-n~ my vow qirli
n~ ear 'lTN my ear
: T
qorli (qurli)
n1N path '!J1N
my path qotli (qu~li)
It appears, then, that there are three classes of segolates, corre-
sponding to the three vowel classes (see I I.2): *qat/; ''qi#; ''qotf
(''qu(l). This helps explain something that we have simply ac-
cepted as an irregularity so far: why the dual of,~~- (foot) is
C:?n while the dual of 7!N (ear) is C:)T~ Indeed, the three classes
are also evident in the dual forms of segolates.
Sego/ate Nouns I 41
Singular Dual Class
. . foot C:1~1 two feet :qa!l
1~-~ knee C:~l'.ll two knees ,:-qitl
7!N ear C'JTN two ears
-: T
,:"qotl (':qutl)
The three types are clearly distinguishable, not only in the dual
and the suffixed forms (see XI I. 2.c), but in some other forms of
the segolate nouns, as well (XI.2.j). Through a complicated
process, which need not concern us now, the unsuffixed singular
segolates have become so dominated by segol's (hence the term
segolate) and/or pdtafs that it is not always easy to tell the three
classes apart. Fortunately, there are a few clues: nouns of the
qotet pattern (w:f1, w7p, pN) are all *qo# (*qu#), whereas those
of the qetel pattern (i~p, i7t ,7) are all *qi#. As for nouns of
the qetel pattern, one must check the dictionary for the dual,
suffixed, and other forms to see what the original vowel might
be. Regardless of their original vowels, the plurals of segolate
nouns always have the pattern qe(iilim or qe(iilot.
a. *qa#
17~ king C':J7~ kings
T !
,;f.7 servant C'1:JY
w~) self nitvDJ
f~-~ land niliN
Note: The singular of this type is normally qe(el, but the presence
of a guttural may draw a pdtab in the second syllable (e.g., Y1i
seed, n~~ trust) or in both syllahles (e.g.,,~) lad; 1,~~ lord). .
42 I Lesson V
b. *qi#
,~~ grave C'1~~ graves
. vow

Note: The singular of this type may be either qetel or qetel, but
the presence of a guttural may draw a pd[ab in the second sylla-
ble (e.g., Y,?W report).
c. * qot/ (originally *qu#)
,~~ mornmg C'1i?:P mornings
w,fr... new moon C'W1n new moons
" TT:
1. The singular of this type is q6tel, but the presence of a gut-
tural may draw a pd[ab in the second syllable (n1ft path).
II. The plural is usually qotiilim I qotalot, but the qetalim I
qetalot type is also attested. It is clear, then, that the plurals
of segolates are formed the same way. Apart from the
qotiilim/qotiilot plurals (always from *qot/ segolates), it is
quite impossible to distinguish the various classes from the
plural forms alone.
Sego/ate Nouns I 43
Summary: Segolates
Type Singular Dual Plural
~-qarl qerel qarlayim qeralim
,, girl qerel I qerel qirlayim qeralim
''"qorl qorel qorlayim qoralim I qeralim
('' qurl) qoral6! I qeralo!
3. Irregular Plurals
Some plural nouns look substantially different from the singular.
The following are some of the most important.
::JN father
ni::JN fathers
nN brother
0'1J~ brothers
W'~ man O'lVJN
:,tz;N woman
n~~ house O'r-1::2 houses
p son O'J::2 sons
n~ daughter niJ::i daughters
Ci' day 0'~' days
city 0'1Y cities
lVNi head 0'lPN1T heads
44 I Lesson V
::11$ (irreg. mp: ni::11$) father
... tent
Ml$ (irreg. mp: C'r:t~) brother
ninl$ (irreg. fp: ni'O~) sister
W'~ (irreg. mp: C'tp~~) man, husband. The expected plural
C'tp'~ is rarely attested
m;~ (irreg. fp: C'tp~) woman, wife
n~~ (ms; irreg. mp: C'T:1# battim 2 ) house
T~ (irreg. mp: C'r~) son, grandson (also figurative meaning:
member; one of a category)
n~ (irreg. fp: nili) daughter
1:J mountain
Ci' (irreg. mp: C'?;,:) day. Adverb: C,?i' daily, by day
c: (mp. 0'7P~ suggests that the ms C~ an irreg.
*qall noun) sea
'7:P (irreg. mp: C'?~) vessel, instrument, weapon
i1W~1' deed. Verb: i1lp to do, make, perform
,,~ (fs; irreg. fp: C''1) city
C~ (mp: C'7P~) people
WNi (irreg. mp: C'lPN1) head, top, chief. TiWN1 the first,
former. n'tl)N1 first, beginning
itp commander, ruler, prince
1. Note the doubling of lzl. This suggests that the root is lzllK, with the assimilation of l.
2.. This is an exception to the rule given in I l.12., that a long vowel in a closed unac-
cented syllable (i.e., CvC) is "unacceptable."
Exercise 5 I 4 5
Exercise 5
a. Give the plural of the following geminate nouns, and translate
those that you recognize:
I. ,~ 6. ,tp II. ,iJ
2. r,t-i 7. ph 12. il~N
3 ,; 8. i139 T
13. ,~
4 Ti?. 9. rr.i 14 c~
5 il::>O
IO. :i'=t 15. cf:l
b. Give the plural of the following:
I. 1?9 8. ,:ii,
...... 15 . 111,
2. 7~ 9 w1p 16. n~~
nN tl}!:)l 17. f1~
I I.
C' T
18. i1ll.'Y7J
. -: -
5 n~ 12. lVNi 19. w,ii
6. Ci' 13. lV'i'.( 20. ilWN
7. :IN
14. ,,::,
. : 21. ?ilft
c. Read the following passage out loud. Then pick out the words
including proper names, that you recognize.
ini~ n~~
. .
,w~ ''1:a,
: -:
i1itib n,in i,:,r
: - : - : .
o't!l~~~i opry '?~1~-,~-',.p :r1h::i
~:iJi1 i1'?~ n~ o:,'? n'?w :,j~ i1~i1
' T - T " '' '' ; T - '' ' T
~1i~i11 ?ii~i1 3i11i1' Oi' ~t:i ':lEl?
T - : T - T ' : '
3. Pronounced as Jarjfmiiy. See Vocabulary in Lesson VI.
Excursus A
lntrodudion to the Didionary
For most of this century, the standard English language lexicon
of Biblical Hebrew has been A Hebrew and English Lexicon of
the Old Testament, edited by Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and
Charles A. Briggs (Oxford: Clarendon, 1907). It is popularly
known as B DB, after the initials of the editors. Based on a Ger-
man lexicon from the nineteenth century; this reference work
is now outdated. Yet, for most students who read only English,
there is still no substitute that is both adequate and easily
For the beginning student, B DB is difficult to use primarily
because it is not arranged alphabetically, but according to roots.
For instance, the noun IJ~F;, (altars) is not listed as it is spelled,
but after the verb n~l and. the noun n~f; one simply has to know
that the root is n:JT and that -7' is merely a noun prefix. Yet it is
not just a matter of removing the prefixes and suffixes; one must
often also take into consideration the morphological changes that
take place because of weak radicals. In other words, it is neces-
sary to know the idiosyncracies of the weak radicals even to use
the dictionary!
The examples below illustrate how one goes about finding
nouns in BDB. The student should follow the commentary on
each form with this dictionary at hand.
C":;l2$7~: This is fairly easy. Since -7' is a common noun prefix,
and C". - is the mp ending, one may discount them both to arrive
at the root 1N';, on p. 521 col. i, at the bottom of the column. If,
however, one did not know the root and looked, instead, under
the noun 12$7~ itself (on p. 571 col. ii), one will see 12$7~ and re-
lated nouns listed, with the remark "v. 1N';,." This means that one
should look (v. = vid. "look") under the root 1N';,. So one begins
with p. 521 col. i.
BDR I 47
The verb does not occur in Hebrew, so no examples are cited.
There are cognates in other Semitic languages, however, and the
dictionary duly lists them. After this information, at the top
of col. ii, one finds the noun 1~7~ The subscript "214" after the
noun indicates the number of times the word occurs in all its
forms. The noun is identified as masculine (n.m.) and briefly
defined. Then the various forms are given: construct (see Lesson
X), forms with suffixes (see Lesson XI), the plural, and so forth.
The treatment of this noun continues through most of the col-
umn, and there is a wealth of information here. One learns that
the word is used of messengers in general ( 1.), angels as the mes-
sengers of God (2.), and of the theophanic angel (3.); the word
may refer to a prophet or "the herald of the advent" ( r ,b), or to
a priest ( r ,c); the word occurs in parallelism (indicated by the
sign II) with f'7~ "interpreter" (1,d) and with nimi "winds"
(r,e), and so on. In order to properly understand the usage of a
word, therefore, one should look not only at the brief definition
at the beginning of the entry, but also consider all the details pre-
Two related nouns, ;"'9N?7? and m:,~7~, as well as a proper
name, ':;l~7~ (Malachi, etymologically "my messenger"), follow
the entry on 1~7~ The parentheses of [m:,~7~] indicate that this
precise form (without any suffixes or vowel changes) does not
occur; the form is reconstructed. The sign t appearing before
[m:,~7~] and before the personal name ':;l~7~ indicates that all
the passages are cited in each case. One may also note that mean-
ing 3 of 1~7~ (p. 521, col. ii) has the sign t before it, indicating
that all passages with that particular meaning are cited.
n?~~: Eliminating the final n- as a marker of the feminine, one
conjectures that the -~ is a prefix and that the dages indicates
an assimilated nun in accordance with IV.2.b. The root cannot be
?DD (i.e., a qql type) because roots of this type, which are ex-
tremely rare in Hebrew, never show gemination by the dages. So
one looks under the root ?DJ. The verb is listed first (on p. 6 56).
Discussion of the various verb forms continues to the bottom of
48 I Excursus A
col.ion p. 658. !hen there are several nouns listed: ?~t [?~~],
il?~~' it?~~' n?~~' C'?'~~ All the passages are cited in each
case, as the sign t before each noun indicates. Again, if one had
conjectured incorrectly that the root is *?>~, and so looked on
p. 592 col. i (twelfth line from the bottom), one will be referred
to the root.
:npi~: There are only two possibilities here: either the i is a
mater, thus only a marker of a long a-vowel, or the -~ is a prefix
and the root is :JlV' (from *wsb). The root *:Ill)~ does not exist
in Hebrew (see BDB p. 602). One must conclude that-~ is a
noun prefix. So one assumes that the form is mosal] < *mawsab
(IV.2.c.iii.!3). Since original initial w generally becomes yin He-
brew (IV.2.c.i), however, one must look for the noun under the
root :JlV' on p. 442. Again, the verb is listed first (pp. 442-3), fol-
lowed by several nouns. The noun ::itpi~ appears on p. 444 col. i.
The sign t indicates that all passages are cited, and the reference
to "2K2,19" in superscript after n.m. indicates where this precise
form - without any other prefixes, suffixes, or further vowel
changes - is found.
nbj,7:': One may conjecture right away that the word is a defec-
tively spelled form of ni~ip7?. If one discounts the plural ending
ni- and the -~ as a noun prefix, one is left with the probable
root cip. This noun is found on p. 879.
C'itp'~: Discounting the mp ending C'. -, one is left with the
form -itp'~ If the ' is a mater, the root is *ilV~. If the ' is not
a mater, the root is i'IV' < *iwi. The form is mesar < *maysar
(I V.2.c.iv.!3). One looks, therefore, under ,w, on p. 448. After the
verb, an adjective, and other forms, one finds the noun [itp'~]
on p. 449, col. ii. The word is in parentheses because that precise
form is not attested (although it is the form that one expects);
one is told that the noun always appears in the plural.
nwS7r:i: This is relatively uncomplicated. The final n- must be a
feminine ending. Since -r-i is also a common noun prefix, the root
BDB I 49
must be lV::27. The noun appears on p. 528 col. ii, after the verb
and some other nouns. The sign t and only one citation indicate
that this word occurs only once in the Bible.
1]~913: There is no root mm, so the root must be nr>J; the -r-i
must be a prefix and ~ a mater. One may assume the development
''tanpu(a)IJ > tappu(a)I;, in accordance with IV.2.b, 3.b.i. On
p. 6 56 col. i, one sees 1]~913 and its defective form mm
listed three
times. The first ("I. 1]~913") is identified as a common noun (n.[m.]).
The parentheses indicate that there is no clear evidence from the
contexts that the noun is masculine, but the gender is conjectured
to be masculine (presumably because the form is unmarked for
gender, and the plural is masculine in form). The second listing
("11.1]~13") is a proper noun, a masculine personal name (
The third ("II I. 1]~913") is also a proper noun, the name of a loca-
tion (
;,~pi?: This form is not difficult. The final :i.,.- suggests a III-He
root (I The -'O must be a prefix. The root is ;,Jp. It
turns out that there are, according to BDB, two roots ;,Jp. The
noun :i~j?i? appears after "I ;"IJji" (meaning "get, acquire").
;,~i?: The ;,T - ending is obviously a marker of the feminine. The
root is, therefore, either :ii'.!l (see IIl.2.c; I or i'.!l'O.
If the latter were correct, one should look under ;"l'.!l'O (IV.2.c.vii).
But there is no such noun associated with the root ;"1'.!l'O (p. 594).
Thus, the -'D must be a prefix. The root is m'.!l.
:i1ir-i: This form is a bit tricky. Theoretically, the root may be
'';,in (with, as mater), ''11n (with the fs ending), or '';"111 - i.e.,
*tawda(h) > to<f,a(h) (see IV.3.b.i, 2.c.iii.[3, Since neither
'';,in nor ,,-,,n
is attested, the third possibility must be correct.
One should look under the root ;"11', but one knows from this
noun that the root is "original 1-Waw."
n'pl_:.1: Since n'. - is the fs ending (III.1.b.ii), the root is either ,:pn
or ;,J::J (, 3.b.i). The latter is correct. The root is ;"IJ:::2.
50 I Excursus A
nit9~: The final ni- is probably the fp ending. Theoretically the
root may be t,tm, but no such root is found. The most likely al-
ternative is that the -~ is a prefix and the first radical is an assim-
ilated l. The root begins -t,l; the most likely third radical is :i.
One conjectures that the word is fp of ;,~~; look under the root
;'lt,l on p. 641. ;,~~ is indeed attested, but only as an adverb;
no fp is attested for that. The next entry in BDB is;,\;>~, whose
plural is nit9~, an irregular plural (we expect ;,\;>~ - *C'~~). This
is the correct form.
c~i~: Setting aside the dual ending, one conjectures that the root
is r,>N, and that this is a qal/-noun. But no such noun is listed un-
der r,>N. One then assumes *:Janpdyim > :Jappdyim. The root is,
in fact, 'llN. The singular noun, therefore, is :Jap (<*:Japp < *:Janp).
This is a noun that has secondarily become qall - through the as-
similation of n (V.1.a; IV.2.b).
C'1~: Setting aside the mp ending, one conjectures that the root is
TTY, and that this is a qill noun. But no such noun is listed under
TTY. One then assumes *cinzim > cizzim. The root is, in fact, TlY.
The singular noun, therefore, is cez (< *cizz < *cinz). This is a
noun that has secondarily become qi/I - through the assimilation
of n (V.1.b.2; IV+b).
;'lf!f'.I: Setting aside the fs ending, one conjectures that the root is
t,t,n, but no such noun is found under that root. Hence one looks
under the root t,Jn, where one finds the noun. If one looks di-
rectly under :it_pr:i, one is also referred to the correct root: v. sub
t,Jn ("look under t,Jn").
n~: Judging by the form, one should expect this to be a qall-noun
(see V.1.a). Under the root nn::2 we find the noun n~, which is reg-
ularly taken as masculine, but apparently is regarded as feminine
in Isa 5: 1 o. The plural of this noun is C'f:l~, we are told. One
should also note that the noun is listed as "I I. n~; although there
is no other noun n~ subsumed under this root. At the end of the
entry, however, one is directed to the other n~: I. n~ v. sub T~ ("I.
n~ look under T~"). So it is that on p. 123 col. i, after the lengthy
entry on T~ and other related nouns, we find "I. n~." Here the edi-
tors of BDB tell us that n~ is "= *r;q~ fr. p." That is, they conjec-
ture that *bant > *batt >bat.The plural of this noun, in contrast
to "I I. n~," is nil~.
i1V.: After setting aside the fs ending, one is left with -:!lV., which
suggests Yl'' (IV.2.c.viii), il:!ll' (IV.2.c.vii:y), or yil'/f'l' (
Under Yl'' one finds "I. i1V." (p. 420 col. i) and is told that this
noun is "= i1V.(7) ". Here the editors of BDB are explaining that
the initial radical has dropped out (see I V.2.c.viii). Since no other
noun il:!ll' is listed under this root, and since we know that this is
just "I. i1V.", we will have to look elsewhere also. In this case, the
editors do not tell us where else to look, as they sometimes do.
We have to rely simply on what we know about weak radicals.
And so we try the root il:!ll' (pp. 781-82). As it turns out, il:!ll' is
listed as a root four different times, but only under "I I. il:!ll'" do
we find the noun "I I. i1V. ." The word occurs only once in
the Bible, as indicated by the sign t and single citation (Jer 6:6).
Although the editors identify the word as a collective noun
(n.f.coll.), they are not certain about the text cited, proposing in-
stead to read iiV. "its tree" (YV.) instead of the unique form i1V.;
and they cite textual witnesses that support this proposal. At the
end of the entry one is referred to I. i1V.. This would seem to sug-
gest that there is no other noun, besides these two. Indeed,
when looks under y,11 and Y,11, the other possibilities, no such
noun is found.
i11V.: The root may be ilil', ,11,, or ,,11 I ,,11. Under ilil' one finds
two listings of the root (see pp. 723-26), but no noun i11V. On
p. 7 26 col. i, however, one finds a reference: "I. i11V. v. ,11,. I I. II I.
i11V. v. iw ." This means that there are three nouns i11V., one listed
under ,11,, and two under ,,11. Under ,11,, then, one finds the en-
try for "I. i11V." (p. 417 coli) and at the end of that entry, one is
also referred to the other two nouns: "I I. II I. ilil' v. ,,11 ."
5 2 I Excursus A
The student should now be able to locate most Hebrew nouns
in BDB. In order to become more comfortable with this important
tool, however, one must constantly use it. Hence, if one encounters
a Hebrew word that one has forgotten, or if one wonders about
the possible range of meaning of any Hebrew word, one should
not hesitate to use the dictionary. For more elusive forms, the stu-
dent may consult Bruce Einspahr's Index to Brown, Driver and
Briggs Hebrew Lexicon (Chicago: Moody, 1976).
2. Other Dictionaries
While there are several Hebrew-English dictionary projects cur-
rently under way, BDB remains the only full reference work avail-
able to students who read only English. There is an abridged
dictionary produced by William L. Holladay, entitled A Concise
Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1 97 I). This is a useful volume for rapid read-
ing. It is easier to use than BDB, inasmuch as the words are listed
precisely as they are spelled. The advantages of grouping words
by roots, however, are lost. The noun ;qi.r:i ("direction, instruc-
tion, law," for instance, is listed after 1i.R ("turtle-dove") and be-
fore :n,pi.R ("alien"). One is not alerted in such a dictionary to the
possible semantic relationship of ;qi.r:i with other words from the
root il1' (see BDB, pp. 434-46).
Additional Exercise I 5 3
Additional Exercise
Give the roots of the following with the help of a dictionary:
1. i1:rnvr-i
T :
I I. ,n'I')
21. n,,;7)
12. i1?i1r-l
T :
22. ni17ir-,
3 y~~ 1 3 i1ti? 2 3 i1?W7?~
4 ibp~ 14 i1~~~ 24. Cl'WYI')
. -: -
5 Cl'H;,'~ I 5. i1J~~ 25. i1;lpq~
6. :-mtv
I 6. i1iil')
... 26. i1~l~
7. 17. rrm 27. i1iiJI')
T :
8. I 8. ';lt{J 28. i1itv
9. 19. CJ'"')~ 29.
IO. i1NI')
20. c,,~ 'T
Lesson VI
1. The Definite Article
The definite article does not appear in independent form; it is
always prefixed to the word it determines.
a. The normal form is i] + the strong diiges in the next consonant.
1?~ a king 1?~iJ the king
n~~ a house n~~i] the house
Note: There is no indefinite article in Hebrew. Thus, 1?~ means
either "king" or "a king."
b. Gutturals (N, :i, n, Y) and, do not normally take the diiges
(IV.2.a.i). Hence, we get the following.
i. Compensatory lengthening before N, Y, ,.
tv'~ a man tv'N:"l the man
,,~ a city ,,~;_;:i the city
tvNi a head tvNi:"l the head
ii. Virtual doubling before ;, and n.
a,~'D a palace a,~'DiJ the palace
... a new moon w,ii:i
... - the new moon
iii. Before unaccented ;, and Y, and accented or unaccented n,
the definite article is ry with virtual doubling. This rule takes
precedence over the previous two.
Ti~;_;:i an uproar Ti~vv the uproar
t, iniquity t,v the iniquity
JiTO a v1s1on JiTOv the vision
Definite Article I 5 5
c. A few words are vocalized a little differently when they take
the definite article.
Ti,~ an ark Ti1 ~0 the ark
fl~ a land fl~O the land
rn a garden T~D the garden
,;, a mountain i;,;, the mountain
llJ a festival ln;i the festival
T .
Cl~ a people mm TT
the people
,~ a bull 19;-J
T -
the bull
The definite article may also rarely be used to indicate a vocative.
Thus, 17.~D may mean "the king" or "OKing!"
2. The Prefixed Prepositions
The prepositions :;i (in, by, with), :p (like, as, according to), and 7
(to, toward, for) do not occur independently.
a. Before a noun without a definite article, the preposition is
simply prefixed.
,,~ ,,~:;i in a city
,,, a city
David ,,,~
T !
like David
17.~ a king 17.~7 for a king
b. Before a noun with the definite article, the ;, of the definite arti-
cle ordinarily disappears, the preposition assumes the vowel of
the definite article, and any doubling of the following radical is
56 I Lesson VI
*1?~D +? > 17~? for the king 1.a
*tv'Ni1 +? > tv'N?
T : T
for the man 1.b.i
T -
+ ::J: > ?::l'i1::l
T -
in the palace 1 .b.ii
*C'1i1i1 + ::2 > C'1i1::l
' T . : "T :
in the mountains 1.b.iii
*f1.~~ + ~ > f1.~~ in the land 1 .c
3. The Rule of Sewa::,
A sequence of two vocal sewii:,'s is not permitted. Thus, if two
vocal sewii:,'s come together, certain vowel changes take place.
a. In a sequence of two simple vocal sewii:,'s, the first becomes i,
and the second becomes silent.
*?':i::J~ + ~ > ?':i::J,?,~ (big/;_Jul) in a territory
*C':;>?~ + ~ > C':;>?~~ (bimlii~im) among kings
In addition, if the second sewii:, stands under a yog., the first be-
comes i, and the second disappears.
*i11':ii1' + ::2 > *;'11':ii1'::l > i11':ii1'::l
T : : T : T O
(bihucja[h]) in Judah
b. If a simple vocal sewii:, is followed immediately by a composite
sewii:>, the former becomes the corresponding short vowel of the
composite sewii:>, and the latter closes the syllable (see I I. 7 .c).
*Ci?Q + ~ > Ci?Qi (baMa]lom) in a dream
. :: + ::i: > n~N::l
. :: ... (bej[e]met) in truth
(bo:,[o]halim) in tents
In the case of C';:i?~, however, the :>J[ep is quiescent (I I.11) and
the simple vocal se~iij gives way to a ~ere.
. :: + !I>
: . ..
C'ii?N::l in God
Other Prepositions I 57
4. Other Prepositions
a. Some prepositions stand independently, e.g., 11J~ (after, be-
hind), '~~7 (before), noi (under, instead of), i~1
(in front of).
?tll~iJ ,rr~ after the flood yi,~iJ '~~7 before the ark
f}?iJ noe under the tree CiiJ i~1 in front of the people
I b. Some prepositions are typically linked to the following word
by means of a connector known as the maqqep, e.g., -,~ (to,
unto),-,~ (on, upon, concerning, beside),-,~ (as far as: until).
I yi,~iJ-?~
5. The Preposition T~

upon the ark

The preposition TT:l (from, because of, some of) occurs in the fol-
lowing forms.
a. It may be linked to the following word by the maqqep.
f1ijiJ-T1:l from the land
b. It may be treated as a prefixed preposition. If so, the l behaves
according to rules (see IV.2.b).
i. It is ordinarily assimilated into the following consonant.
*1?~~7;l > 1?~1:l from a king
WBefore gutturals and,, the preposition is usually~
(with compensatory lengthening) and, rarely, 7;l (with
virtual doubling).
. .. from a city
. : . > 1'3.77:)
*1'l.'l7:) compensatory lengthening
- . > 1i17:)
: - .. from a mountain compensatory lengthening
*r~n~7;l > r~n7;l from outside virtual doubling
58 I Lesson VI
Note: This rule also applies when 1~ is prefixed to a noun with
the definite article. In contrast to the prefixed prepositions :, :;>,
and? (see 2.b above), however, the definite article is retain~d ..
~-r,~v~~ > fl~v~ from the land
,:-c'WJN:im > C'lVJN;"JT.l
T -: T : " T -: T
some of the men
6. The Conjunction ,
The conjunction l (and, but) never occurs in independent form. It
is always prefixed and appears in the following forms.
a. Before most consonants it is }
i:r:i a word
and a word
1; a servant 1::Jl71
and a servant
1::Jlm the servant
, '." T
1::JY:ii and the servant
, . T :
b. Before the labials ::i, n, and !J it is 1.
n:~ a house n:~'!\ and a house
17.~ a king 17.~i and a king
nIJ~ a door n1J~'!\ and a door
c. Before most consonants with a simple vocal sewa:J it is 1.
'T :
words C'i::J11 and words
'T :
',~11.)lp Samuel ',~'!\1.)lp'!\ and Samuel
d. Before a composite sewa:J it takes the corresponding short
vowel of the composite sewa:J.
iinq a he-ass 1i1.)qJ and a he-ass
n,?~ truth n,?~J and truth
,i,n sickness ,i,n, and sickness
, T: ' T:T
Conjunction i I 5 9
In the case of C';:t?~, however, the :>alep is quiescent (I I. 11) and
the simple vocal se;aJ gives way to a ~ere.
c';:t?~ + 1> C';:t?N) and God
7. Loss of the Strong Dages
The consonants\',?,~' J, and p, and the sibilants (D, :ll, iV, and
lV) frequently lose the strong dages when they are followed by a
sewa~ The precise rules for retaining or omitting the dages need
not concern us now; at this stage one needs only to know that the
dages may disappear.
,:-iN:D > 1N;D (hay:>or) the Nile
'"C'7~1,PD > C'7n7?tt (hamraggelim) the spies
This rule explains the form of the preposition ll? when it is
prefixed to nouns beginning with ;
* il1~il'J~ > ,:. il1~il~~ > ,,. il1~il'~ > il1~il'~
T : : T ; T : T
from Judah
8. The Verbless Clause
A nominal or adverbial clause may be formed simply by juxtapo-
sition of subject and predicate. No verb "to be" is required in
such sentences. In such a clause, tense can only be inferred from
context. Without context, the student should simply translate
with the English present tense.
17.~ illil; YHWH is king
tvi1R ilJit; YHWH is holy
C',.jtlJ:::i C'ii?N God is in the heavens
' - T - ::
Note: In each of the above examples, the words may occur in
reverse order without any change in meaning.
60 I Lesson VI
iti~/'10~ after, behind. Adverb: p iti~ Ip '1Q~ afterward
-,~ unto, into, to, toward
~ in, with, by, among, through, as
T'~ between. Note the idiom: YT';;~ X T'~ and, less
frequently, Y T'i? X T'~ "between X and Y"
like, as, about, according to. Note the idiom:
Yf ... Xf "X and Y alike"
to, for, in regard to, with reference to
before (also '~~-?i before, on the surface of; '~!;)7;),
'~~'?7;) from th~ presence of, because of) .
-v~ from, away from, out of, some of, because of
...... in front of
as far as, until
upon, on, over, concerning, beside, against. It should
be noted that-,~ and -,i are frequently confused
with one another
under, beneath, instead of, in place of
Note: Sometimes two prepositions may be combined for empha-
sis. This is particularly frequent with the preposition T7;l, e.g.,
nti~7;) under, ?i~ above.
ark (of the covenant), chest
(fp: niN'!;_9tl) sin, sin offering. Adjective: N'!;_9tJ sinful.
Verb: NltO to sin; x7 NltO to sin against X
Vocabulary I 61
il1il' YHWH (the name of Israel's God). In the Hebrew
Bible, the vowels of the word '1i~ "my Lord" are
superimposed on the four consonants (thus, ilJM; or
ilJil;). When the consonantal text has il1il' 'l1N "my
lord YHWH;' the text is pointed with the vowels for
O'i'.i?~ '1i~ "my lord, God" (i.e., il1M.~ '1i~), thus
preventing one from saying :Jaq,oniiy :Jaq,oniiy. When
an inseparable preposition, or the conjunction 1is
prefixed to il1il', the vowel under the prefix is a (_),
precisely what one would expect with '1i~, accord-
ing to 6.d in this lesson: '~i~J "and my lord'~ thus,
il1il'1 "and YHWH."
T -
il?;1 (ms; irreg. mp: ni?'?) night. Note: il?;'iv may mean
"tonight" (by the same token, oi;:t may mean
Proper Names:
,,1 T
David ?NiW'
Judah illVb
... Moses
- T :
Jerusalem 0~11? Egypt
62 I Lesson VI
Exercise 6
a. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. the night 6. the sin offering I I. the mountains
2. the city 7. the people 12. the heads
3 the cities 8. the earth 13. the swords
4 the father 9. the rams 14. the vessels
5 the palace IO. the iniquities I 5. the women
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. after the wind 7. instead of David the king
2. from the land 8. a prophet to the nations
3 and in the cities 9 in the day and in the night
4 in a covenant IO. between the darkness and the light
5 in tents I I. from heaven to (-,~n earth
6. like God 12. some of the men
c. Translate the following into English:
I. ::liJ!iJl ~9f iJ 7. 1,:ri nnf.l 1,li ,, nnf.l ,,
.. -- ,. T -- T
2. C'i::JY1 C'itv
T-:- T
4 i;,;, il)
TT ,:
5 FJ;;>~ Ct'f I I. 1wn 7 ,;N1 ,;N7 1wn
6. 1,,fr-1,N
.- ,
- ..
I 2. i1??1iJ 7,;;, Ci"iJ T'~
Exercise 6 I 6 3
d. Read the following passage out loud. Then translate the pas-
sage with the help of a dictionary and the notes below.
r1~~ n~1 Cl'O~iJ n~ Cl'ii'?~ ~1;i nib~""}~ 1.
n~lj19 ciii'?~ rr,11 Clim:, 'J.~-',.p liP.fll 1it31 1iifl iiIT~ r1~~l 2.
ci6ii ':J9-'?l7
. T - : -
,;~--i'.1~1 ,;~ 'i'.l~ t:l'ii'?~ ,9~;1 3
r:;n ,;~~ r:o c:iif',~ ',":"9:1 :::i;~-,:;, ,;~~-n~ c:iif',~ ~, :1 4
:::i1~-,ii~1 ii/~, ~lR liP.A'?, c:ii ,;~'? 1 t:l'ii'?~ ~1p~1 s.
,r:r~ ci;, ,ps-;:r~1
t:l'9'? t:l'O r:o "''l'.;lO 'i'.1'1 t:l:9iJ lin~ ~p1 'i'.l: Cl'if'?~ ,9~;1 6.
(Gen 1:1-6)
[Note: In Hebrew prose, the subject of a sentence usually follows
the verb.]
v 1: ~1:;i (subject: God) created; n~l n~ untranslatable markers
of the definite object of the verb (Ni::2).
v 2: iiQ'~ was; c:iii',~ rr,11 and the wind I spirit of God; n~Fno
was hovering I swooping.
v 3: 10~;1 then (subject) said; 'ii~ let there be; -,i1~1 and there was.
v 4: ~1~] and (subject) saw; :::i;~-:, that it was good; '?1'.;l:1 and
(subject) made a separation.
v 5: ~1P'1 (subject) called; ii~'? (with reference to) the light;
~lR he called.
v 6: lin:i in the midst of; 'ii'1 and let there be; i,,~po a separation.
Excursus B
Reading Markers and
Pausal Forms
As in English, when one reads Hebrew out loud, one must pay
attention to the meaningful units in the text and make appropri-
ate pauses along the way. There is a full array of markers in
pointed Hebrew texts that help one in reading. These markers
were not in the original compositions. Rather, they were secon-
darily introduced to assist one in public recitation. The most
important of these markers are also helpful in the task of transla-
tion, inasmuch as they provide a traditional understanding of the
meaningful units in the text. Without these additional helps, one
has to rely solely on context to know how to break up each sen-
tence - as the student may have noticed in attempting to trans-
late Gen r:1-6 (Exercise 6.d).
I. Sop Pasuq
There is no marker for the beginning of a verse. At the end of a
verse, however, a large colon (:) known as the sop pasuq (end of
verse) appears after the last word.
2. Accents
Accents appear in the Hebrew Bible either above or beneath the
words. They serve primarily to regulate reading. They are also
helpful, however, in marking the position of stress in individual
words and the meaningful divisions in each verse. The accents are
generally classified either as conjunctive or disjunctive. A con-
junctive accent indicates that the word is to be taken with what
follows. A disjunctive accent marks a major, intermediate, or mi-
nor pause; it may occur at the end of a sentence, clause, or
phrase. The disjunctive accents are especially important because
they are intended to indicate the end of each logical unit.
Accents I 65
There are two systems of accents used. The books of Psalms,
Proverbs and Job (called "the Three Books") follow a somewhat
different system than the rest of the Bible ("the Twenty-One
Books"). Some of the markers are found in both systems, but
others occur exclusively in one or the other system. It is not nec-
essary at this stage to learn all the various accents, their peculiari-
ties, and how they are used in each system. It will suffice for us to
be able to recognize the following accents as either conjunctive or
Disjunctive Conjunctive
silluq xxx' muna~
Jarna~ xxx
xxx segolt.:e xxx mereka.J
Cole(h) Weyoreg xxx CiJJuy
xxx salselet xxx' JazJaJ
xxx zaqep qaron xxx
" zaqep gagol
xxx ret,'i(af
[Now you should reread Gen 1:1-6 out loud (see Exercise 6.D),
this time using your Hebrew Bible and paying attention to the ac-
cents. Translate the text again, and observe how the accents assist
you in identifying the sense units.]
66 I Excursus B
3. Meteg
The meteg (bridle) is a short vertical stroke appearing under a
consonant, usually to the left of the vowel. It serves primarily to
indicate a secondary stress in a word. In addition, it may call at-
tention to the precise pronunciation of the vowel. There is no
need for the student to know all the situations in which the meteg
occurs. It is helpful, however, to note the presence of the meteg in
the following situations.
a. It distinguishes a from o.
:i7~t$ ::,iiB.ela(h) she ate (not ::,oB.lii[h] food)
C'T-1::2 battim houses (not *bottim)
b. It distinguishes i from i.
~NT yirPu they fear (not yir::,u they see)
c. It calls attention to an unreduced a ore vowel in a propretonic
open syllable (see III.2.a).
,:,iJN ::,anoB.i I (am)
. --:1
berakdni he blessed me
d. It calls attention to a short unaccented vowel in an apparently
open syllable.
t:l'iY:i the cities
"T !"."
The maqqep (connector) is a horizontal stroke used to indicate a
close link of words. A word so joined to the following becomes
proclitic - it becomes so closely dependent on the following word
that it loses its stress. When a word becomes proclitic in this way,
final e becomes e and final a becomes o.
-T- I'IN
but C'~w:,-nN
-T- ','
Pausal Forms I 67
5. Pausal Forms
When a word occurs at a major juncture of a sentence, particu-
larly when at the middle or end of a verse, it is said to be in
pause. Certain vowel changes in the word may take place. The
following are the most common shifts which result in pausal
a. The a-vowel(_) in a tonic syllable may become a (T).
Normal Pausal
I c~~
- T

- T
he judged
b. The first e-vowel (...) in a segolate noun may become a().
Normal Pausal
... : 1.:JY
: T
fl~ fl~ land
c. Words normally stressed on the ultima may have their accent
retracted to the penultima.
Normal Pausal
I (am)
68 I Excursus B
d. A reduced vowel (vocal sewif'} may be reverted to a full vowel.
Normal Pausal
~Y7?tp; ~Y5tv'
T :
they will hear
~N',m, : T'
they will be filled
~t,~tp; mstp: they will judge
Noteworthy here, too, are forms like '"'!~ and '7:P, where the
sewi{:, becomes a full vowel.
Normal Pausal
''1~ ,,9
. fruit
'0 '0 half
,',ft T: '7" sickness
Note: In addition to the internal changes, prefixed prepositions
and the conjunction, take the a-vowel (instead of the sewi{:,} be-
fore a stressed syllable in a pausal position. This rule applies to
monosyllabic nouns, as well as to disyllabic nouns stressed on the
i1:j7 i19. mouth to mouth (2 Kgs ro:21)
o6'? o-6
TT . -
I .. between the waters and the waters (Gen r:6)
i1?'71 Cli'1 day and night (Gen 8:22}
z:io:51 ::iryr gold and silver (Exod 25:3}
Con;unctive Dages I 69
6. Conjunctive Dages
Sometimes a strong dages is found not because the form itself re-
quires it, but for smoother reading.
'1 n;z;iJ she gave to me
7. Ra[Je(h)
The rape(h) is a short horizontal stroke sometimes placed above a
consonant. Its function is the opposite of a dages in that it indi-
cates that a consonant is to be taken as "relaxed" (that's what
the name means). In some manuscripts this sign is used consis-
tently to call attention to the absence of a strong dages, a weak
dages, or a mappiq.
Lesson VII
1. The Inflection of the Adjective
Like the noun, the Hebrew adjective may be inflected for gender
and number. The inflection of :lit, (good) is as follows.
ms :lit, mp C':;tit,
fs ;,:iit,
fp ni:iit,
Note: Unlike the noun, the dual form of the adjective is unat-
tested. For dual nouns, the plural adjectives are used.
2. Adjectival Patterns
The following are the most important adjectival patterns.
a. qiip5l (e.g., ?ii~ great)
ms mp C'7i1~
fs i1?i1i
T :
fp ni?i1~
Other examples: tvi1j? (holy); :iiij? (near); pinl (far).
b. qii,tel (e.g., i;q, heavy)
ms i:i::::,
mp C'''"q:P
fs i11:J:::)
fp ni,;p
Other examples: Ti?.! (old); :l~l (hungry); N7~ (full).
Adjectival Patterns I 71
c. qaral (e.g., ,w~ straight)
ms 1'1i,;,
fs i11ll,h
TT :
fp niitp;
Other examples: PW (strong); C~IJ (wise); W11J (new).
d. qall (e.g., :J1 many, much)
ms :Jj_ mp C':;11
fs i1::11
T -
fp ni::11
Other examples: ?1 (poor); T~ (strong); 'IJ (alive).
Note: Adjectives of this pattern behave like qa/1 nouns (V. 1.a).
Thus, when a guttural or Res is the geminate radical, there is
compensatory lengthening of the first vowel in the forms with
endings, e.g., Y1 (evil).
ms mp 0'~1
fs i1Y1
fp rliY1
Other examples: ,~ (bitter); 1 (narrow).
e. qafe(h) (e.g., i1WR difficult)
ms i1WR mp C'lPR
fs i1WR fp nillJR
Other examples: i1~~ (handsome); i1~1 (slack).
7 2 I Lesson VI I
3. Uses of the Adjective
The adjective in Hebrew may function as an attribute (e.g., the
good man) or a predicate (e.g., the man is good).
a. The attributive adjective modifies a noun. In this usage, the ad-
jective agrees with the noun in gender, number, and definiteness.
It also comes after the noun, not before it as in English.
:::iit, W'~ a good man ;i:::iit,
a good woman
:ii~;,- W'N;'t
the good man ;i:::ii~i]
the good woman
C'::Jit, C'WJN
good men ni:::iit, C'WJ good women
C'::Ji~;,- C'WJN;i the good men
T-: T
. -
ni:::ii~;,- C'W~;i the good women
b. The predicate adjective describes the state of the noun. In this
usage, the adjective agrees with the noun in gender and number,
but it never takes the definite article. It may come before or after
the noun. The syntax is that of the verbless clause (VI.8).
W'N;"t :::iit, the man is good
m,p~o :i;it, the woman is good
::JiD W'~O the man is good :i;it, ;'llf~O the woman is good
Since the predicate adjective does not take the definite article,
there may be some ambiguity when it is used with an indefinite
noun: thus, C':;liD C'tp~~ may mean either "good men" or "men
are good." The precise meaning must be determined from context.
In a case like C'tp~~ C':;liD, however, it is clear that the adjective is
a predicate, since the attributive adjective normally stands after
the noun (see 3.a above).
c. The adjective in Hebrew may be used as a substantive - that is,
as a noun.
c:m TT
wise = a wise man c::in;, the wise
TT I",'
= the wise man
Agreement of the Adjective I 7 3
4. Agreement of the Adjective
a. The adjective agrees with the noun in its lexical gender rather
than its form.
i1~it9iJ f'l~i) the good land (Deut 1: 3 5)
rli'?1~ l:l'J_;, great cities (1 Kgs 4: 13)
b. Since there is no dual form of the adjective, the plural form is
used instead with the dual noun.
ni;)l Cl'"J: slack hands (Isa 3 5: 3)
c. Collective nouns (III.1.f) may have adjectives in the plural.
ni:'.l"") 1ti;~ large flock (Gen 30:43)
d. Nouns that are plural in form but refer to a single person
(II I. r.g) may have the adjective in the singular.
;iwi? Cl',:J1~ a hard master (Isa 19:4)
5. Special Uses of T~
a. Comparative.
There is no independent word in Hebrew for the English word
than. Instead, comparison is most commonly expressed by the
preposition yr,, placed before the noun that is surpassed. The ad-
jective is used with yr,, in this way.
rv~~F:i pii:,9 sweeter than honey (Judg 14:18)
''J~O iP- stronger than a lion (Judg 14:18)
At times T1:l is used to compare a subject's current condition with
a desired condition that is unattainable. The adjective is occa-
sionally also used with T1:l in this way. In English, one uses the
word "too" before the adjective.
Cf iJ~ il\PK too difficult for the people
7 4 I Lesson VI I
b. Partitive.
There is also no word for some in Hebrew; instead, the preposi-
tion T~ is used to express a portion or a part of something.
CP,iT1D some of the people (Gen 3 3: 1 5)
C1iT1D some of the blood (Exod 12:7)
6. The Adjective with 1N7?
The noun 1N7? (muchness, power) may be used after an adjective
or a chain of adjectives as an intensifier. The literal meaning of
1N7? is still evident in the expression 1N7?-i~ (to the
extreme= very, exceedingly):
i~Q-i,ll i'T?f: i'T'J,P~V, the girl was exceedingly beautiful
(1 Kgs 1:4)
Most commonly, however, 1N7? occurs without any preposition
and should be translated as "very."
i~Q ::Jitp very good (Gen 1:31)
7. Nouns in Apposition
A noun is sometimes clarified by another noun in apposition.
rl'JE 1miJ the river, Euphrates = the Euphrates
river (1 Chron 5:9)
''l~Q iD'~ a man, an Egyptian = an Egyptian man
(Exod 2:n)
Vocabulary I 7 5
ir.i~ (irreg. fs: n1ij~; fp: niiti~) another, other
?ii~ great, big, large
Ti?.! old (as a noun: elder [of a city])
PTO strong, powerful. Verb: v!IJ to be strong, prevail
'I] alive, living. Substantive in both genders, "living
animal." Noun: C'~IJ life
:iit, good, beautiful
"" T
handsome, beautiful
iR: precious, valuable, rare
itp: straight, just, upright. Nouns: iw~ uprightness,
straightness. i11V?? uprightness
,~f heavy, severe, important. Verb: ,~f to be important;
to be heavy, weighty. Noun: ii:if glory, honor
TbR (also T~R; fs: i1!~~; mp: C'~~~) small, insignificant
::11 many, much, abundant, mighty. Noun: :ii abundance
371 bad, evil, ugly. Noun: i11 evil, harm
:i~n hungry. Noun: ::11 famine, hunger. Verb: :1~1 to be
wicked, criminal
Proper Names:
T T: -
:ip~~ Jacob
76 I Lesson VI I
Exercise 7
a. Translate the following into Hebrew:
I. a holy nation 7. precious stones
2. a new king 8. famine in the city
3 a little city 9. the matter is very good
4 an evil spirit IO. the king is very old
5 great wisdom I I. the criminal matter
6. many cities 12. the righteous and the wicked alike
b. Translate the following into English:
I. ,m~ 'IV'l'.(7 7. r1~~ ,~f :::i101
2. C'~tl C'i'.l'~ 8. 1N~ ,iil i1'1Vb 'IV'Nil
: T . "T
3. n16~ r1ij-,~ 9
4. 10. i1W1t!v r1ijo1 c'w1qv c~~t;v
5 C':::iY,,

1 1. c,,;,i c,:,;~~ c,::i, C'il
: T : -
6. 1 2. ,k~ niYi niYim ik~ ni:::iit, ni:::iiwil
: T TT: : -
c. Read Gen 1:14-19 out loud and translate the passage with the
help of a dictionary and the following notes.
v 14: 19~~] (subject) said; 'IT let there be; 'n1~9 (defective spelling
for niiiN7?); ~'i?1~ in the expanse of; ',~p;:t? to separate;
l:~n so that they shall be; 'nr,~', for signs; tl'"'l.P,irt'?l and
for seasons; D',~~, irreg. fp. of il~lp.
v I 5: 1'~i)? to shine; p-'i1'J. and it was so.
v 16: ~.P;~J and (subject) made; ',J.~;-n~ the two (-n~ is an un-
translatable marker of the definite object); n?W9r,j? for
dominion of.
Lesson VIII
1. The Verbal Patterns
There are seven major verbal patterns in Hebrew. Each pattern
has certain distinctive features, such as an n prefix (e.g., 7?2j?~),
h prefix (e.g., 7'~j?;:l), doubling of the second radical (e.g., 7~j?),
and so forth. These distinctive verbal patterns are variously called
"conjugations;' "stems;' or in Hebrew, binyanim, "structures."
The first verbal pattern is the most unencumbered. Therefore,
it has traditionally been called Qal (light); the others are named
according to their typical formation, based on a model root 7YD
(to do, make).
The following are the seven major verbal patterns in Hebrew.
Pattern Traditional name
qatal Qal (7R)
niqtal Niphal (7~~~)
qiqel Piel (7~~) 1
quqal Pual (7~@) 1
hiqtil Hiphil (7'~~;:l)
hoqtal Hophal (7~~0)
hiNanel Hithpael (7~;>J;l;:1) 1
The characteristics and meaning of each verbal pattern will be
clarified in due course.
2. The Inflection of the Participle
Like the noun and the adjective, the participle is inflected for
gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular and plural).
,. The guttural Y is virtually doubled (see JV.2..a.i.j3).
Inflection of the Participle I 79
ms mp C' -
fs n- fp ni-
i.As in the adjective, there is no dual form; the appropriate
plural form is used instead.
ii.The alternative fs ending i1T - is attested rarely.
3. The Qal Active Participle
a. Normal Pattern
The Qal active participle is based on the qotel pattern. The forms
of the Qal active participle of i~tp (to keep, observe), then, are as
ms i,?tv mp C''17?lV
fs n,otv
. : fp nii7?tv
Note: The Qal active participles of verbs with strong radicals,
I-Guttural, I-Nun, I-Yog, and Geminate roots are all inflected
b. I I-Guttural Roots
Since gutturals do not take the simple vocal sewii:J, a composite
sewii:J is found wherever one expects a vocal sewii:J. The forms
of the Qal active participle of the verb ,~tp (to ask), then, are as
ms ,~tv mp C'?~W
fs n,Ntv
. . fp ni,~tv
80 I Lesson V l l l
c. III-Guttural Roots
As we have already learned, final rl, n, and l.' tend to add the
furtive pdta!J and prefer a-class vowels (I I. ro). The forms of
the Qal active participle of l.'~tf (to hear), then, are as follows.
ms ll~W mp C'~7?W
fs n~~tv fp niY7?tv
d. rrr-=>Alep Roots
Since N tends to be quiescent whenever it closes a syllable (I I. 11 ),
the fs participle of such verbs will be vocalized slightly differently
from the normal form. The forms of the Qal active participle of
N'::l~ (to find), then, are as follows.
ms N~b mp C'l'.(b
fs nN~b fp niNb
e. III-He Roots
The forms of the Qal active participle of il?~ (to uncover) are
as follows.
ms ;,1,~
... mp 0'7~
fs ;,1,~
fp r,;1,~
Note: An alternate fs like il!:;l::l (crying) is attested.
f. I I-Waw I Y6g Roots
Verbs with Waw I Y6g as the second radical normally preserve
8 2 I Lesson VI I I
i. Present
i1?ZJ 1P! ib~ an old man is going up (1 Sam 28:14)
t9 -,;-n '1~h -,;1 A generation comes and a generation
n19z, o'.7i.!.'? r1~ry1 goes, but the earth stands forever
(Eccl 1:4)
ii. Past
1.ll,h ~JP i1Ji1~ YHWH was calling the boy
( 1 Sam 3:8)
:::l~~~-n~ n:ir,~ i1j?,:::l11 but Rebecca loved Jacob (Gen 25:28)
iii. Future
The participle is often used for the imminent future. Thus, it
may be rendered by English "going to ... " or "about to .... "
?~ltD':l i;q i1(Pl' '?J~ I am going to do something in Israel
(1 Sam 3:II)
i1Wl' ',::l~ 1ip~ what I am about to do (Gen 18:17)
In the examples above, the participle is the predicate of the
clause. Just like the predicate adjective (VIl.3.b), the participle
in this usage agrees with the noun in gender and number, but it
does not take the definite article. Compare the usage of the ad-
jective and the participle in the following examples.
With adjective With participle
:Ji~ 'IV'Nil the man
1~.Y 'IV'Nil the man
is good is standing
the woman ni~i' ilWNi1 the woman
.. T 'T
is good is standing
Note: For simplicity's sake we assume the present tense in our
translation. As in other verbless clauses (VI.8), however, the
context may require other translations.
Qal Active Participle I 8 I
only the first and last consonants. There is no distinction made
between I 1-Waw and I 1-Yocj types. The forms of the Qal active
participle of Ni::! (come, enter), then, are as follows.
ms N::I
mp C'~~
fs ilN::Z
fp 11iN::I
Synopsis of Forms of the Qal Active Participle
Root ms mp fs fp
,ow ,~w C'i7?W n,ow
...... nii7?W keeping
7NW ,~w C'?~W n'?NW
...... ni'?~W asking
YOW ll~W C'~7?W n~~tz.; niY7?W hearing
N~O N~b C'~b 11N~b 11iNb finding
il7l :,7~ C'?~ :,'?~
ni'?~ uncovering
N1:::2 N~T
C'N~ "T
niN~ T
4. Uses of the Participle
a. The participle is a verbal adjective; it has some characteristics
of both the verb and the adjective. When it is construed as a verb,
it usually suggests continuous occurrence of an activity.
~9:Y?.P :::l\6-' sitting upon a throne (Isa 6:1)
Cl'T1'i Cl';!' ascending and descending (Gen 28:12)
Tense is not indicated in the participle; it must be inferred from
context. The participle simply represents a state of affair in the
present, past, or future.
8 2 I Lesson V l l l
i. Present
~":i, '1pr ~~ an old man is going up (1 Sam 28:14)
~~ -,;-n '1~h -,;1 A generation comes and a generation
n19:IJ ci'.7il''? f l~i7, goes, but the earth stands forever
(Eccl 1:4)
ii. Past
i,P,h ~')~ ~Jit YHWH was calling the boy
(1 Sam 3:8)
:::l~~~-n~ n:::ir;rk ~j?,:::li1 but Rebecca loved Jacob (Gen 25:28)
iii. Future
The participle is often used for the imminent future. Thus, it
may be rendered by English "going to ... " or "about to .... "
'?~"'Jtzr:i. i~'l ~\Z)lJ .;:,* I am going to do something in Israel
(1 Sam 3:II)
~Wl' ',:J~ -,~~ what I am about to do (Gen 18:17)
In the examples above, the participle is the predicate of the
clause. Just like the predicate adjective (VIl.3.b), the participle
in this usage agrees with the noun in gender and number, but it
does not take the definite article. Compare the usage of the ad-
jective and the participle in the following examples.
With adjective With participle
:JiD lV'Nil the man
10.Y lV'Nil the man
is good is standing
the woman ni5.Y ilWNil the woman
:: T 'T
is good is standing
Note: For simplicity's sake we assume the present tense in our
translation. As in other verbless clauses (VI.8), however, the
context may require other translations.
Uses of the Participle I 83
b. The participle may also be used like an attributive adjective,
e.g., '~Otv :I? a listening heart (1 Kgs 3:9); i1J:;)~ iz:i~ a consuming
fire (Deut 4:24). When so used, the participle agrees in number,
gender, and definiteness with, and always comes after the noun it
modifies (see VII.3.a). Compare the use of the adjective and par-
ticiple in the following examples.
With adjective With participle
Jit9;:t tz.;,~o the good 1~YO W'~O the standing
man man
i1~it9;:t i1W~O the good n1~YO i1W~O the standing
woman woman
In the phrase 1~YO W'l'.(0, the word 1~YO "the standing (one)"
specifies and describes the noun W'~O It is not just any man of
whom the phrase speaks, but "the man, the standing one." Thus
1~YO functions as an attributive adjective. The expression "the
man, the standing one" may be compared with the adjectival
phrase Jit9;:t W'~O "the man, the good one." In idiomatic English,
one would translate the participle in this case with the relative
pronoun "who." The tense is not specified in Hebrew, so the He-
brew 1~YO W'l'.(0 could mean "the man who stands," "the man
who stood," or "the man who will stand." Thus, the participle
(with or without the definite article) can function as the equiva-
lent of a relative clause.
:::i~i' 170 a king who sits (Prov 20:8)
':::iil,ii~iJ 'l'?OiJ the king who sits (Jer 29: 16)
c. Like the adjective, the participle may be used as a noun.
,~W keeping, one who keeps = keeper
J;:JN = lover, friend
loving, one who loves
i1~:::I building, one who builds = builder
84 I Lesson VI I I
d. In many instances, the participle is used in such a way that
some indefinite subject has to be supplied.
(someone) calls from Seir (Isa 21:II)
5. The Qal Passive Participle
a. Whereas the Qal active participle has the qotel pattern, the pas-
sive participle has the qiitul pattern. Compare the following.
Qal Act. Ptc.: :JD~ writing, one who writes
Qal Pass. Ptc.: :::i~n;j;) being written, what is written
b. Whereas the more common fs ending in the active inflection
is usually n. . -, it is :,T - in the passive.
Synopsis of Forms of the Qal Passive Participle
Root ms mp (s (p
C"""!~l'Jtp ni,~l'Jtp kept
iON ,~ON T
C'i~O~ :,i~ON
T -:
ni,~O~ bound
Y1" ~~,~ 0'~~1; :,y~,., niY~1; known
T '
N~,R C'~~,~ :11$~,~ niN~ij? called
0":~,; :,,~'n
T a
ni"~,; uncovered
1. III-He (i.e., original III-Waw/ Yo<;_{) verbs have' as the third
11. 11-Waw/Yo<;_l verbs are extremely rare in the passive partici-
ple, but note the following.
Qal Passive Participle I 8 5
Root Qal passive ptc.
?~1.l , C'?~1.l
. circumcised
C'W C'W, :-t~'W placed
c. Like the active participle, the passive participle is a verbal ad-
jective (see 4 above).
i. attributive
:r1n:;, ~$tva a written judgment (Ps 149:9)
ii. predicative
t:l''1~0:;l ':r1n:;, it was written in the letters (1 Kgs 21: II)
iii. substantive
:T1']in:;i :rn:9~ according to what is written in the law
(Neh 10:35)
to love. Noun: :1::J:1N
to eat, consume, devour. Nouns: ?:::>NI :1?:::>N food
: T:T
,~1$ to say
Ni:::! to come, enter
to build
:17~ to uncover, go away, go into exile
170 to walk, go
to know
1?~ to bear, beget. Noun: 17~ boy, child
86 I Lesson VlII
N~ to go out, go forth
,~ to go down, descend
- T
to dwell, sit, remain
:llJ~ to write, record, register
to find
ill?~ to stretch out, extend, incline. Noun: ilW~ (pl. nit9~)
branch, tribe, staff
TJJ~ to give, deliver, set, permit
i~f to cross over, pass over, transgress. X~ ,~ to pass
through X
1~ to stand, remain, persist
NlR to call, proclaim. x7 NlR to call/ summon X, name X,
invite X
ilZ$1 to see. Noun: il~l~ sight, appearance
'~W to ask, inquire
Y~lp to hear, listen, obey
,~w to keep, observe, watch
Exercise 8
a. Parse the following forms - e.g., n~W'
Qal Act. Ptc. fs of ::iw:
"to dwell, sit"; ,,,iT Qal Pass. Ptc. ms of il;i
"to uncover."
I. TJJ) 6. il:J":!ilN
T -:
I I. C':J":tn::,
. :
2. rut~; 7. C''17?N 12. n~;;
3 C'7l.' 8. ni73i'
.. I 3 il~":!ll)~
4 illpl.' 9. 14. C'~b
5 ilZ$i IO. nN'1p I 5
Exercise 8 I 87
b. Parse the following forms with the help of a dictionary:
I. nil'1~ 6. :nv T
II. C'J;,N
2. :i~t, 7. C'"'!iW 12. C) T
3 C:!lT
8. n?i>l
...... 13. C':lW
4 ilDN
T 9 il~ll)
T T 14 c, T
5 C'?~i IO. n1~ I 5 il'::l~
c. Translate the following into Hebrew:
I. the one (fs) who bore
2. the one (ms) stretching out the heavens
3. the ones (mp) who were registered
4. the ones (mp) who resided in Judah
5 with an outstretched hand
6. Jerusalem, built like a city
7. a woman who knows a man
8. another angel was going forth
9. the one (ms) who is recorded for life
IO. the vessels that were made
d. Translate the following into English:
(1 Kgs r 9: r r ) i::111 i1Ji1~ r.
(Ps 37:28) ~$~0 :liJ~ I i1Ji1~ 2.
(Ezek 3 9: 1 5) r1~~ b-,:i~ry 3.
(Num 13:28) f1~~ :l~'i'J t:l~Q 4.
(Prov 20:12) i1~'l rP-, rl.l)Q~ H~ 5.
(Prov 29:3) i19:,ry, :l;Jtnv~ 6.
88 I Lesson V ll I
(Isa 9: 1) liZ7h~ cr;:,'?h0 'c~Q 7.
(Ezr 4: I) i1Ji1'~ '=?'i1 C',:ii:l 8.
(Jer 25:32) 'it'?~ 'i~a n~t i1P,l 9.
CJ,';:,',;, Cl'"J(9i 0'910-',_;) Cl'"J~_;) IO.
(Eccl I0:7) Yl~i)-'?l' O'"J~~:;,
e. Read Ps 146: 5-IO out loud and translate vv 6-IO with the help
of a dictionary and these notes.
Notes: The passage begins in v 5: "How.fortunate is the one
whose help is the God of Jacob, whose hope is in YHWH his
God ... "
v 6: -n~i an untranslatable marker of definite direct object;
Cl;l:.iv:;~-,'.?-n~i and all that is in them.
v 7: i'flO one who sets free.
v 9: O'~P this and the next few nouns should be treated as
definite, even though the definite article is not present. The
absence of the article in poetic Hebrew is, in fact, quite
typical (see Excursus D). 1Ji_!.)' he supports; lTn and the
way of; n.1l'' he thwarts.
v IO: ~'?a~ (subject) shall reign; ii~~, T1J'~ your God, 0 Zion;
i1.:-:i'?'?(1 praise Yah! (i1.: is a shortened form of the divine
name ;,,;,,.)
Excursus C
Nomenclature for
, Verbal Patterns and Root Types
r. Verbal Patterns
As noted in Lesson VIII, the basic verbal pattern in Hebrew is
called Qal (light); the names of the other sets are derived from
their patterns according to the root 1nn::, (to do, make). The tradi-
tional grammars and dictionaries all follow this convention of us-
ing the root ?YD, a convention borrowed from Arabic grammar.
Unlike Arabic, however, the root ?YD in Hebrew is susceptible to
changes under certain conditions: the first radical may be spiran-
tized and the second radical resists doubling by dages. The root
is, therefore, not ideal for paradigms and is, in fact, not regularly
so used.
Occasionally scholars also use a set of sigla to designate the
various patterns. In this system, the basic verbal pattern (i.e.,
Qal) is called G (from the German Grundstamm "basic stem").
Other sigla indicate the prefixes, infixes, or doubling (thus N, D,
H). The passive patterns corresponding to the main active pat-
terns are designated by the letter p: Gp, Dp, Hp. In many ways,
this system is more descriptive of the forms than the names that
have been assigned. Thus, for instance, the N pattern is so called
because an n is prefixed (as in 7~j?~) or infixed and assimilated
(as in ?~re:); the D pattern has do~bling of the second radical in
all its forms. The same sigla are used for other Semitic languages,
as well, and thus facilitate comparative studies.
Since the standard reference works still use the traditional
nomenclature, however, it is necessary for the student to become
familiar with it. The following are the names of the main verbal
patterns, and their alternative designations and abbreviations in
the standard reference works.
90 I Excursus C
Name Alternat. spelling Abbreviation Sig/um
Qal G
Niphal Nifal, Nipcal Niph.; Nif.; Ni. N
Piel Pi'el Pi. D
Pual Puc al Pu. Dp
Hithpael Hitpacel Hith. HtD
Hiphil Hifil, Hipcil Hiph.; Hif .; Hi. H;C
Hophal Hofal, Hopcal Hoph,; Hof.; Ho. Hp;Cp
Most grammars and dictionaries present the verbs in the above
order. In this textbook, however, the active patterns (Qal, Pi.,
Hi.) will be studied first because they occur far more frequently
than the passive and reflexive ones (Ni., Pu., Hith., Ho.).
The student should note, too, that the dictionaries ordinarily
list each verb under its Qal Perfect 3 ms form (e.g., :2iJ2$). Roots
that are I I-Waw/ Yog, however, are listed under the Qal Infini-
tive Construct form (e.g., Ni'.::!; c~p, T':;l).
2. Root Types
We have already learned in IV.r.c that root types are classified
according to the I-I I-I I I system. However, traditional grammars
and dictionaries, again, use 1'3,'> as the model root. According to
this system, the letter > refers to the first radical (i.e., I), Y refers
to the second (i.e., II), and', to the third (i.e, II I). Thus, for in-
stance, I-Nun roots are called 7"> (Pe-Nun), II-Waw types are 1"Y
(CAyin-Waw), III-JAlep types are N"? (Lameg-JAlep), and so forth.
In addition, roots that are II-Waw/Yog are called "Hollow"
or "Middle Weak" (Mediae Infirmae) and those that are original
III-Waw-Yog (that is III-He) are called "Third Weak" (Tertiae
Infirmae). Clearly, the I-II-III nomenclature is less confusing.
Nevertheless, because the dictionaries and grammars do use these
Root Types I 9 r
terms regularly, it is necessary to become familiar with them.
The following are the names of the Hebrew root types.
Root types Alternative names
I-Guttural D-Guttural (Pe-Guttural); First Guttural
I I-Guttural Y-Guttural (cAyin-Guttural); Second-Guttural
I I I-Guttural 17-Guttural (Lameg-Guttural); Third-Guttural
II=Ill Geminate; Double Y; Y"Y; Middle-Geminate
I-Nun 7"D (Pe-Nun)
1-::>.Alep N"D (Pe-:).Alep)
1-Waw 1"D (Pe-Waw)
I-Yod '"D (Pe-Yog)
II-Waw 1"Y (Ayin-Waw); Hollow (-Waw);
Middle-Weak (-Waw)
I I-Yod '"Y (cAyin-Yog); Hollow(-Yog);
Middle-Weak (-Y og)
111-::,.Alep N"', (Lameg-::>.AJep)
III-He ;,"', (Lameg-He); Third-Weak
Lesson IX
I. The Independent Personal Pronouns
Pronouns in Hebrew may occur as independent forms or as
suffixes. The independent forms are as follows.
3 ms N:iil he, it n~5/cr,i they
3 fs N'i'.J she, it 3 fp i1~5 they
2 ms i1~~ I~~ you 2 mp c~~ you
2 fs l;l~ you 2 fp il~~~/T~~ you
I cs ':JlN / 'lN I
T -:
I cp ,mlN
: --:
1. The pronouns are characterized by distinct beginnings: =>an-
for the first person forms, ::>an + t for the second (thus ::,att-;
see IV.2.b), and h- for the third.
11. In the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible), the
3 fs form is almost always written as Ni;:i (but pronounced
as N'i'.J).
111. In addition to the more common 2 fs form, l;l~, an archaic
variant, 'l:\~, is attested.
1v. In addition to the more common 1 cp :ili,~~, the variant
forms :ilnl : -
and ,lN-: are attested. . .
v. Forms in pause may be vocalized or stressed a little differ-
ently (see Excursus B). These are easily recognized: ,~5~, '~ij,
i1~ij, r;iij, :ilr;,}~.
b. Uses
i. The independent personal pronoun is used most frequently as
the subject of a verbless clause (see VI.8).
Independent Personal Pronouns I 93
i1,1i1' ',~~ I am YHWH (Exod 6:2)
~iii ~;i~ He is a prophet (Gen 20:7)
iV'~i) i1D~ You are the man (2 Sam 12:7)
'i1I;J~ P'J~ You are righteous (Jer 12:1)
iJn.~~ rJIJO We are from Haran (Gen 29:4)
It is clear that the independent personal pronoun may precede or
follow the noun. Although it may not always be evident in trans-
lation, the Hebrew word order in each case may indicate some
emphasis. Thus, the statement ~l,;T}~ 110~ "we are from Haran"
(Gen 29:4) answers the question, "from where do you come?"
On the other hand, had the question been "who is I are from
Haran?" one might expect the answer, 110~ ~l,;J}~ ("we are from
ii. The independent pronoun is also used for emphasis.
Cl'fi'?~i) ~ii) i1Ji1' YHWH is God (Deut 4: 3 5)
Cl'i1'?~i1 ~ii1-i1n~
:: IT T -
You are God (2 Sam 7:28)
In these examples, the pronoun M~iT appears in addition to the
subject and has an emphatic function. Here the pronoun may sig-
nify something like "the one;' "the very one;' "that one." In the
same way, the independent personal pronoun may be used to em-
phasize the direct or indirect object.
rn;r~~ iJ~~ with us, even us (Deut 5: 3)
Cl()~ 'ci?,'? for you, even you (Hag 1:4)
iii. The third person pronoun is sometimes used to refer em-
phatically to someone just mentioned and means something
like "the same;' "the aforementioned;' or "that."
~lW ~ii7 that (the aforementioned) Ezra (Ezr 7:6)
94 I Lesson IX
iv. The 3 ms and 3 fs forms are sometimes used to introduce an
explanation or clarification of what precedes.
:ui1~ ~i~ '1Wl7 Esau, that is, Edom (Gen 36:1)
v. As we will learn later, the independent personal pronoun
may be used to indicate a change of the speaker or actor, par-
ticularly in parenthetical comments (see XIII-4-b.ii).
2. The Suffixed Pronouns
Whereas the independent personal pronoun is used for the sub-
ject, the suffixed pronouns (or "pronominal suffixes") may refer
to the noun as the indirect or direct object. In terms of form,
three sets of suffixed pronouns may be identified.
a. Type A
The prepositions f (in) and 7(to, for) take suffixes of this type.
3 ms
;, to him i::i in him
3 fs
to her i=l:!2
in her
2 ms 97 to you 9::\'.l m you
2 fs 1? to you 1i m you
I CS '7 to me '::\'.! mme
3 mp o:i, to them
: T
o;,::i in them
: T
3 fp TV? to them F9 in them
2 mp 0::),
: T
to you 0::)::2
: T
in them
2 fp P? to you Pi m you
I cp ~J? to us ~J:!2 T
Suffixed Pronouns I 9 5
1. For the 3 mp one finds the variant CT - occurring along with
cry e.g., C~ (in them). By analogy, one expects the 3 fp to
T -,
have j suffix, in addition to j!)
T- Although unattested
T -.
with prepositions, this suffix is in fact found in other contexts
and should be learned as a possible form.
11. When in pa use, the 2 ms form is usually 1 (-a~). One T -
must take special note of this, since the form is identical
to the 2 fs suffix.
n1. The accent on the 1 cp suffix is important; without the
penultimate stress, the word may mean something else.
Compare: ~l~ (in us), ~l~ (they built).
The prepositions C+7 (with), nl( (with), and j'~ (between) take
suffixed pronouns of this type. Since C+7 and nl( are derived from
geminate roots, however, the suffixes are added to the base forms
cimm and :>itt-, respectively.
3 ms ir-u~ with him i~+7 with him
3 fs rlr-lN with her
rl~Y with her
T '
2 ms 91;1~ with you 97?+7 with you
2 fs ':JT-lN with you
,~.Y with you
T '
I CS 'T:'I~ with me ,,~.Y /'~.Y
'T .. with me
3 mp Cr-IN with them
T '
Cil~.Y/C~.Y with them
_- T T '
3 fp - not attested- -not attested-
2 mp c~r;i~ with you c::,~y with you
. T
2 fp - not attested- -not attested-
I cp ~lr-lN with us
~l~Y with us
Note: The 1 cs form ''17f+7 is peculiar, but well attested.
96 I Lesson IX
b. Type B
The prepositions :p (like) and 77;, (from) take suffixed pronouns of
this type.
3 ms '!!it173::> like him
.. from him
3 fs :,173::> like her
il3~7:) from her
T .
2 ms 9173f like you 97P7;) from you
2 fs 117:lf like you 1~7;) from you
I CS 'l17:)::) like me
. . I '3~7:l
.. from me
3 mp Cit::> like them
"" T
Cil7:l from them
000 H
3 fp il~Df'H9 like them :i,5~,7v~ from them
2 mp C:>::>
like you .... from you
2 fp l~f like you 1~7;) from you
I cp '!!l17:)::) like us
.... from us
Note: Whereas the I cp form mimmennu is simply *mimmen-nu,
the 3 ms *mimmen-hu becomes mimmennu. By the same token,
the form mimmenna(h) is derived from *mimmen-ha. The adverb
11Y (still, yet) takes suffixes of this type: thus, 911Y (you are still);
'~11Y (I am still); '!!311Y (we are I he is still).
c. Type C
The prepositions -1,~ (to) and -1,~ (on) take suffixed pronouns of
this type.
Suffixed Pronouns I 97
3 ms T to him
1'?N 1'?YTT upon him/it
3 fs i1'5N to her
T :
i.;.1'7 upon her/it
2 ms 9'?~ to you 9'7 upon you
2 fs 1:?~ to you 1:? upon you
I CS '?~ to me '? upon me
3 mp cry'?~ to them cry'?~ upon them
3 fp 7ry'?~ to them TD'?~ upon them
2 mp C?.'?~ to you C?.'?~ upon you
2 fp -not attested- P'?~ upon you
1 cp '!\J'?~ to us '!\J'? upon us
The prepositions-,~ (until), no6 (under), ''J.D~ (after),'~;!? (be-
fore), and :J':;29 (around) all take suffixed pro~ouns like and -s~
-,~. The preposition'~~?, however, appears as -J~7 in all the sin-
gular and the 1 cp forms (thus 1'~~7, 9'}~7, etc.; but cry'~~?,
Summary of Pronominal Suffixes
Type A Type B Type C
3 ms i- '!\:1- ,, T-
3 fs rl - :i- :,, -<
2 ms 9,- 9- 9' . . -
2 fs 1T- 1- 1'. - -
, '~- ,
98 I Lesson IX
Type A TypeB Type C
3 mp cry-tc T- Cil-
... cry' .. -
3 fp Jv-llT - Tv- Tv' .. -
2 mp c:,-
... C~- c:,,
... .. -
2 fp p- p- P' . -
I cp ~l- ~l- ~l' .. -
3. The Marker of Definite Direct Object
a. Almost always in Hebrew prose, and less commonly in poetry,
an untranslatable particle n~/-n~ is used to mark the definite
direct object of the verb. A noun is said to be definite when it is
a proper name, a noun with a definite article, or a noun with a
suffixed pronoun (see Lesson XII).
ilWb-n~ 1]7W sending Moses
i;iJ-n~ 1]7W sending the servant
'1:;i~-n~ 1]7W sending my servant
The indefinite direct object, however, is not so marked.
,; 1]7W sending a servant
Note: The marker of the definite direct object looks just like the
preposition n~/-n~ (with). One must determine the usage from
the context.
b. The marker of the definite direct object must immediately pre-
cede the object and ordinarily comes after the verb and the subject.
'1:;i~-n~ IJ7W '~~ I am sending my servant
If an indirect object (marked by the preposition 1:i) is involved, the
indirect object ordinarily precedes the direct object.
'1:;i~-n~ c~7 IJ7W '~~ I am sending you my servant
Obiect Pronouns I 99
4. The Object Pronouns
When the direct object of a verb is a pronoun, it may be indi-
cated by the marker of definite direct object with a pronominal
suffix of Type A.
3 ms ink him, it 3 mp cnk/Ci111N
T .: ... them
3 (s ;:ink her, it
3 (p TOkln)Z:,~ them
2 ms 9r;,k you 2 mp c~r;,~ you
2 (s 10k you 2 fp -not attested-
I CS 'l'.lk me I cp ~lrtk us
Note: Unlike the preposition n~ I -z,~ (with), which has the base
form -:,itt- before the suffix, the marker of direct definite object
has the base form :,at- or :,et-.
The independent object pronoun functions as the direct object of
a clause.
ink IJ?W '~~ I am sending him
'l'.lk l}?W N~il he is sending me
The particle il~i'.l (also Jv I may appear independently or take
suffixed pronouns of Type A, as follows.
100 I Lesson IX
3 ms i3iJ 3 mp C3i1
3 fs -not attested- 3 fp -not attested-
2 ms 9~iJ 2 mp c~~iJ
2 fs 1~iJ ll~iJ 2 fp -not attested-
I CS '~~iJ I cp mi1
Note: The I cs form 'niJ and I cp ~l~iJ are derived from '~~iJ and
~l~iJ respectively - with the loss of the strong dages (VI. 7).
b. Uses
There is no equivalent of ;im in English. It has traditionally been
translated as "Lo!" or "Behold!" But i1~iJ is not really a demon-
strative particle. Rather, it indicates the presence of someone or
something, or the immediacy of an event or situation. It is very
often used to introduce the circumstances of something that is
Study the following examples.
Here I am (Gen 22:r)
Here are the fire and the wood
(Gen 22:7)
It is between Kadesh and Bered
(Gen 16:14)
And Laban said: "Very well, let it
be according to your word"
(Gen 30:34)
You are handsome, my love
(Song 1:16)
I am giving him my covenant of
peace (Num 25:r2)
Vocabulary I 101
n~ I -n~ with, together with. Also the marker of definite direct
:r::20 T
around. Also used as an adverb (round about, around)
c~ with
n~! to sacrifice. Nouns: mm;, (mp. nin:;JT~) altar;
n~1 sacrifice
ni::i -T
to cut. Also used in the idiom n'1::2 ni::i "to make a
": -T
covenant" (lit.: to cut a covenant)
n'zw to send, stretch out, let go
'IV~ (fs) fire
it:i~ hero, warrior. ;,l~::l~ strength, might
ii':f (pl. usually niii":J) generation
Y1! seed. Verb: Y1! to sow
T :
desert, wilderness, wasteland
,::;q (pl. niio~ or 0'10~) river
f (pl. 0') tree, wootl
;-JYl;l pharaoh (the king of Egypt)
;,7tp (pl. niiip) field, country
CW (pl. nir.,W) name
;,~tp (fp. C'~lp) year
102 I Lesson IX
Proper Names:
il!?~ Elijah il~:;i"'! Rebecca
?Nl1 T
Exercise 9
a. Translate into English:
I. Cil?
: T
6. ~mo::> T
l I. 'l:li;tl:I
2. rl::J
7. '17;ll.7
12. c:,,';,N
. .. -:
3 '~7;)0
.. 8. C::J T
13. 1'}~7
4. c:,r-iN
.:. 9. il3il0
T"" 14 1~?
5 '7P!r IO. CilT;ll.7
: T
15. 'l>?
b. Translate into Hebrew:
I. mme 6. from you (mp) l I. for you (fs)
2. from him 7. from you (fp) 12. for her
3 from us 8. like her 13. like them (mp)
4. to(ward) me 9. upon me 14. for us
5. upon you (fs) IO. for you (ms) I 5 like him
c. Write the following in Hebrew:
r. I am a prophet like you (ms)
2. I am doing a new thing
3. I am making a covenant
4. like a consuming fire
5. the matter is too heavy for you (ms)
6. an angel sent to (-';,~) them
7. a hand that is stretched out against me
8. you (ms) are more righteous than I
Exercise 9 I 103
9. you (ms) and they (mp) alike
ro. lo, you are wiser than Daniel
d. Translate the following into English:
(Isa 8: IO) '?~ i:i9i, 1.
(Gen 30:33) 'fl~ ~,ry 2.
(Song 1:16) i1~: '.~pi1 3.
(Song r: 1 5) ';i~: l.~i1 4
(Ezr 8: l) '6l' Cl'/l'i'J 5.
(Zech r r: 11) 'tltl: Cl'JQtDiJ 6.
(Gen 4 3: 3 2) 'in~ Cl';:)tl:iJ 7.
(Num 14:24) ibl' 'n"iry~ rw') 8.
(Gen 34:21) i:i~~ Clf1 9.
(Gen 18:16) r:i9i, l;h ClOl:l~i IO.
(Gen 2 2: 7) Cl'~l'IJi 'ib~iJ i1}i1 r I.
(Gen 24:51) -;-n~'? i1[2:n-i1,m 12.
e. Read Gen 4 1: 17-20 out loud and translate the passage with
the help of a dictionary and these notes.
v 17: 1;::rn (subject) spoke; 6'?o;i in my dream; 1~~iJ n;itv the
bank of the river (i.e., the Nile).
v r 8: 1~9 ni~'1:;l lit.: sturdy of flesh; 1~i:J n~'i lit.: and beautiful
;irp1n) and they were feeding.
of form;
v 19: i~Q 1~n, ni_;,11 lit.: and very ugly of form; 1W~ nij?li lit.:
and thin of flesh; 'n'~T~~ I have never seen; Cl'"}~Q f'"'.l~-'?'.?:J
in all the land of Egypt.
V 20: 'i1~?::;,~rn and (subject) ate.
Lesson X
1. The Demonstratives
A demonstrative is a word that points to someone or something
to make that referent more specific: this, that, these, those. It may
be used as an adjective (e.g., this woman) or as a pronoun (e.g.,
this is the woman).
Whereas English distinguishes between near demonstratives
(this, these) and far (that, those), Hebrew uses only one set. The
demonstrative simply points to something or someone, whether
near or far.
ms ilT... this fs nNT this cp il~N
. .. these
1. In addition to the normal fs form nN'r, the variants il'r and iT
are attested for the fs.
11. The form ?N is found as a variant of il~N.
111. The ms for~s T~il and ilT~il and the fs -~T~il are also used as
T - ""T - .. -
b. Uses
i. The demonstrative may be used as an adjective. Compare the
following two sets.
With adjective With demonstrative
:Jit9iJ lV'Nil
the good man ilfil
this man
T 'T
the good woman nNtil- ilWNil
this woman
tl':Jit9iJ tl'lVlNil the good men
T-: T
il~Nil C'lVlNil
. u T-:
these men
ni:Jit9i1- tl'lV3i1 the good women
il~Nil t1'tV3i1 these women
. u T T-
Demonstratives I 105
When the demonstrative is used with adjectives (and participles
functioning as adjectives), it stands in the final position - after
the adjective(s).
i1m ?i"'Hi1 i~i1 this great nation (Deut 4:6)
n~~i1 i1Jii~i1 i'P.'? to this great city (Jer 22:8)
i17~iJ nt9i1 n:ibi1 Cl'}~i1 these coming good years
(Gen 41:3 5)
A third person independent pronoun may be used emphatically
(see IX.r.b.ii) to take the place of a demonstrative adjective.
When it does, an article may appear before the pronoun:
N~i1iJ lV'~~ the man, the very one = that man.
~'i1i1 np:;i1 biiiJ Cl'p::;i in those days and at that time
(Jer 33:15)
ii. The demonstrative may be used as a pronoun. Compare the
following two sets:
With pronoun With demonstrative
N~i1 he is the man lV'Ni1
i1T... this is the man
T T N'iJ she is the woman i1WNi1
nNt this is the woman
T-: T
Ci1.. they are the men C'lVJNi1
T-: T . .. these are the men
iii. The repetition of the same demonstrative may indicate reci-
procity or contrast.
'i1r-',~ i1T
.. : <:
this one to that one =one to
another (Isa 6: 3)
'n""j9k n~rl ... n19k n~! this one was saying ... but that one
was saying (1 Kgs 3:23)
1. Contrary to the rule given in Lesson VI.r.b.ii, the definite article before ClJ and il!D
shows compensatory lengthening; the singular forms M~il and M'i:i, however, show virtual
I 06 I Lesson X
2. Relative Clauses
We have already seen in Lesson VIII that the participle used as an
attributive adjective or substantive may be rendered in English by
.... . i1 ,,;,
. pronouns " w ho... " or " t hat... " (e.g., 1,.-:Jl'!,.
t he re 1at1ve i1
"" ~!,.
the man who is standing; i1~m:piJ i1li.r-iiJ the instruction that is
written). There are other ways of expressing the relative in He-
brew, however.
a. Relative clauses in Hebrew prose are commonly introduced by
the particle 1W~
(that, who, which, when). The particle may refer
to an antecedent of any gender, number, or case. Its precise trans-
lation, therefore, depends on the context. Study the following
DV; 1DJ '?J~ ilQ~ ri~;:r-',~ to the land which I am giving
them (Josh 1 :2)
'i11 1?9 iiD~ tJ'Q:~n the days when David reigned
(1 Kgs 2:II)
'i9i, i1Dm iw~ 'i1$~D the woman whom you put be-
side me (Gen 3:12)
There is often a resumptive element at the end of the relative
clause which is redundant in English and best left untranslated.
1'7f 19ii, 'iTt:1~ i~~ oip9iJ the place where you are
standing on it = the place on
which you stand (Exod 3:5)
iT~ tJ';JiD' Dfl~ iW~ ri~;:r-',.p upon the land where you are
dwelling in it = upon the land in
which you dwell (Num 33:55)
DW i1D~-iip~ Dip9iJ-F~ from the place where you are
there = from the place where
you are (Gen 13:14)
b. Relative clauses may also be introduced by-WI -W, with dou-
bling of the following consonant (where permissible). There is no
Relative Clauses I 107
difference in meaning between -Vj I-Wand ivJ~; they appear to
be dialectal variants.
D"J'?tl 'c'?r:n;:iw where the streams flow (Eccl 1: 7)
c. In archaic poetry, :,! and the related forms ~T (ms) and iT I :it
(fs) may be found instead of ivJ~ or -Vj 1-W.
i:l n:JiD I ;-n "i':i-1i1
I T: - T I . -(";
Mount Zion wherein you dwell (Ps 74:2)
r;h~~ 1rol) a people whom you redeemed
(Exod r 5:13)
d. A relative clause is sometimes expressed without explicit
markers. Such clauses are said to be asyndetic (without connec-
tor). Only the context will determine that the clause is relative.
c;i7 ~':, 'r"l~:l in a land that is not theirs (Gen I 5: I 3)
3. The Particle of Existence VJ~
a. To express the existence of something or someone, the particle
'IV~ I -w?, is used. This particle is simply translated as "is/ are" or
"there is I are:'
'?~""")t.:t:J ~-;i~ rn, there is a prophet in Israel (2 Kgs 5:8)
i1J;J oip9:;1 i1~i1" i!J: YHWH is (present) in this place
(Gen 28:16)
there are righteous ones (Eccl 8: 14)
b. To express existence of a person or persons, Hebrew some-
times uses 'IV~ with pronominal suffixes of Type A (IX.2.a), except
that the 3 ms form is iJtp?., instead of ''i'IV;, as one might expect.
i19 iJiD" iib~-r,~ with the one who is here (Deut 29:14)
Note: To express continuing presence, one uses the adverb 1iY
(still) with pronominal suffixes of Type B (see IX.2.b).
09 lJJill ~1;:i1 and he was still there (Gen 44:14)
ro8 I Lesson X
c. To express possession, the idiom x7-w; may be used.
,.. T: , \' rzi'
t:l'ii?~ r Israel has a God (1 Sam 17:46)
I have hope (Ruth 1:12)
4. The Particle of Negation T'~
a. To express non-existence or absence, the particle 1'15 (T~~ when
stressed) is used.
!l:l9l' rz.i'~ 1'~ there is no one with us (Gen 31:50)
':l9'.? 1'~ there is none like me (Exod 9:14)
b. To express absence of a person or persons, Hebrew sometimes
uses 1'15 with suffixes of Type B (IX.2.b) or Type A (IX.2.a).
'!)~~-~ z:i9i' Joseph is not here (Gen 42:36)
c::i;:,:np::i '~t~ I will not be in your midst (Deut 1:42)
c. To express non-possession, the idiom X7 1'15 may be used.
p i? 1'~ he has no son (Num 27:4)
5. T'~ vs. z.t~
a. The negative particle 1'15 typically negates verbless clauses. Par-
ticiples, because they may function as substantives, are negated in
this way.
PD t:l;i? 1flJ -~r~ I am not giving you straw! (Exod. 5:ro)
t:l'.i)1' t:l,t~ they do not know (2 Kgs. 17:26)
b. The negative particle N, is used for verbal clauses (about which
we will learn later). This particle, however, also negates single
',~-~', not God (Deut 32:21)
t:l;?Q ~';,, not wise (Deut 3 2:6)
Interrogative Clauses I 109
6. Interrogative Clauses
a. Questions are sometimes not indicated as such in the text (that
is, there are no special markers or punctuation). Presumably in
speech such questions were originally indicated by intonation.
i~i? Cli'?i9 Is the boy well? (2 Sam r 8: 29)
b. Most frequently, questions are introduced by a prefixed inter-
rogative particle (:i) found in the following forms.
i. Before most consonants, including ,, it is D
n~ Cl;J.'? ili:D Do you have a brother? (Gen 43:7)
;,ti~ ;i,rD whether this or that? (Eccl r 1:6)
ii. Before a guttural it is ordinarily ;J.
:::l~i ;ir;i~;:r Are you Joab? (2 Sam 20:17)
iii. Before any consonant with a sewii:J it is ;J.
'c:i:,o l:!)~Q;J Is it too little for you? (Isa 7:13)
iv. Before a guttural with Tit is V
ii9~;i Should it be said? (Mic 2:7)
Note: In contrast to the definite article, the interrogative :, does
not call for the doubling of the following radical. Only in a few
instances does a dages appear anomalously.
c. The personal interrogative pronoun (who?) is'~, which may
refer to an animate noun of any gender, number, or case (i.e.,
who? whose? whom?).
'm'?;:r iD'~iT'9 Who is that man? (Gen 24:65)
;i',~-o Who are these? (Gen 33:5)
';itj~-o'? To whom do you belong? (Gen 32:18)
Less frequently, '~ may be translated by the indefinite "whoever,
;i_1;i';, p Whoever is for YHWH (Exod 32:26)
110 I Lesson X
d. The impersonal interrogative pronoun (what?) is;,~, which
may refer to an inanimate noun, whether singular or plural.
It is vocalized in various ways, but is always easy to recognize.
i. The form is ordinarily -;,~ plus doubling of the following
ioil:i-;io What is his name? (Exod 3:13)
ii. Before N and, it is :"10. T
D'Jl' Clfl~ ;,9 What are you doing? (Judg 18:18)
iii. Before n and ':iJ it is usually :i9.
~Ji~-;ip What is my guilt? (1 Sam 20:1)
iv. Before ;, it is either :io or :io. T :
;"'!JiJ oi'71JiJ ;,9 What is this dream? (Gen 37:rn)
'ol~'.? ;"'\\;i-;ip What exists for the human? (Eccl 2:22)
Various prepositions may be combined with :"10. The following
should be committed to memory.
-;,~::i I ;,~::i I ;,~::i
-- T- .-
by what?= how?
:im::i I ;,m::i
T - -
like what?= how many, how much?
:im5 I :"17J7 I :io,
for what?= why?
;,~-,~ until what? = how long?
;,~-,~ upon what= why?
Less frequently, :"10 may be translated by the indefinite "whatever,
n;i~-;io whatever (is) in the house (Gen 39:8)
e. The interrogative adverb of manner (how?) is 1'~ I;,~,~-
i'W~ T~ how shall we sing? (Ps 137:4)
Interrogative Clauses I r r r
f. The most common interrogative adverb of place (where?)
?::::lf! -~ where is Abel? (Gen. 4:9)
i1'J~ i1~~ where is Sarah? (Gen 18:9)
Cl'~~~i) i1;~ where are the men? (Gen 19:5)
This adverb may take suffixes of Type A (IX.2.a): :,f~~ (where
are you?),;,~ (where is he?), C!~ (where are they?). In addition
to'~ I:,~~. the form r~~ (from where?) must be learned.
,. . - --~~
I ,- .. Where are you from? (Gen 29:4)
7. Exclamations and Emphatic Questions
a. As in English, certain interrogative words may become
i. 1'~ I :i;r~ (how!)
D"9i{;i~ r;,'?~~ T~ How you have fallen from heaven!
(Isa 14:12)
ii. -:,o I :,o I :,o (how!)
- T "."
71::::i,,~-:l'J i19 How abundant is your goodness!
(Ps 31:20)
b. Often :1! or nNT is added to make a question emphatic.
1J'tb,;i n~ti19 Whatever have we done? (Exod 14:5)
Cl'i:lll Cl[)~ i1;i i1Q'.7 Why (indeed) are you transgressing?
(Num 14:41)
8. 1W~ as a Conjunction
Sometimes itp~ (also -tp / -tp) may be used as a conjunction
meaning "that, so that, since, because, for."
112 I Lesson X
'i:r'!J l:lfl ii,;~ so that they are living (Deut 4: IO)
-i1n-~~ iW~ J.itp better that you do not vow (Eccl 5:4)
The conjunctive use of (also iw~ -W
1-V)) is especially evident
when it is used with certain prepositions. The following combina-
tions of ,w~
with other prepositions should be committed to
in that, inasmuch as
. -:-
,w~~ as, even as, when
,w~ :l~~ because, because of
iw~ Ti~ because, because of
itvN ,,nN
. -: -: -
niN (ms; but fp: niniN) sign, mark
1~ solitude. Adverb: [1~7] alone. Takes suffixes of
Type A (IX.2.a): i1ii (by himself, he alone); '1~7
(by myself, I alone).
N~~ (pl. niN9~) throne, chair
ii~ lad
nr (fs) time, season. Adverb: il~i now
Ci?l_p peace, well-being, wholeness. Note the idioms: ?i5l_p
ci,l,p(?) to ask about (someone's) well being; ci',l_p~ is
(subject) well?
w~w (usually regarded as fs) sun
instruction, law. Verb: ili' to teach, instruct, cast
Vocabulary I 11 3
i1~~ to weep
to create
i~: to form
,w~ (takes object marked by f) to govern, dominate
'7tiJ to fall
- T
to lie down
CJ~ also, even, morever, yea, although. CJ~ ... CJ~ both ... and
1iY still, yet, again, else
i19 here
'~ for, because, that, indeed, surely, when (sometimes'~
simply introduces a quotation)
I 14 I Lesson X
Exercise 10
a. Translate the following into Hebrew:
I. this great nation I I. whoever is for YHWH
2. who is wise? 12. there is no king and no prince
3 is this the man? 13. who is like you (ms)?
4 who is the woman? 14 a man lying with a woman
5 where are the men? 15. what are you (mp) doing?
6. these cities r6. the lad is not with (n~) us
7. these great signs 17. is this the great city?
8. these are the wicked r8. a man governing Israel
9. we have no food 19. YHWH is in this place
IO. where are you (ms)? 20. do you (mp) have a brother?
b. Translate the following into English:
(J er 6: I4) Cli~~ n~, Cli'?~ I Cli~~ r.
(Eccl 8: I 5) iDOiQiJ no;:i'ci1~'.? ::iitpT~ 2.
(Gen 2 8: r 3 ) ry',.;, ::i;,w 'i1D~ iW.~ f l~iJ 3
(Ps 58:12) fit9 ci~~iv Cl'i1'?~-iD' 4.
(Job 13:23) ni~~!J, ni~i.P. ~ i19'.:;) 5.
(Josh 4:6) Cl?; i1?~iJ ci,:i:;i~ry i19 6.
(Eccl 6: r 2) Cl';D;i Cll~'.7 ::ii~-i10 ~ii-9 7.
(Exod r 8: r 8) 191' iW~ i1JiJ ClP,iJ-Cl~ i1t)~-ci~ 8.
(Exod r8:r8) i~liJ '-;F~rJ i~'.?-;, 9
(Jer 7:17) ciw:t: i19D i19 i1~"'1 ;p~v IO.
(Gen 24: 54) i911--,w~ ciw~~iJ, ~:iv I I.
(Neh r 3: r 7) Cl'tD!i Clfi~ iW~ 'i1i.iJ .UJiJ i~liJ-i19 r 2.
Exercise r o I 1 r 5
(Exod 18:14) 0~7 'i1(D.ll i1[1~ itQ~ 'i1tiJ i~liJ-i19 13.
(Exod 18:14) 11~' ':::itz7i' i1[1~ ~rio 14.
( 2 Kgs 6: 1 9) i' .!Ji) i1! ~'?l \TTiJ i1J ~'? 1 5.
(Gen 39: 9) 'J9Q 'i1tiJ n~;i:;:i ,;-,~ 1Jh~ 1 6.
(Song 8:5) i~iOiJ-1Q 'i1;il n~T 'P 17.
(Exod 23:20) 1~~' '1~'0 11;.tv jj~ i1~i1 18.
(Gen 1 8: 22) i1,1i1' ',~E:l' ipil 1YJi1' 0~1:::1~1 1 9.
:,i.i:, r~1 i1Ji1~ -,:i~ 20.
lillh ~Ji:::11 'ii~ -,~;-
(Isa 45:6-7) 1'] ~li'.;11 oi'?~ i1\l)ll
c. Read Deut 29:12-14 out loud and translate the passage with
the help of a dictionary and these notes.
v 12: Cl'Pi:7 H'P' so that he (i.e., YHWH) may establish; i1'.i1,'
will be; 1::r1 he spoke; '1':;l~J he swore; 1'D::l~~ to your
v 14: 1J'i1'~ our God.
Lesson XI
1. The Construct Chain
There is no word in Biblical Hebrew that corresponds in every
way to the English preposition "of." To say "a son of a man"
in Hebrew, then, one would ordinarily juxtapose the nouns,
and sometimes link them with the maqqep, e.g., ll)'l'.t-FI "a son
of a man." In this construction, the noun -1~ is said to be in
the construct state, whereas the noun ll)'l'.t is said to be in the
absolute state. The words in such a construct chain are thought
to be so closely related that they are read as if they constituted
one long word.
There may be three or even four nouns in a construct chain,
e.g., '7~6-ll)'l'.t-T~ "a son of a man of valor." In any case, only the
last noun in the chain is in the absolute state; all the others are
construct nouns.
Nouns in the construct state cannot, as a rule, take the definite
article. Nouns in the absolute state, on the other hand, may be
indefinite or definite. The definiteness of the noun in the absolute
state determines the definiteness of the entire chain. Thus,
a. the construct chain is indefinite if the absolute noun is
i19t:T~O iD"~ a man of war (Exod I 5: 3)
b. the construct chain is definite if the absolute noun is definite
n"J:liJ 1i"J~ the ark of the covenant (Josh 4:9)
CIVl~~ ,:;ip the servant of Abraham (Gen 24:34)
;:i~ n;:i the house of my father (1 Kgs 2: 31)
Since construct nouns as a rule do not take the definite article,
a construct noun with a prefixed preposition (~, f, 7) will also
not have the definite article: ;:i~ n;:i.:i in the house of my father
(Judg 6:15).
Adjectives and demonstratives do not normally interrupt the
Construct Chain I 1 17
construct chain; even if they qualify the construct noun, they will
stand after the absolute. The adjective and/or demonstrative will,
of course, agree in gender and number with the noun it qualifies.
Compare the following.
nN~iJ i1 1i~i] i1lf~iTlf. the son of this good woman
i1!iJ ::Ji~i] i1l.(!~;r1; this good son of the woman
' It is clear, then, that the absolute noun determines the definiteness
of the entire construct chain. The construct chain is not, there-
fore, employed to express a relationship of possession between an
indefinite noun and a definite noun. Instead, the preposition ?
(to, for, belonging to) is used.
'iP'? p son of Jesse (1 Sam 16:18)
Since proper names are considered definite, the simple juxtaposi-
tion of the nouns without the intervening ? would make the
phrase definite. Thus, whereas 'W'-p (1 Sam 20:27) means "the
son of Jesse," "iP'? jfl means "a son of Jesse" (1 Sam 16:18). By
the same token, '-tr~ i~p (Dan rn:17) means "the servant of my
lord," but ~j""T~; i~.p (Gen 44: 3 3) means "a servant of my lord.''.
In short, the addition of? breaks the construct chain.
2. Construct Noun Forms
Many nouns manifest no difference in form between the con-
struct and the absolute. But since nouns in construct (except for
singular segolates) tend to lose their primary stress, certain
changes may be expected. The following rules account for most
of the changes.
a. The vowel .. (e) in a monosyllabic noun frequently
becomes ... (e) when that noun is joined to the following
word(s) by means of the maqqep.
118 I Lesson XI
Absolute Construct
1~ son -n~ son of
::27 heart -:i7 I -:i7 heart of
b. The vowel T (a) in a final closed syllable becomes_ (a).
Absolute Construct
1' hand
1~ hand of
11$7~ angel 1~7~ angel of
c. The masculine plural (C'. -) or dual ending (C~ >) changes
to' .. (e)
Absolute Construct
'~i~ lords of
C~~ waters '~ waters of
d. In an open syllable (a) or .. (e) reduces to sewii:>.
Absolute Construct
Ci?lp peace Ci?lp peace of
niTJW names nil'Jlp names of
1. In some nouns, long a or e is not reduced. This is so be-
cause the long vowel is the result of compensatory lengthen-
ing ( or the root is 11-Waw/Yog (
Construct Noun Forms I I I 9
Absolute Construct
0'1W (iitv) prmces ''}lp (not *'1.lp) rulers of
0'=;2 (:m7) clouds '~ (not *'~~) clouds of
0'"'! (11Y) witnesses '1 (not *'1~) witnesses of
11. If the reduction of a vowel results in two vocal sewiiJ's in
immediate succession, the Rule of SewiiJ applies (see VT. 3 ).
Absolute Construct
O'i:::21 words
"T :
*'i:::21 > *'i:::21 > 'i:::21 words of
""T : : : '': '
O'tv)N men
' T -:
*'tv)N > *'tv)N > 'tv)N men of
'' T -: '' : -: : -
ni:iq~ lands * ni:il~ > ni:il15 lands of
e. The feminine ending i1 T - changes to r, _-.
Absolute Construct
:iiir-i instruction
n1ir-i instruction of
f. Final i1 ... - becomes i1 .. -.
Absolute Construct
... -: - deed
i1WY1J .. -: - deed of
g. Original *aw contracts too, since the stress is lost (see
Absolute Construct
m?J death
'." T
r,;;, death of
r 20 I Lesson XI
h. Original *ay contracts toe, since the stress is lost (see
Absolute Construct
n:~ house n'~ house of
i. Segolate plurals retain their *qat/, *qit/, or *qo# ( * qutf) bases
(see V.2). Thus, the three different types are discernible in the
plural construct.
i. *qatl
Absolute Construct
C':;>?7? kings '';!?~ kings of
ni'IV~l lives
niw~~ lives of
ii. *qit/
Absolute Construct
C'i~c books
''J.~t;) books of
iii. *qotf (*qut/)
Absolute Construct
C''IV1n new moons
' TT:
''IV1n new moons of
: T
nilil threshing floors
nilii threshing floors of
Construct Noun Forms I 121
j. Nouns of the qiitel pattern become qetal.
Absolute Construct
Ti?.! elder Ti2T elder of
A few nouns have construct forms that are unpredictable.
The following should be committed to memory.
Absolute Construct
ilWN wife
..... wife of
:JN father
'~~ father of
nN brother
'D~ brother of
C'IJ~ brothers 'r.t~ brothers of
'!J~ thigh '!J1} thigh of
'10~ shoulder 'l.tJ~ shoulder of
TT: "
battle r,~n'm
. .:. battle of
il~il::J beast
T : - ::: beast of
iltJ~lp~ family Tll]~lp~ family of
cities '1l7
cities of
I C'lVN1

... mouth
heads 'lVN1

'~ mouth of
heads of
3. Participles and Adjectives in Construct Chains
Participles and adjectives also appear in construct chains, since
they may be used as substantives.
122 I Lesson XI
a. Participles
tli?11 tl;h a dreamer of a dream (Deut 13:2)
t:Ji~l]iJ t:J;in the dreamer of the dream (Deut 13 :4)
;"1'9?il.i ",J.:l. Solomon's builders (I Kgs 5:32)
b. Adjectives
;"1'~"'10 ;"T~', "'1~t"r;'l'El" handsome in form and handsome
in appearance (Gen 39:6)
jiil.i'7 i;i:,:1 ;"T;:i-i:;i:J heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue
(Exod 4:ro)
4. Translation of the Construct Chain
Although genitive relation is expressed by the construct chain, it
does not mean that the construct chain must always be translated
by the English preposition of. One must determine from the con-
text the proper function of the absolute. Consider the following
iD~ii :1'.?r:r n;ir flowing with milk and honey
(Exod 3:8)
;"T;iiJ~ n;in sick with love (Song 2: 5)
"'1i:t"1"'1i~ those who go down to the pit
(Isa 3 8: 18)
Very frequently, the construct chain takes the place of an adjecti-
val construction:
iD1P l'l,i seed of holiness = a holy seed
(Isa 6:13)
D;il' rl"J:l covenant of eternity =eternal covenant
(Gen 9:16)
Forms and Uses of 7'.:l I 123
5. The Forms and Uses of',~
a. The word?~ (any, all, each, every) may appear in three forms.
i. Independent form: ?~.
~r~r:r 'P' ',~ all the days of your life (Gen 3: 17)
ii. With the maqqep: -,~ (kol- ).
nr'?'.:? every tree (Gen 2:9)
iii. With pronominal suffix of Type A (IX.2.a): -~?.
~:i'.7~ all of us (Deut 5: 3)
t:1'.7:p all of them (Gen 43:34)
b. The translation of ?~ depends on the definiteness of the noun it
i. It may be a substantive, used independently with the meaning
"everyone, everything, all." The word may appear with or
without the definite article.
r,~;-,zi~ '?~ everything that is on earth (Gen 6:17)
i:;i ',~ i,~'1 ',:,:;i ij: his hand is against everyone, and every
one's hand is against him (Gen 16:12)
ii. It may appear in the construct state with a definite noun, in
which case it means "all of" or "the whole of."
'i1ll.'V-','.? the whole congregation (Num 16:3)
fi~i) ','i~ '?~ all (of) the nations of the earth
(Gen 18:18)
iii. It may appear in the construct state with an indefinite noun,
in which case it may be translated as "every;' or "each."
:i,~'.:?-','.:? ii~~ '?~ every bird, every winged thing
(Gen 7:14)
Cli~-',;;~ on each day (Ps 7:12)
124 I Lesson XI
6. The Superlative
Hebrew has no special form or ending for the superlative (e.g.,
tallest, greatest). Rather, the superlative may be expressed in a
variety of ways.
a. By an adjective that is definite in form or in sense.
j~i?iJ the youngest (Gen 42:13)
i'.~:;i lC!lP the youngest of his sons
(2 Chron 21:17)
Note: In the first example, of course, one must determine
from context if the word means "the youngest" or simply
"the young one."
b. By the adjective+ the preposition f with a plural noun.
CJ'~P i1f;J~iJ the most beautiful among women
(Song 1:8)
c. By means of a construct chain.
CJ'iDlj?iJ il.iip the holiest place (Exod 26: 33)
Cl'"J:;J.P i::lp lowliest slave (Gen 9:25)
The superlative may be intended even if the construct and ab-
solute are not semantically related.
i1l:'i;l -~.- 'r,:i:,ry the wisest of Pharaoh's advisors
(Isa 19:11)
Cl""!~ ',:Ji'::l~i the neediest of humanity (Isa 29: 19)
d. By means of the 17? (used as a comparative) with?:::>.
i11~JiJ n;~D '',:,a Cff1~ the most cunning of all the wild
animals of the field (Gen 3: 1)
Vocabulary I I 2 5
,~~ (mp cs: '''.H~) garment
,R~ large cattle
ij?.~ (pl.: C'"lRf) morning
rm (pl. nil,n) street, outside. y,n~ outside (often in
contrast with n:~~
r~ wme
t'\~f (fs) wing, skirt
:i,,:p cherub (a winged sphinx)
itm TT
:1~N?7? (cs: n~N???) mission, work
C~~ oracle. Occurs almost exclusively in the construct state:
"oracle of."
. .. book, scroll, letter
:11~ congregation
TNY flock, sheep and goats, small cattle
N; (pl. niN;) host, army
1J~ midst
:i,w to turn, to return
T~ then, at that time; T~~ since (that time)
1 26 I Lesson XI
Exercise II
a. Give the construct forms of the following:
I. oip7t 9 :JN
17. O'iizl "T
2. 0' T
IO. O'r:t~ 18. :,iyT ..
3 :i,tv
I I. 1VJ 19. 7~~
4 O'r-1::l
12. ni~W 20. :,tz,y~
: -: -
y-: 13. niw~J T:
2!. ,~yTT
6. niliN
T-: 14. 0'J9
22. O'i~o
7. 0'7P~ I 5 O''l}Ni T
23. o~1in
8. O'i:JY
16. 0'7~ 24. niJ::i T
b. Give the absolute forms of the following:
I. 'D~ 9. 'W~ 17. ,,y
2. '''.1.~1 IO. n~ri,~
: : : .
18. 'r:t~
3 '?:"lN
T: T
I I. '~; 19. n~in
4. '~11 12. '~~ 20. 'JW
5 'P.1~ 13. '~ 2!. '~tp
6. '~l 14. '? 22. '~
7. n:>N?~
. ... :
16. ,~
'7f 23.
Exercise I I I 127
c. Translate the following into English:
(Exod 1: 1) ?~l~' 7~ 'nio~ i1'?~1 1.
(Gen 26:24) Oi'Jl::l~ 'w?~ ':Jj~ 2.
(Josh 1: 1) i1JiT' i:::ip i1Wb ni9 'JO~ 3.
(Deut 4:28) OJ~ 'T i1W.PO 4
(J udg 1 3: 6) O'(i?~i) l~?O i1_~i0::) 5.
(Gen 4 7: 1 3 ) 1~0 ::lP,li) 1;:q--;i fi.~iJ-'?:;,:i 'r~ or;r;.1 6.
(Gen 2 8: 1 2) i=;i O'"Ji"l O'; l' O"i1?~ ";:>~?0 'i1~i11 7.
(Exod 24:17) if,!iJ w~p n':,;,~ iD~~ i1ji1~ it;i~ 'i1~i01 8.
(Num 14:41) i1Ji1~ ~-n~ o-:,~:U op~ i1J i19? 9.
{Job 5: l O) rJi~=Jn "}~-',_p 0"Q 11?~1 r1~--~9-',_p i~9, lf1biJ IO.
o'.7t9n ni~ri:::i:i i1J=Ji1' 'J.P:l o~:u i191J i19 i1~'1 ;jt~D 11.
(Jer 7:17)
-',:,1 o~:::i~i11 b:ii1:Ji11
T : ' : - : -: I - :
in~ o'?w:ii' :iw-'?:,1 i111i1" w~-'?:,1
- T ' T : T J' T :
1 2.
d. Read 2 Chron 5:1-10 out loud and translate the passage with
the help of a dictionary and the following notes.
V l: b'?iDr}J when (subject) WaS Completed; i1\9.p (subject)
accomplished; ~=n (subject) brought; 1'::l~ his father;
10~ he put.
v 2: ?'i1P~ (subject) assembled; ni?~iJ? to bring up.
v 3: 1'?iJi?~1 (subject) assembled themselves.
v 4: :i~:i:1 (subject) came; :i~rzn and (subject) carried.
128 I Lesson XI
v 5: :i;~~] and (subject) brought (object) up; :i'?piJ they brought
(object) up.
v 6: Cl'J.;,i~iJ who had gathered themselves; bn~r9 were
sacrificing; r1~9-~'? could not be counted; 1~~ ~'7i
could not be numbered; :::J."'10 (= l~ + :Ji) because of (their)
v 7: :i~;:i:J and (subject) brought (object) in; i9ipa its place.
v 8: :i:i1'] and (subject) were; 19:;,J and (subject) covered; i'1;i
its poles; i1'7.iJ9'?a from above.
v 9: ~:,1~:,J and (subject) extended; ':i~7J and (subject) were
visible; 1~1' ~'?i but they were not visible; i1~1t::riJ from
outside; "i1~,J and it has been.
v ro: p1, only; ', the two; 1D~ (subject) gave; nJ:? (subject) had
made (i.e., the covenant); CJD~~:! when they went out.
Excursus D
Reference Grammars
The student will no doubt notice that the rules given in this book
are often qualified by words like "probably;' "ordinarily;' and
the like. This is so because there are, more often than not, excep-
tions to the rules. There are anomalous forms and constructions
which, for pedagogical and practical reasons, cannot be treated
in an elementary grammar. Moreover, there are nuances of cer-
tain constructions which are not mentioned in the simplified ex-
planations of an introductory textbook. These are the sort of fine
points that may be discussed in reference grammars.
1. Reference Grammars in English
For most of this century, the standard work in the English-
speaking world has been Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, which,
as the title suggests, was based on a work by the great German
scholar Wilhelm Gesenius. This nineteenth-century grammar
was edited and expanded by E. Kautzsch and, subsequently, by
A. E. Cowley. Hence, it is known as Gesenius-Kautzsch-Cowley,
or abbreviated as GKC (2nd English Edition; Oxford: Clarendon,
1910). The volume includes paradigms, subject index, and scrip-
ture index. Although outdated, it is still a useful work that is
widely used.
Along with GKC, scholars this century often cite a grammar
published by the French scholar Paul Joiion in 1922. Now,
thanks to the efforts of T. Muraoka, we have an English transla-
tion of that grammar, revised and enlarged as A Grammar of
Biblical Hebrew (2 Volumes; Subsidia Biblica 14 I 1-2; Rome: Ed-
itrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1993 ). Also with full paradigms,
subject index, and scripture index, this grammar may become a
standard work for years to come.
Another important grammar is B. K. Waltke and M. O'Con-
nor's An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake,
Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1990). As the title suggests, it is not a full
130 I Excursus D
reference grammar but a volume dedicated to issues of Hebrew
syntax, something which other grammars do not present as fully
or as lucidly. Beginners will find this book quite accessible. The
explanations are easy to follow and there are plenty of examples
of the various constructions, each duly translated. Copious notes
and an extensive bibliography point to further studies. Besides
the usual indexes that characterize reference grammars, there is
also a helpful glossary of technical terms.
R.J. Williams' Hebrew Syntax: An Outline (Second Edition;
Toronto: University of Toronto, 1976) is not a reference grammar
in the sense that the other books mentioned here are; it is much
abbreviated. Rather, it falls in the category of what one may call
a "Quick Reference" on Hebrew syntax. Published in paperback,
it is an inexpensive and perhaps indispensable handbook.
2. Using the Grammars
Only specialists and the most advanced students will attempt
to study the reference grammars systematically. Most people will
turn to these books for information on some aspect of Hebrew
grammar, as the need arises. In that case, it may suffice to look
for the pertinent section or sections in the grammar in the table of
contents, various indexes, or the paradigms.
On occasion one may want to know more about a certain
topic. For instance, it is possible to learn a lot more about the
construct nouns than we have been able to cover in this book: the
possible origin of the construction, more rules on morphology,
the nuances, exceptions, and so forth. GKC and Jotion-Muraoka
discuss this topic in various places, sometimes focussing on the
forms, and other times on syntax. Waltke-O'Connor has an ex-
tensive discussion in the chapter on "Genitive Function," where
the authors attempt to discern the various nuances of the con-
struct noun. Williams treats the topic under "Bound Structure;'
where he notes, among other things, that a construct chain may
be interrupted under certain conditions. To find the appropriate
sections where a topic is discussed, one needs only to look at the
table of contents and the subject index.
Using the Grammars I I 3 I
Most often, however, one begins not with questions about a
specific topic, but with problems in translation. For instance,
someone reading Jer 25:26 may be troubled by the construction
fl~i) ni:;,~OOD-'?:;,, apparently meaning "all the kingdoms of
the earth." This is a violation of the rules (see XI.1), if they are
strictly applied. One may want to know if the rules are ever bro-
ken and, if so, under what circumstances. The Scripture Index in
GK C directs one to 1 2 7 .g, where the phrase is explained as a
conflation of two readings, ni:i77?~D and f"l~'CI ni::,77?~. But,
then, one notes that there are other examples, which GKC also
tries to explain, although not always convincingly. Joiion-
Muraoka and Waltke-O'Connor do not have our passage in the
scripture index. Williams says simply that the construct form
"should be anarthrous" (i.e., without the article), but cites a
Phoenician text and gives eight examples, including Jer 25:26,
where a definite article apparently appears with a construct noun.
As another example, in 1 Kgs 7: 14, one finds i19::,l)iTrl~ as the
apparent object of the passive verb "he was filled." The question
there is whether -n~, which is supposed to mark the definite di-
rect object, can be used with a passive verb. Checking the scrip-
ture index in Joiion-Muraoka, one is referred to a section in the
grammar that explains that verbs of abundance (to be full, be
sated) and scarcity (to be lacking, be deprived) regularly take the
direct object. The scripture index in Waltke-O'Connor also leads
one to a discussion of the various uses of -nN... .
Sometimes the problem is with a particular Hebrew form, in
which case one looks under the index of Hebrew words in either
GKC or Joiion-Muraoka. The irregular plural C'T:1# (pl. of n~~),
for example, is listed here.
A Suggestion: Prepositions in Hebrew are often problematic for
the beginner because they tend to have a much wider range of
meaning than their English counterparts. It will prove immensely
helpful, therefore, if one takes some time to read the discussions
on prepositions in the grammars.
Lesson XII
I. Nouns with Pronominal Suffixes
Personal possession in Hebrew (e.g., my horse) is usually indi-
cated by a suffixed pronoun. For singular nouns, suffixes of Type
A (I X.2.a) are used, with only minor changes in the 2 fs and I cp
forms. For plural and dual nouns, suffixes of Type C (IX.2.c) are
used. In general the suffixes are attached to the construct nouns,
for 'Q'!\C "my horse" means the same thing as "the horse of mine."
a. Masculine nouns with suffixes
Singular noun Plural noun
abs. C'!\C horse C'Q'!\C horses
cs. C'!\C horse of '9'!\C horses of
3 ms iC'!\C his horse 1'0'!\C his horses
3 fs ::10'!\C her horse
n'O'!\O her horses
T .
2 ms 9Q'!\C your horse 9'9'!\C your horses
2 fs 19'!\C your horse 1~Q'!\O your horses
I CS 'Q'!\C my horse 'Q'!\C my horses
3 mp CC'!\C their horse
. .. their horses
3 fp T9'!\0 their horse Tv'P'!\o their horses
2 mp 0~9'!\o your horse 0~'9'!\0 your horses
2 fp T?.9'!\C your horse P'P'!\C your horses
I cp '!\Jg'!\C our horse '!\J'P'!\O our horses
Nouns with Pronominal Suffixes I 133
b. Feminine nouns with suffixes
Singular noun Plural noun
abs. i10~0 mare
nio~o mares
cs. ng~o mare of nio~o mares of
3 ms ino~o
his mare 1'nio~o
his mares
3 fs ;:mo~o
her mare il'nio~o
T :
her mares
2 ms 9Z:,~~O your mare 9'QiO~O your mares
2 fs 1lJ9~0 your mare ,~oio~o your mares
I CS 'l'.19~0 my mare '1JiO~O my mares
3 mp cno~o
their mare Cv'lJiO~O their mares
3 fp 7~9~0 their mare Jv'lJiO~O their mares
2 mp C~Z:,Q~O your mare C~'lJiO~O your mares
2 fp pz;,g~o your mare P'lJiO~O your mares
I cp ~mo~o
our mare ~l'OiO~O our mares
I 34 I Lesson XII
2. Forms of the Noun before Suffixes
a. Polysyllabic Nouns
The addition of the suffix causes the noun to shift its accent for-
ward, and vowel reduction takes place according to the rules set
forth in 111.2.a.
Noun with
Independent noun pronominal suffix
,:r~r T T
word ;,::2~ his word
T :
y;,~ lord ili1~ his lord
irl'IV year
inl'IV his year
T :
::2::2? heart
i::J::27 his heart
n~n anger
in~n his anger
T -:
7~3 redeemer i?~i his redeemer
1'9'1V7;) judgment
T :
i1'9'1V~ his judgment
T :
If, as a result of such a reduction, two vocal sewif"s should stand
in immediate succession, the Rule of Sewif> (VI. 3) applies (com-
pare X l.2.d.ii).
*inK1 > *inK1 > inK1 his righteousness
*imn~ > *in~,~ > in~,~ his ground
*Cir''IVlN > *Cir''IVlN > Cir''IVlN
: T -: : : -: : : -
their men
Study the following examples of the polysyllabic nouns i;1
(word), iilJ (court), and i1K1 (righteousness).
Noun before Suffixes I r 3 5
Singular noun
cs. ,;n ,~n
- -, ni?1
3 ms ii:l':r
T: ;,~n:, in~1
3 fs ;:ri:r:r TT :
Tu-: rl0~1
2 ms 91~1 ,,~o 9Z:,i?T1
2 fs 1111 11~0 10~1
I CS ,,:r:r "T !
... -: 'l'.1~1
3 mp ci:::i':'f
TT t
T"" -:
0 0~1
3 fp 1111 n~o 10~1
2 mp c:>,:::i'
:'f :
. -:
:- C?,Z:,~1
2 fp T~1;;!1 T?.10 T?.Z:,i?1
I cp ,li::l':'f""T :
.... -: 'l0i?1
Plural noun
cs. ,,:::i':'f
u: .
: -
3 ms ,,,:1':'fTT :
T"" -: 1'0ii'1
3 fs il'T'1::l':'f
"IT :
T ..... -: ;J'Qii'1
2 ms 9'111 9'1~t! 9'Qii'1
2 fs 1~111 1~1~t! 1~5iv1
I CS ,,:::i'
:'f ,,~n
-.. -: 'JJii'1
3 mp Cil'i::l':'f
... : . Cil'i~n
., u; - Cv'Oii'1
3 fp Tv'".l.~1 Tv'1tl Tv'Oii'1
2 mp C:>'i::l'
: .. :'f. : C:>'i~n
. C?,'Oii'1
2 fp T?.'1~1 T?.'1~tl T?.'Oii'1
I cp 'l''1::l':'f
.. T : 'l'1~t! 'l'Oii'1
136 I Lesson XII
b. Geminate Nouns
Nouns that were originally *qall, * qill, or *qull and those that
have become associated with nouns of this group by virtue of the
assimilation of a Nun, behave according to rules (see V. 1 ). Study
the following examples of geminate nouns C~ (people), ft:I (ar-
row), and ph (statute\.
Singular Noun
*Qall *Qill *Qull
cs. c~ rr.r ph
3 ms ;~~ ilr:t irr.i
3 fs rl~Y rt:ll'n rirer
T- T
2 ms 97P~ 9Wr
2 fs ,~~ 1.r:t 1i?.!:1
I CS '7P~ '~r:t 'i?D.
3 mp C~Y
0 rer
3 fp HP~ Tr:t 1rer
2 mp c:,~y c:i:ll'n 0 ?.wr
. : - ... : .
2 fp p,p~ T?.r:t Prr
I cp ~J~~ ~J.r:t ~li?.r
Noun before Suffixes I 137
Plural Noun
*Qall *Qill ''Qull
3 ms ,,~yT -
T '
3 fs il'ln
T '." v'rer
2 ms 9'~~ 9'ir:t 9'rer
2 fs T~~ 1:1'.1 Trett
1 cs 'rett
3 mp Ot)'~,:t O!)'
3 fp FJ'~~ FJ'~r:t lv'
2 mp ... .. -
O:::>'~Y O:::>'ln
. ... O~'
2 fp P'ir.D
1 cp
c. Segolate Nouns
Nouns that were originally *qatf, *qitf, or *qu(l (V.2) retain their
original bases in the singular forms with suffixes. Plural nouns,
however, retain their bases only when they take plural suffixes.
Study the following examples of the segolate nouns 17~ (king),
,,~ (vow), and w1n (month). ..
13 8 I Lesson XII
Singular Noun
*Qa# *Qi#
cs. 1?~ ,,i. w,ti ','
3 ms ,::i7~
3 fs rl::l?O
T: -
2 ms i:P7~ ill~ i1Pl0

. - :
. :

,w,n :T
3 mp C::>?O ciil cw,n
T: - T : T :T
3 fp T~7~ TlflO
T;?i?~ 1~,,~
... :
:: :T
I cp :tl~7~ :tliil
.. : :tlivin
.. :T
Plural Noun
cs. ';?7~ '11~ ,w,n
3 ms ,,:i,o
3 fs i1'5?o il'win
,~,,,l, ~
T "" T : T "" TT:
2 ms i'~?7? i'11~ i'~10
2 fs ,~~?7? ,~w,a
I CS ':>?O
-T: - T:
- TT:
3 mp Cil':>?O
..... - : 0!)'11~ Cil'Win
: :T
3 fp F'.1';?7~ TD'1'1~ Tv'WlO
2mp C:>'
. :..>?O
: -
..... : c:i,w,n
: .. :T
2 fp P';?7~ P'WlO
I cp :tl'S?o
.. T:
.. TT:
Noun before Suffixes I 13 9
Related to these three types are a few penultimately stressed femi-
nine nouns that end inn . . - or n_ - (111.r.b.iii,iv).
i. a-class
n1~tp~ obligation iz:il~tp~ his obligation
ii. i-class
:. : mistress '1:11:;l~ my mistress
iii. u-class
'r:,tpr.;q my bronze
T: .. :
their bronze
d. Nouns with diphthongs
Diphthongs in nouns contract according to the principles given in
I V.2.c.iii.~, iv.~:
n,,, death
: T
ini" his death
n~; house in'~ his house
e.Nouns with 111-Waw/Yog Roots
i. Monosyllabic nouns with 111-Waw/Yog Roots (IV.2.c.vii.-y)
have construct forms with final -i ('. -).
140 I Lesson XII
Singular noun
3 ms 1':JN ' T
3 fs il':JN
T 'T
T 'T
T '
2 ms ~r:;2~ 9'~~
2 fs 1':;2~ 1'1J~
'nN ' T
3 mp ....
-: Cil'9
. .
3 fp TtJ':;2~ lv'IJ~ TD'~
2mp C?,':;2~ C:l'nN
. . -: C:l'9
. .
2 fp T?,':;J~ P'r:i~
I cp ~l':JN
~l'nN ' T
1. With the exception of the alternative 3 ms ending (1-) and
the 1 cs('.-), the suffixes are those of Type B (I X.2.b).
u. Singular nouns that end in il.,.- (, except for il~
(mouth), lose the il.,.- ending and take the suffixes of Type A
(I X.2.a), except that the 3 ms suffix for the singular noun is
~il ~ - instead of i-. Plural forms are regular.
... -; - deed
iliVY~ ~ilW~1' his deed
.. -: - our deeds
field ~il,tv
his field
,,tz., my field
our fields
Noun before Suffixes I 141
111. Nouns like 'lt! (half), '1ftl (fruit), and '~~ (affliction) treat
the final ' as a consonant whenever the suffix is added
(IV.2.c.vii.J3). They take suffixes of Type A (IX.2.a). When
the suffix is added, the vowel in the first syllable is difficult
to predict. Study the following attested suffixal forms of the
nouns 'lt! (half), '1ftl (fruit), and '~~ (affliction).
Singular noun
3 ms i':!ln
: .
;,,~ i'lY
3 fs :i':lln
T: "o"
T :

fs ,~,~
. . :

3 mp
3 fp
2 mp

T: ""

.: :.

I cp ~l'':lM
.. : .
Note: The alternate forms C!)'1' (their fruit) and T0'1ftl (with
3 fp suffix) are attested, as is the 2 mp suffixal form for
C~':;llp (your captive).
f. The nouns T~ (son) and CW (name)
These nouns reduce the stem vowel ( .. ) before the suffix. If, as
a result of this reduction, two vocal sewa:J's stand in immediate
succession, the Rule of Sewa:J applies.
T~ son il:p his son
*i~:P > ;~; your son
cw name his name
. . > il?lP
. your name
142 I Lesson XII
g. The nouns ;n;l'.( (woman, wife) and n~ (daughter)
The pre-suffix forms of :"llpl'.( and n~ are -r-npl'.( (:;ist-) and -r-1:;1
(bitt-) respectively.
wife ir-npl'.( his wife
n~ daughter i.r-q1 his daughter
(ms; md: C:~~) nose, face, anger
heat, rage
'0 half, middle. Verb: :1:!ln to divide
i:!m T
(pl. t:1'"1~0 or ni,~q) court
i'" (also i1j?!J) statute
1]~ strength, power
(pl. C'71~i? or ni?1~i?) tower
gift, offering
(fp nii? mi~w<J!) commandment
TT :
( family, clan
,p (also i7a) vow. Verb: i1~ to vow
:i,mT -:-
TY strength. Adjective: T~ strong
H cloud
.ll".1. friend
:1~1 friend, companion
1W (fs; du. C:)lP) tooth, ivory
ni~~l:l glory, beauty, splendor
Vocabulary I 14 3
i1~1J to camp. Noun: i1m~ (pl. C'~Q~, nilQ~) camp, army
1bM? saying (introduces a quotation)
Exercise 12
a. Write the following in Hebrew:
1. her nose 9. her strength 17. your (mp) spirit
2. his men 1 o. his wives 18. a heavy cloud
3. his field 11. your cities 19. my daughter
4. their fruit 1 2. my people 20. your (ms) staff
5. my fruit 1 3. our father 21. your (ms) brother
6. our king 14. his hands 22. your (ms) brothers
7. his wife 1 5. his mouth 23. your(ms)seed
8. my name 16. our deeds 24. her garments
b. Translate the following into English:
l. ~l'?.15 1}~1 6. 1~115~1'.I '1~;
2. 9H? 7;,~ 7. w1~0 '1~;
3. Ty-7:pl;' 8. "'M
: T
13. ~l'ni::JM
.. -: ':i?M
.. ::
4 TWu '~# 9. TWu ?1~1:'f
s Ti?.l ~l':;11$ 10. ,;,, rw-M~:;:,
c. Translate the following into English:
(Ps 90: r r) 1~~ T~ ~1i~-9 1.
(Ps 63:4) tl''DP 1,or:r, :ii~-:) 2.
(Gen 3 2: 3) i1} tl'f1?~ i1,JIJO 3.
I 44 I Lesson XII
(Hos 6:4) ip:q~.P'.? b:;;,1c;,r:q 4.
(Ps 86:8) -;-rip.po;, n~, tr~ I Cl'fi'?~:;i 1i~:PT~ 5
(Isa 64:rn) :i:it.,1~~r:,, :i:i~li? n# 6.
(Jer 10:20) '7iJ~ 'ii.!) j1~j-r~ 7.
(Prov 18:rn) i1Ji1~ Cl~ r~-',1~0 8.
(Exod 28:43) i'"JlJ~ i.;rn'?:i i~ ClJis., rlw?r1 9.
(Hag 2:5) CJ?=?in:;i n19:i., r.n11 10.
(Isa 44:24) ''i:;l'? b"O~ i1~j ',:, i1tp~ 'i1p~ ;,j~ 11.
(Jer 5:14) ~~~ 1~:;i 1:;ii '1r,ij '}~i'.T 12.
(2 Kgs 17: 34) ;-rj~a~, i1Jin~, Cl~~~o::,:i 'clt;ir, r:r:i c:i~:i., Cl)'~l 1 3.
(] osh 3: II ) CJ?'~~', 1~:t, fl~i)-',~ 1il~ rl'"'pliJ 1i"")~ 'i1~iJ I 4.
(Gen 50:7) Cl'"J~D-fl~ .~PT '?~, ifr::J ')PT 'i1:t,1~ 7:;i.p-',;, 15.
d. Read out loud Psalm 121 and translate the passage with the
help of a dictionary and these notes.
v 1: ~\q~ I will lift up; ~:;i: will come.
v 3: ~i9'? m-',~ may he not permit (object) to stumble.
v 3: c:i:i5:-'?~ may (subject) not slumber.
v 4: 1w~ ~'?l c:i:i:i:~~7 he will not slumber and he will not sleep.
v 6: i1;,~".-~? will not smite you.
v 7: ;119~ will keep you; 16~ he will keep.
v 8: 1~i:n :I~~~c,9~ will guard your going and coming.
Lesson XIII
1. The Afformatives of the Perfect
The first full inflection of the finite verb in Hebrew is called the
perfect. The third person masculine singular (3 ms) form in this
inflection has no special markers. Otherwise, endings called affor-
matives are appended to the base form to indicate gender, person,
and number. The same set of afformatives is used for all verbs in
the perfect, regardless of their verbal patterns ("conjugations").
3 ms 3 cp ~-
I 3 fs ;"! -
I 2 ms r-i-
2 mp Cl:)-
2 fs r;i- 2 fp Tl:)-
I CS 'l:1- I cp ~]-
1. An archaic afformative 'l:1- is attested for the 2 fs (compare
the variant 2 fs independent pronoun 'l:1~ in IX. I.a.iii).
11. There is no distinction between the masculine and the femi-
nine genders in the third person plural and all first person
2. The Qal Perfect
The 3 ms of the perfect of strong roots may have one of three
variations: qatal, qatel, qatol. The qatal type is by far the most
common of the three. Verbs belonging to this group are typically
dynamic; they involve some sort of action, whether transitive
(taking a direct object) or intransitive (not taking a direct object),
e.g., ::Jt!f (to write), i~tp (to keep), ?P~ (to fall), 11: (to descend).
The qii?el and qii?ol types are much smaller groups of verbs that
146 I Lesson XIII
are typically stative. In contrast to verbs of action, stative verbs
describe a state or condition, e.g., ,~f (to be heavy, important),
Ti?.l (to be old), N~ (to be afraid, fearful), Tbj? (to be small),',:,~
(to be able). Some verbs appear in Qal in both qatal and qatel
forms, e.g. w:;7 (to clothe) and W~?
(to be clothed). A rigid
semantic categorization of the types must be avoided, however.
A few verbs of the qatal pattern are stative (e.g., C~!;.I to be wise).
of a dynamic verb (e.g., N~,
Moreover, some verbs of the qatel pattern may exhibit qualities
to hate), or the original distinction
between the dynamic and stative forms may have
been lost (e.g., :21j? and ::21.j? both meaning "to draw near").
The forms of the Qal perfect of i~V/ (to keep), 1~f (to be
heavy), and TbR (to be small) are as follows.
qatal qatel qatol
3 ms ,~w - T
3 fs ;,,~w
T: IT il~f?~
2 ms r-i,6w
T :- T
T :-T 1;1~6R
2 fs r-,,~w
: :- T
: :-T r;,~bj?
I CS ,r-,,6w
:- T
:-T 'T:1~6j?
3 cp ~,~w : IT
: IT ~lf?~
2mp cr-i,~w
... :- : cr-i,::i:i>
. :- : C?J~~i?
2 fp T?J1~~ n=J"'!:;;!:;I T?J~~i?
I cp ~l,73tv
:- T
1. The original characteristic e vowel in the qatel perfect is
preserved only in the 3 ms; elsewhere the forms cannot be
distinguished from the qatal perfect, except when the verb is
in pause (e.g., il1~f ).
u. The qatol type preserves the characteristic o vowel in the
Qal Perfect I 147
second syllable whenever that syllable is stressed. In the 2
mp and 2 fp forms, the vowel is shortened: thus qetontem
and qetonten.
m. If the final radical of the root is the same as the consonant of
the afformative, the consonant is written only once, but dou-
bling is indicated by a strong dages.
'lt?~ they were small ,36R we were small
,ml :IT
they gave ,3fo-T
we gave
ilni::> she cut
z:,i::, you cut
T -T
The important verb TO~ not only shows doubling in the 1 cp
form, but the final Nun also assimilates whenever it precedes
the consonant T-1 of the suffix.
*Z,~5~ > z,5~ you gave *'T:1~5~ > 'T:10~ I gave
The final Nun radical of other III-Nun verbs, however, does not
assimilate: 'J:l~UR; 'T:I~~!
3. Uses of the Perfect
Biblical Hebrew does not have tenses in the strict sense of the
word. Time of occurrence is indicated in context by certain
adverbs (time words) and, as we shall see in later lessons, by the
way the sentence is constructed. The finite verbs themselves do
not indicate tense, but aspect - that is, whether the situation is
viewed by the speaker/writer as an outsider looking at a situa-
tion as a complete whole ("perfect"), or as an insider looking at
a situation as it develops ("imperfect"). For example, a narrator
recounting a battle may depict the event from the perspective
of an outsider who knows the entire situation from beginning
to end. If so, the narrator would ideally use verbs in the perfect.
A participant in the battle, on the other hand, would probably
use verbs in the imperfect, as would a narrator, if that narrator
attempts to describe the events as if he or she were personally
present when the events unfolded.
148 I Lesson XII I
a. Since the perfect is most commonly used to express a situation
that is viewed as complete whole, with the beginning and the end
of the situation in view, one usually renders the perfect with the
English simple past or present perfect.
i1Ji1~ 'J.E:l~ l;liO-? you stood before YHWH
(Deut 4:10)
~~ n?w God has forgotten (Ps Io: I I)
In reference to an event prior to a narrative situation, one may
render the Hebrew perfect with the English past perfect.
19~ i~~J i1'](;n"l~ iR~ i1,1i1'i, Now YHWH visited Sarah,
even as he had said (Gen 21:1)
b. The perfect of stative verbs may indicate the condition of the
subject. In such instances one may translate the perfect by the
English present of the verb to be.
'rl:lj?! ',:l~ I am old (Josh 23:2)
c. The perfect of verbs of attitude, perception, or experience may
also be rendered by the English present.
'J""!~Tl~ 'rl:Ji1~ I love my master (Exod 21:5)
'rL!)l: i1[1~ now I know (Gen 22:I2)
d. In statements of general truths, the perfect may be rendered by
the English present. This is called the proverbial perfect.
r~ ~;JJ -,~r:r tv~: grass withers, flowers fade
(Isa 40:7)
e. Some verbs suggesting instantaneous occurrence are regularly
rendered by the English present.
n~~: '? so I advise ... (2 Sam 17:II)
f. In the language of communication, a writer sometimes assumes
the perspective of the recipient. Thus, the perfect is used, but the
Uses of the Perfect I 149
verb should be translated by the English present continuous. This
usage has been called the epistolary perfect.
',otb :I"' rn'?(?i I am sending you a gift ( r Kgs 1 5: r 9)
g. In some instances, the certainty of occurrence in the mind of
the speaker is enough to justify the use of the perfect. This usage
of the perfect is especially common in prophecies, promises, and
threats. In such cases, one should render the Hebrew perfect by
the English present, or even future.
in;it;i: m,:,~ We are finished! We are lost! (Num 17:27)
c;:,n~ n:i.Jp I shall abandon you ( 2 Chron 1 2: 5)
It is important to remember that tense is not conveyed by the verb
itself; one must consider other elements in the sentence and know
something of the context to translate accurately. The perfect sim-
ply indicates the assumed or real perspective of the speaker I writer
as an outsider who views the situation as a complete whole.
I 4. Syntax of the Verbal Clause
a. Normal Word Order
In Hebrew prose, the normal word order in a verbal clause is as
i. Circumstance. Any adverb or adverbial phrase that places a
narrative in context (then, now, at that time, after these events,
moreover, etc.) takes the first position. The particle i11!i:l (see
IX. 5 ), frequently used to indicate background circumstances,
also comes first.
ii. Verb. The verb stands before the nominal subject, if any.
iii. Subject. Since the subject of a verb is often indicated in the
verb itself, it is possible that neither a noun nor independent
pronoun may be stated. When a noun is explicitly named as
subject, however, it ordinarily comes after the verb.
150 I Lesson XIII
iv. Indirect Object. When the indirect object (usually indicated
by the prepositions or -',~) is involved, it usually comes after
the subject, but before the direct object.
v. Direct Object. When there is a direct object, it comes after
the verb and indirect object, if any.
Study the following examples carefully,
. .. .
tV ltt tz t
CJD''~ li9iJ li9i9 T~ then the king listened to them
(2 Chron 24:17)
. ... ..
v tv ltt ti
fl~i)-n~ CJ?/ i1,1iT~ 1!J~ YHWH has given you the
land (Josh 2:9)
b. Disrupted Word Order
Although the rules for proper word order are not strictly adhered
to in every instance, they do provide a norm for good Hebrew
prose. The normal word order in Hebrew prose may be disrupted
for various reasons. If a connecting 1 is present before a non-verb
in a disrupted sequence, that 1 is likely to be disjunctive, and may
be translated as "but," "now;' or the like.
i. When a new subject is introduced, the normal order of verb-
subject may be reversed.
i~~~ i1J!Tn~ li"J: CJl~V, Now Adam knew Eve, his
wife (Gen 4:1)
ii. A redundant independent personal pronoun is frequently put
before a verb, particularly in parenthetical comments.
:i9i' ~p~ 'f' lt.''l:. ~'? bi1l Now they did not know
that Joseph was listening
(Gen 42:23)
CJ'J~O-~~ iC:,k r7:;,9 CJ'~l9iJl Meanwhile, the Midianites
sold him in Egypt (Gen 37:36)
Syntax of the Verbal Clause I r 51
iii. Sometimes the normal word order is disrupted for emphasis.
,m~-"?:ia 'c::li1':1~ :li1~
T ; 'T' -; (- T
in~ their father loved him above all
his brothers (Gen 37:4)
iv. Sometimes the word order is disrupted to sharpen contrast.
-q:i;:r 'J.;.':l ':it9: ~i?i but Lot dwelled in the cities of
the plain (Gen 13:12)
Note: The rules above apply only to Hebrew prose. In poetic texts,
word order may vary for purely stylistic reasons (see Excursus E).
c. Agreement of Subject
The verb normally agrees with the subject in gender, number, and
i1b'?t:.i :i9: Solomon sat (1 Kgs 1:46)
Cl'QiDi1-o "' a fire descended from heaven
.. , - I . 'tzj~.. i11i'
(2 Kgs 1:14)
r;,.sn:, i1f;1~ you know (Ps 69:6)
i:;,"?;:r i~~ D'iD~~;:i the men who went (Gen 14:24)
1.Collective nouns may take the singular or plural verb.
Ot'y 170 or 0;:J ,::i7r.3 the people went
ll. Nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning usually
take the singular verb.
O';:i'~v 1?;:t God went
111. When more than one noun is named as subject, the verb may
be plural or singular (agreeing with the first noun).
Ti0~1 ilo/b 1?;:.t or Ti0~1 ilo/b ,:,7r.3
Moses and Aaron went
152 I Lesson XIII
5. Negation of the Perfect
The perfect is negated by the particle N? placed immediately
before the verb.
i1Ji1~ ?ip~ t:J.!:'0~ ti:! you did not obey the voice of YHWH
(Deut 28:4 5)
6. The Directive il T
An unaccented final ilT - is frequently appended to a noun or an
adverb to indicate direction of motion, ordinarily, motion toward.
It may be found with common nouns, even those with the definite
article, or with proper nouns. When the noun receives the direc-
tive ilT - it may be vocalized slightly differently. Nouns with the
feminine ending ilT - change their ending to nT-, as in the fs noun
with pronominal suffix (XII.1.b).
n~~ house iln'::lil
T:- -
toward the house
iti mountain :i,ft
toward a mountain
:ii,r-i Tirzah :ini,r-i toward Tirzah
front, east :,~,~
TT ;
toward the east
T~ where? mN
TT toward where?
TD here mft
T.. toward here
cwT there :,~if
TT toward there
Note: In a few instances, the directive element is il .. -, instead
of ilT-: e.g., :i;~ toward Nob. .
Less frequently, the directive :, - may occur after a prepositional
phrase: il~iDD-?~ (toward theT north). Indeed, the directive ele-
ment may be used with a variety of prepositions to indicate mo-
tion in any direction.
i1liD~1' from the north
T T "
Directive :\- I 1 53
Direction of movement is sometimes expressed without a prepo-
sition or the directive :iT-. In this case, the noun of place has an
adverbial function.
i1~~ ~~: ~1f:TiJ fl~iTF;l from that land he went to Assyria
(Gen IO:II)
ilP.=;l~iJ iD~"'} 1'?.;, they went up to the top of the
mountain (Exod 17:ro)
7. Construct Chains (continued)
a. The link between a construct and an absolute may be broken
in a few instances.
i. by the directive :, T-
Cl:J~Q i1~l~ to the land of Egypt (Exod 4:20)
~Oi' i1!)'~ into the house of Joseph
(Gen 44:14)
ii. by a preposition
.!.?S'n;i 'JiJ the mountains of Gilboa
(2 Sam 1:21)
P~lO rf',~ a god from afar off (Jer 23:23)
i'~j?:;l np9il:l:;, joy at the harvest (Isa 9:2)
iii. by a suffixed pronoun
CJitr 'P'i:;l my covenant with the day
(Jer 33:20)
b. A construct noun is sometimes bound not to a noun but to an
entire relative clause.
ClW i19~ ~9i iW~ Clip9 the place where Joseph was
imprisoned (Gen 40: 3)
ci:,',~ b''?Q~iJW Clipo-',~ to the place where the streams
flow (Eccl 1 :7)
I 54 I Lesson XI II
Ji'~~ poor, needy. Verb: :i;;itt to be willing, want, consent
:i~N enemy
gnp~ tabernacle; PW neighbor. Verb: J;?tf to dwell
'H? 'H' afflicted, humble
affliction. Adjective:
1~ bull
Jil north, Zaphon
01~ east, antiquity, front
;,i shepherd. Verb: :i~n to tend, feed
T~'l:) south, Teman
- to remember
N1' ~
to fear, be afraid. Noun: ;-tN1'
T :
1~f to be(come) weighty, important, rich
nj2? to receive, take
- T
to anoint. Noun: n'W~
- ' T
to abandon, leave, forsake
Ttt where?
;-t:il thus, here
Exercise I 3 I 1 55
Exercise 13
a. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. I ate 9. he anointed 17. we remember
2. we wrote IO. he prevailed 18. you (fs) kept
3 I gave I I. they took 19. you (ms) cut
4. we cut I 2. I am old 20. you (mp) remember
5 I took 13. she took 2I. she remembers
6. we gave 14. they forsook 22. you (ms) went
7. I went I 5. she prevailed 23. she is important
8. they gave 16. she feared 24. you (mp) took
b. Translate the following into English:
( 2 Kgs 1 : 14) tl'O~iTF~ 'tzj~ i1TI i1Ji1' r.
(Isa 28:15) n,9-n~ 'n,:i 1~nJf tliliO~ '? 2.
(Ps 52: 5) ::li~D .DJ !;1::l;J~ 3.
(Exod r 6: 1 5) tl?7 i1Ji1' lP~ i~~ tin";?i] ~1~ 4.
(Gen 43:29) 'J~ tl(liO~ iW~ lt'.lj?iJ ci;n~ 'i1El 5.
(r Kgs 3:12) tl;?l) :i,, ~";, np~ I i1}i1 6.
(r Sam 2 8: 20) i17'?iJ-";,'.?l tli~iJ-'",f on? ''",:::,~ t-6 7.
(I Kgs 5: T 5) 1i1';J~ nor:, 1"'9'"' 1ryib9 iri~ ':) .DO~ 8.
(Ps 4 7:9) iiD1j? ~6:;-'",~ I ::iw: tl'i1'?~ tl,'i)-'",~ D'il''?~, 1!9 9.
(Gen 2 7: 2) 'QiD tli~ 'tl.D"J: ~'", 'il:l i?-! ro.
156 I Lesson XIII
c. Read Ps r 3 6 out loud and translate it with the help of a
dictionary and these notes.
v 1: :qii1 give thanks!; :ii~ he is good (here ::iiu is the Qal Perf.
3 ms of ::i,u to be good, pleasing).
v 4: ni~7:;i~ wonders.
v 10: il~O'? to the one who smote.
v 1 1: t,1;~i'1 and led .
.J"' -
v 14: ,,;i.;?ryi and he caused (object) to pass through.
v 1 5: 1P,~l and he threw off.
v 1 6: T;io'f' to the one who led.
v 17: il;io,, to the one who smote.
v 1 8: J'1i:j~J, and he killed.
v 19: 1;n,o'?, the preposition 7here and in v 20 marks the person
against whom an action is directed. See BOB, pp. 511-12 (3.b)
V 2 3: 1J?Eltv~ilt =W+ :jl + ?~W + l cp suffix
v 24: 1Jp1El'1 and he tore us away.
Excursus E
Poetic Hebrew
As one might expect, poetic Hebrew differs noticeably from
standard Hebrew prose, and archaic poetry differs from later po-
etic styles. For our purposes, it is necessary to note only the
most prominent features of poetic Hebrew.
I. Infrequency of Prose Particles
There are certain particles that occur regularly in prose but are
absent or rare in the oldest poetic texts and are only infrequently
attested in later poetry.
a. The definite article is frequently absent; in the oldest texts it is
present only as a result of tendencies to make the Hebrew more
i~~~ ci9~;-CI~ i1~,?"'J r1~ the earth quaked, also the heavens
dripped (Judg 5:4)
r1~-::,',o the kings of the earth (Ps 2:2)
b. The relative particle 1lp~ is absent from the oldest poetic texts
and is uncommon in standard poetry. Instead, one finds asyndetic
(unmarked) relative clauses, and ~T, iT, ;,! used in its place (see
X.2.c, d).
i:ltp irntti~}:l ... i~.p now:1 in the pit which they made ... in
the net where they hid (Ps 9:16)
c. The marker of definite direct object is frequently absent, espe-
cially in the oldest poetic texts.
-~~, i1Ji1" "?il n10~, For I have kept the ways of
YHWH, I have not acted wickedly,
v'?~o ni,~1 away from my God (Ps r 8:22)
158 I Excursus E
2. Longer Forms of Prepositions
Perhaps for metrical reasons, longer forms of several prepositions
are found in some poetic texts: i~:;i = :;! ; i~:p = :p; i~? = 7;
.. :: = -?N
'?N '111 = 111 '?11 = ?11.
... ' -: - , .. -: - . . . . . .
p~-iQ:, ri'?t:m:J ,n: they sank into (the) deep like stone
(Exod 15:5)
Cl"9-7.p Cl't')~~ like cedars by (the) waters (Num 24:6)
3. Longer forms of the 3 mp Pronominal Suffix
Again, perhaps for aesthetic reasons, the 3 mp suffixes i~- / i~T -
I i~ .. - are found in poetic texts, instead of the regular 3 mp
iQ"9 ... iQ~?D their fat (heart) ... their mouth
(Ps 17:ro)
4. Anomalous Final' - and i-
After Construct Nouns
An additional'. - known as IJireq compaginis or "linking IJireq"
is frequently attached to the construct noun.
i~~iJ ;:n:s, the deserter of the flock (Zech r r:17)
1. The -i at the end must not be confused with the r cs suffix.
11.There is vowel reduction in the form before the suffix (com-
pare XIl.2.a). Thus, :lJ:Y (one who deserts I abandons), but
The waw compaginis (i-) is less certainly attested.
5. Variable Word Order
Whereas the rules for word order in XII l.4 apply to Hebrew
prose, poetic texts may take license for stylistic reasons. The fol-
Variable Word Order I r 59
lowing is a good example of variations in word order in Hebrew
J~tv il:~o 'i11i1~ YHWH roars from Zion;
4':?4p HT Cl;~no:i He gives forth his voice from Jerusalem.
Cl'l'"li) n4~:i '1'?::i~l The pastures of the shepherds languish;
'?91~;::r iti~"') iti;:i:1 Yea, the top of Carmel dries up. (Amos r:2)
This example also illustrates the most important rhetorical feature
in Hebrew poetry: parallelism. In the first pair, Zion and Jerusalem
are, of course, not two different places; they are parallel terms.
Moreover one can see here that in Hebrew poetry, , is not neces-
sarily a conjunction and should not, therefore, be translated as
"and" in this case. Here, merely serves to introduce, or even to
emphasize, the parallel line (see also XXV.6.c, d). A well known
example both of parallelism and of the non-conjunctive use of, is
in Zech 9:9, regarding the triumphal entry of a king.
1161:,-',.p ::i;:,1, '-J.? humble and riding on a he-ass,
, -, I . 1'l'-?l'"1
.,- - , on the foal of she-asses.
A later tradition (Matt 21:5), missing the significance of the paral-
lelism and the function of , in Hebrew poetry, took the Hebrew to
mean that the king would come riding on two animals!
6. Double-Duty Preposition
In Hebrew poetry, a single preposition in one line may also govern
a noun in the parallel line. Thus the preposition is said to do
'?:::i:;i:J '4~:JD i1\D.P~ he will do his will against Babylon,
CJ';!tD~ win and his arm shall be (against) the
Chaldeans (Isa 48:14)
Lesson XIV
1. The Qal Perfect of Guttural Verbs
a. I-Guttural Verbs
These are regular, except that the sewiiJ under the guttural is-,
(see IV.2.a.ii).
Strong verb I-Guttural verb
2 mp C~7~i? 0~1~
2 fp 1~7~i? rn1~
Note: The verbs :i:;::i
(to be, become) and :i:o (to live) have ...
instead of -, in the 2 mp and 2 fp forms. ..
b. I I-Guttural Verbs
These are regular, except that the sewiiJ under the guttural
is-, (see I V.2.a.ii).
Strong verb I I-Guttural verb
3 fs i1?t?i?. :i,n::2
3 cp :i,t?i?. :i,n::i
c. III-Guttural Verbs
These are regular, except that the 2 fs is T;l~~tp instead of *T;lt'~W
2. The Qal Perfect of 111-:>Alep Verbs
Since N normally quiesces when it closes a syllable (I I. 11 ), any
short vowel preceding it is lengthened, and the afformative r-i is
spirantized. The forms of the Qal perfect of N~ (to find), then,
are as follows.
Qal Perfect of I I l-~lep Verbs I 161
3 ms Nl?)
3 cp ~Nl?)
: IT
3 fs ilNl?)
T : IT
2 ms nNl?)
2 fs 2 fp H)N7?
I CS l cp ~lNl?)
Note: Occasionally, the N is omitted in spelling, e.g., 'D~ for
'DN~, 'l'.17~ for 'DN7~ This phenomenon is observable not only
in the Qal perfect, but also in other inflections and other verbal
3. The Qal Perfect of III-He Verbs
a. The forms of the Qal perfect of il?~ (to uncover) are as follows.
3 ms il,i
3 cp ~,iT
3 fs iln,i
2 ms n,,i
T "T
2 mp 01:)'7~
2 fs n,,i "T
2 fp 10'7~
I CS ,n,,i I cp ~l'71
"T "T
1. The final ilT- of the 3 ms must not be confused with the
fs ending.
11. The 3 fs has an additional marker of the feminine, n-.
111. The first and second person forms have a ' after the second
1v. The afformative r-, is spirantized (> n).
b. The verbs il'il (to be) and il'n (to live) are at once I-Guttural
162 I Lesson XIV
and III-He. The forms of the Qal perfect of il:O (to be), then, are
as follows.
3 ms il'il
3 cp ~'il
3 fs iln'il
2 ms 11"il
T 'T
2 mp c~:r~n
2 fs n"il
2 fp nrn
I CS 'n"il
I cp ~J"il
Notes: The composite sewi{J under the first radical is.,, rather
than -, After the conjunction 1, however, it is silent: CJJ'~:;i1;
. . .
4. The Qal Perfect of 11-Waw/Yo<J Verbs
a. Verbs with I1-Waw I Yog usually show only two radicals in the
Qal perfect. The weak middle radical disappears, so that there is
no distinction between 11-Waw and II-Yog forms. The forms of
the Qal perfect of C~i' (to arise), C'lP (to set), and Ni::! (to come),
then, are as follows.
Qal Perfect of I 1-Waw/Yot}, Verbs I 163
3 ms ctv
3 fs ;'?N::I
2 ms ~7?R r-,~tv
T : -
2 fs l;l7?R l;l1?W
I CS 'T:l7?R 'T:l1?W
3 cp ~~i?
2 mp Ci:'.,17?jZ Ci:'.,17?W cnN::i
: T
2 fp 11'.:,17?iZ m~w H)N~
I cp ~l7?R ~l7?W ~lN::I T
1. The verb Ni::! also shows the characteristics of a I 11-=>Alep
11. There is no difference in form between the 3 ms Qal perfect
and the ms Qal active participle. Proper understanding of
the form depends on the context. Word order may be in-
I structive, however. If the form stands before a nominal sub-
ject, it is more likely to be the perfect 3 ms (see XIIl,4.a.ii);
if it stands after a named subject, it is likely the participle.
m. The only formal difference between the 3 fs perfect (;'?7?~)
and the Qal act. ptc. fs. (;"t7?j?) is in the accentuation.
1v. The accent in the 3 cp is on the first syllable. This distin-
guishes it from the 3 cp of a III-He verb (see 3.a). Thus, for
example, ~:iw (3 cp of :l~'!V) means "they returned;' but ~:llp
(3 cp of ;i~tp) means "they captured."
164 I Lesson XIV
b. The forms of the Qal perfect of the stative verbs m~ (to die)
and tvi::2 (to be ashamed) are as follows.
3 ms n~
3 fs ;in~
2 ms i1J:IO
2 fs r;np::i
I CS 'r:np~
3 cp m~ ~'IV~
2 mp C!J~ CJ:l'IV::2
: : T
2 fp TJJ~ T!Jlp~
I cp ~l~~ 'llp~
1. The third radical (n) of the root n,o assimilates into the
afformative J:I, e.g., 1 cs 'l:1~ (mdtti).
11.The stative verb :Jiu (be good) belongs with this group:
thus, :::iiu (he is good), ~:::i6 (they are good).
5. Stative Verbs
As we have learned in XIII.2, stative verbs are those that describe
a state or condition, rather than an action. In general they tend to
be of qatel and qatol patterns, rather than qatal. The 3 ms forms,
therefore, are identical to the adjectives of the same root. Thus,
i;f can mean "he is heavy, important" (Qal Perf. 3 ms) or
"heavy, important" (adjective) and 7b~ can mean "he is small"
(Qal Perf. 3 ms) or "small" (adjective). One cannot, however, rely
on the form of a verb to tell if it is stative or not. In the course of
history the distinction between stative and non-stative meanings
often became blurred. Thus, the root ptv has the Qal perfect
forms Po/ and T~tp. Originally the former may have meant "he is
Stative Verbs I 165
situated" (stative), whereas the latter meant "he dwelled" (ac-
tive). But no distinction is made now between the patterns; both
words simply mean "he dwelled." Since stative verbs describe
state rather than action, one should not expect them to have par-
ticiples. Yet, there are forms that cannot be distinguished from
adjectives but that clearly function as participles. Some of these
even take the direct object.
Cl'~"T Clf:1~-itp~ ',j~ 179 '-~SD the king of Babylon whose
presence you fear (]er 42: r r)
'?:;t;:iiTrit~ Cl'~'?D 1''.?liD1 and his flowing hem was
filling the temple (Isa 6: 1)
Moreover, like the participle, these words may also be used
as substantives. Thus, N'J.~ means "one who is afraid" and, hence,
"a fearer."
bii'?~ ~'J' a God-fearer (Gen 22:12)
6. Uses of il'il
There is no present tense verb "to be" in Hebrew. Simple predica-
tion (e.g., "the man is king") is accomplished by a juxtaposition
of words (VI. 8). Existence of someone or something in the pre-
sent time is expressed by the particle 'IV~ (X.3) or nm (IX.5.b); ab-
sence is expressed by the particle p~ IT'~ (X.4).
a. Although a simple juxtaposition of words may also be ade-
quate to state a past fact, Hebrew commonly uses the perfect
of the verb il'il
(to be, become) for it.
:ij','i) Cl'J::;l~ we were slaves (Deut 6:21)
b. To indicate the existence of someone or something in the past,
the verb il'il
is used.
r:i-l:'-r1~::i il,:D iti~ there was a man
in the land of Uz (Job r:r)
166 I Lesson XIV
Conversely, to indicate the absence of something or someone in
the past, the verb :,~Vis simply negated by the particle N7.
!Ji16~ 1'? i1:iJ-~~ there was no king like him
(Neh 13:26)
c. To indicate possession in a past time, the idiom -7 :,~V is used.
l::l i1:~-;',1 and he had a son ( I Sam 9:2)
d. :,~V may also be translated as "to come;' "to come to pass;'
"to become:' "to happen," or the like.
Cl"'J:J~-',~ 'i1ji1'-,:;r1 i1.:iJ the word of YHWH came to
Abram (Gen 15:1)
'.J:i i~liJ i1.:iJ-i19 How did the matter go, my son?
(1 Sam 4:16)
p.~'? i1.:iJ ~:i;~n and he became as a stone
(1 Sam 25:37)
7. Impersonal Constructions
a. The 3 ms verb is sometimes used impersonally. In such cases, it
is often best to translate the Hebrew with a passive phrase in
'?::l~ 'i1QiD ~Ji? 1::S-',~ therefore one called its name Babel
= therefore its name is called Babel
(Gen n:9)
b. The 3 cp verb may also refer to an indefinite subject.
uQ"'J::it~n1~ :i'i::ii?. i19W there they buried Abraham and
Sarah, his wife
i1J(9 'n~,
= there Abraham and Sarah, his
wife, were buried (Gen 4 9: 3 I)
Impersonal Constructions I 167
c. With certain verbs of emotion, an impersonal construction with
the 3 ms may be used, and the one who experiences the emotion
is indicated by the preposition,.
i'? ::::liitl '',:i~t?i? nJ'')i it was spacious for Saul and it was
good for him
= Saul was relieved and he felt good
(1 Sam 16:23)
d. In expressions of natural phenomena, the third person singular
may also be used impersonally (as in English "it is raining").
CJ?'? 1i~i when it is light (enough) for you (1 Sam 29:10)
e. As we have learned in VI I I,4,d, participles may also be used to
refer to an impersonal subject.
1'.l)tz.JD ~JP someone calls from Seir (Isa 21:11)
-;p1i)? CJ'~'.;! some (people) are coming to kill you (Neh 6:10)
1)N length. Verb: 111$ to be long.
:Jl]i width, breadth. Verb: :JIJ1 to be wide, broad
wi:::i to be ashamed. Noun: nw~ shame ','
ilJ; to choose (object usually indicated by marker or f)
i':I~ to sojourn (i.e., live as a resident alien). Nouns: iil~
(mp: C'"!':!l7?) sojourning place, sojourning;,~ sojourner
:i:;;:r to be, come to pass, come about, happen
to live
n':ITJ to die
to be full
Nip~ to lift up, raise, bear, forgive
168 I Lesson XIV
,~o to turn aside
c~p to arise
C'tp to place, put, set
to break
iN or
C~ if, or, either. C~ '~ rather, except, yet
1~ however, surely, indeed
~~ also, even, indeed
P1 only
Exercise 14
a. Parse the following forms:
I. 'nx,~ T
6. ilN::J
I I. ~'il
2. n''tVY
7. ilN::J
12. nN~h
3 'r:ttp'.:l 8. ~,.;).
13. 'T:l~
4 'n"il "T
9. :,r,,:,
14. 'T:llg
5 ;,r,~
IO. r,xt,n
TT I 5 m;,~
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. they chose 6. you (mp) were I I. you (ms) entered
2. she set 7. you (ms) died I2, he sojourned
3 I made 8. she went up 13. you (ms) lifted
4 they set 9. you (mp) did 14. we are ashamed
5. he died IO. you (ms) lived 15. you (mp) left
Exercise I 4 I 1 69
c. Translate the following into English:
(Gen r 9: 5) i17~JiJ T'.?~ :i~;i-iiQ~ Cl'~~~i) i1;'.~ I.
(Jer 9:18) fl~ !JJ~J~-;, ',~a :qtv~ 2.
(Exod 32:r) i'7 i1:fri1r~ !JJ-\'11: ~'? 3.
(Job 13:r) '5\~ i1P,9W 7.P il!:J~l ',~-FT 4
(Deut 4 :44) '?~ltP' '}:::l ;~'? ilipb t:l~riip~ il'JirliJ n~tl 5.
n~-;~ :::i~ t:J~7-iD'iJ i9~7 11:;i.p-n~ ',~t9 x,~ 6.
(Gen 44:19)
t:l'"J~a fl~:;J t:Jfl"iJ c-:,r;, im tv~,rn~ br.u,,. cn.~1 7.
(Exod 23:9)
(Joel r:2) t:l:;?'D~~ p:i t:l~1 t:i:;:n;r;:i'n~t ilI;~;:tij 8.
i:;'.l:;i'?-'?~:;J 'i1Ji1'-'?~ :::i~;-itp~ 170 ,-~~'? i1:ry-~'? 1i1b~1
(2 Kgs 23:25)
i1j-i1~;i 1W~ i1[1'::l-',~ "111 1'P.0 'i1I;'?P, ill'i~-ti;J l~ IO.
( r Kgs 9:24)
d. Translate Eccl 2:4-ro with the help of a dictionary and these
v 4: n'?"'.Pi1 I accomplished (greatly).
v 6: tiif?iDiJ'? to irrigate.
v 7: ., i1:D I '; i1:D there was to me (impersonal use);
'i1:liiJ abundantly.
v 9: 'rl::lOii11 and I increased.
Excursus F
Orientation to the Hebrew Bible
1. The Massoretic Text
The Hebrew text in most editions of the Bible is known as the
Massoretic Text, abbreviated as MT. The name comes from the
Hebrew word massorii(h) "tradition." Hence, the Jewish tradi-
tionalists who helped preserve the text (between 600-1000 CE)
are called "Massoretes."
The original Hebrew texts had no verse or chapter number-
ings; Christian scholars introduced them from the thirteenth cen-
tury onwards. Moreover, the Pentateuch (the five books, Genesis-
Deuteronomy) is divided into sections, marked by the signs> (for
;'llJm~ opened) and O (for ;'l~~n9 closed) at the end of each
to indicate the relationship of the section to the next. In addition,
the Massoretes wrote their observations in the margins of every
page (called "marginal Massorah") and at the end of books
(called "final Massorah"). A small circle above the line usually
calls attention to a certain form or construction, which is then
commented on in the margin. Since these comments are in Post-
biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, and often in abbreviations, these
notes are not accessible to beginning students.
2. Keti"/J-Qere
A phenomenon that we have already encountered in our readings
so far is the occasional discrepancy between the consonantal text
and the vocalization. This peculiarity of the Hebrew Bible stems
from the great reverence of the consonantal text on the part of
the Massoretes. Only in the most extreme situations (and usually
for serious theological reasons) was the consonantal text deliber-
ately altered. In most cases, the Massoretes simply superimposed
on the consonantal text what ought to be read. In so doing, they
were recommending what should be read and ignoring the conso-
nants. The resulting combination of consonants and the vowel
Ketfl}-Qere I 171
points is known as Ketfl;-Qere (Aramaic for "what is written"
and "to be read;' respectively). That is, the text is written one
way, but it is to be read another.
Some words always appear as Ket,l;-Qere. For instance, the
name of Israel's God is always spelled as i11i1', but the vowels tell
the reader to pronounce the name as :Ja<J,cmay, or, in some cases,
as Jelohim (seep. 61 above).
We have learned, too, that the 3 fs in the Pentateuch is usually
written as N1i1 but vocalized as N';:t (hence N1;:t), and the name
Jerusalem is usually written as c,w,,, (assuming the pronuncia-
tion yerusalem) but vocalized as yerusaldyim (hence Q?l.!?17).
These are examples of the so-called "perpetual Ketfl;-Qere's." In
these and many other instances, the variants make no difference
in our understanding of the texts. Often the Qere makes a correc-
tion, according to what was understood to be the proper form or
pronunciation, or the Qere may simply offer a variant without
attempting to replace the Ketfl;. There are some cases, however,
where the variance is more substantive, and one is forced to
choose one interpretation over another. Occasionally, too, the
Qere ignores a word by not vocalizing it (see 111' in Jer 51:3),
or it inserts a word by supplying the vowels (see ,. for tl'~~ in
Jer 31:38). The former is an example of dittography, where some-
thing is inadvertantly written twice. The latter is an instance
where a word has accidentally dropped out. In each case, a small
circle above the form in question points one to the marginal
notes which elaborate on the problem.
3. The Critical Apparatus in BHS
There are several editions of the Hebrew Bible. The critical
edition that is most commonly used by students and scholars
today is Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia edited by K. Elliger and
W. Rudolph (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1967-77),
popularly abbreviated to B HS. It is the third edition of Biblia
Hebraica, first edited by Rudolph Kittel (BHK), and is based on
the Leningrad Codex known as B19A. Since B HS is a critical edi-
172 I Excursus F
tion, it comes with a critical apparatus at the bottom of each page
with the editors' notes on variant readings and various proposals.
For the beginner, the morass of details, presented in abbreviations
of Latin and through symbols, can be quite intimidating. It is
necessary, therefore, to have a brief orientation to the critical ap-
paratus, not so that one might instantly know how to do textual
criticism, but so that one might know what the critical apparatus
is for and, perhaps, turn to it from time to time. Fortunately, B HS
now comes with an English key to the symbols and abbreviations.
To illustrate very briefly how the critical apparatus works, we
may turn to Eccl 2:7, which we have just translated in Exercise
14. The superscript "a" after n~i? points us to the first note at
the bottom of the page, which says "mlt Mss 5 + '7;' This means
that many manuscripts and the Syriac version add '7 after 't:"l'~i?.
One may have to decide, then, whether the '7 is authentic and has
accidentally dropped out of the text in the process of transmis-
sion, or whether the variant cited by BHS is in fact a secondary
addition. One of the rules of thumb in Hebrew textual criticism is
that the shorter text is to be preferred, since there was a tendency
for scribes to add and harmonize. Apparently some scribe added
'7 in an attempt to harmonize this sentence with the rest of the
passage, for elsewhere in this passage we have the perfect I cs
form+ '7.
The superscript "b" after i1:D points us to the note that tells us
that a few (abbreviation pc for pauci) manuscripts, and the Greek
(~) and Syriac (5) versions read ~'V One may have to choose be-
tween the reading il~;:.t and ~'V The latter is the easier reading,
since the subject seems to be n;-~::i~; the text flows better with
~'V as the verb. But that is precisely why one must be careful,
since people tend to "correct" the text - that is, make it easier.
The reading il!;:.t can, in fact, be explained in some other way (see
GKC 145.u). Indeed, the more awkward reading is probably the
more original! In textual criticism this is called the principle lectio
difficilior - that is, the more difficult reading is to be preferred.
Lesson XV
1. The Piel Perfect
The Piel verbal pattern is characterized by the doubling of the
second radical in all its inflections. The forms of the Piel perfect
are as follows.
3 ms ?~j? 3 cp ~?tpj?
3 fs :i?tpi?
2 ms ~7~i? 2 mp C~7~i?
2 fs r;,'?~i? 2 fp 7~7~i?
I CS 'l:17~i? I cp ~l7~i?
1. The e-vowel in qittel is typical of all inflections of the Piel
verbal pattern, but in the perfect it is preserved only in the
3 ms. Moreover, for some verbs the 3 ms form is qittal, in-
stead of qi(tel (e.g., 1~? he taught), while others (mostly
with final 1) have e instead of e (e.g., 1~1 he spoke).
11. In a few instances, the dages in the middle radical is lost
when a sewa.Jstands under it (VI.7): thus, *:,tpp~ > :itpp:;i
(she sought).
2. The Meaning of Verbs in Piel
a. Factitive. Roots that are stative or intransitive in Qal may
become transitive in Piel. One may compare the ending -ize in
English (e.g., be normal:: normalize).
174 I Lesson XV
Root Qal Piel
1i1~ to be clean to cleanse
w,p to be holy to consecrate
1:JN to perish to destroy
b. Intensive. Many verbs in Piel suggest multiple, repeated,
or busy action.
Root Qal Piel
,1,;, to walk to walk around
,:2p to bury to bury many
1,Ntv to ask to beg
1:Jtv to break to shatter
c. Denominative. Some verbs are derived from nouns and adjec-
tives. One may compare the English prefix en- (danger:: to
Root Noun Piel verb
priest to act as priest
root to uproot
d. Declarative. Some verbs declare a state of being.
Root Adjective Piel verb
innocent to declare innocent
righteous to declare righteous
Meaning of Verbs in Piel I r 7 5
It is not always possible to fit a Piel verb into one of these cate-
gories. Sometimes there is no obvious reason why a certain verb
occurs in Piel. Often, too, a verb may occur in both Qal and Piel,
with no discernible difference in meaning. Sometimes a verb may
be both transitive and intransitive in Qal, but in Piel it is always
3. The Piel Perfect of II-Guttural and II-Res Verbs
a. Since gutturals and Res cannot be doubled by a dages (I V.2.a),
we get the following.
i. Compensatory lengthening before N and 1.
ii. Virtual doubling of:,, n, and 31.
b. When a vocal sewa') is expected under a guttural, one finds -,
instead of, (II.7). Even 1 sometimes takes-, (e.g.,~:::,~~ "they
c. The inflections of the Piel perfect of T~~ (to refuse) and 1iJ~
(to hasten), representing the type with compensatory lengthening
and the type with virtual doubling, respectively, are as follows.
3 ms T~~ 1iJ7;)
3 fs :iJN~
2 ms 1-'llN~
T: -
T :-
2 fs r;,~~~ T;1liJ7;)
I CS '1:1~~~ 'l:1l!J7;)
3 cp ~)~~ ~11:!7;)
2 mp 01-'llN~
... : - .. Cz:11i1~
.. : - .
2 fp HP~~ T1'liJ7;)
I cp ~~~~ ~)liJ7;)
176 I Lesson XV
4. The Piel Perfect of III-:>Alep Verbs
Verbs of this type show the expected quiescence of N, the length-
ening of the preceding vowel, and the spirantization of the affor-
mative r-1 (XI V.2). The characteristic e-vowel in the second
syllable, however, is preserved beyond the 3 ms form (contrast
r.note i): ONY~ (you filled), 'l:,NY~ (I filled), and so forth.
5. The Piel Perfect of III-He Verbs
Apart from the characteristic doubling of the second radical and
the i vowel in the first syllable, the Piel perfect of III-He verbs is
inflected like its Qal counterpart (XIV. 3 ): ii?~ (he uncovered),
il07~ (she uncovered), and so forth.
6. The Piel Perfect of II Waw/Yo(j Verbs
Such verbs are rare in Piel; for these verbs, the functions of the
Piel are assumed by other verbal patterns (see Lesson XXX).
A few forms are attested, however (e. g., iw he blinded).
7. The Piel Participle
The Piel participle is marked by a prefix -7?, a pata~ under the
first radical, and the characteristic doubling of the second radical:
Piel Participle I 177
Synopsis of Forms of the Piel Participle
Root ms mp fs fp
'?i,p '~i?7? 0'7t?i?7? n7~j?~ ni'?tpj?7?
TN~ T~~7? C'lN~~
-: T :
:. T :
-: T :
iil~ it1~7? 0'1q~7? n,il~~
...... - :
-: - :
n,w JJY.W7? c,n,w~
. -: : nti1iW7? nin~w7?
N'?~ NY.~7? C'N,~7:3
. -
: :
.. -:
:- :
i1'?l i1ii7? C''pi7? il,l~ ni,i7?
,,, 11~7? c,,,,~
. - : :
n;,,,~- : :
Note: The dages in the second radical may be lost when it is fol-
lowed by, (see Vl.7 and I. Note ii above). Thus, *C'Wi?~~ >
C'Wr~7? (mebaqsim).
Verbs: 1
'!Vj?; Pi.: to seek
11; Pi.: to bless; Qal only in the pass. ptc. forms. Noun: il~lf
blessing; 1~-~ (fs; fd: C~~l~) knee
'1! to grow up, become great; Pi.: to bring up, raise, make
,~1 Pi.: to speak (rare in Qal)
'?'zv Pi.: to praise, boast. Noun: il~iJT;l praise, song of praise
il?f to be complete, be finished; Pi.: to complete, finish
Pi.: to cover, conceal (rare in Qal)
1. We follow the convention in BOB of giving the lexical form of the verb as the Qal
Perf. 3 ms, even if the form is unattested in that verbal pattern.
178 I Lesson XV
7~9 Pi.: to refuse, reject
1iJ9 Pi.: to hurry, hasten
to count, write; Pi.: to recount, relate, tell. Noun:
,~9~ number. Idioms: ,~9~ l'~ innumerable, infinite;
iec~ W' numerable
T: '
?~~ to work, perform, accomplish. Noun: ?~9 deed
ill Pi.: to command, charge, appoint. Noun: ilJ:it~
W1j? to be holy, consecrated; Pi.: to sanctify, consecrate.
Noun: W1i?~
Pi.: to serve, minister
?IJ) wadi, stream
nwrq bronze, copper
T;:? so, thus, therefore, accordingly; p-,~ for this reason,
Exercise IS
a. Parse the following forms:
I. Cljlpjt;l 6. n,::2,~
...... -
I I. Clj71iJ
2. T-11::l'!f 7. ~:,~; 12. il~;,7?
T :-
3. 8. illfi?~ 13. C'tpj?~7?
4. ;,n,::i
9. ~J'?::l
14. 'D'!.i>:;l
5 n'l::l::l
T .. IO. r;11;1 I 5. 11~1?
Exercise r 5 I r 79
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. I blessed 6. they ministered I I. you (mp) completed
2. he sought 7. they recounted 12. you (mp) counted
3 they hurried 8. he completed 13. you (ms) hastened
4. I filled 9. I commanded 14. you (mp) consecrated
5 she hurried IO. they performed 15. he commanded
c. Translate the following into English:
(Num 21:7) 1~1 'iip';l i:r-9,-,~ 1:Jt.i:~rJ 1.
(Exod 4: I 9) 1~~~-n~ C:l'~p:;iov t:J'~~~iT"'? 'inr.,i-,:, 2.
(Exod 20:22) t:l;?9.V 'r11~'1 t:l'Oi{iiTF~ ':l, t:l~'~l t:lf.i~ 3.
(Ps I 9: 2) ",~-,;:;if t:l'J~09 t:l'Oi{iiJ 4
(Exod 7:6) i~.p p t:lQ~ iiJii' iiJ~ 1~~~ 5.
(Judg 13: II) iiWt.i:iT",~ l;ll;i-i-,il5~ iV'~Q ii!:!~iJ 6.
(Ps 44:9) ci:;:i-",;, i:i;~ii t:l'ii?t.i:# 7.
(Ps 85:3) t:lf,lt.i:~!J-",? t:1'9::;, 19.P lJP t)t.i:(9~, 8.
(Prov 29:26) iV't.n!l;:liVa iijii~r.,ii ",g;;a-,~~ t:l'~p:;ia t:l':l"l, 9.
'?~ltv' '}:i-n~ t:l'ri'?~ry iD'~ iiWb TJ~ ,~~ ii~l~iJ n~!, 10.
(Deut 3 3: 1) ir:,ia ',~El'?
180 I Lesson XV
d. Read Jer 45:1-5 out loud and translate the passage with the
help of a dictionary and these notes.
v 1: \Jn'.?:J when he wrote
v 3: ~ri~ woe.
v 4: 19~h you shall say.
v 5: :1~ril.ip~n will you seek (object) for yourself?; iDi?,_~n-',~ do
not seek; ~-j~ am bringing; nti~1 and I will give; Cl~tl?f.\
lit.: you shall go there.
Lesson XVI
I. The Hiphil Perfect
The Hiphil verbal pattern is characterized by a prefixed h in the
perfect. An i-vowel appears in the second syllable of all the third
person forms, but elsewhere it is replaced by an a-vowel
(i.e., patai?).
The forms of the Hiphil perfect, then, are as follows.
3 ms ''~i?i'.I 3 cp ~7't?i?i'.I
3 fs :i7't?i?i'.I
2 ms ~7~i?i'.I 2 mp c~7~p;:i
2 fs r;,7~p;:i 2 fp T~?~i?i'.I
I CS 'T:17~i?i'.I I cp ~l7~i?D
2. The Meaning of Verbs in Hiphil
a. Causative. Most frequently the Hiphil verb is used as a
causative; the verb in Hiphil causes something to happen
or to be.
Root Qal Hiphil
to reign to ca use to reign
to trust to cause to trust
Sometimes it is possible to translate the Hebrew causative with
a single English word. Thus, 7':;>~:J he caused to eat = he fed.
182 I Lesson XVI
Root Qal Hiphil
?:::>N to eat to feed (cause to eat)
n,7' to die to kill (cause to die)
:ix, to see to show (cause to see)
b. Factitive. Roots that are stative or intransitive in Qal may
become transitive in Hiphil.
Root Qal Hiphil
,,1 to be great to exalt (make great)
:in, to be wide to widen (make wide)
:,,n to live to preserve (make live)
c. Denominative. Some verbs are derived from nouns and
Root Noun Hiphil verb
ear to pay attention
root to grow root
d. Declarative. Some verbs declare a state of being.
Root Adjective Hiphil verb
righteous to declare righteous
wicked to declare wrong
Meaning of Verbs in Hiphil I 183
There is obviously some semantic overlap between the Hiphil and
Piel verbal patterns. Hence, some verbs are found in both verbal
patterns with no discernible difference in meaning. Other verbs
cannot be classified under one of the above categories. Some verbs
are related to adjectives but are, even in Hiphil, still stative or
Root Adiective Hiphil verb
old to become old
good to do well
Some verbs in this group are, curiously, both transitive and intran-
sitive. For instance, the Hiphil of :n,, may mean either "to do
well" (intransitive) or "to make (something) good" (transitive).
3. The Hiphil Perfect of I-Guttural Verbs
When the first radical is a guttural, a composite sewif> (._.,) takes
the place of the simple silent sewif' ( . ) under the first radical.
Moreover, the vowel with the prefixed i1 is influenced by the com-
posite sewif:> (._.,),so that it is changed from. to ..., (thus, ,,~~tJ).
The forms are otherwise regular.
4. The Hiphil Perfect of III-Guttural Verbs
In verbs of this type, the furtive pdtal; appears as expected, when-
ever rl, n, or Y stands at the end of the form ( In the perfect,
this situation occurs only in the 3 ms form (thus, IJ'?lpi'.1). The
other forms are all regular.
5. The Hiphil Perfect of In-=>Alep Verbs
Verbs of this type show the expected quiescence of N, the length-
ening of the preceding vowel, and the spirantization of the .r-1 of
the afformative (see XIV.2). It should be noted, however, that the
184 I Lesson XVI
characteristic vowel in the second syllable is e in all first and sec-
ond person forms: thus, N'~7?;:t, :itt'7?i'.l but J:,Nj7?;:i, 'DNi7?;:t.
6. The Hiphil Perfect of III-He Verbs
The forms of the Hiphil perfect of :,7~ (to uncover) are as
3 ms :, n:, I :i?l:i
T: T: "'
3 cp
3 fs :,r,1;,l:,
T ! :
2 ms r,,1,l:, I r,,1,l:,
2 mp Cn'?l:i ..... : .
.... : . I Cn'?l:i
2 fs n'?1i'.l I n'?1i'.I 2 fp TQ'?1i'.l I Tl'.)'?10
I CS 'D'17;;:i I 'D'71i'.I I cp ~J'710
7. The Hiphil Perfect of I-Nun Verbs
The Nun is assimilated into the following consonant, as expected
when there is no intervening vowel (I V.2.b). The forms of the
Hiphil perfect of,~~ (to tell) are as follows.
3 fs :,,,.;l:,
2 ms r-iill:i
T :-
2 mp C~l~i'.l
2 fs r;q~;:i 2 fp T~l~i'.l
I CS '1:ll~i'.l I cp ~ll~i'.l
Hiphil Perfect of I-Nun Verbs I 185
I-Nun verbs that are also I I-Guttural are uncommon. The attested
roots do not show the assimilation of Nun, e.g., 'l:l?DFI (I be-
queathed). The combination of I-Nun with other weak radicals oc-
casions no surprise; they are according to the rules for both weak
radicals, e.g., *;,~~;:i > ;,f;:i (he struck).
8. The Hiphil Perfect of 1-Waw Verbs
a. The forms of the Hiphil perfect :itp~ (original *:JW1 dwell) are
as follows.
3 ms :J'll)i:i
3 fs ;'1:J'tVi:i
2 ms r-i:Jwi:i
T: -
2. mp c~~wi:i
2 fs r;,~w;:i 2 fp HPWi;,
I CS 'r:i~wi:i I cp ~J~wi:i
Note: The Hiphil prefix (ho- instead of hi-) here may seem sur-
prising, but it can be explained. The original Hiphil prefix was
actually *ha-, but it has generally become hi- (through a compli-
cated process). In the Hiphil of I-Waw verbs, however, the
old *ha- prefix, in combination with the initial w, yields the con-
tracted diphthong o, in accordance with I V.2.c.iii.J3: thus,
*hawsib > hosib.
b. The verb 1?;;! (walk) behaves as if it were *1?1 in all inflections
of the Hiphil (thus, 1'7i;,, ;,~,7i;,, etc.).
c. A few verbs (almost always with :ll as the second radical) regu-
larly behave like I-Nun verbs - that is, the initial radical is assimi-
lated. The following verbs are the most important.
186 I Lesson XVI
l:ll' to set down l';:t, i9'~;:t, t9i::t, etc.
j':ll' to pour out i''~iJ, ilj?'~;:t, ~i?i::t, etc.
n:ll' to kindle n';:t, ilO'~;:t, ~i;:t, etc.
9. The Hiphil Perfect of 1-Yog. Verbs
The forms of the Hiphil perfect of :i~: (be good) are as follows.
3 ms :J'~'D
3 fs il:J'U'il
2 ms T-\:JU'il
T: -
2 mp CT-\:JU'il
.: - ..
2 fs 1;9~'D 2 fp Tt9~'D
I CS 'T:9~'D I cp : - ..
Note: As in original 1-Waw verbs, traces of the old *ha- prefix are
evident. Here *ha- has combined with the initial radical (y) and
the contraction of *hay-> he- is in accordance with IV.2.c.iv.13
(thus, *hay(ib > heti/J, etc.). Verbs of this type are actually quite
rare. Most verbs listed as 1-Yog in the dictionaries are original
1-Waw. The following, however, are genuine 1-Yog verbs occur-
ring in Hiphil.
Root Qal Hiphil
:JU' to please, do well to treat well, make good
i'l' to suck
-not attested-
to suckle, nurse
to wail, howl
Tr.)' -not attested- to go to the right
,w, to be level to level
Hiphil Perfectofl-Yo{j Verbs I 187
The verb tzj~~ (to be dry) behaves like a 1-Yog verb in Qal, but
it is like original 1-Waw in Hiphil (thus, W':;ii:, he caused to
dry up).
10. The Hiphil Perfect of 11-Waw/Yog Verbs
There is no distinction between II-Waw and II-Yog verbs in the
Hiphil perfect. The forms of the Hiphil perfect of c~;, (to arise)
are as follows.
3 ms C'~D 3 cp ~~'~D
3 fs :,~'~D
2 ms 01~'~n 2 mp cryi~'~n
2 fs ni~'~n 2 fp rryi~?n
< <
I CS 'D1~'~n I cp m~'~n
1. The characteristic -;:t prefix becomes -D, which, in the
second and first person forms reduces to -n
(see 111.2.a.i).
In some instances, however, one finds ... instead of- (e.g.,
1:)i5'tpl;! you restored). .. .
11. An additional o (i) precedes every consonantal afformative,
thus opening the syllable and causing the spirantization of
afformative ?=\. Not infrequently, however, the i is omitted.
mc:i:i instead of niN':J:i
T .. T -:
'DN~D instead of 'DiN':;in
instead of *Cnin'~:,
v ~
188 I Lesson XVI
I I. Hiphil Verbs as Causatives
As we have seen in 2.a above, the Hiphil is used most commonly
as a causative. If the basic verbal idea expressed by the root is al-
ready transitive (taking an object), the Hiphil verb may be doubly
transitive - that is, it takes two objects.
God has shown me even your
seed (Gen 48:n)
01~ i1}.r:Jo-n~ ll'9~i1 't1~1
1 The Lord caused the Aramean
camp to hear the sound of
'?i"'!~ '?:!J '?ip 010 '?ij? '::l?"1 '?ip chariotry, the sound of horses,
and the sound of a great army
(2 Kgs 7:6)
It is common, however, to have only a single object.
iC9 :fr;"!~ i1~li1 i~~~ just as he showed you on the
mountain (Exod 27:8)
tr:;ill-n~ t;i:;>?Oi1 'i1t;i~ you caused your servant to
reign (1 Kgs 3:7)
If there is no personal object mentioned, a literal translation may
be a passive construction in English (e.g., "cause to be known"),
but it is better to render the phrase in more idiomatic style.
in.t'1iD' i11i1' l''iii1
" T : T :, J"
YHWH has caused his salva-
tion to be known = YHWH
has proclaimed his salvation
(Ps 98:2)
12. The Hiphil Participle
Hiphil participles are typically marked by a prefixed -~ (ma-).
The characteristic h of this verbal pattern is no longer evident in
the participle because it has been lost, probably in a manner not
unlike the loss of the definite article after a prefixed preposition
Hiphil Participle I 189
Synopsis of Forms of the Hiphil Participle
Root ms mp fs fp
?t,p ''~i?~ C''?'~j?~ n?,~i?~ ni?'~i?~
1~Y 1'1?~~ C'1'~Y~
.. -: - nir3Y~
.. -: - ni1'~Y~
. -: -
n,w IJ'7tp~ C'f'.1'7lp~ nti'ztp~ nin,,w~
.: -
il?l il?l~
... - C'7~~ il?l~ ni?~~
: T!-
1.ll C'1'~~ n,i~ .....- n;,,~~
:JW' :J'tpi~ C':;l'tpi~ n:iwi~
... ni:J'tpi~
:Jt,' :J'~'~ C':;I'~'~ n::26'~
...... .. ni:i'~'~
c,p C'j?~ C'!?'j?7? i1~'i?7? ni~'i?!?
1. The fs participle is of the n?,~i?~ pattern, except for III-He
verbs (i1?~~) and 11-Waw/Yog verbs (i1~'j?7?).
n. The prefix for 1-Waw verbs is -i~ (see 8.Note) and for 1-Yog
it is-'~ (see 9. Note).
m. I 1-Waw I Yog has-~ as the prefix, but in the forms with
endings, thee vowel is reduced (see 111.2.a.i).
i:,::i: first-born
~~ (fs) palm, sole
no~ opening, entrance. Verb: no, to open
:i~n chariotry; il;rR~ chariot. Verb: :i;;n to ride, mount
,~w deception, falsehood
190 I Lesson XVI
w1, to inquire, demand
to kill
:i~: to do well; please; suit; Hi.: to make good, treat well
YW: Hi.: to save, help. Nouns: i1~W;, Yl_P\ i1~Wl;l deliverance,
1~~ Hi.: to tell, announce, report
71]~ to inherit, possess; Hi.: to bequeath, assign inheritance
Y~~ to plant
Hi.: to strike, smite, defeat. Noun: i1::ll7J blow, strike
T -
Hi.: to rescue, snatch, deliver
P~ to cry out. Noun: i1~ cry
il;l to become great, numerous; Pi.: increase, bring up; Hi.: to
multiply, increase. Adverb: :i;:nti abundantly
m:qp Pi.: to ruin, destroy; Hi.: to ruin, destroy
1?lp Hi.: to throw, cast
illJlp to drink. Noun: ilfltp~ banquet
Exercise 16
a. Parse the following forms:
I. :l'f:''D 6. 'l:176~::r I I. 'l'.''~1::r
2. '1:l"'f~::r 7. ~J~~'D 12. ~r,qtp
3. JJNjiil 8. ~,,~;:r I 3 r,,::i,
4 Cf!~~ 9. ;,r,:i,
T : IT
14 ~n'Dtp;:r
5 '!'.''~;:! IO. 15 C'j?~~
Exercise 16 I 191
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. I planted 5 she cast out 9. you (ms) saved
2. he snatched 6. she inquired IO. she announced
3 he struck 7. they cast out I I. you (ms) killed
4 they struck 8. they cried out 12. you (fs) drank
c. Translate the following into English:
(Isa 4 3: 12) 'nllQiDi11 '-nll'iPii11 n-1.Ji1 :Sj~ r.
(Josh l 2: I) '?~"'Jtli'-',:JJ, l~i1 1i~ r1~;:: ;:)"?Q I ;'i",~1 2.
(Judg 14:6) i1W,? 1\D~ n~ ia~'?1 1;:i~'? 'ni1 ~?1 3.
(Mic 6:8) ~QQ tDJi1 i1li1'-i191 :Jitp-i10 Ct]~ 7I? i'Pi1 4.
(Josh rn: u) 09~iT1D ni';,-rJ oj:;:i~ Di1'?ll T;Vi1 i1li1'.1 5.
~1i1 1nw~ ;:, ., r;,13;'i-~? i19'?. '? i:,~.;, n~:r-i1a 6.
(Gen 12:18)
(Num 17:6) i1.Ji1' ci;rn~ onai1 cin~ 7.
(Num 14:3) 'n~ti} y1~;:r-'?~ lJ~~ ~::io i11i1'' i19/i 8.
(Isa 4 3 : 3 ) 1P'iDiD ?~ltv'"'}p 1'H?~ i1Ji' '- J~ 9.
(Deut 7:8) i1j?,!TJ i,::i ci;in~ i1,Ji1 ~-~ii1 IO.
(Exod I 2:29) 0'1~D r1~:i 'ii~Y?'.? i1;?i1 ';-;1;'i''1 r I.
o;i10~ ci;ill1rn~1 o;:,n~ -r.ri:i-n~ opa .:::-; :~; 1 2.
(Gen 9:9)
i1J3Y C'il?~i) 1\P~ i1~1~-";,~ 'n1~1 1\Q~ 1:;:i1:-r ~1;:i I 3.
(Gen 41:28) :i:iY1~-n~ i1~i:-r
-";,.!) 1w~ 1w~-.,'.? 1-;~1 5'.:J nbpii 1y:;~ 'n1:ii}-ni~ ri~I 14.
(Gen 9:17) y1~i7
T'?iai1 C''J~D r1~0 lJ[l~ i1;,!JOiJ i11i1' i1J~ na~ ~'?i I 5.
(Jer 2:6) i~iQ;l l:J~~
192 I Lesson XVI
d. Read 1 Kgs 8: 12-21 out loud and translate the passage with
the help of a dictionary and these notes.
V l 2: 1~tD'? tO dwell
v 1 3: 'n',:i;i i1~~ I have indeed built; :1r;i:;i7 for you to dwell
v 14: ::i.9~J then (subject) turned around; ll~~J and blessed;
'?;:rp-'?:;,1 while all the assembly of (the 1here introduces a
circumstantial clause; thus it should not be translated simply
as "and")
v 1 5: i9~;J and he said
v 16: nip'? to build; ni:;i'? for (subject) to be; if-9~1 and I chose;
ni:i1? to be
V l 7: 'i"n now it was; nip', to build
v 18: i9~~J and (subject) said
v 19: i1pti ~7 you will not build; -c~ '? but rather; i1}:;i' will
v 20: cp;J and (subject) established; t:lj2~1 I have risen; ::J.W.~1 and
I have sat; i1}~~1 and I have built
v 21: o~1 and I have set; i~'~ii1~ when he brought out.
Lesson XVII
I. The Perfect with Object Suffixes
In addition to the marker of the definite direct object with the
pronominal suffix (IX.4), an object pronoun may be indicated
by an object suffix appended directly to the verb. These are
merely alternate ways of indicating an object; no difference in
meaning may be discerned between the two. Thus 9J;IN 'l:,N*ii1
and 9'DN~ii1 both mean "I brought you out"; the 2 ms suffix 9-
simply takes the place of 91:,N.
As with the addition of the possessive suffix to a noun (XII.2),
certain changes are to be expected in the verb forms with object
a. Afformatives
i. The 3 fs ending is n_ -/ nT - instead of i1T-.
Without object suffix With object suffix
;,,,, she bore
9J;11?; she bore you
i1t,pp:;i she sought CJJWP:;J she sought them
ii. The 2 ms ending is simply r-i-.
Without object suffix With object suffix
r-i,::i::, you honored
T :- . 'ml~~ you honored me
,. : - . you honored ir-i1;::, you honored him
r-i,::i::, you honored
T : -
cr-i,::i::, you honored them
T :-
194 I Lesson XVII
iii. The 2 fs ending 'T:1-
Without ob;ect suffix With ob;ect suffix
T;llJ~ you gave ":til'J:lm you gave him
ex. The 'T:1- afformative is similar to the less common variant
of the 2 fs independent pronoun (IX.1.a.iii) and the 2 fs
perfect without object suffix (XIII.1.Note i). In the form be-
fore the object suffix, however, the 'J:l- form is normative.
13. The afformative is frequently spelled defectively, e.g., '~5'7P'1
(you deceived me).
-y. Obviously, the afformative is easily confused with the r cs.
One can tell only from context which is intended.
iv. The 2 mp afformative is ':IT-I-, which is usually spelled defec-
tively as {'-.
Without object suffix With object suffix
C.t)'7~iJ you brought up ':tl{l'7,v you brought us up
b. Before the afformatives
Since the addition of a suffix often causes the accent to advance,
the verb forms may be different from those without object suffixes.
The following rules account for most forms.
i. There is no change in a syllable if it is unchangeably long
(i.e., has a mater), is closed, or has compensatory lengthening.
Without object suffix With object suffix
'N'Wiil I saved 9'~~tpiil I saved you
'J:1~1~ I blessed 9'T:1~1~ I blessed you
Perfect with Object Suffixes I I 9 5
ii. Apart from rule i, a long vowel in an open syllable is
reduced to sewif>.
Without object suffix With object suffix
'r-tYi' I knew
: -T
9'~~1~ I knew you
11~ he blessed i::>i::J
he blessed him
iii. A long vowel becomes a short vowel if the syllable is closed
and unstressed.
Without obiect suffix With obiect suffix
now he destroyed 9?;ltjlP he destroyed you
11~ he blessed 9~1~ he blessed you
iv. The vocal sewa:> in the Qal perfect 3 fs and 3 cp is restored
to a full vowel.
Without object suffix With object suffix
T : IT
she devoured ~i1n?:JN
: - T -:
she devoured him
' ~y1,~ they knew C~YT they knew them
v. A short vowel is lengthened, if the syllable becomes open.
Without object suffix With object suffix
he knew him
Note: In the Piel, however, a short a-vowel in forms like i~7 is
reduced: ii7P7 (he taught him).
196 I Lesson XV II
c. The forms of the perfect before the addition of the object
suffixes, then, are as follows:
Qal Piel Hip hi/
3 ms -1,9p -1,9p _1,,~j?iJ
3 fs -n79p -n?tpj? -!17'~i?iJ
2 ms -f.17~p -f.17t,pj? -f.17~p;:i
2 fs -'~7~P - '~7t,pj? -'~7~i?iJ
I CS -'~7~i? - '~7t,pj? -'~7~i?iJ
3 cp -~59p -~79i? -~7'~i?iJ
2 mp -~f.17~p - ~f.17t,pj? -~f.17~i?iJ
2 fp -~f.17~i? - ~f.17t,pj? -~f.17gp;:i
I cp -~l7gp - ~l7t,pj? -~]7gp;:i
1. Apart from the afformatives, the Hiphil forms of the strong
verb are unchanged (according to b.i). On the other hand,
forms like 'l'.IN~D will show reduction of the first vowel, ac-
cording to b.ii: thus, 'l'.IN~D (I brought in) but v'DN~;:'! (I
brought her in). In these cases, the reduced vowel may be ei-
ther-, or . . , (e.g, 9?lP!'.'! I 9~'lPD he restored you).
11. Apart from the afformatives, most forms of the Piel are un-
changed (according to h.i), but the 3 ms thee-vowel reduces
toe (b.ii) or shortens toe (b.iii).
111. Apart from the afformatives, the following changes are evi-
dent in the Qal forms.
ex. The first vowel is reduced (b.ii).
13. The second vowel in the 3 ms is lengthened (b.v).
'Y The second vowel in 3 fs and cp is restored and length-
ened (b.iv, v).
Perfect with Object Suffixes I 1 97
d. The object suffixes used with the perfects come in various
forms, depending on what immediately precedes them (whether
a consonant or a vowel). The attested forms are provided below
for reference, with the upper case letters indicating the subject
and the lower case letters the object. The student should not try
to memorize the entire chart.
a b c d e f g h
3ms 3fs 2ms 2fs ICS 3mp 3fp 2mp rep
A 3 ms i/~i1 T rl T 1: 1.. 'L c T TT
~l T
B 3 fs ~r-lhi1 i1r-lT 9 l. '~ c ~l
c 2 ms i/~i1
rl T 'L c T
~l T
D 2 fs ~i1 i1T '~ c ~l
~ E I CS ihi1 i1T 9 1 c T
F 3 cp ~i1 i1
T 9 1 '~ c ~l
G 2 mp ~i1 '~ ~l
H 2 fp ~i1 '~ ~l
I I cp ~i1 i1T 9 1 c C?,
I. The 3 ms object suffix used with the 3 fs perfect (a-Bon
the grid) is ~i1-, as expected, but also ~r-,. The latter is appar-
ently developed from -athu, i.e., -athu > -attu. The 3 fs ob-
ject suffix used with the 3 fs perfect (b-B on the grid) is
*-atha(h) > -atta(h ).
11. Forms in pause may vary slightly in vocalization
(e.g., r cs,~: instead of'~=; 2 ms 1>
. instead of 9..-).
Study the following examples carefully, referring to the grid
above (e.g., r cs subject+ 3 ms object= E-a in the grid).
198 I Lesson XVII
Form Subject Object Translation
,~ij'ii1 3 ms I CS he brought me out
9~'~ii1 3 ms 2ms he brought you out
T 3 ms I Cp he brought us out
3 ms 3 mp he brought them out
'~ON1ii1 2 ms I CS you brought me out
2 ms I cp you brought us out
inN1ii1 2 ms 3 ms you brought him out
9'5N1ii1 I CS 2 ms I brought you out
I CS 3 fs I brought her out
I CS 3 mp I brought them out
Form Subject Object Translation
3 ms 3 ms he knew him
T T:
3 ms 3 fs he knew her
3 cp 3 mp they knew them
iT-1~17 2 ms 3 ms you knew him
T: -:
2 ms you knew them
9'~~17 I CS 2 ms I knew you
. : -: I CS 3 ms I knew him
T : -;
I CS I knew her
. : -:
C'T-ll.'1' I CS I knew them
I CS I knew them
Perfect with Object Suffixes I 199
Form Subject Object Translation
- T !
3 ms I CS he gave me
mm TT:
3 ms I cp he gave us
~;"l'T:10~ 2 fs 3 ms you gave him
C'T:l?J~ I CS 3 mp I gave them
1'T:l?J~ I CS 2 fs I gave you
,,r:,m I CS 3 ms I gave him
~;"l'T:10~ I CS 3 ms I gave him
Form Subject Object Translation
: - T -:
3 fs 3 ms she devoured him
3 fs 3 mp she devoured them
- T :: .
3 fs 3 mp she brought them up
3 fs 3 ms she bore him
:imnN T-T -:
3 fs 3 fs she seized her
T :: :
2 ms I cp you brought us up
.... ::. 2 mp I Cp you brought us up
2. The Perfect of III-He Verbs with Suffixes
a. Apart from the 3 ms and 3 fs, the perfect of III-He verbs are
regular for their type.
'n'N1 I saw
9'1'.l'~l I saw you
~Nl they saw 9~Nl they saw you
200 I Lesson XV II
b. In the 3 ms perfect of all verbal patterns, the final weak radical
is lost before the object suffix.
he saw ,;,NiT T
he saw him/it
;,,'! he commanded
,;,,'! he commanded him
;'!N1il he showed
T :: ;~iv he showed you
c. The 3 fs perfect is doubly marked for gender in the form of the
verb without object suffix (XIV.3.a.ii). When the verb takes an
object suffix, however, the 3 fs perfect is marked as feminine only
by n.
ill.;!~1 she saw 9?;'2$1 she saw you
ilm'! she commanded
;,my she commanded her
Note: The form ;,z.;,j is derived from iJJ;\~ (see 1.d.Note i).
3. Irregular Vocalization
In a few instances, the Qal perfect of the qatal type has an i (. ),
e (._ ), or e (.,) vowel in the second syllable, instead of a (_ ).
1?' '~~17; you have begotten me
i'~,7~ I have begotten you
. ::
I have begotten him
you possessed them
T: :
you possessed it
;,w1; they possessed you
... : ... : you asked
1'1:171.(tp I asked him
.. :
they asked us
Redundant Object Suffix I 201
4. Redundant Object Suffix
Sometimes an object suffix may be resumptive and need not be
translated in English.
Ot')J?T-~~ iW~ O''JT1~ O'rf'?~ other gods whom you have not
known (lit. "not known them")
(Deut 13:3)
T'l':': right side, right hand
TiW? tongue
il~lf' lip, edge, language
female servant
T ..
nt,::i- T
to trust; Hi.: to make secure
W~? to clothe; also W~? to be clothed
to learn; Pi.: to teach
t,'.z7t Pi.: to save, let (someone) escape
il~ to answer, reply
to hate. Noun: ilNltzl hatred
n~w (also rJ;?W) to forget
202 I Lesson XV II
pin1 far. Verb: i'IJ1 to be far
i'1 thin
11J;I~ together
P? therefore
t,~7? little, few (also as adjective and substantive); t,~7? 1il7
soon; t,~7?:;> almost
1'?,,~ always, constantly
Exercise 17
a. Parse the following forms; e.g., 9'~~1; Qal perf. 1 cs of
l71~ + obj. sfx. 2 ms.
I. 1'J'.i'W 6. Citic
TT :
I I. ir-np1j?
2. in'iw
T : 7. cmiil
12. ~r-,1:;>
3 C'Z:,''_?:;> 8. ilm'.!l
T- 13. ~ilt;,~v~
4 i:iv~ 9. en''?:;>
14. 9'~'P1PiJ
5 c,::)
IO. C~:!l
I 5. C~::lilN
.. -:
b. Write the following in Hebrew, using only the perfect + object
I. I hate him 6. I hated them (mp)
2. he killed me 7. you (ms) have forgotten me
3 I love you (fs) 8. they praised you (ms)
4 he answered them (mp) 9. I killed you (fs)
5 I charged you (ms) IO. you (ms) commanded us
Exercise r 7 I 20 3
c. Translate the following into English:
(Jer 1 8: 1 5) "1J.l.l m:,ib 1.
(]er 9:13) O[li::l~ 01"")D'? 2.
(Ps 2:7) -;rn1', Oi~i1 j~ 3.
(Isa 61: 10) .l)iZ)~-i,::i '-J'tz.i::i',;, 4.
(Prov 3 o: 3) i19:l~ n-1r-'7-~'?'1 5
(]er 50:7) 01'?~~ c;i~~iD-'?:p 6.
(Song 2:4) r:D n;J-'?~ '-j~::i;-; 7.
(Gen 37:20) li1i"1J~~ i1Pl i1,:n 8.
(Ps 22:2) "J[l::lt.!) i19/ ',~, ;~ 9.
(Hos 13:5) 1~iD:;l TrWT ,:i~ 10.
d. Translate the following into English:
(Judg 14:16) "Ji;l::li1~ ~71 '-:('1~JO 1.
(Num 20: 5) C"l~DiJ 'ijr,',,:,0 i19'71 2.
(Deut 2:7 P]i: i1(i:}.l)D '',j::i ~:,-9 ':")"i1'?~ i1~i1 :, 3
o'?~ i1Ji1" :i,,~ iw~:; Cl"t!l~iDiJl bpr1 o:jn~ n,9'? 4.
(Deut 4:5)
(]er 20: 14) p~ :in-i'7--,ili~ 01" 5.
(Jer 7:22) cn,~ ~71 b:,ni~~-n~ rn~,-~'? 6.
(Gen 4 5:9) C:"J~Q-',~', 1i1~'? cii',~ :99 7.
(2 Sam I 9: IO) ,:i:h~ c-i;,o I ,:;~i1 1'?6i1 8.
i1~i1~ -iw~ i1;iiJ~Q i1~:it; -,~~ ,i1~J~i1 ;,7;,; ;: 9.
(2 Sam 13:15)
204 I Lesson XVII
'?,~~ .,,~o ';rri'?~ii ;:,j~1 '?~1~-1;,.p '1'?9'? ~rrir:rtP9 ~j~ 10.
(2 Sam 12:7)
(Jer 3 5: 1 5) ' .?~ t:l[.ll;'O~ ~'?l t:l~~r~-n~ bCJ'~i'.T ~'?l 11.
i1'7~~ t:l'"J:;JliT'?f n~ ~DD~~ ~~ c:i~, ~,ii1 ~1~ ~,ry 12.
(2 Sam 14:19)
;7 iT:lTi19 ,:i~n: ~'? 01~0 r1~0 ~J'?Prr ,w~ iV'~o iiWb I 3.
(Exod 32:1)
n~#O t:l'"J~O fl~O "J'.P~~iiT iW~ "l'IJ'?~ iTJiT~ \;,j~ 14.
(Exod 20: 1)t:l'J:;J~
'?:,, 1i11~-,rp~ '?fo ,-~?l iTJiT' 7.p~ ,w~iTn~ 111 iTW~ 1 5.
(1 'P'
Kgs 1 5: 5) 1'~1J
e. Translate Song 3:1-5 with the help of a dictionary and
these notes.
v 2: i1;=;li0~1 ~~ i191P~ I will arise and roam about;
ii~p:;;i~ I will seek.
v 4: 1J~r,~ ~';, I will not let him go; 'f.lliiT Qal act. ptc. fs of :i1iJ
(to conceive) + 1 cs possessive sfx.
v 5: ,.,, pi:,-c:i~ do no not stir; ,nwr;rc:i~,l and do not rouse;
fffr;Tt;Jip iP- until it please.
Lesson XVIII
1. The Imperfect Inflection
The second full inflection of the finite verb in Hebrew is called
the imperfect. Whereas the gender, number, and person of a verb
in the perfect are indicated by afformatives, in the imperfect they
are indicated by preformatives (elements before the stem), some-
times in combination with afformatives, as follows.
3 ms
, 3 mp '!\---,
3 fs - - -r-1 3 fp ;'IJ---r-1
2 ms - - -r-1 2 mp '!\---r-i
2 fs '---r-1 2 fp ;'IJ---r-i
I CS ---N I cp ---l
1. Whereas no distinction is made in the perfect between mas-
culine and feminine of the third person plural (XII I. r.ii),
gender is clearly distinguished in the imperfect: '!\?t:,j?: ( 3 mp)
versus ;,~76j?r:, (3 fp). . .
11. The 3 mp and 2 mp forms frequently have an additional
Nun at the end, i.e., T'!\- instead of'!\-.
2. The Qal Imperfect
In the Qal perfect we recognized three types: qatal, qatel, qatol.
In the Qal imperfect, only two types are discernible: yiqtol and
yiqtal. Verbs that are dynamic (e.g., i~tp to keep; 1,p~ to fall) gen-
erally belong to the first type, whereas verbs that are stative (e.g.,
1~f to be heavy; 7b~ to be small) belong to the second type.
Thus, we have the following situation.
206 I Lesson XVI I I
Perfect Imperfect
qaJal yiqtol
qatel yiqtal
qatol yiqtal
A rigid classification of the verb types must be avoided, however.
It is true that verbs that have yiqtol imperfects are almost always
dynamic, but verbs with yiqtal imperfects are not limited to sta-
tives. Many dynamic verbs with I I- or Ill-Guttural have imper-
fect of the yiqtal type. A few others with strong radicals also have
the yiqtal pattern.
The inflections of the Qal Imperfect of i~l_p (to keep) and 1~f (to
be heavy) are as follows.
3 ms iblp: 1i:;>:
3 fs iblpr:, 1i:;>T:1
2 ms iblpl:1 1i:;>T:1
2 fs '11?'PT:1 ,,~:m
. .
: :
I CS iblp~ 1~:lN
- : .
3 mp ~,7?'P: ~,f:;,:
3 fp m,6wr-i
T : :
T :- :
2 mp ~,7?'PT:1
2 fp m,6wr-i
T : :
I cp
Qal Imperfect I 207
1. The second vowel is said to be thematic. This vowel is re-
tained when the syllable is stressed; otherwise, it is reduced.
3 mp and 2 mp forms with the additional Nun (see 1. Note
ii above) sometimes retain the thematic vowels as o or a,
e.g., T~Di'7~; T~l.'~lp\
11. When the imperfect of the yiqtol type is linked to the follow-
ing word by the maqqep, the o thematic vowel is shortened
to o (see Excursus B.4).
Dblp~ but cnp-o~lp~ (yispof-sam)
111. Occasionally the forms with final il~- (i.e., 2 fp or 3 fp) may
be spelled without the final il-.
,.'flp~7r:, for regular il~lp~7r:,
3. The Uses of the Imperfect
As we have learned in Lesson XIII, Hebrew verbs by themselves
do not indicate tense. Rather, they indicate how a situation is
viewed by the speaker I writer. In the perfect, the speaker I writer is
an outsider considering the situation as a whole, with the begin-
ning and the end both in view. In the imperfect, the speaker I
writer views a situation from the inside, making explicit reference
to the internal temporal structure of the situation, without ex-
plicit reference to the beginning or the end.
a. In most instances, the imperfect in isolation may simply be ren-
dered by the English future.
'JO~ 1'?9' 1il,:tr~ Adonijah will be king after me
(r Kgs 1:24)
b. The imperfect may have reference to a habit or custom. If the
context suggests a custom or habit in the past, one translates
with English "used to ... " or "would."
:J~~n ii?'D:;i, and it (the ewe) used to lie in his
bosom (2 Sam 12: 3)
208 I Lesson XV I I I
Cl';iDb;:-1 1"')Q~' j;J-'?.!J therefore, the bards used to say
(Num 21:27)
r1.!JT1:JE:l~' cia:;m wise men store up knowledge
(Prov 10:14)
c. The imperfect is frequently rendered by the English modal
(may, should, could, would, etc.).
I , .!JDiD~ iiD~ ';ii;i 'Q
r . , ... -, ,
Who is YHWH that I should heed
his voice? (Exod 5:2)
lest he should stretch forth his hand
(Gen 3:22)
Note: After the particle Cj~ (not yet, before), or the preposition
,~ (until), the imperfect is usually rendered by the English past or
present perfect.
11:;i'.?iD' Cli~ before they lay down (Josh 2:8)
':JJ ;i'.?ti:i ''?1r-132 until Shelah my son has grown up
(Gen 38:11)
4. Expressions of Will
Corresponding in some ways to the modal use, the imperfect
may also be used to express the speaker's will to have a situation
a. The first person forms used in this way are called cohortatives.
The cohortative is usually marked by a final i1T -. The addition of
this final element to an imperfect base form ordinarily causes the
accent to advance and the thematic vowel to reduce.
1~i~J ;-JJ::l.!J~ let me pass through your land
(Num 21:22)
r,p ;i;:,i::i:i let us make a covenant (Gen 31:44)
Note: This final i1T - sometimes appears with various forms of the
imperfect, without any particular significance.
Expressions of Will I 209
b. The third person forms used in this way are called jussives.
For most roots there is no distinction between the jussives and
the corresponding imperfect forms.
tr::r, '_J':J T1_JiP ~$~' May YHWH judge between you and
me! (Gen 16:5)
T1?~-iQiD'1 ci:,n-a
: ,.; T : 1T T "
whoever is wise, let him observe these
things (Ps 107:4 3)
c. Since the second person verb is addressed directly to the subject
of the verb, it may function as a command: thus, "may you hear"
= "you shall hear!"
:ii,9itin you shall hear! (Isa 18: 3)
19itin 'r1'i:J-n~ T1f;1~1 As for you, you shall keep my
covenant! (Gen 17:9)
5. Negation of Imperfects, Jussives,
and Cohortatives
a. Like the perfect, the imperfect is negated by N7.
T1l'i;l b:,',~ l'9iD'-~71 But Pharaoh will not listen to you
(Exod 7:4)
b. The negative particle N7 may be used with the second person
imperfect for general prohibition. This construction should be
translated in English as "you shall not .... "
n~ill ~?, You shall not murder! (Exod 20:13)
c. The negative particle 7~ is used with the second person imper-
fect in negative commands. This construction is used to forbid or
prevent a specific action. It should be translated in English as
"Do not .... "
',~lil.l' notz.,n-',~ Do not rejoice, 0 Israel! (Hos 9: 1)
210 I Lesson XVIII
The cohortatives and jussives are also negated by the negative
particle 7~.
;:n"?ibQ'-"?~ Do not let them dominate me!
(Ps 19:14)
6. The Nl Particle
With commands and various expressions of will, a N~ particle
is frequently found. It is common to take this as a particle of en-
treaty or exhortation, which is interpreted to have the force of
"I (we) pray" or "please!" In many instances, however, the parti-
cle clearly has nothing to do with entreaties or exhortation. The
significance of the N~ particle is, in fact, not entirely clear and it
is best to leave it untranslated.
Note: With negative commands, the N~ particle usually comes im-
mediately after the negative particle 7~.
il'i:J~j ~T'?~ Do not let us perish! (Jonah 1:14)
n1cF? the morrow; the next day; time to come. io~
morrow; time to come (also as an adverb: tomorrow)
c; (fs.) bone, substance, self. Adjective: C~l mighty,
:J1 evening
to swallow
- T
to burn, consume
to redeem
v~! to cry out
Vocabulary I 2II
iii' TT
to throw; Hi.: to confess, give thanks. Noun: i1iTi.r-t
1Pf to cover; Pi.: to cover, atone. Nouns: 1t?:P atonement
ij?~ to visit, appoint, inspect
f;lj? to gather
1;1j? to bury. Noun: i;;i~ grave
1~j? Pi.; Hi.: to burn incense. Noun: n16i? incense
~11 to pursue, follow
n~tp (also l}~lp) to rejoice, be happy. Noun: i1l.;.17?lP joy
~1lf to burn. Noun: ~1lf Saraph (a winged-cobra)
1Plp to pour out
T~~7 in order that, so that
-7~ lest
cw not yet, before (also 01~:jl)
Exercise 18
a. Parse the following forms:
I. :2.f:l:,N
: .
6. ~:JT;i:;>T:l I I. ~"'P1?:
2. ',~tp'.' 7. ~:J:::ltl)'
: : . !2. m1113w.r-i
T: - :
3 11J~'.' 8. ''1:PTT:l 13. 'l'.lt?~T:l
4. ni:,J
: . 9 ~n,:,.r-i
:: . 14 i1M::JTN
T:: ""
5 MW7?'.' IO. Wii~ 15 mn5w.r-i
T: - :
212 I Lesson XVIII
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. you (fs) will keep 6. let me send
2. you (ms) ask 7. let him remember
3 let him govern 8. I will not listen to them (mp)
4 I will lie down 9. Do not stretch out your (ms) hand
5. let us sacrifice IO. you (ms) shall not sacrifice
c. Translate the following into English:
(Ps r 5: r) 1\ti.ij? ijJ:l f)~,'-9 r.
(Ps r r r: 5) it:"l'i:l t:l'.7i.l)', i=?r' 2.
(Ps r 04: 3 4) i1,1il':;l n9tv~ :!)j~ 3.
(Gen 3o: r 5 ) il?'?iJ '19.l) ::l~~ 4
(Neh 6: rr) n"'J::l' ':JiQ:;, iD'~iJ 5.
(Prov 8:15) :ij'?Q' t:l';>?O '~, 6.
(Gen 24:7) 'i:,?;l:'?O n?~' 7.
(Deut r:22) 'cltv~~ il!:r'?iDJ 8.
(Isa 6:8) n'.?ib~ p-n~ 9.
(Obad r3) il~n;~n-',~1 ro.
(Ps 18:38) :;ii~, =iili~ 11.
(2 Chron 2: r 5) t:l'~l.' n'1:,:i 12.
d. Translate the following into English:
(1 Sam 2 3: 17) '?~"')tv-', ~ l?Qr, 'm:i~i r.
(Ps rr6:17) i1Jin n;i,t n:;ir~~1'.? 2.
(Isa 5 5: 3 ) c'7i.l) n-:-,:i 'cl:,7 il!:)i:i~, 3.
Exercise r8 I 213
(Deut 33:19) p1~-r.r:::ir 117::w CJW 4.
( 2 Chron 20: 1 2) ot~;itpn ~?iJ '1iii'?~ 5.
(Isa 30:21) 'llliJ i1J 1~~~ 1''}0~9 1~1 i1~J?9tpn '1'~\~1 6.
(Judg 14:15) tv!9 T;~ n;:rn~i lDi~ =,1tqn~ 7.
i'?~~ .t,9tp~ 1~~ 'i1Ji1' p
(Exod 5:2) 8.
CJ?~ '?~o i1,li1' o;,~ ',J:l '?~a-~71 o::,~ 'J~ '?~9~-~'? 9.
(Judg 8:23)
(Jer 3I: 3 3) ',~1~ n::i-n~ h1,~ 1W~ rJ''l::)iJ n~r '? IO.
e. Translate Deut 13:1-6 with the help of a dictionary and these
v 1: ni(?J.P? to do; =,9h-~'? you shall not add.
v 2: 01p: Qal impf. 3 ms of C~j?; 1!J~1 and he gives.
v 3: ~~l and (subject) comes (i.e., comes to pass); i1~'?~. Qal coh.
1 cp of 1?iJ; CJ"P.;.1.~1 and let us serve them.
v 4: n.1'? to know; o;::itvD = ;:i + c~tp7..
v 5: 1,;ri Qal impf. 2 mp of 1?iJ; l~Tn Qal impf. 2 mp of N1~;
n~.r:, Qal impf. 2mp of 1~.
v 6: n91
shall be put to death; '1t!'"JiJ'? to divert you; r1=?;7 to
walk; r;n.1J;:n so you shall purge.
Lesson XIX
1. The Qal Imperfect of I-Guttural Verbs
a. As in the strong verb, there are verbs with the o thematic vowel
(i.e., yiqtol type) and those with a (i.e., yiqtal type): ib~~ (he will
stand); i'In~ (he will be strong).
b. Since gutturals generally prefer the composite sewi{J (I V.2.a.ii)
instead of the simple silent , under the first radical, one finds -, for
verbs with the thematic vowel o and ..., for verbs with the the-
matic vowel a: ib~~ (he will stand); i'In~ (he will be strong). Not
infrequently, however, the simple silent, may be retained; e.g.,
1tvr;i~ (he will refrain); C~r;t~ (he will be wise).
c. 1-=>Alep verbs behave normally, except for the following: ,~1$
(to say),?;>!$ (to eat), 1~1$ (to perish), :,~!$ (to bake), :i;I$ (to be
willing). For these verbs, the vowel in the preformative is always
o, and the N quiesces.
d. The inflections of the Qal imperfect of 1~ (to stand), i'!IJ (to
be strong), and?;>!$ (to eat) are as follows.
3 ms ib~~ i'!t:J; ?;>N;
3 fs ib~I.:J vm~ ?;>Ni=l
2 ms ,b~e vm~ ?;>Ni=l
2 fs '17?~1.:J 'i?Tt:J~ '7:;>Ni=l
I CS 1b~ vm~ ?;>N
3 mp ,,7?~~ ~i'Tt:J~ ~?:;>N;
3 fp :,Jifa.,r-,
T : -: - :i~i?m~ :,J?5Ni=l
2 mp ~,7?~1.:J 'i'Tt:J~ ,?:;>Ni=l
2 fp :,Ji61,r-,
T : -: - :,~i?!O~ ilJ?5Ni=l
T: -
I cp i'Im
Qal Imperfect of I-Guttural Verbs I 215
1. When a composite sewii:i precedes a simple vocal sewii~ the
former becomes a full short vowel and the latter becomes
*'17?~?.:l > '17?~?.:l *'i?H:1~ > 'i?F)~
*:ii7?~~ > :i,7t~~ *~Pm~ > ~Pm~
*:ii7t~?.:l > ~,7?~?.:l *~Pm~> ~Pm~
11. 1-:,Alep verbs of the ?;,1$ type frequently have e instead of a as
the thematic vowel: '7;;,N;, '7;;,Ni=I, etc.
u1. The r cs of 1-:>Alep verbs of the ?;,1$ type show the develop-
ment *?;;,NN > ?;,N - that is, the N of the preformative and
the first radical have merged. The r cs imperfect should not
be confused with the Qal active participle (ms).
?;,N I will eat ?;;,N (one) eating
2. The Qal Imperfect of 111-:>Alep Verbs
The inflection of the Qal imperfect of N~ (to find) is as follows.
3 ms N:!lO'
T :
3 mp :tN7?~
3 fs N:!lOJ:I
T :
3 fp i1JN:!lOJ:I
T ..
2 ms N:!lOJ:I
T :
2 mp :tN7?f:l
2 fs '~7?1:1 2 fp i1lN:!lOJ:1
T ... : .
T : .
I cp N:!lOJ
T :
1. Since the N quiesces when it closes a syllable, the preceding
vowel is lengthened: *Ni7?: > N7?:.
11.The 3 fp/2 fp form is i1~Nj7?T:l not *i1~N7?T:l, as one might
216 I Lesson XIX
3. The Qal Imperfect of III-He Verbs
The inflections of :'l7.:l
(to uncover) and :,,:,
(to be) are as follows.
3 ms :,7:,.' :,,:,,
... : . :;.
3 fs :,7:,.r-,
... : . :,~;;ir:,
2 ms :i7.1r:i :,~;;ir:,
2 fs '71?:i ':;;ir:i
I CS :'l7lN
.: . :'l':'lN
: : ...
3 mp ~,r ~';;i:
3 fp :'l)'5lr-i
T ',':.
T ::
2 mp ~,1r:, ~';;tr:i
2 fp :il'5lr-i
T .:. :'ll":'lr-1
T '.":
I cp :'l7ll
.:. :i~m
4. The Qal Imperfect of I-Nun Verbs
a. The Nun is typically assimilated into the following radical
(IV.2.b): 7b: (*yinp6l > yipp6l) he will fall; l.'~: (*yinsac > yissac)
he will set out. With roots that are both I-Nun and II-Guttural,
however, the Nun radical is retained, e.g., 71Jr (he will inherit).
b. The verbTl'.n (to give) has e as the thematic vowel, instead of 6
or a, e.g.,rn: (he will give).
c. The inflections of the Qal imperfect of 7;)~ (to fall), 71j~ (to in-
herit), .Yg~ (to set out), and ll'.n (to give) are as follows.
Qal Imperfect of I-Nun Verbs I 217
3 ms 79: ?tit rn:
3 fs 791:' ?tt~r:i l'~r:, rnr:i
2 ms 791:' ,mr:i l'~r:, rnr:i
2 fs '7~r:i '7tpr:i ,~~r:, '~T;ll:'
I CS 79~ ?nlN
- : . l't:>N
- . rn~
3 mp ~,~: ~'t!t ~l'~: ~JT;l:
3 fp ill79J'!i
T: - :
T: -
2 mp ~,~r:, ~l'~r:, ~JT;ll:'
2 fp ill79J'!i
T: -
T '
I cp 79~
d. The verb nj27 (to take) behaves like a I-Nun verb in the Qal im-
perfect. Thus, it is inflected like l'~~, with the assimilation of 7
(as if it were Nun): njr:, njrr:,, etc.
Note: The strong dages representing the assimilated Nun often
disappears when a sewa:> stands under the consonant (VI.7):
thus, ~l'~: > ~l'I?:; mjt > ~"i?:, and so forth.
5. The Qal Imperfect of 1-Waw Verbs
a. Three important features characterize the Qal imperfect of
most I-Waw verbs.
i. The absence of the first radical.
ii. The vowel of the preformative is e.
iii. The thematic vowel is ordinarily e, except in the 3 fp/ 2 fp
form, which has a. III-Guttural verbs also have a as the the-
matic vowel.
218 I Lesson XIX
b. The imperfect forms of :JV?: (to sit, dwell) and l.'1: (to know)
are as follows.
3 ms
3 fs :iwe
2 ms :iwe
2 fs . : .r:,...
':Jtl) 'l.'1.r:I
3 mp ~:Jtl)'
3 fp :il:JlV.r:I
T: -
T: -
2 mp ~l.'1.r:t
2 fp :il:JlV.r:t
T: -
T: -
I cp
c. The verb 11iJ (to walk, go) behaves like an original 1-Waw verb
in the Qal and Hiphil (see also XVI.8.b). The Qal imperfect of
11iJ, therefore, is inflected like :JV?: (thus, 1?\ 1?e, etc.). Imper-
fect forms of 11iJ that do not behave like 1-Waw verbs are also
attested (e.g., ":j7'q~, 'i'D~), but they are relatively uncommon.
d. A small group of original I-Waw verbs may retain the first rad-
ical, but as', not, - that is, they behave like I-Yog verbs (see sec-
tion 6 below). The most important examples of these are the
verbs w1: (to possess) and N'J.: (to fear, be afraid).
e. 1-Waw verbs that behave like I-Nun (see XVI.8.c) are sporadi-
cally attested, e.g., rr~: (perfect), but n~~ (imperfect).
Qal Imperfect of I-Yo4 Verbs I 219
6. The Qal Imperfect of 1-Yog Verbs
a. Original 1-Yog verbs are treated like any strong verb with the
yiqtal imperfect, except that the silent sewa::, under the first radi-
cal is lost: thus, *:Jt27~ > :Jt2"~ (see Vl.3.a).
b. The inflection of the Qal imperfect of :Jf2~ (to go well) is as
3 ms :Jf2"~ 3 mp '!!:Jt,'"~
3 fs :Jf2"?:I 3 fp i1l:J6"T-l
T : -
2 ms :Jf2"?:I 2 mp '!!:Jtp"l:I
2 fs ":;ltp'l:I 2 fp ill:Jt,'T-1
T : -
I CS :2?2"~ I cp :2?2'~
Note: Occasionally the imperfects of this type (including the few
1-Waw verbs that behave like 1-Yog) are spelled defectively. When
they are so written, the mefeg is usually added to the vowel of
the preformative to indicate that it is long, e.g., tV1;. (for tu1'~). The
defective form '!!Ni;. (Qal impf. 3 mp of Nj_~) may be confused with
'!!NT (Qal impf. 3 mp of ill$1), except that the mefeg in the former
indicates that it is defective for '!!Ni'~.
7. The Qal Imperfect of 11-Waw/Yog Verbs
a. The vowel of the preformative in the Qal imperfect of I 1-Waw I
Yog verbs is normally ii, which is reduced when it is propretonic.
Less commonly it is e instead of a (e.g., tui:i~ he will be ashamed).
b. The inflections of the Qal imperfect of C'!!j:' (to arise), C'lP (to
place), and Ni::! (to come) are as follows.
Vocabulary I 221
l'J grace, favor. Verb: HIJ to be gracious, favor
i1 counsel, plan, advice. Verb: nn to advise
..... rod, tribe
,~w gate
,~~ to perish
- T
to seize
T~~ to confirm, support; Hi.: to believe, trust. Noun: il~~l'.l~
1Q~ to bind. Noun: 1'1;)~, 1'~lt prisoner
',10 to cease, stop (doing something)
v?IJ to divide, apportion. Noun: p~f.i portion, lot
f P.IJ to delight, desire. Noun: f desire, pleasure
:rwo to think, reckon. Noun: il~lpt!~ (cs. n~wO~) thought
',!): to be able (to do something), prevail
lV~ to possess, dispossess
O~l to flee
YQ~ to set out, travel, depart
:J1R to approach, draw near. Adjective: :Ji1R near
r~, to run
- T
to remain, be left over
C?lp to be whole, healthy, complete, at peace; Pi.: to make
whole, make amends, recompense
222 I Lesson XIX
Exercise 19
a. Parse the following forms:
I. TIJN; 9 ji?D,~ 17. ?':fnJ
- :
2. nre~ IO. ~:ll~r;i~ 18. 1~:::itvq~
3 il:JNt-1
... I I. ~'IV1': 19. .: .
4. ?1r;i~ !2. ~v?r:ilj 20. ili~ON
5. ibz:t~ 13. ~l79: 21. ~?~:
6. ',~~N 14 Ni:J)T 22. ilO~)N
. : ,..
7. ':J'IVT-1 I .: .
5 'N1'T-I 23. il)'N1:JT-I:
T "."
8. l71~ 16. i1:,?)
T :r 24. ~"i?:
b. Write the following in Hebrew:
I. we will build 9. you (mp) will possess
2. let us run IO. they (mp) will be
3. we will be able I I. they (mp) will flee
4. we will possess !2. they (fp) will say
5. I will say 13 you (fs) will be able
6. I will give 14. they (mp) will stand
7. I will go 15. they (fp) will stand
8. I will take 16. he will be willing
c. Translate the following into English:
(Jer I 8: I 8) ~;i~D i;i11 t:J~!)9 'ii.iJl Jf.rjo iilirl j~~r,-~1:, I.
(Gen 34:21) t:JV'? m:i :itr,j:n,~1 t:l'tvh :i:itnr-:i 't:Jt:ij~n,~ 2.
(Ps 5 6: 12) '; t:l'J~ ii~ ~~-iiO ~T~ ~'? nr;r~:;i, t:l']'i1?~# 3.
(Jer 8:4) :n~: ~'?1 :n~:-t:l~ :ia:ii?: ~'?l :i7~'D 4.
Exercise 19 I 223
(Gen 4 3: 8) mo~ ~'?1 'il:r;q1 il:;,?~1 iT~1j? ~1 5.
tl'tz7~ '?~itz7' 't!l:Jtv '',:,o ',r,-,n:i itv~ tl?tD1i':J1 iT~iT n':i:i
I T T : J.. : . ! - T <'." -; - T ' : - " - -
(2 Kgs 2 1 : 7) Clji.!J'? 'PiZ;-r,~
:qo~ CJW 1~.VD btl?~' iW~ Dip9:;i:i '?~l~' '}:;i 1119' 1~-,10~, 7.
(Num 9:17) '?~l~' ',P
'.ihi' ';, ltiTtzJ,t.,~ '"J9~ti-itp~ '?:;, ,~-r;i-'?~ 'n:i iT~.tJ1 8.
(Ruth 3: II) n~ '?'!J nip~ ;, '$.tJ i.tJW-'??
:Cl'(i'?~7 ;~-iT:~ri iT!:J~l il$'? :1~-iT'.iT,' '~1iT 9.
:nt:,~;:i-n~ ;~-iTtpP.D iW~ ';'n::;i nj?-n ilji:I iT~OiTn~,
(Exod 4:16-17)
~'?1 brj'? '?~~-~'?l 19.!J ~:;i~ ~'? 1D'::l '~o-n~ ,1,-ir.,r:,-CJ~ 10.
-,b~'? 'il1iT' i~i:i 'Ii~ iTJ~ 1 p-,;:, :iTJiJ tlip9:;i tl'rtmitv~
:t;'.?'.?iJ iW~ T1:P :i:iibv ~'?1 CJ'9-ilri~ri ~'?, t:Jri;. '?~~t:,-~'?
(1 Kgs 13:8-9)
d. Translate Exod 3:1-14 with the help of a dictionary and these
V I: )m~) and he drove; ~:,l~) and he came.
v 2: ~T.f (subject) appeared; ~i~) and he saw;'?:;?~ consumed.
v 3: i9~~'] (subject) said; ~Tilli;?~ let me turn aside.
v 4: ~T'J (subject) saw; ni~i'? to see; ~lP~'J and (subject) called;
iO~~'] and he said.
v 5: '? remove.
v 6: if.10~'] (subject) hid; t!l';JiJO to look (lit. of looking).
v 7: 'r1'~l iT~l I have indeed seen.
224 I Lesson XIX
v 8: i'i~1 I have descended; i~~iJ', to rescue them; 'iri'?~iJ7'.l,
and to bring them up.
v 10: ':107~~, il~'? come, let me send you; ~~ii11 bring out.
v II: ~~;~ I should bring out.
V I 2: :1~n~ii1~ when you bring OUt.
v 13: 'fl"l0~1 and I will say; n9~1 and they will say.
Lesson XX
I. The Preterite
We have learned so far (XIII.3) that a situation viewed by an out-
sider as a complete whole is generally expressed by verbs in the af-
formative inflection (qata/). On the other hand, a situation that is
viewed as if "from the inside" (XVIII.3) is expressed by the pre-
formative inflection (yiqto/). 1 We have seen, therefore, that situa-
tions that are perceived to be complete tend to be described by
verbs in the perfect. This is only partially correct, however. In fact,
the yiqtol form has two different origins: *yaqtulu for the imper-
fect and *yaqtul for the preterite (referring to past situations). But
early in the evolution of the Hebrew language, final short vowels
disappeared and so the imperfect form (*yaqtulu > *yaqtul) be-
came identical to the preterite (*yaqfu/). In time, *yaqtul (i.e., ei-
ther imperfect or preterite) developed to yiqtol. Thus, the yiqtol
form may be imperfect or preterite. In its latter function, of
course, there is some overlap with the perfect.
The preterite use of the yiqtol form is clearly evident in the fol-
lowing situations.
a. In poetic, and especially archaic, texts.
P!n' Cl'p,P :i.;,o~ the peoples heard, they trembled
(Exod 15:14)
Note: Here the preterite meaning of the yiqtol form q:i!r1') is evi-
dent in its close association with a qatal form.
b. After the adverb TN (then, at that time).
ii,p'? l'\i)~D i~ at that time, Libnah revolted (2 Kgs 8:22)
c. In the wayyiqtol form (see below).
'1~~iTn~ ;m'1 and he drove the flock (Exod 3: I)
1. For simplicity's sake, we refer to the afformative inflections in general as qii(al and
the preformative inflections as yiq(ol, but one must remember that there are variations for
different verb types and verbal patterns.
226 I Lesson XX
2. Discourse on Past Situations
Even though Hebrew verbs do not by themselves indicate tense,
they may be found in certain constructions to refer to specific sit-
uations in the past or the future.
a. In the narration of past situations, the sequence qatal + wayyiq-
tol is used. Since the wayyiqtol form follows the perfect in this
sequence and refers to a past situation, it is sometimes said to be
"converted" (i.e., by the perfect). Hence, the wayyiqtol form
is called the wtiw-conversive or wiiw-consecutive, although the
form is really from an original *yaqtul (i.e., the preterite) and has
not been "converted."
nJp-n~ i'.?1?) 17iJ rT~~l Nobah went and captured Kenath
(Num 32:42)
The meaning of the wayyiqtol verb is not necessarily tied to such
a sequence, however. Even when it does not follow a qtital form,
the wayyiqtol must be interpreted as referring to a past situation.
i1~b-";,~ ~"Jp~) (YHWH) called to Moses (Lev 1:1)
b. The , used with the consecutive form appears as follows.
i. It is normally 1 (wa-) + doubling of the next consonant: N1i?~1
and he called.
ii. If the next consonant has a sewti~ it is 1 without doubling
(see VI.7): i;n71 and he spoke.
iii. If the preformative of the verb is N, it is l without doubling:
,:iki and I ate.
The wayyiqtol form should not be confused with the simple con-
junction + imperfect (i.e., weyiqto/). Compare the following.
wiiw-consecutive: l'~lp~1 and he heard
simple wiiw: l'~lp~1 and he will hear
Discourse on Past Situations I 22 7
Note: The -1 became a convenient way to distinguish the preterite
from the imperfect. It should not, therefore, be translated slavishly
as "and"; sometimes it is best to leave it untranslated.
3. Discourse on Future Situations
a. Since the qatal + wayyiqtol sequence is used in the narration of
past situations, the yiqtol + weqatal sequence may be perceived to
be its logical opposite. Thus, in contrast to the wayyiqtol form
(which overlaps in function with the perfect), the weqatal form in
a yiqtol + weqatal sequence is understood to refer to an imperfec-
tive situation.
,pip rrq 'nryi ,~~~ I will go forth, and I will be
a lying spirit ( I Kgs 22:22)
Note: In the 2 ms and 1 cs of the weqatal form, the accent is usu-
ally on the ultima, rather than the preceding syllable. Compare:
Simple perfect Consecutive perfect
'~~?iJl and I will go
1.;):??iJl and you went ~~?iJl and you will go
b. A weqatal form following a participle may refer to something
that is not yet complete.
11~iT?;, I ClW 71-~~~ '10:i., ')Ji1 I will stand before you on the
rock at Horeb and you shall
CJ'9 1Jpa 1~~:1 ,1~~ i:1'?i11 :nn:i strike the rock, and water
shall flow from it (Exod 17:6)
4. The Waw-Consecutive Forms
The Waw-consecutive forms of the prefixed verbal forms are easy
to recognize because they are always preceded by wa- (plus
dages) or wa- (see 2.b above), as opposed to we-. For most verbs,
228 I Lesson XX
there is no distinction in form between the imperfect and the
Waw-consecutive forms.
Imperfect Waw-consecutive
T :
(and) he found
(and) he fell
The following peculiarities should be noted, however.
a. The 1-JAlep verbs ?~l$ (to eat) and ,~l$ (to say) show a retrac-
tion of the accent from the ultima to the penultima in the forms
without endings. This retraction results in a slight change in
vocalization for the verb ,~l$, but not ?~l$
Imperfect Waw-consecutive
i7tNiiJ (and) he said
?~N~J (and) he ate
b. 1-Waw verbs usually show a retraction of the accent in the
forms without endings. This retraction typically results in the
shortening of the final vowel from .. to ., .
Imperfect Waw-consecutive
::JW~ ::2w~1 (and) he dwelled/ sat
17~ ,ifo (and) she bore
Note: The verb 1?iJ (to go) behaves like a I-Waw verb (thus, 1?~J
he went).
c. 11-Waw/Yog verbs without endings generally show a retrac-
tion of the accent and the consequent shortening of u to o and
i toe.
Waw-Consecutive Forms I 229
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
Cj?!1 (and) he arose
: T-
(and) he placed
There is no retraction of accent, however, in the Waw-consecu-
tive form of Ni::J (thus, N:2!1). A few verbs with III-Guttural show
a retraction of accent, but the final vowel is shortened to a, not to
o ore.
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
- T
(and) he rested
(and) he wandered
(and) he turned aside
d. The III-He forms are characterized by three things.
i. Apocope (cutting off) of the final ;, .
ii. After the apocope of;,, a segol is usually inserted to prevent
a consonant cluster at the end of the new form.
iii. The retraction of the accent.
Imperfect Waw-consecutive
,:',t > '~~1 (and) he uncovered
1~: > 1i1 (and) he built
Beyond these basic characteristics, however, the forms of III-He
verbs are quite unpredictable. Even within the same root there
may be differences in vocalization. Some III-He verbs have e (.. )
in the preformative (instead of i) and no segol inserted.
230 I Lesson XX
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
*1~: > 1~~1 (not *'iJ~~1) he wept
: : . *r;np: > J;llp~1 (not *T-IW~1) he drank
III-He verbs that are also I-Guttural generally have pafab instead
of segol inserted, although there is some variation in the vocal-
ization of the preformative (sometimes an i-vowel appears in-
stead of the expected a-vowel).
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
il~~~ *7~~ > 7~!1 (and) he answered
;,tz..,:s.,, *iv~~> tz..,~!1 (and) he made/ did
.-:- *Tt!~ > 71J~1 (and) he camped
The verbs il~;J (to be) and il~IJ (to live) are peculiar in their Waw-
consecutive forms. Because they occur frequently, they should be
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
il~r;t: 'l".1~1 (and) he lived
: : ...
:: T
(and) I was
III-He verbs that are also I-Nun may pose a problem to the be-
ginning student: in addition to the apocope of He, the form may
also lose the dages in the second radical which normally indicates
the assimilated Nun (compare V.1).
Wiiw-Consecutive Forms I 231
Imperfect W aw-consecutive
~-:i~r > :i~r (and) he stretched out
~:i!r > :ir (and) he sprinkled
Finally, it should be noted that the Waw-consecutive form of :11,fl
(to see) is N'1!J. Since this form occurs very frequently, it should
be committe.d to memory. The 3 fs/ 2 ms form, however, is Nj~J.
5. Narrative Contexts
In a discourse, context may be provided in a number of ways.
A past event is typically introduced by 'i'.17J, literally, "and it was/
came to pass." Future events are introduced by :"1~01, literally,
"and it shall be." Further indication of the context usually fol-
lows: a prepositional or adverbial expression giving a specific
time (e.g., after these things), a reference to some event intro-
duced by iw~~ (even as) or':;> (when), or the like. The event that
happened or will happen is then introduced by the conjunction
-1. Literally, the sequence -1 ... 'i'.17J means "(and) it came to
pass ... that;' and the sequence -1 ... :"1~01 means "(and) it shall
be ... that." It is often best, however, to avoid a literal translation.
Study the following examples.
a. Past Events
In the evening, he took Leah
his daughter (Gen 29:23)
On that day, the servants of
Isaac came (Gen 26:32)
At that time, Judah went
down (Gen 38:1)
:.-i9;--n~ '?rn i1'J'?: iW,~~ 'i"n When Rachel bore Joseph,
Jacob said
':ip ~t i9~:J (Gen 30:25)
232 I Lesson XX
'i1r;mm.J j1'?9;:i-'?~ m~;:rJ fr-.J When we came to the lodge, we
opened our saddle bags
(Gen 43:21)
b. Future Events
On that day, I will summon my
servant (Isa 22:20)
-itb~ y-i~ry-'?~ :i~:;ir:,-"? i1:ryi When you enter the land which
-i;n i\l,i~~ cq'? i1,li1' m YHWH will give to you, even
as he has spoken, you shall
n~~D i1Jj.ry-n~ or,-ioili:i keep this service (Exod 12:25)
6. Concomitant Circumstances
Clauses describing circumstances concomitant with the main
event may be introduced by the conjunction-\ in which case the
conjunction may be translated as "while;' "when," or "as."
l::lJ 1'Dt;qp:J::l '")~'.1:;C'? l' ?$"] He fell on the neck of Benja-
min his brother and wept, as
1'"J~l;;C'?.l_) i1;?:;J 1~::i::1:i Benjamin wept on his neck
(Gen 45:14)
The two angels came to Sodom
in the evening, while Lot was
sitting by the gate of Sodom
(Gen 19:1)
ni1-'::l:i I . . . - 'i,iz.i'?~
,--.. 1-. i:'~61 , . . . ~j-1
, ,- Elisha came to Damascus when
Ben-Hadad the king of Aram
i1;h Cl"J~-1'?9 was sick (2 Kgs 8:7)
As noted in IX.5.b, ;-tFl very often introduces the circumstances
of something that is happening.
-";,.l) ip!J i1}i11 iV'~ry-";,~ '~j:J He came to the man while (he
was) standing by the camels
(Gen 24:30)
Vocabulary I 233
:ii:;tif (cs: n~;:F~; with sfx. ir-17?\)f) wild animal, beast, cattle
iii,q (he-)ass
tVl,F;l pasture land
:,R (also ili?) extremity, end
:iw lamb, kid
i'W sack
T~W oil, fat
Yj?:,;i to split
:in to act like a prostitute, be promiscuous. Noun: :,~t pros-
titute, promiscuous woman
:iJIJ to see (a vision). Noun: JiTIJ vision
1WIJ to restrain, withhold
O~i? to reject
Yi~ to touch, strike (object of the verb usually indicated
by f), Idiom:-,~ Yi~ reach. Noun: Yi} plague, stroke
C'!ll to fast. Noun: Oil fast, fasting
1'!1:J~~ for the sake of, on account of
nN1j?7 toward, against
7~~ above
234 I Lesson XX
Exercise 20
a. Parse the following forms.
I. 'Hl:IJ 6. 17.~n I I. W~J 16. :JtrJii
2. :nv. ..11-, 7. l'1~J 12.
:J'll)"1 17. ;:,ki
3. 1?.~J 8. ,~~J 13. -r
18. mi5Nt:l1-
T :-
4. nre~J 9. l1JJ:n 14. N1~J 19. iU'llr-11
T .: -
5 ';:t~J IO. l~~J I 5. w~~J 20. N1'N1T T
b. Write the following in Hebrew, using only consecutive forms.
I. (and) he rejected 9. (and) he saw
2. (and) she touched IO. (and) I took
3. (and) he fasted I I. (and) he died
4. (and) she went 12. (and) she came
5. (and) we came 13. (and) you (ms) said
6. (and) she saw 14. (and) he gave
7. (and) she sat I5. (and) he went up
8. (and) he was afraid 16. (and) he camped
c. Translate Gen 22: r-r 5 with the help of a dictionary and these
v 2: Ktni? take!; ~',-1?1 go! 1i17,.PiJl and offer him up!
v 3: w:JiD~1 (subject) got up early; '}iZi-n~ two of; 'llj?:;1'1 he split.
v 5: w;:,'r1:JiD you stay!; i1.]1Jl:liD,:J1 and we will worship.
v 8: Cl(i'J.iD the two of them.
v ro: l:;)~tzj', to slay.
v r 3: TjJ~J. caught; 1i1;.~~1 and offered it up.
v 14: 19.~' it is said; i1~"")' it will be seen.
Lesson XXI
1. Distinctive Qal Jussive Forms
We have already learned in XVIII+b that there is no difference
between the jussives and the corresponding imperfect forms of
most verbs. For two root types, however, the jussives are clearly
distinguished: III-He and II-Waw/Y6cj.
a. The jussives of III-He verbs are usually identical to the corre-
sponding Waw-consecutive forms without the conjunction (see
Root Imperfect consec. Jussive
il)::J il~;' 7~~1 7~' let him build
i11:il il?~: 1,:1,
.... - 1,~~ let him uncover
il'il il~~: ';:t;1 ';:t; let him be, become
il'n il;.r;t: '1'.1;1 'IJ; let him live
ilin 11]~1 11J: let him be angry
ilt>) il~' ''.
t>~1 t>~ let him stretch
i11:il' il?~~ 1,~~1 1,~~ let him go up
illVY ilo/~~ tz..,~~1 tz..,~~ let him do, make
ilnlll illjlp: 1;llp~1 r;,ip~ let him drink
For the verb i1N1 (to see), however, there is a slight difference in
vocalization between Waw-consecutive and 3 ms jussive forms.
Nl~1 (and) he saw Nl~ let him see
b. The jussives of I I-Waw/Yog verbs are normally distinguished
from the Waw-consecutive forms.
236 I Lesson XX!
Root Imperfect consec. Jussive
n,o mo' T
nb' T
let him die
c,i c,i, T
Ci' T
let him be exalted
:mv :mz,;,T
:JW' T
let him return
?') ?')''T
.. T
let him rejoice
:J'i :J'"'!~ :Ji,
let him quarrel
C'V) C'l[,': cw,
: T-
.. T
let him set
2. The Qal Cohortative of Weak Verbs
The Qal cohortative forms of weak verbs occasion no surprises,
but a few forms are noteworthy.
T: : :
let me stand :"l1~Yl
T: - -
let us stand
let me eat :"l?:>Nl
let us eat
. :. let me see
:"lNiN ... : let us see
1.The cohortatives of I-Guttural verbs like 1~Y are formed ac- - T
cording to rules (see XIX.r.d.i).
T: :: :
> :ii~YN
T: "." ""
let me stand
T: - : -
> :ii~Yl
T; - -
let us stand
11. The 1 cs cohortatives of I-)Alep verbs like ?~1$ are formed ac-
cording to rules (see XIX.r.d.iii).
> :"l?:>N
let me eat
111. Instead of special cohortative forms, III-He verbs use the ap-
propriate imperfect forms; they are without the final :,T -
that marks most cohortatives.
:,~1~ we will see (imperfect) or let us see (cohortative)
Qal Imperative I 237
3. The Qal Imperative
It is easiest at this stage to think of the imperative forms as re-
lated to the corresponding imperfect forms, inasmuch as the pre-
formative is lacking in the imperative.
Imperfect Imperative
2 ms ?bj?r:, ?bp (see I I.6.a.i)
2 fs '?t?Pl:l *'?t?P > '?t?i? (see II.6.a.i; VI.3.a)
2 mp ,,9pr:, *~'t?P > ''t?i? (see II.6.a.i; VI.3.a)
2 fp i1~76pr:, i1~76p (see I I.6.a.i)
a. The Qal imperatives of the strong verbs ,~w (to keep) and :J~W
(to lie down) are inflected as follows.
ms ibtp :J~tp
fs '17,)lP ':J:::)'
. IZ).
mp : . ,::i~tp
fp i1li6w
T : :
T: - :
b. The Qal imperatives of the I-Guttural verbs 1~ (to stand), vn;:t
(to be strong), and?~~ (to eat) are inflected as follows.
ms ib~ vm ?:>~
fs '17?~ 'i?Tr:t '7~~
mp ~,7?~ ~vTr:t ~,~~
fp i1l16l7
T : -: il~pro ill?SN
2 3 8 I Lesson XX I
1. Although the 2 ms imperfect of i'!O is i'!O~, the imperative
is p!q, not *i'!O
11. In I-=>Alep verbs, the vowel in the first syllable is ..., .
m. Regardless of the guttural, the fs and mp forms have the
i-vowel in the first syllable.
'17?~ not *'17? > *'17?~ (see XIX.r.d.i)
'i?Tr:t not '"'i?Tt:1 or '"'i?m
c. The Qal imperative of the I I-Guttural verb itr~ (choose) is
inflected as follows.
ms ,o:p
fs ,-iq~
mp ~,q~
fp m,ri::i
T : - :
Note: The fs and mp are formed according to rules (see VI.3.b):
thus ' ,,,,n:;;i
. -: :
> ,,n::i *~in::i > ~,n::i.
.-: - ' -: : -: -
d. The Qal imperatives of the III-He verbs;,~~ (to build), ;,W (to
do), and;,,;,
(to be) are inflected as follows.
ms ;,~:p :iw :i~n
fs '~f 'lP ':w
mp ~J::l: ~tzl ~'w
fp ;"'!J'J::l
T ::
T "." -:
T '
1. The ending in the ms is always :i . -, not :i . . -, as in the im-
perfect 2 ms.
For the verbs;,,;, (to be) and ;,,n (to live), the first syllable
Qal Imperative I 2.39
is ... ,, not_,. After the conjunction , , however, it is silent: i1~1:11
wehye(h); ~'1:11 wi/Jyu.
e.The Qal imperative of the 1-Waw verbs :21p: (to dwell) and Y1:
(to know), and the verb 11.?v are inflected as follows.
ms ::iw l71 17
fs ':;np ':;>?
mp ~::itp ~:,7
fp i1l:Jtv
T !
1. As in the imperfect (XIX. 5 .a.i), the first radical does not ap-
pear in the imperative.
II. As previously noted (XIX.5.c), the verb 11.?v behaves like an
original 1-Waw verb in the Qal imperfect. So, too, it is
treated like a 1-Waw verb in the imperative.
111. The 3 fp 12 fp imperfect of ::iw: is ;,~;Wl:J,
but the imperative
is ;,~;w, not *;,~;w (also i1P?l:J but ;,p7). The imperfect 3
fp/ 2 fp of zq: is i1~Njl:), but the corresponding imperative
is irregular, i1f~.
1v. Although w1: (to possess) behaves like an original I-Yog
verb in the imperfect (see XIX.5 .d), the imperatives are, with
only one exception, typical of 1-Waw verbs (i.e., ~lVl).w,.,
The verb N1: (to be afraid), on the other hand, does not lose
the first radical in the imperative (Nl;; ~N1;).
f. The Qal imperatives of the I-Nun verbs 7~~ (to fall), Y~H (to set
out), and m~(to give) are inflected as follows.
ms 7b~ y~ rn
fs '7~~ '~9 '~~
mp ~,~~ ~Y9 ~l~
fp i1l76l
T: :
T : -
240 I Lesson XX I
1. There are two basic types of I-Nun verbs evident in the Qal
imperative forms: those with the first radical (like ?b~), and
those that lose the first radical (like l7~ and Tl:)}.
11.The verb nj2'? (to take) behaves like a I-Nun verb: thus, nj2
(ms), 'DP (fs), ~np (mp). The fp form is unattested.
g. The Qal imperatives of the 11-Waw verbs C~i' (to arise) and
Ni::! (to come), and the II-Yog verb C'lP (to put) are inflected as
ms C~j:' Ni::! C'lP
< ,<
fs '~~i' 'l'.(1::2 '~''?'
< ,<
mp ~~~i' ~N1::2 ~~''?'
fp i1~7?(?
i. 11-Waw verbs are clearly distinguished from II-Yog verbs.
ii. The fp form of C~i' is i1~7?~, even though the 2 fp imperfect is
usually i1r~~pr;,.
An imperative form may be vocalized slightly differently in cer-
tain situations. When linked to a following word or particle by
means of the maqqep, it loses its stress and the last syllable may
be shortened from o too or from e toe.
ibtp97-i~tp Keep!
:JW but cw-:JW Stay there!
When the imperative is in pause, the thematic vowel may not be
reduced; it may, in fact, be lengthened.
~:Jlp but ~:JW Stay!
l7~lp but l7~lV T :
~?~l'.( but ~,5~ Eat!
Imperative Forms with Final ;i T - I 2.4 I
4. Imperative Forms with Final ;, - T
a. The ms of the imperative may take the final ilT -, like the cohor-
tative. When it does, the base form is shortened, contracted, or
reduced before the final ilT -, unless it is a 11-Waw/Yog verb, in
which case it remains unchanged. There is no difference in mean-
ing between an imperative with the final ilT - and one without.
b. The following are the forms of the Qal imperative with the
final i1 -.
Root Without i1 T- With i1 T-
,~w ibtp ;,,~w
T: T
1~Y ib~ i11~Y Stand!
7:iN ,:,~ T!

n,w n?tp ilM7tV
:JtV' ::iw il:JW
T: Sit!
Y1' Y1 ilY':f
T: Know!
7DJ 7b~ i17DJ
T : T
YOJ yg ilYO
T: Set out!
7m rn ilJr-1
T :
c,p c~p il7t~p Arise!
N1:J Ni::l ilN::I
T Come!
t:l'lll C'W il~'lll
T Place!
Note: The III-He imperative never takes the final ilT - (compare
2. Note iii above).
242 I Lesson XX I
5. Negative Commands
The imperative forms are not negated in Hebrew. For negative
commands, the negative particles N? and ?~ are used with the sec-
ond person imperfect (see XVII I. 5. b-c).
nt1T:l N7 You shall not murder! (not *"1 N?)
n~tpr:,,~ Do not rejoice! (not *n~tp N?)
6. Imperatives as Interjections
A few imperative forms are used as interjections and, therefore,
should not be taken literally. When so used, the imperative form
may be masculine singular even though the subject may be femi-
nine or plural.
a. i11$1 (see)
rI'J~ j:1 rI'J 'i1~i Ah! The smell of my son is like the smell
of a field which YHWH has blessed!
i1,1i1' i=?"'J.:;:l i\Z)~ i1'i(9
(Gen 27:27)
b. C"tp (arise)
'i1'?::,~l i1~iD ~,rmp Come on! Sit up and eat! (Gen 27:19)
c. :Ji]~ (give)
T7~ ~i:;i~ '~ri1:;iV Come! Let me come into you!
(Gen 38:16)
d.1?;:! (go)
n-i::i i1n-i::,:i i1::,~
1; tT 'IT:
Come on! Let us make a covenant!
(Gen 31:44)
7. The Imperative with a Redundant ',
After the imperative, the preposition ? with the second person
pronominal suffix may occur redundantly to indicate the subject
of the action commanded. In any case, this redundant ? is nor-
mally not translated into English.
Imperative with a Redundant 1, I 243
:)~1~0 :17-1? Go from your country (Gen 12: 1)
'D~ riT?~ :1'?-n1~ t:rlf?l Now go on! Flee to Laban my
brother (Gen 27:43)
8. Commands in Narrative Sequence
a. A series of imperatives or imperatival phrases may occur, with
or without the conjunction -1 linking them.
:i~'?:i :i'?:J~.1 'n:::iiti :i:;,'7 Come, buy food and eat! Come
buy food without money!
~9?.-~i'?~ ri~ (Isa 5 5:1)
In such a sequence, the imperatives joined by - , may or may not
be consequent to one another.
b. By analogy with other narrative sequences (XX.2-3), an imper-
ative form preceding a perfect, causes the perfect to have an im-
perative force.
Go on and enter the land of Judah
(1 Sam 22:5)
Cl(J; !;1:?7~i11 ci7ip ::1 i,9~ Heed their voice and cause a king
to reign for them
179 (1 Sam 8:22)
In this sequence, the weqiital form is consequent to the impera-
tive form: Go (and then) enter! Heed (and then) cause a king to
c. If the imperative is followed by an imperfect or cohortative, the
latter begins a purpose or result clause and should, therefore, be
translated by "that ... " or "so that ... "
m6~ ~71 'i1'm1 .t,jf-j01 Provide the seed so that we may
live and not die! (Gen 47:19)
Like the imperative, the jussive may be followed by an imperfect
or cohortative. In this case, the imperfect or cohortative also in-
troduces a purpose or result clause.
244 I Lesson XX I
Let him come to me that he may
know there is a prophet in Israel
(2Kgs 5:8)
d. The jussive may also be followed by an imperative. In this se-
quence, the imperative introduces a result or purpose clause and
should not, therefore, be translated as a command.
i1r:n:iQ ,1~~Q1 CJj'? 'i1Ji1' lfl' May YHWH grant that you may
find a resting place (Ruth 1 :9)
T -
r,~~ (with sfx.: ir-17;)~) truth, reliability, firmness
il~f high place (a sanctuary)
ci1,q (pl. r,il')i1,q) dream. Verb: 070 to dream
1-t:J~ remainder, excess
...... lamb
1]~1, (pl. r,im1,) tablet
1WY wealth. Adjective: 1'lPi rich
~gl$ to gather, remove
1iJ~ to be clean. Adjective: ii:,~ clean, pure
to give, ascribe (occurs only in the imperative forms)
ji~~ to pour out (see XVI.8.c)
Pi.: to wash, clean
- T
to stumble
Vocabulary I 24 5
tm to rest. Noun: ;,mm rest
T :
- T
to watch
to sing. Noun: 1"'!) song
to put, set
Exercise 21
a. Parse the following forms:
I. V~~J 8. ~:J;i T
I 5.
2. ;,:i;i
9. tz}~~ r6.
3 "7 IO. ;,7 17. ;,i:n T: T
4 cw: 11. nm,
- T-
5. 1;,~~ 12. mv" T
6. ;,m
T :
13 m:i 20.
I 4. ;'1Q"l!J 2 r. i;,t,~1
- : . T
b. Write the following forms:
I. Qal impv. ms of 1"'!} I I. Qal impv. ms of ;,m
2. Qal impv. ms of ;,~# I 2. Qal juss. 3 ms of ::np~
3 Qal juss. 3 ms of mr., 13 Qal impv. mp of :np~
4 Qal impv. ms of rm, 14. Qal impv. mp of :mv
5 Qal impv. ms of ;,ow I 5. Qal impv. fs of ::np~
6. Qal impv. mp of ;,o/ 16. Qal impv. fp of ::mv
7. Qal juss. 3 fs of '.J~W 17. Qal impv. fs of 1?~
8. Qal impv. mp of ;,1$1 18. Qal impv. ms of nj??
9. Qal impv. ms of ;,~IJ 19. Qal impv. mp of Y~~
IO. Qal impv. mp of ;i:~ 20. Qal impv. mp of rn~
246 I Lesson XX I
c. Translate I Kgs 3 :4-1 5 with the help of a dictionary and these
v 4: 11'.;lt'? to sacrifice; i1;,P~ (subject) offered.
v 5: i1~-p (subject) appeared.
v 7: D=??9i1 have caused to be king; ~=;11 n~~ to go out and to
come m.
v 8: i::lO' ~':,1 i1:JD'-~':, cannot be numbered and cannot be
\ .. T I : .,... 1"
v 9: ~9~':, to judge; r;iiJ'? to discern.
V I I: 3.29~':, r;iiJ discernment (lit. discerning) tO hear.
v I 2: 1t::1~1 and intelligent.
v 14: ,9iD'? to keep.
V I 5: f P-'1 = fj?'~1; '?.P,~1 and he offered up.
24 8 I Lesson XX I I
The mp (qitlu) and fs (qi#i), however, remain unchanged: thus,
'~~'IV:1 (Seek me!).
ii. All Qal imperative forms of the qetal type lengthen the a
vowel to a before the object suffix.
l'OlV Hear! but 'lYOlV Hear me! 'l~YOlV Hear me!
- : T : 0
T :
So, too, all imperatives with the a-vowel will lengthen that
vowel to a before the object suffix.
l'1 Know! but ~ilY':t Know him! T
nj? Take! but ~ilDj? Take him!
iii. Thee-vowel is normally reduced to sewa~
11:) Give! but ~il~T;l Give it!
c. The same set of object suffixes is used with the imperfect and
imperative. The suffixes are essentially those of Type B in IX.2.b,
except for the 3 mp and 3 fp forms. If a "connecting vowel" ap-
pears before the object suffix, it will be either .. or., (as opposed to
the a-vowel used to connect object suffixes to verbs in the per-
fect). The object suffixes are as follows.
3 ms ~il .. - 3 mp c.. -
3 fs i1T : - 3 fp 1.. -
2 ms ,- 2 mp c~ -
2 fs 1.. - 2 fp -not attested-
I CS 'L - I cp ~l .. -
1. If the imperfect or imperative form ends in a vowel (i.e., in
the 2 fs, 2 mp, 3 mp), the "connecting vowel" is omitted.
11. The 3 fp/ 2 fp imperfect and imperative forms (i.e., i1~'76j?r:t,
i1~'76j?) are not attested with object suffixes; they are re-
placed by their mp counterparts (i.e., ~?t?i?~; ~?t?j?).
Lesson XXII
1. The Imperfect and Imperative with Object Suffixes
As with the perfect (XVII), imperfect and imperative forms may
indicate direct objects by means of suffixed pronouns.
9tl?'P~ = 9?;1N n1ztp~ I will send you
'J11?lV = 'nN n,w
T : - :
Send me!
a. The imperfect form may undergo certain vowel changes before
the object suffix.
i. The 6 thematic vowel is reduced to sewii:J before the object
suffix, if it is not already reduced.
ibtp: he will keep but '~~.??'P: he will keep me
Before the 2 ms and 2 mp suffixes, however, 6 is usually not
reduced. Instead, o is shortened to o: thus, 9l~'P: (he will keep
you); C~l~'P: (he will keep you).
ii. The thematic e vowel is reduced to sewa:J before the object
suffix, if it is not already reduced.
rn: he will give but '~}r;t: he will give me
Before the 2 ms and 2 mp suffixes, however, e is usually not
reduced. Instead, e is shortened toe. Thus, 9~l.:,1: (he will give
you); C~~lJ: (he will give you).
iii. The a thematic vowel is not reduced. It is lengthened to ii
before the object suffix.
Y7JlV' he will hear but 'll77JlV' he will hear me
- : T :
b. The imperative form may undergo certain changes before the
object suffix.
i. The Qal ms imperative of the qe(ol type becomes qot/- before
the object suffix.
ibtp Keep! but '~~-??W Keep me!
24 8 I Lesson XX I I
The mp (q#/u) and fs (qit/i), however, remain unchanged: thus,
'~~'IVi1 (Seek me!).
ii. All Qal imperative forms of the qetal type lengthen the a
vowel to a before the object suffix.
- :
Hear! but ')l17:)1V Hear me! ')~l17:)1V Hear me!
.. T : T :
So, too, all imperatives with the a-vowel will lengthen that
vowel to ii before the object suffix.
Y'1 Know! but ~ilY':t
Know him!
nj? Take! but ~il~j? Take him!
iii. Thee-vowel is normally reduced to sewa:).
Tl:) Give! but ~il~T:1 Give it!
c. The same set of object suffixes is used with the imperfect and
imperative. The suffixes are essentially those of Type B in IX.2.b,
except for the 3 mp and 3 fp forms. If a "connecting vowel" ap-
pears before the object suffix, it will be either .. or., (as opposed to
the a-vowel used to connect object suffixes to verbs in the per-
fect). The object suffixes are as follows.
3 ms ~il .. - 3 mp c .. -
3 fs i1 - 3 fp 1.. -
2 ms ,-
T :
2 mp c:,... -
2 fs 1.. - 2 fp -not attested-
I CS 'L - I cp ~) .. -
1. If the imperfect or imperative form ends in a vowel (i.e., in
the 2 fs, 2 mp, 3 mp), the "connecting vowel" is omitted.
11. The) fp/ 2 fp imperfect and imperative forms (i.e., i1~7t1i?T:1,
i1~7bi?) are not attested with object suffixes; they are re-
placed by their mp counterparts (i.e., ~?f,'j?:; ~?f,'j?).
250 I Lesson XX/I
i. In III-Guttural roots, the Qal infinitive absolute has the
furtive pdfa!J, as one would expect, e.g, ~i~lp.
ii. In III-He roots, the Qal infinitive absolute is either like i?~
or ;i?~.
iii. There is no distinction in the Qal infinitive absolute be-
tween 11-Waw and 11-Yog verbs, e.g., cip, citv.
3. Uses of the Infinitive Absolute
The infinitive absolute is used in the following ways.
a. It may simply be a verbal noun.
slaying cattle and slaughtering sheep
(Isa 22:13)
nt;:n::r ti:i;i .,~~ eating honey abundantly is not good =
It is not good to eat much honey
(Prov 25:27)
b. Most commonly the infinitive absolute stands before a finite
verb of the same root to emphasize the certainty or decisiveness
of the verbal idea of the root.
rn9r;i nio You shall certainly die (Gen 2:17)
:J1~~ :Jiiq I will certainly return (Gen r 8: JO)
Occasionally, however, the infinitive absolute may also come after
the finite verb.
~;~: ~~- he would surely come out ( 2 Kgs 5: r r)
c. The infinitive absolute may come after an imperative to
intensify it.
J"li) '~; -~ ,;"li) Ki 11 me right away! (N um r r: r 5)
'-7~ .!.119~ 11'/JiD Really listen to me! (Isa 5 5:2)
d. Frequently two different infinitive absolute forms are used,
Imperfect and Imperative with Object Suffixes I 249
Like the preposition 7~, which also take suffixes of Type Bin
IX.2.b, the object suffixes used with imperfects and imperatives
may have an additional -en- element before the suffix. The fol-
lowing forms of the object suffixes (with -en-) are attested.
3 ms ~3 ... - ( *-enhu > -ennu)
3 fs :,3 - (*-enha[h] > -enna[h])
2 ms ;! - ( *-enka > -ekka)
I CS '3. - (-enni)
I cp ~3 ... - (-ennu)
There is no difference in meaning between the suffixes with the
additional -en- element and those without.
~:,n',trJ, = ~3rJ?tV' he will send him
' T: ' , T : '
d. III-He verbs drop the He before the object suffix.
:: ...
I will build ,~~~ I will build you
. : he will see
:1N1' ... : He will see me
:1ll,' answer! 'l)l,' Answer me!
-: -:
2. The Qal Infinitive Absolute
There are two forms in Hebrew that are called infinitives: the
infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct. The infinitive con-
struct will be treated in the Lesson XXIII.
The infinitive absolute is not inflected for gender, number, or
a. The proper form of the Qal infinitive absolute is ?b~, but it is
most often written as ?iD~.
b. The weak roots occasion no surprises, but note the following.
250 I Lesson XX/I
i. In II I-Guttural roots, the Qal infinitive absolute has the
furtive pdfaiJ, as one would expect, e.g, ~i~tp.
ii. In III-He roots, the Qal infinitive absolute is either like i?;l
or :i?~. T
iii. There is no distinction in the Qal infinitive absolute be-
tween I 1-Waw and I 1-Yog verbs, e.g., cip, citv.
3. Uses of the Infinitive Absolute
The infinitive absolute is used in the following ways.
a. It may simply be a verbal noun.
slaying cattle and slaughtering sheep
(Isa 22:13)
nt;ni1 ili;i '?~~ eating honey abundantly is not good =
It is not good to eat much honey
(Prov 25:27)
b. Most commonly the infinitive absolute stands before a finite
verb of the same root to emphasize the certainty or decisiveness
of the verbal idea of the root.
rn9r;1 nia You shall certainly die (Gen 2:17)
:::l1i?,i~ :::l~v;J I will certainly return (Gen r 8: r o)
Occasionally, however, the infinitive absolute may also come after
the finite verb.
~i::: ~~- he would surely come out ( 2 Kgs 5: r r)
c. The infinitive absolute may come after an imperative to
intensify it.
J"li) '~; :,;ii) Kill me right away! (Num r r: 1 5)
'-7~ l'i9i9 11'/JCV Really listen to me! (Isa 5 5:2)
d. Frequently two different infinitive absolute forms are used,
Uses of the Infinitive Absolute I 2 5I
with the second one indicating an action occurring simultane-
ously with the first.
';j~., '1i'?ry l?J And he went along eating
(Judg 14:9)
il7~1 '1'?ry i:;:hry they went along lowing ( I Sam 6: 12)
Probably because of the frequent use of 1i'O in such construc-
tions, this particular form functions as an adverb indicating
"lioi:n li'?ry 'iry oo;:n Now, the water was continually
abating (Gen 8:5)
Note: In some instances, the participle form 17M is used in place
of the infinitive absolute form ,;,o,
with no discernible differ-
ence in meaning. Compare the following examples.
:JJj?1 li'?ry 17,'J he kept approaching (2 Sam 18:25)
::l'Jj?1 lJ;i 'niD'?8ii '17''] the Philistine kept approaching
(r Sam r7:4r)
e. The infinitive absolute is frequently used as a substitute for an
ri~v:J;J Ci~-ri~ liJ,T Remember the sabbath day!
(Exod 20:8)
ri~v:J;J bi:-ri~ "li~y Obserue the sabbath day!
(Deut 5:12)
In a narrative sequence, an infinitive absolute used as a substitute
for an imperative form will also cause a weqdtal form following
it to have an imperative force (see XXI.8.b).
1iT'?~ r;n::;111 li?ry Go and speak to David
(2 Sam 24:12)
f. An infinitive absolute may describe an action occurring concur-
rently with the main verb and, thus, may take the place of a finite
verb, whether perfect or imperfect.
252 I Lesson XXII
n:piO:l ink ~?i~] He made him ride in the chariot of
(his) second-in-command ... and set
,p ink 1ir:i~, ... ,i1~iDQi]
him over all the land of Egypt
Cl'"J~a r1~-,~ (Gen 41:43)
TW wickedness, trouble, sorrow
,~~ (also :i1r,,~) word, saying
:ir; understanding, perception. Verb: p; to understand,
';,~~ lord, master, husband, owner; frequently used as
proper name of a god, Baal. Verb: 1,~i to rule, lord,
7~:J~ territory, boundary
v'r.t bosom
:,1 distress. Verb: i1 to be hard pressed, be in distress
:J~.P, inward part, inner parts, middle, midst
n'tpM1 first
o~rVot11 (fs; fd: 0~6~r;t1)twomb, mercy. 0'~01 compassion.
Verb: 01]1 Pi.: to have compassion
:J'i controversy, dispute. Verb: :J'i to dispute, be in
,~r to be a stranger (ptc. ii, :,1!, etc.: stranger, foreigner;
also ptc. as adjective "strange, foreign")
to gird
to be unclean
Vocabulary I 253
~g~ to add; Hi.: to continue, increase
ig~ to discipline, chasten. Noun: i9'!\1.l discipline;
to throw, cast; Hi.: to throw, teach, point
i1~~ to acquire, buy, create. Nouns: i1~j?,? possession,
property; T~~j? property.
';,~ near, beside. Also with suffixes: '7~ near me, etc.
Exercise 22
a. Parse the following forms:
I. 7in~ 6. 917t'P I I. i13J:JM
T".": .
2. il~ 7. 'li7.llll
: T
3. 9~1': 8. '!\i1i7.llll
: T I 3. C'17?lpf:\
4 '!\i1~1;1 9. '!\i1~~: 14. 'lY7.llll
T :
5. c~r;, IO. '!\i1~~: ;,,.:m,
T :: : -
b. Translate the following with the help of a dictionary.
r. Prov 4:1-6
v 1: ~:rtbpiJ'1 and pay attention; n.PJ'? to know.
v 4: '.:Ji') he instructed me.
2. Amos 7:10-17
v 10: ?'?iJ? to endure.
254 I Lesson XX/ I
v 1 2: ~;:+~n you may prophesy.
V l 3: i:n:,;n-~~ you shall not continue; ~;i~il'? to prophesy.
v 15: ~;i~il Prophesy!
v 16: '~::J~n ~'?
you shall not prophesy; =r~r:i ~~i you shall
not preach.
v 17: p1rin shall be divided up.
c. Translate 1 Kgs 3:16-28 with the help of a dictionary.
v 16: O'f:liV two.
v 17: j'1~ ';J Please, my lord! (an introductory formula used
to begin conversation with a male superior).
v 18: tr,',', of my child-bearing; 't1'71T except; D'DiD two.
v 20: 1il;i':JiV!:11 and she laid him.
v 21: p',J'ii~ to nurse; pi:m~J I looked closely.
v 22: il~i;llrl1 and they spoke.
v 24: 1~;:i:1 and they brought.
v 2 5: O',~iV? into two.
v 26: 119:,:i (subject) were moved; 1il[J'Orl-?~ npiJ1 you shall
certainly not kill him.
v 2 7: 1il[.1'Qn ~'? npiJi you shall certainly not kill him.
v 28: ni~,P.7 to do.
Lesson XXIII
I. The Qal Infinitive Construct
a. The regular form of the Qal infinitive construct is ?bj?.
ibtp to keep, keeping in~ to choose, choosing
Note: A qetal type infinitive construct is attested very rarely
(e.g., :J~tp to lie down, lying down).
b. In contrast to the infinitive absolute, the infinitive construct
may take a suffixed pronoun. Since the infinitive is a verbal noun,
the suffixes used are normally those attached to nouns (XI I. r).
Certain changes to the base form may take place in the
presuffix form.
i. The infinitive construct usually becomes -?t?i? (qo#- ), but be-
fore the 2 ms and 2 mp suffixes it is - ?t;i? (qetol- ).
: T
my keeping 9l~tp your keeping
'1~Y my standing
: T 91~~ your standing
'?:::>N my eating
: T 97~~ your eating
ii. The infinitive construct of III-Guttural roots remains as qo#-
throughout; it does not change to (qetol-) before the 2 ms and
2 mp suffix.
'~7?tp my hearing 9~7?W your hearing
'1:t?W my sending 9q7tp your sending
iii. Infrequently, the infinitive construct form before the suffix
is qi#- or qa#- instead of qo#-.
1r.1t,':;l your trusting l~~I your crying
c. The suffix appended to the infinitive construct may be subjec-
tive or objective. One must rely on context to determine which is
the case. Thus, the 2 fs suffix in the first example below indicates
the subject (the one who abandons), but in the second example
the 2 fs suffix indicates the object (the one abandoned).
256 I Lesson XX l ll
i1Ji1-n~ ,l::lW your abandoning YHWH (Jer 2:17)
TJIJ~O ::liii?'? 1;:ir.p'? to abandon you, to turn from following
you (Ruth 1:16)
Occasionally, clarity is achieved when a verbal object suffix
(XXll.1.c) is used instead of a suffix used with nouns (XII.1).
'Jliit', to kill me
: T:
'Jllhi', to seek me
: T !
2. The Qal Infinitive Construct of Weak Verbs
a. The Qal infinitive construct forms of verbs with gutturals are
predictable, except that 1-JAlep roots have ..., instead of-, in the
first syllable.
ib~ to stand, standing ihf to choose, choosing
',:,~ to eat, eating rj',tp to send, sending
b. The infinitive construct of III-He verbs always ends with ni-.
ni1,~ to uncover, uncovering nitv~ to make, making
niJ=il to build, building ni'w to be, being
c. The infinitive construct of I-Waw verbs generally does not
show the initial radical (see XIX. 5 .a.i). It also takes an anom-
alous n- ending. The resulting forms (with n at the end acting
like the third radical) behave like qi#-segolates (see V.2.b;
Xll.2.c). Verbs that are the III-Guttural, however, are like qatl-
n~rw to dwell, dwelling 'l:l~W my dwelling
n,,.. to bear, bearing 'l:117 my bearing
nN~ to go out, going out 'DN~ my going out
mv, ,<
. ... to possess, possessing 'l:llp"1 my possessing
n~1 to know, knowing 'l:11 my knowing
Qal In-finitive Construct of Weak Verbs I 257
1. The verb 110 (to go, walk) behaves like a I-Waw verb. Hence,
the Qal infinitive construct is usually T1;?'.? (the infinitive con-
struct form i'D is attested rarely). With~ suffix it is always
-T-1~?., not *-.r:ii?, as one might expect: thus, '?:9?, 91;'~?, etc.
II. The Qal infinitive construct of N~ (to go forth) shows the
quiescence of N: thus, *nN > mq~.
111. The Qal infinitive construct of 'IV1~ (to possess) is regular: mp\
1v. The verb Ni' (to be afraid, fear), which behaves like a 1-Y ad
""T -
verb in the imperfect and imperative (XIX. 5.d; XX I,3,e.iv), has
Ni; twice as the infinitive construct. More commonly the func-
tion of the infinitive is taken over by the noun :-ti$T (fearing).
v. The Qal infinitive construct of ';,j, (to be able) is irregular:
n?5;, T
d. There are two types of Qal infinitive construct for I-Nun verbs.
i. Most I-Nun verbs retain the first radical.
';,b~ to fall, falling ;';,~J his falling
: T
~;.~ to strike, striking i9lJ his striking,
: T
striking him
3Zb~ to set out, setting out Cl'CJ their setting out
T : T
ii. Some I-Nun verbs lose the initial J. These behave like I-Waw
verbs. The verb nj?7 (to take), which behaves like a I-Nun verb
in the Qal imperfect and imperatives (XIX,4.d; XXI.3.f.ii), also
loses the initial radical.
3Zl1/n~~ to touch, touching il'lJ his touching,
: T
touching him
n~tp /Ntv~ to lift, lifting in~tp his lifting, lifting
nNW/ him
T1l]l7h~ to give, giving '1:ll:l my g1vmg, giving me
. to draw near, Cr-l'!Vll their drawing near,
drawing near drawing near them
T1l]j? to take, taking 'J:l~j2 my taking, taking me
258 I Lesson XX! II
1. m~W is derived from original *11NlP (see 2.c.ii, above); n~tp is
a variant of 11NW.
II. ne is derived from Original '"tint (i.e., *tint> *titt > tef ).
e. Whereas no distinction is made between I 1-Waw and 11-Yog
verbs in the Qal infinitive absolute, the infinitive construct forms
of these two types are clearly distinguished.
c~p to arise, arising '?;,~p my ansmg
Ni::J to come, coming '~i::J my commg
11'W ro put, putting 'D'lP my putting
3. Uses of the Infinitive Construct
The infinitive construct may be used in the following ways.
a. It may simply be a verbal noun.
::::iitb n~JIJ '116il.i obeying is better than sacrifice
( 1 Sam 1 5:22)
~j1 n~~ 1'1~ ~~ I do not know going out or coming in =
I do not know (how) to go out or come
in (1 Kgs 3:7)
b. Most commonly it stands after ? to express intention.
ni~l? 19 he had turned aside to see (Exod 3:4)
W~:, i1~l~ 'n~?; to go to the land of Canaan (Gen 12:5)
c. Sometimes the infinitive construct after ? elaborates on a preced-
ing statement and clarifies it.
o-~~h cpry i1,~i1 the people are sinning against YHWH
by eating (meat) with blood
CJiT?-l-' ?~~7 i1_1i1'/
(1 Sam 14:33)
~~ 1b~'? '1.,n1~ I commanded you, (by) saying, "You shall
not eat from it!"
1Jpa '?;i~n
(Gen 3:17)
Uses of the Infinitive Construct I 2 59
d. Sometimes the infinitive construct after 7 indicates an event
that is about to happen.
'?$i, '?;i::;n::J~ Babylon is about to fall (Jer 51:49)
~t:1'7 'itio'iD.iJ 'iT1 the sun was about to set (Gen 15: 12)
e. The infinitive construct is used very frequently in temporal
clauses. The clause may be introduced by ::J or ::> together with an
adverbial expression followed by an infinitive construct, or sim-
ply by ::J or ::> with the infinitive construct. In such cases, the tem-
poral clause should be introduced in translation by "when ... " or
"as .... "
iJPD :J'?'.?~ ci;::J when you eat from it ... (Gen 2:17)
yi~::;i '',~liD' f;,tv:J ';i'J when Israel dwelled in that
land ...
(Gen 35:22)
as Abram was entering Egypt ...
(Gen I 2:14)
4. The Negation of Infinitives
a. The infinitive construct is usually negated by 'l:l?:;J? (not).
iJprY'?'.?~ 'pl'?:l'? '7rf.1'i~ I commanded you not to eat from it
(Gen 3:11)
b. Much less frequently, the infinitive construct may be negated
by i6f (without), or '7f /'7f1? (without).
ni~i ~?:J without seeing (N um 3 5: 2 3)
;i1;-t' n~~- ','?:JD without YHWH being able ...
(Deut 9:28)
260 I Lesson XX!ll
5. Synopsis of Verbs in Qal
We have now learned all the "principle parts" of the verb. The
following synopsis is provided to aid the student in learning the
various forms. Some forms below are not attested and have been
reconstructed by analogy from extant verbs of the same class.
Root Per(. Imp(. fuss. Impv. Inf. Abs. Inf. Cs. Ptc.
,r.,w ir.,tzj
- T
ibtp: ibtp: ibtp iir.,tzj T
ibtp ,~w
i::J:, 1::J:::l T ,~~: ,~t ,~f ii::J:::l
,:if 1::J:1)
7t,p Tbi? T~P: T~P: T~i? 7it,j? 7bp Tbi?
17JY 17JY - T
1b~ 1b~ 1b iir.,y T
1b ,~i7
i' i'!O i'HT i'!(T i'!t! j'iT!J pto i'IO
?:,N ?:,N -T
?~N; ?~N; 7j~ ?i:::,1$ ?j~ ?;;>N
in::J ,n::2-T ii]~: ii]~: ,IJf iin# ,hf in.~
n,w n'2w n?tp: n?tp: n?tp l]i?tV T
l}?tp !J?W
N~m N~m TT N7?: Nl7J'
T :
T :
Nil~ N~7? N~b
;"l?l ;,7.;1 TT :iir ?l;
. ;,7~ i?.;1/;i?.;1
ni?~ :ii~
?DJ ?DJ ?b: ?b: ?iDJ ?P.j
- ?b~ T
YOJ -.
YOJ Y~' Y~' yg ~iOJ T
~b~/n~Q ~gj
1m rn~ rn: H:P rn 7in~ nt-,

::Jtz)' ::JtV' - T
::JW~ ::JW~ ::JW ::JitV' T
n~tp, ::JW;
::Jit,' ::J~;
::J1'' ::J~" ::J~': ::J~;
C~j' cip
Cj? C~j'~ cp~ Cj?
N1::J N::J T
Ni::J' T
N:::I' T
Ni::J Ni::J Ni::J N::J
r,,tzj r,tzj r,,tzj, nw: n'w r,;tzj n'w r,tzj
n,r., r,~ mr.,: nb: mr., r,;~ m~ r,~
Vocabulary I 261
1~;;1 to turn, overturn
w~; to be dry. Noun: ill,p~~ dry ground
n~; Hi.: to reprove
to be irritated, angry
7~1, IT'? to lodge. Noun: 7i1,7t lodging place
,~1_;, to capture
l'~~ to meet, befall, encounter. Noun: l'~i happening
to ransom
f1~ to break, breach, increase
w1~ to spread out
to succeed, prosper; Hi.: to make prosperous
l'1~ to rend, tear
to heal
to be pleased
n;1 to murder, slay
j:'l]i.p I j:'1]~ to laugh; Pi.: to play, make fun of
C~t,p Hi.: to do something early, arise early
- T
to catch, seize
262 I Lesson XX I I I
Exercise 23
a. Give the Qal infinitive construct form of the following:
I. ,~w
- T
l I. ,~y
- T
21. i~t.p + 3 ms sfx.
2. y~tzj nn TO~ + r cs sfx.
- T
- 22.
,:n TO~ + 3 ms sfx.
- I 3 ;"IJ:::l
4 "i?? 14 ;'17.;!.
24. 1?~ + 3 ms sfx.
5. iq: I 5. ;'llf 25. ::JW: + 1 cs sfx.
6. ,,, - 16. 1?~ 26. w1: + 3 ms sfx.
w,, ::JlZ)'
- 17. - T
27. Ni:::l + 2 ms sfx.
8. HH 18. P!O 28. Nl~ + 2 ms sfx.
l71' 19.
,,, -
29. 7:JN
+ 2 ms sfx.
IO ,n:::1
20. 7:JN
-T 30. nj?? + I cs sfx.
b. Translate Eccl 3:1-9 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: T;ili;:r'? for casting (also in v 6); p;;1r:io from embracing.
v 6: 'wp::::i'? for seeking; 1:J.~'? for destroying.
v 7: i;;l1'? for speaking.
Exercise 23 I 263
c. Translate Josh 1: 1-9 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: '[i~ :J~~n-~7 no one shall stand {lit.: a man shall not
stand); ':r~1~ ~'?
I will not fail you.
v 6: '";nJD you will cause (object) to inherit; "nl';iiDJ I swore.
v 7: ";,:,wr:, you will have success (also in v 8).
v 8: f'1';~D you will make (object) prosper.
v 9: ncrn-"!~1 do not be dismayed.
d. Translate Gen 3: 1-14 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: lt:1P='.:lJ1 and (subject) will open.
v 6: 19n~1 and desirable; ";,:,w;:r"! to make wise/successful.
v 7: ';i~n'i?~n] and (subject) opened; Cli1'~iD two of them.
v 8: 1'.?;:rnr~ walking about; ~~on'] (subject) hid himself.
v 1 o: ~;:lr:1~1 and I hid myself.
Lesson XXIV
I. The Piel Imperfect
As in the Piel perfect and participle, the Piel imperfect is charac-
terized by the doubling of the second radical (XV).
a. Strong Verbs
The Piel imperfect of the strong verb is inflected as follows.
3 ms '~iZ; 3 mp ~?tpjZ;
3 fs '~iZl;' 3 fp il~7~iZl;'
2 ms '~iZl;' 2 mp ~?tpjZl;'
2 fs '7tpiZl;' 2 fp il~7~iZT;I
'~iZ~ I cp '~iZ~
1. In addition to the characteristic doubling of the second radi-
cal, the Piel imperfect is marked by the sewifJ in the prefor-
mative and the a-vowel under the first radical.
11. In a few verbs, the dages may be lost if the second radical
takes a sewiiJ (VI.7).
b. I I-Guttural and I I-Res Verbs
Since gutturals and Res do not take the dages, the Piel imperfect
forms of such verbs will have either compensatory lengthening or
virtual doubling (see XV-3-a), e.g., T~~; (he will refuse);,~~; (he
will hurry).
c. I I I-=>Alep Verbs
The Piel imperfect forms of these verbs are regular, except that
the 3 fp I 2 fp form is il~N~~T;I, not ~- il~N'p~r;,, as one might expect.
Piel Imperfect I 26 5
d. I I I-Guttural Verbs
Since gutturals prefer a-class vowels, the Piel imperfect forms of
these verbs tend to have the yeqattal pattern, instead of yeqa(tel
(e.g., n1zW:; Yj?~~). In pause, however, the yeqattel pattern is
found, but, of c~urse, with the furtive pata!J (e.g., IJ~W;; ~i?.~;).
e. II I-He Verbs
The imperfect forms of these verbs are regular for their type
(see XIX. 3). The Piel imperfect of i17~ (
to uncover) is inflected
as follows.
3 ms il'iil'
: -: 3 mp ~,r
3 fs il'lilz:i
:-: 3 fp ill'~)Z:,
T . - :
2 ms il'lilr-l
.-: 2 mp ~,~r;,
2 fs '~~r;, 2 fp ilJ'~)Z:,
T :-:
I CS il'iilN
... --: I cp il~ll
f. 1-Waw Verbs
Original 1-Waw verbs merge with those of 1-Y og in the imperfect,
even though the first radical (original *w) is no longer in the ini-
tial position (IV.2.c.ii). Thus, we get forms like,~~; (he will disci-
pline), instead of *1~J;, as one might expect. Otherwise, the Piel
imperfect of I-Waw verbs is inflected regularly.
2. The Piel Jussive, Waw-Consecutive, and Cohortative
a. The Piel jussive and Waw-consecutive forms are predictable. In
general they are similar to their corresponding imperfect forms
(XVIII-4-b). The forms of III-He verbs, however, are without the
final He (XX-4-d.i). As a result of this loss of He, the dages is also
lost because Hebrew does not tolerate a word ending in a doubled
consonant (I 1.6.b.i. Note), e.g.,*~~;>?~;. The resulting forms,
266 I Lesson XXIV
thus, are without the expected doubling, the most conspicuous
marker of the Piel verbal pattern. The sewi{J under the preforma-
tive and the a-vowel, however, remain as valuable indicators.
b. The Piel cohortative is regular: :i?tpi?~
3. The Piel Imperative
We learned in XXI.3 that the Qal imperative forms are like their
corresponding forms in the imperfect, except that the preforma-
tive is lacking in the imperative. The Piel imperative forms, like-
wise, correspond to the forms of the imperfect - minus the
The following is a synopsis of the Piel imperative forms.
Root Wj7:J TN~ ,:i~ n,w N',~ :i,l ,o,
ms Wj?.~ T~~ ,r.i~ n'rw NY~ ;,y~ ,~~
fs 'WP~ 'lN~
-: T '"HW 'D?W 'N. 1m: -
,~~ 'itp~
mp :iwr~ mt~
-:T :i,ri~ :in7w :iN7~ :i~~ :i,tp~
fp ;,~lpj?.~ ;"13N~
T : " -
T: - -
T . - ;'l)''~
T .-
T : -
Note: In some verbs, the diiges may be lost (VI.7), e.g., ~:iN~~ >
:iN7~ (fill!). On the other hand, we have forms like :in7l_P (s~nd!),
where the diiges is retained. Moreover, we get the form :iwp~
(seek!), even though the 2 mp imperfect is ~wp~r;, (with loss of
the diiges). The ms Piel imperative may also take the final ;,T -
(XXI.4). In that case, thee-vowel under the second radical re-
duces to sewii:,: thus, i~g but ;,l~Q (tell!); ir.i~ but ;,ltl~ (hurry!).
4. The Piel Infinitives
There is normally no distinction in form between the Piel infini-
tive absolute and the infinitive construct; the form qattel may be
either absolute or construct.
Piel Infinitives I 267
Abs. Cs. Cs. with Suffixes
?1~ i?1~,
. 9?1~
11# 11# ;::,:\#, 9~1#
1*7~ 1*7~ i1~~. 91~
l'JY.W n1w in?w, 9Q1W
N3j2 N~j2 iN~j2, 9~~j2
;,~~. , ~~
il~ii ni,i ini,i, 1z;,i,i
,ti~ ,~~
1. Besides the regular qat,el infinitive absolute, a qattol type is
attested for a few verbs (e.g., N3j2; iti~).
11. The infinitive construct of III-Guttural verbs is usually like
n1w. but the form for"~! (to sacrifice) is mn.
111. For III-He verbs, in addition to the infinitive absolute of the
il~i type, there is also il~j2.
1v. The infinitive absolute form 1iJ~ is used as an adverb mean-
ing "quickly."
5. Synopsis of Verbs in Piel
The following is a synopsis of the forms of the verbs in Piel.
Root Per{. Imp{. fuss. Impv. Inf. Abs. Inf. Cs. Ptc.
lVj':J lVjP.:;J lVjP.~; llljr.~; llljr.~ lVjP.~ lVjP.~ lVjP.~7?
TN~ T~~ rn~t HP?; T~~ T~~ T~~ 1~~1?
1i1~ 1i]~ 1iJ~; 1i1~'
.. - : 1iJ~ 1iJ~ 1iJ~ 1i1~~
.. - :
n,w n1ip n1w; n1w; n1w l'JY.W n~w n,w~
- - :
N?~ NY.~ NY.~; NY.~; NY.~ N~~ NY.~ NY.~7?
il?l il,:1.
T il'l'
.-: ?~; ?~/ilY.~ ;,~/ilY.~ ni,~ ili~7?
10' ,~'.' 1~~; 11:>"
.. - : ,~~ ,ti~ ,~~ ,~~7?
268 I Lesson XXIV
6. The Numerals
There are two sets of numerals in Hebrew: the cardinals (one,
two, three, etc.) and the ordinals (first, second, third, etc.). In
each set there are masculine and feminine forms. The cardinals
also have absolute and construct forms.
a. The Cardinal Numbers
i. one to ten
Masculine Feminine
Abs. Cs. Abs. Cs.
one inN T .
11]~ 111]~
two c~)lp 'llV
.. : c~elp 'l:)lp
three tLr,w T
w,'P i1w,w
T :
... :
four Y;tll~ Y;tll~ r,~~,~
five Wl')n T
w~q i1Wl')n
T -:
..... -:
six ww nww
seven Y~lp i1l7:JW
eight illblV
. : i1~blp i1lblV T :
nine YW5 YW?;I i1l7Wr-\
T: n~lpl:I
ten ,tvl)
...... ,tvl)
...... i11tvY TT -:
,: -:
a. The Hebrew words for the number "one" are most fre-
quently used as attributive adjectives. They normally fol-
low the nouns they modify and agree with them in gender
and definiteness.
inN lV'N one man
T :
nnN i1WN one woman
- - T
inNi1 lV'Nil the one man
T ',' T 'T
nnNil i1WNil the one woman
--T T'T
Numerals I 269
These words may also be used as substantives in the con-
struct state. In such cases, the absolute noun will typically
be plural.
C''!VlNil inN one of the
T-: T - -
C''IV3il nnN one of the
T- - -
men women
13. The Hebrew words for the number "two" are substantives.
They may be in construct or in apposition with other nouns.
In either case, there is agreement of gender.
C''!VlN 'l'IV two men
C''!Vl 'r-l'IV two women
T :
' T-:
'J'IV the two men
T :
C''IV3il 'r-l'IV the two women
1''1VlN 'l'IV his two men
1''1Vl 'r-l'IV his two women
TT :
c,j'(lj two men C''!Vl C'f.i'!V two women
T - :
c,j'(lj C''!VlN
two men C'f.i'!V C''!Vl two women
- : T
Note that '~tp and 'l:)tp may take the suffixed pronoun, e.g.,
CV'~tp two of them; CV'l:Jtp two of them
-y. The Hebrew words for "three" through "ten" are also
treated as substantives, but there is no agreement in gender.
The forms are singular but the nouns (except for collectives)
are plural. Moreover, the feminine form of the number is al-
ways used with the masculine noun, and the masculine form
is always used with the feminine noun. The construct form
always precedes the noun it modifies. The absolute, which is
in apposition, usually also precedes the noun.
nw,w ,_. :
three men C'lP~ '(lj'',tp three women
' T-:
il'IV.?'IV three men
T :
C''!Vl '(lj"','(lj three women
' T T
2 70 I Lesson XX I V
ii. eleven through nineteen
With mp nouns With fp nouns
iiV:s,, imt
T T - -
i11lp nl]~ eleven
1Wl.' 'r-ltvl.'
T T : - i11lp '~lp~
iiVY C'Jtv
T T '':
i11lp C'~lp twelve
iiV:s,, 'JtvT T '':
.. : ... 'r-ltv
.. :
1Wl.' i1l.'::11N
.. : ... l.'::11N
- :- fourteen
... etc.
iii. tens
C'"!lp twenty
C'l[i?lp thirty
C'~il~ forty
... etc.
iv. hundreds
i1l$~ (cs. n~7?) one hundred
C'nN~ two hundred
' - T
niN~ tv'?tp three hundred
niN~ l7~1~ four hundred
... etc.
v. thousands
~-.. ~ one thousand
C:~7~ two thousand
0'l7N nw,w three thousand
T -: : :
0'l7N nYil1N four thousand
T -: - - : -
... etc.
Numerals I 271
vi. tens of thousands, myriads
il:J:11/ni::ii ten thousand
TT ! "
c~6i::1i twenty thousand
ni::J"') tZl?tp thirty thousand
ni::J"') Y~l~ forty thousand
... etc.
b. The Ordinal Numbers
i. first to tenth
Masc. Fem.
JiWN"') miwN,
T ,
'~W n'~W second
.. : n'W'?W I il'W'?W
: T ' :
'~';l n'~';l fourth
'lP'~tl n'W'7'n
. . -: fifth
'~lP n'WlP sixth
.. : n'~':;llp seventh
.. : n'l'7'W
.. : eighth
.. : ninth
n'i'WY I il'i'WY
-: T -:
a. The ordinal numbers are treated as attributive adjectives.
They stand after the noun and agree with the noun in gen-
der and, usually, in definiteness.
'~W T~ a second son n'~W n~ a second daughter
'3. The cardinal number 11J~ (one) may occasionally be used
instead of JiWN"').
2 72 I Lesson XX I V
ii. eleventh and beyond
Beyond the first ten numbers, Hebrew uses the cardinals to
serve the function of ordinals.
7. The Distributive
a. The distributive is expressed by the repetition of substantives.
c:rjiti D'~iD two by two (Gen 7:9)
;i.~Y ;i,~Y year by year/each year (Deut 14:22)
oi: I Di: day after day/each day (Gen 39:10)
D';JP d\6 D'~P tvll,i six wings each (Isa 6:2)
b. The preposition 7may also be used to indicate the distributive.
D'p: ntv7ib'? every three days (Amos 4:4)
D'Jy d"'?y'? every three years ( r Kgs ro:22)
c. The noun U,h~ may be used idiomatically for each one.
ir:,:)~7QD w-~-ib-~ each one from his task (Exod 3 6:4)
i~ti'?'? iD'~ each one by his own language
(Gen 10:5)
'ib'?O iD'~ each his own dream (Gen 40: 5)
When tl,;,~ is used in this way, it may refer not only to men, but
also to women and inanimate objects. Only infrequently is iltf~
used in this manner.
Related to this use of tll'~ are the expressions of reciprocity
1'1Jl$ ... tll'~ (lit.: each ... his brother) and ~il~1- .. tll'~ (lit.:
each ... his friend).
'rm;i:-'?~ iD'~ 1'10~"1 they said one to another ... (Exod r 6: r 5)
1'f.1t;l::l.-iD'~ 1~~'.?1 and they shall stumble over one another
(Lev 26:37)
1;,p-,'?-w~ 1'7~iD'J they asked each other (Exod 18:7)
Vocabulary I 2 7 3
i17?l$ (irreg. pl. nii17?~) female slave
n1N (pl. ninl~) path
JiN~ pride. Verb: ill$~ to be proud, arrogant
i1~~ (pl. nil'~~) hill
3Ziir (fs; pl. usually nil'iip arm
npi~ (ms) sign, omen
... idol
?;;:tj? assembly. Verb: ?;Jj? to assemble
NW? emptiness, vanity. Idiom: N1lf? in vain
iitv (irreg. pl. C'"'!Jtp) bull
?Nbip left, left hand, left side
r,#l_P (ms or fs; pl. nin;l.P) Sabbath, rest
illlJ to be( come) angry. Idioms: X? ~~ illlJ, X became angry
(lit.: the nose of X became hot); hence, also X? ;,in,
became angry; but x::i illlJ, be I become angry with X
tv~~ to draw near, approach
jiW~ to kiss (object marked by?)
1~l' Hi.: to bear witness, testify. Nouns:,~ witness;
nii~ testimonies.
N~j2 jealous. Verb: N~j? Pi.: to be jealous, be zealous. Noun:
ilij~j? jealousy.
2 74 I Lesson XX I V
Exercise 24
a. Write the following forms in Hebrew:
I. Pi. impf . .3 ms of Yj?~ 16. Pi. impv. fs of 11~
2. Pi. impf. 2 fs of lVj?~ 17. Pi. impv. mp of 11~
3 Pi. inf. cs. of lVj?~ 18. Pi. impf. 3 ms of i19f
4. Pi. impv. ms of lVj?~ 19. Pi. impf. 1 cs of i10:l>
5 Pi. coh. r cs of lVj?~ 20. Pi. inf. cs. of i10:l>
6. Pi. inf. cs. of T~?? 21. Pi. impv. mp of i1?f
7. Pi. impf. 3 mp of T~?? 22. Pi. impv. ms of i1i:ll
8. Pi. impf. 3 mp of iti?? 23. Pi. inf. cs. of i11:ll
9. Pi. impv. ms of i;:i9 24. Pi. juss. 3 ms of i1J
IO. Pi. impv. fs of i;:i9 25. Pi. impv. ms of ii;,~
I I. Pi. inf. cs. of ii1o
- T
26. Pi. impf. 3 ms of i'W~
12. Pi. impf. 3 fp of iti?? 27. Pi. impv. mp of i'W~
13. Pi. impf. 3 ms of 11~ 28. Pi. act. ptc. fs of i7:
14. Pi. impf. 1 cs of 11~ 29. Pi. impf. 3 ms of i1?~
15. Pi. inf. cs. of 11~ 30. Pi. impv. fs of i1'TT
b.Translate Deut 5:1-33 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: i',JD'? to tell.
v 9: :"1)Dl:1rn~', you shall not bow down;tl"J=;l.PD t-li'71 and you
shall not be made to serve them.
v 15: 71~~~1 but (subject) brought you out.
v 16: l?'i~~ (subject) may be prolonged.
v 21: i11~r:,n t-li?l you shall not covet.
v 27: n~, (read e~1).
v 29: 16-9 would that (or "if only..."; a common idiom).
Lesson XXV
1. The Hiphil Imperfect
As in the Hiphil participle (XVI.12), the characteristic his no
longer apparent in the Hiphil imperfect; it has dropped out prob-
ably in a manner similar to the disappearance of the h of the defi-
nite article after a prefixed preposition (VI.2.b): thus, ''"?'t,'j?1J'~ >
?'t,'j?~. . .
a. Strong Verbs
Unlike the Qal imperfect (XVIII.2), there is no distinction be-
tween the imperfect of dynamic and stative verbs. The Hiphil
imperfect of all strong verbs is inflected the same way.
3 ms ?'t,'i?~ 3 mp ~?'f:'i?~
3 fs ?'t,'j?tl 3 fp i1~7~i?tl
2 ms ?'t,'j?tl 2 mp ~?'f:'i?tl
2 fs '7't:'j?tl 2 fp i1~7~i?tl
I CS ?'t,'i?~ I cp ?'t,'j?~
Note: Whereas the long i in the perfect appears only in the third
person forms (XV I. I), it appears in all forms of the imperfect, ex-
cept the 3 fp/ 2 fp.
b. I-Guttural Verbs
Unlike the Qal imperfect (XIX.r ), there is no distinction in the
Hiphil imperfect between verbs of the 1~ type and those of the
P!IJ and ?~l$ types. The Hiphil
imperfect of the I-Guttural verb
1~ (to stand) is inflected as follows.
276 I Lesson XXV
3 ms 1'7:'~ 3 mp ~1'7:'~
3 fs 1'1:)IJ 3 fp ;'1l1~l'r-l
T : -: -
2 ms 1'1:)IJ 2 mp ~1'1:)IJ
2 fs ''"!'1:)IJ 2 fp ;'1l1~l'r-l
T : -: -
I CS 1'1:)~ I cp 1'1:)~
Note: Even though the Qal imperfect of 1~ also has the a-vowel
in the preformative, there should be no confusion between the im-
perfect forms of Qal and Hiphil. The thematic vowel in the Hiphil
imperfect is always i ore, whereas in Qal it is always 6 or a.
Qal Hip hi/
1b~ he will stand 1'1:)~ he will cause to stand
:ipbIJ they I you will :in~IJ they/you will cause to
stand stand
In the r cs forms, the distinction between the Qal and Hiphil is
clear in the preformative, as well.
Qal Hip hi/
I will stand
1'1:)~ I will cause to stand
c. I I I-Guttural Verbs
The Hiphil imperfect forms of such verbs are predictable: the
furtive pdtab appears, as expected, e.g., 1}'7tp~.
Hiphil Imperfect I 277
d. III-=>AJep Verbs
The Hiphil imperfect forms of such verbs are regular, except that
the 3 fp/2 fp form is :i~N7?13, not *:,~Nj7?13, as one might expect.
e. III-He Verbs
The Hiphil imperfect forms of such verbs are regular for their
type (XIX.3). The Hiphil imperfect of III-He verbs :,~l (to be
many) and:,? (to go up) are inflected as follows.
3 ms :,~.,~ :,?~
3 fs :i::i,r:i
... : - :,?13
2 ms :,~113 :,?13
2 fs ':;2113 '713
I CS :,::iiN
... : - :,?~
3 mp ~::ii~ ~'~
3 fp :il'::Jir:i
T : -
T : -: -
2 mp ~:::1113 ~'13
2 fp :il'::Jir:i
T '.' : -
T '.' - : -
I cp
Note: Whereas the Hiphil imperfect of :i;1 (i.e., :,~1~) is easily
distinguished from the Qal (i.e., :i;r1:), the same is not true for
doubly weak verbs that are both !~Guttural and III-He (like i1?.Y).TT
In the case of such doubly weak verbs, the Hiphil imperfect
forms (e.g., :,?~) are generally identical to their Qal counter-
parts; only in the r cs forms are they distinguished from one an-
other, since the vowel in the preformative of the Hiphil is a,
whereas it is e in Qal.
278 I Lesson XXV
Qal Hip hi/
il?~ I will go up il?~~ I will cause to go up
f. I-Waw Verbs
Given what we have learned so far of the Hiphil of 1-Waw verbs
(see XVI.8), the imperfect forms are predictable. The first radical
(w) contracts with the a-vowel of the preformative to form 6, in
accordance with IV.2.c.iii.!3. For the root :nz.;, (original "'"wsb,
dwell, sit), therefore, we get "'"yawsib > yosilJ. Thus, the Hiphil
imperfect forms are :J'tpi', :J'tpir-1, and so forth.
Note: The verb 1?iJ behaves like a I-Waw verb (XIX.5.c); the
imperfect forms are 1'7i', 1'7ir-l, and so forth.
g. I-Yog Verbs
Given what we have learned so far of the Hiphil of I-Yog verbs
(XVI.9), the imperfect forms are predictable. The first radical (y)
contracts with the a-vowel of the preformative to form e, in accor-
dance with IV.2.c.iv.!3. For the root :n,, (to do well), therefore,
we get "'"yaytib > ye#I?. Thus, the Hiphil imperfect forms are :I'~'~,
:I'~'~, and so forth.
h. I-Nun Verbs
Given what we have learned so far of the Hiphil of I-Nun verbs
(XV I. 7 ), the imperfect forms are predictable: the first radical n is
assimilated into the next radical. For the root ill (to tell), we get
"'"yangid > yaggit}. Hence, we have the forms,,~~,,,~!.:), and so
forth. Doubly weak verbs that are both I-Nun and III-He will, of
course, show characteristics of both root types. Thus, for the verb
il~~ (smite), the imperfect forms are il~~' il~J.:), and so forth.
j. 11-Waw/Yog Verbs
Whereas the 11-Waw and 11-Yog verbs are distinguished in the
Qal imperfect (XIX.7.b), they are not distinguished in the Hiphil
Hiphil Imperfect I 279
imperfect. The forms of the Hiphil imperfect of c,p (to arise) and
C'W (to place) are as follows.
3 ms C'j?~ C'lV' T
3 fs C'j?ZJ C'lVT-1
2 ms C'j?ZJ C'lVT-1
2 fs '~'i?ZJ '~'V)T-1
I CS C'j?~ C'lVN
3 mp '7''j?~ ~1''iv' T
3 fp ilt~'i?T;l m,5,tz..,z:i
T : :
2 mp '7''j?ZJ ~7,'V)T-1T
2 fp ilt~'i?T;l m,5,tz..,z:i
T . :
I cp C'j?~ C'lVl T
1. Occasionally, a shorter form of the 3 fp/ 2 fp form is found,
e.g., il~7?~ZJ instead of ilt~'j?J;l.
II.The vowel of the preformative is normally T, but when it is
propretonic (as when a suffix is added), it is reduced to,.
C'j?~ but ilt~'i?T;l (Hi. impf. 3 fp/ 2 fp)
C'j?~ but W~'i?~ (Hi. impf. 3 ms+ obj. sfx. 3 ms/J cp)
N':;2~ but ,3~,:;i~ (Hi. impf. 1 cs+ obj. sfx. 3 ms)
2. The Hiphil Jussive, Waw-Consecutive,
and Cohortative
a. Unlike the Qal and Piel, the Hiphil jussive and Waw-consecu-
tive forms are clearly distinguished from their counterparts in the
imperfect inflection.
280 I Lesson XX V
i. In most cases, the difference is merely a shift from yaq?fl to
Root Imp(. fuss. Waw consec. Meaning of root
,~w ,.,~lp~ ,~lp~ ,~lp~J to destroy
1lJ ,.,~~ ,~~ ,~~J to tell
ii. Verbs that are I I I-Gutturals prefer the a-vowel instead of e.
Root Imp(. fuss. Waw consec. Meaning of root
n,w IJ"?lp~ n'?lp~ n'?lp~J to send
YlJ ~.,~~ y~~ y~~J to touch
n,J IJ"~: m"-T
to rest
iii. III-He verbs lose the final il, and the accent is retracted.
Root Imp(. fuss. Waw consec. Meaning of root
;,:ii il::21"
. :- :iT :i1~J to be many
;,7.~~ '~~
il?Y '~~J to go up
;,:n ilf.~ 1~J to strike
a. The form :J1?. developed as follows: yarbe(h) > *yarb
(XX-4-d.i; XXl.1.a) > yereb. We may note that the develop-
ment of *yarb > yereb is analogous to the development of
*malk > mele~ (see V.2.a). By the same token, the form?~~'
because of the presence of the guttural, developed like
*nacr > ndcar (V.2.a.Note): *yacl > ydcal.
13. The Hiphil forms can often be distinguished from the Qal
(see XX-4-d).
Hiphil Jussive, Waw-Consecutive, and Cohortative I 28 r
Qal Hiphil
:iii, and he became
. - :::i~.;.J and he multiplied
However, many forms cannot be distinguished.
Qal Hiphil
7~~J and he went up 7~~J and he caused to go up
Nl~J and he saw Nl~J and he showed
'Y The form 1~ {let him strike) developed as follows:
*yanke(h) > yakke(h) (IV.2.b) > *yakk > ya~ (V. r.a\.
iv. 1-Waw verbs generally show retraction of the accent in the
Waw-consecutive forms, but not in the jussive.
Root Imp(. fuss. Waw consec . Meaning of root
::nz.;, :J'tpi' :::iwi' :::itp,'J to dwell
~,,;, ..
Y1' Y1i' Y11'J to know
:,,, :,,;,
,;, ii'J to throw
b. The Hiphil cohortative is predictable: :"l?'t?i?~
3. The Hiphil Imperative
a. As we have already learned, the Qal and Piel imperatives are
closely related to their corresponding imperfect forms. In fact,
it looks as if the imperative form is the imperfect without the
282 I Lesson XXV
Imp(. Impv.
Qal ?bj?T:l ?bj?
Piel '~i?l;l '~i?
The Hiphil imperative may be thought of in the same way, but
one should also remember that the characteristic h of the Hiphil
has disappeared in the imperfect. For instance, the 2 fp imperfect
:i;7P.j?Jj is derived from an earlier form, * :i;7P.j?:Jl;l. Thus, the fp
imperative is :,~7P.j?iJ. In other words, the imperative is still
marked by the characteristic h, even though the imperfect is not.
The Hiphil imperative of strong verbs, therefore, is inflected as
ms ?j?i] mp '''~j?i]
fs '7'~j?i] fp n;?P.i?iJ
Note: The ms imperative is ?j?i], even though the 2 ms imper-
feet is ?'~j?lj.
b. The forms of the Hiphil imperative are as follows.
Root ms fs mp fp
,~w ,~lptl ,,,5wn
.. : - ,,,~lpi] i1li5wn
T : : -
i~Y ,~~i] ,,,~Yil
.. -: - ,,,,;,~;:i illi~Yil
T : -: -
n,w M?lpiJ 'rJ'7lpiJ '"'7lpiJ illn?Wil
T: - : -
N:!m N~7?i] '~'7?iJ ~N'7?iJ illN:!l~il
T .: -
il:Ji il~liJ ':lliil
. :- ,::11::i ill':llii1
T t :-
ill ,~i] ,-p~i] ~,,~i] illiiil
:Jll)' :2wi;,
... ...
'::;J'tpiil T:
:JO' :J'i] '::;J'~'iJ ~:J'~'iJ ill:JO'il..
c,p Cj?.:J '7;)'i?O '~'i?O ;,;7?i?.O
Hiphil Infinitives I 28 3
4. The Hiphil Infinitives
Whereas in other verbal patterns, the infinitive construct form
tends to coincide with the ms imperative, in the Hiphil it is the
infinitive absolute that coincides with the ms imperative.
Root Impv. Inf. abs. Inf. cs.
,~w i~tpD i~tpD ,,~tpD
:,1,) :17):1
.. -
: :17.10 ni'7 1;:i
1)) ,~;:i ,~;:i ,,~;:i
:::!W' :::iwi;, :::iwi;, :::!'Jpii1
C1j? Cj?.iJ Cj?.iJ C'j?iJ
Note: The infinitive absolute form i1!11i1 (from i1:::!1 be numerous)
.. :- T T
is often used adverbially, meaning "abundantly" or "frequently."
5. Synopsis of Verbs in Hiphil
The following is a synopsis of the principle forms of verbs in the
Hiphil verbal pattern.
Root Per(. Imp(. fuss. Impv. Inf. abs. Inf. cs. Ptc.
,~w 1'~tp;:, 1'~tp~ 1~tp~ 1~tpD i~tpD 1'~tpD 1'~tp~
1~Y 1'~~v ,~~ ,~D
1'~~ 1~D 1'~D 1'~~
nl;,w IJ'?tp0 nlztp~ n?tpD
IJ'?tp~ IJ?.tpD IJ'?tpD IJ'7tp~
N'.lm N'7?0 N'7?~ N~7?~ N~7?D N~7?D N'7?D N'7?~
;,:ii i1!11i1
T ; '
;,:~n~ :::i-r ;,;"1;:t ;,;"1;:t ni:::1"1;:t i1f-"1~
1)) 1'~0 1'~~ ,~~ 1~;:t 1~;:t 1'~;:t 1'~~
::Ill)' :::!'Jpii1 :::!'Wi' :::iw;, :::iw;;i :::iwi;, :::!'Jpii1 :::!'Jpi~
:::11'' :::!'~'iJ :J'~'~ :J~'~ :J~'iJ :J~'iJ :J'~'iJ :J'~'~
C1j? C'j?iJ C'j?; Cj?.; Cj?.iJ Cj?.iJ C'j?iJ C'j?~
284 I Lesson XXV
6. Translation of 1
We have learned so far that the conjunction 1 (in its various
forms) means "and" or "but." However, it must also be apparent
that 1 cannot always be translated just so.
a. Often one must rely on the context to tell what the function of
the 1 is. It is, in fact, used in a variety of ways.
i. copulative, meaning "and"
t'Ji'.7~1 i1Wb Moses and Aaron (Exod 4:29)
Note: In a series of nouns, the copulative 1 is usually repeated
before each noun. Occasionally, however, it may appear only
with the last noun.
ii. alternative, meaning "or"
'~t;i9~1 ';t'1:;:i.P your male servant or female
servant (Exod 20:ro)
iii. adversative, meaning "but"
Cl;?T)l P:,00 i'?,' a poor but wise youth (Eccl 4:13)
iv. explicative, meaning "that is"
;~-.,~~ Cl' .Itii1 ',::,:i
., : - S" T
in the shepherds' vessel which he
had, that is, in his pouch
(1 Sam 17:40)
v. circumstantial, meaning "while," "when;' or "with"
i""I::i l',t'I~ :rnp-~:;>l l~sl and he went with all the wealth
of his master in his charge
(Gen 24:ro)
lii;lD '~ipiTn~ CJ;:?~D~:p fn and when you heard the voice
from the midst of the darkness,
~~9 1p:l iViJl liD.hiJ while the mountain was burning
with fire (Deut 5:23)
Translation of i I 28 5
CliT' l'1-Cll' Cli?ib
I\'." ,.. T \
J .. :
those who speak peace with their
friends, while evil is in their heart
In some instances, it is appropriate to translate the, as if it were
a relative particle.
ii? i9tzJ, n~ ilj?,:::!1?, Now Rebecca had a brother whose
name was Laban (Gen 24:29)
b. When , links verbal clauses in a narrative sequence, there are of-
ten more clues as to their function.
i., + verb that is inflected for number and gender (including the
Waw-consecutive) indicates a conjunctive sequence. In this case,
the conjunction may be translated as "and;' "then;' "that;' or
"so that" - according to the rules given in XX.2-3, 5; XXI.8;
ii. , + any other form - including participles, infinitives, the neg-
ative particle 26, and so forth - indicates a disjunctive. In that
case, the, may serve several functions (see XIII+b; XX.6}.
a. to highlight contrast
p. to introduce a new scene
'Y to introduce a parenthetical comment
Note: Occasionally the disjunctive , may clarify its preceding
clause by giving a reason.
Do not detain me since Y H W H
has prospered my way
(Gen 24:56)
c. In poetic texts,, sometimes introduces a comparison.
P9~'? r1~J ci,i'?, ci9~ (As) the heaven for height and the earth
for depth, so is the mind of kings
,pr.r r~ ci:;'?9' ::i71 unsearchable (Prov 25:3)
286 I Lesson XX V
d. Sometimes , is purely stylistic and should not be translated.
"J::::l..l) ::::i.~ .p~ l'9tD i1f;1.l?l But now hear, 0 Jacob, my servant,
Israel whom I have chosen
i:;i n1r:9 '?~1ii:n
(Isa 44:r)
...... cedar
,~n# young man
i1?m:p young woman
N;~ (pl. ni'~~) valley
ll] festival
- ""T
CN? (pl.: C'7P~7) people
"lF~ sunrise, east
cii~ height, high place. Verb: c~, to be high
N'W; prmce
C~;l step, occurrence
1071 table
to mumble, meditate
Cnl Pi.: to comfort
n':?9 to forgive
TW to arrange, lay out
Exercise 2s I 287
Exercise 25
a. Write the following forms in Hebrew:
I. Hi. impf. 3 mp of l.'~t_p 16. Hi. impf. 3 ms of:,~~
2. Hi. impv. mp of l.'~t_p 17. Hi. impf. I cs of i1::)J
3. Hi. impf. 3 fp of 1~ 18. Hi. juss. 3 ms of:,~~
4 Qal impf. 3 fp of 1~ 19. Hi. impf. 1 cp of 1~~
5. Hi. impf. 3 ms of i1? 20. Hi. impv. ms of 1~~
6. Qal impf. 3 ms of i1? 2I. Hi. inf. abs. of 1~~
7. Hi. impv. fs of i17l.'
22. Hi. impf. 3 fp of Ni:':!
8. Hi. impf. I cs of i17l.'
23. Qal impf. 3 fp of Ni:':!
9. Qal impf. I cs of :1? 24. Hi. juss. 3 ms of i17~
IO. Hi. impf. I cs of :rw~ 25. Hi. juss. 3 ms of i17l.'
I I. Hi. impf. I cs of :mv 26. Qal juss. 3 ms of :1?
12. Qal impf. I CS of :ntzj 27. Hi. inf. cs. of ::J~~
I 3. Hi. impv. ms of ::J~tV 28. Hi. impv. fs of ::J~~
14. Hi. inf. cs. of i17l.'
29. Hi. impv. ms of i1::Ji
I 5. Hi. inf. abs. of i17l.'
30. Hi. inf. cs. of i1::Ji
b. Translate Psalm I with the help of a dictionary.
c. Translate Psalm 23 with the help of a dictionary.
v 3: :i;:iiib' he restores.
d. Translate Psalm r 48 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: '.J~l:lJ1 and they were created.
v I 3: :l,~(l.)J exalted.
Lesson XXVI
1. The Niphal Pattern
The Niphal verbal pattern is characterized by the presence of
a Nun that is either prefixed or infixed and assimilated.
a. The Nun is prefixed in the perfect, participle, and one form
of the infinitive absolute: ?~p~, ?f;?p~, ?bp~.
b. The Nun is infixed and assimilated in the imperfect, imperative,
the infinitive construct, and one form of the infinitive absolute:
? (< *?P.~t), ?P.rei'.I (< *?P.~~i'.I), etc.
2. The Meaning of Verbs in Niphal
a. Reflexive. The Niphal verb frequently indicates action for or
concerning oneself. Thus, the subject is also the object of the verb.
i;,7?~ he sold himself
- : . he shut himself in
Also subsumed under this category are a few verbs that may be re-
garded as tolerative, where the subject allows an action to affect
himself or herself.
i0H he let himself be warned
w1p he let himself be sought
b. Reciprocal. In some instances, the Niphal verb suggests
~,:Pl~ they spoke with one another
~oq7~ they fought with one another
c. Passive. The Niphal is frequently used as the passive of a verb
that is active in Qal.
i;j?~ he was buried ?;>~~ he was devoured
Meaning of Verbs in Niphal I 289
In many instances, the Niphal passive is impersonal - no subject
is explicitly stated.
- .:. it was said
10Nl ,;;,~a it was eaten
d. Resultative. In some instances, the Niphal indicates a state re-
sulting from the action produced by the verb. In this usage, the
Niphal sometimes indicates potential.
?;;>~~ is eaten > is edible
T :
is seen > is visible
Since the Niphal may indicate resulting state, it is not surprising
that many Niphal participles function as adjectives.
Root Niphal Participle
N1' to fear, be afraid N1il feared, terrible
T'::J to perceive 7i::::i~ perceptive
TON to be firm 11?~~ firm
e. Middle. Some verbs are used in such a way that the object ap-
pears to be the active subject.
o;,'J'P 1ryp:::m and your eyes will open (Gen 3:5)
D"Ot?iJ '1nI'lE)J the heavens opened (Ezek r: r)
1}? .l)j?-::Jn6, but no cloud split open (Job 26:8)
Although it is possible to interpret the same verbs in other con-
texts as passives (i.e., "to be opened;' "to be split open"), they are
clearly not passive in the above examples. Whereas an agentive
subject is involved in the passive, there is no agent in the middle.
The point in the middle verb is not that someone acts on the
object (active), nor that the subject is acted upon (passive), but
that the object acts on its own as the subject.
290 I Lesson XXVI
3. The Niphal Perfect
a. Strong Verbs
The original *naq(al pattern has been dissimilated to niq(al. The
Niphal perfect of the strong root, then, is inflected as follows.
3 ms ',~p~ 3 cp ~,t,,p~
3 fs il?t?P~
2 ms ~7~P~ 2 mp ci.,7~p~
2 fs T;l7~P~ 2 fp Tl.:)7~P~
I CS 'l:l?~P~ I cp ~l?~i?~
b. I-Guttural Verbs
When the first radical is a guttural, one usually finds the compos-
ite sewil:> ..., , instead of the silent , . Moreover, the vowel with the
prefixed Nun is influenced by the composite sewil:, ... , so that it is
changed from . to ... (thus, 1~~). The Niphal perfect of 1~ (to
stand), then, is inflected as follows.
3 ms 103.'l
- ::. 3 cp ~10Yl
: ..
3 fs il10l.'l
T: . .
2 ms T-1103.'l
T : - :::
2 mp Cr-110Yl
... :- :::
2 fs r-110Yl
: : - ::.
2 fp Tl.:)1~~
I CS 'T-110Yl
. : - .:. I cp ~l10Yl
: - ::.
1. The 3 fs il17?~ and 3 cp ~17?~ are formed in accordance
with XIX.r.d.i.
Niphal Perfect I 291
11. Some verbs tolerate a silent , under the guttural, but the
vowel under the Nun is still ....
:nprn (he reckoned) N~r;ta (he hid himself)
m. Occasionally, the original na- prefix prevails.
QN~m (you hid yourself).
c. 1-Waw Verbs
Since the original pattern was *naqtal, we understand the Niphal
perfect form nolaq. (from,;,< original *i?i) to have developed
as follows: *nawlaq. > nolaq. (IV.2.c.iii.f3). The Niphal perfect of
i7~ (to bear), then, is inflected as follows.
3 ms i7il 3 cp ,,,il
3 fs ili?il
2 ms r-1,?il 2mp cr-1,,il
... :-
T :-
2 fs T-li?il
: :-
2 fp T~17il
I CS ,z:1,?il
. :- I cp 'l1?il
d.11-Waw/Yog Verbs
11-Waw and 11-Yog verbs are not distinguished from one another
in the Niphal perfect. The Niphal perfect of 7,::, (to prepare) is
inflected as follows.
3 ms 7;:,~ 3 cp
3 fs illi5l
2 ms 2 mp Ct)ili:J~
2 fs nil,:J~ 2 fp JQili:J~
I CS 'Z:,i],:J~ I cp ,Ji],:J~
292 I Lesson XXVI
Note: An additional o (i) precedes every consonantal afformative,
thus opening the syllable and causing the afformative r-1 to be spi-
rantized (see
Other weak roots are regular for their types (see XIV.2,3 ).
4. The Niphal Imperfect
a. Strong Verbs
The characteristic Nun is infixed and assimilated: *yinqatel >
yiqqatel. The Niphal imperfect of the strong verb, then, is
inflected as follows.
3 ms ,re: 3 mp ~'9ir.:
3 fs ,rer:i 3 fp ~~7~rer:i
2 ms ,rer:i 2 mp ~'t.'ir.f:l
2 fs '?t;'ir.f:l 2 fp ~~7~rer:i
I CS ,re~ I cp ,re~
b. I-Guttural Verbs
Since gutturals and Res cannot take the strong dages, the i-vowel
in the preformative is compensatorily lengthened. The Niphal im-
perfect of ::J! (to forsake) is as follows.
3 ms ::JTl''
3 mp ~::JTl''
3 fs :inm
3 fp ~J::JTl'r-1
T: - T
2 ms :in,r-i
2 mp ~:inm
: IT
2 fs '::JTl'r-1
2 fp ~)::JTl'r-1
T: -T ''
I CS ::JTl'N
I cp ::JTl')
Niphal Imperfect I 293
c. 1-Waw Verbs
Since the original first radical (1) is preceded, it is retained
(I V.2.c.ii). The Niphal imperfect of 1?~ (to bear) is inflected
as follows.
3 ms ,,'!\,
3 mp '!\1,'!\'
: IT'
3 fs ,,'!\r-i
3 fp ;n,5'!\r-i
T :-T'
2 ms ,,'!\r-i
2 mp '!\1,'!\t-,
: IT '
2 fs ,,,,r-i 2 fp :1)15'!\r-i
T : - T'
' : IT '
I CS 1?'!\M
T '."
I cp 1?'!\J
d.II-Waw/Yod Verbs
11-Waw and 11-Yoq. verbs are not distinguished from one another.
The Niphal imperfect of l'!\::l (prepare) is inflected as follows .
3 ms li::l: 3 mp '!\J1::>:
3 fs 7i::>r:, 3 fp -not attested-
2 ms 7i::ir:, 2 mp '!\Ji3r:,
2 fs ,~,::ir:, 2 fp -not attested-
I CS li::l~ I cp Ji::>~
Other weak roots are regular for their types (see XIX.2,3).
5. The Niphal Imperative
There is an anomalous hi- prefix in the Niphal imperative forms,
which sometimes causes confusion with the hi- prefix in the
Hiphil. The difference between the Hiphil imperative and Niphal
294 I Lesson XXVI
imperative forms, however, is in the assimilated Nun in the first
The following is a synopsis of the Niphal imperative forms.
Roots ms fs mp fp
,~w ,~l9i1
": IT
: IT
T :- T
:m., :JT1'i1 ""T
':JWil :1T 00
T: -T
Y~lV Y~l9i1
- T
: IT
~Y~Wil: IT O
T: - T O
N1m N?~il T
: IT
~N?~il: IT
T "" T
il?l i1?l\i1 T
'?l\il T
~?l\il T
T "" T
ym TOF1 'lmil ~ln3i1 i13n3i1
,,, 1?1i1 T
" : IT
: IT O
: IT
: IT"


y,:, yi::ii'.J '~iii'.! ~liii'.I
6. The Niphal Infinitives
a. There are two forms of the infinitive absolute, one with a pre-
fixed Nun and the other with an infixed and assimilated Nun:
?bj?~ and ,brei'.1,
b. The infinitive construct is ~~rei'.J.
The infinitives of weak roots are regular for their types (see
XXIl.2.b; XXIII.2).
7. The Niphal Participle
a. The Niphal participle of the strong verb is inflected as follows.
ms ?~i?~ mp 0'7~i?~
fs n?~i?~ fp ni,~i?~
Niphal Participle I 29 5
Note: The ms participle '?t;p~ should not to be confused with the
perfect 3 ms ?~j?~; the former has a long a. Since the vowel be-
fore 111-=>AJep is iengthened ('~N7?~ > N7?~), however, the partici-
ple of I 11-=>AJep verbs cannot be distinguished from the perfect 3
ms. The ms participle of 11-Waw/Yog verbs (Ti::>~) also cannot be
distinguished from the perfect 3 ms (Ti:J~).
b. The Niphal participle of the III-He verb il?~ (to uncover) is
inflected as follows.
ms il?,H mp 0'7~~
(s il?ll
(p r,;,~~
8. Synopsis of Verbs in Niphal
Root Per(. Imp(. Impv. Inf. Abs. Inf. Cs. Ptc.
,r.,w ,~v,;~ ,r.,u.;, T
! T''
" T '
T :
::JTY ::2!,?. ::JTl7'
-:- T ''
''T ''
l'::JtV l'~lp~ l'~tf'.' Y::JWil
- T '
- : -T
T :
Nm N?1'l
T : N7~'.' N?~il T N?7?~/N7~;:t N?~;:t N?1'l
T :
il?~' '." T"
il?~il T
T '
T il?~~
1m m~ rnr 10~;:t 7ir-WHHD HHD HP
,,, i'?il ,,~, T'
,,~il T
-not attested- i'?~il
,,il T
7,:i Ji:l~
296 I Lesson XXVI
i1~1~ (also '1~; pl.: 0'~1~) lion
T~~ (fs; with sfx: ilf?~) belly, body
i.i7.l meeting-place, assembly
T. (fs; fp.: 0'~) (she-)goat
Hi.: to devote to the ban, utterly destroy. Noun: 010 ban
to suckle. Noun: p~;, infant
to remain; Ni.: to be left
Ni.: to be prepared, established, firm; Hi.: to prepare, in-
stall, establish. Noun: 7;:,~ place, support
to do battle; Ni.: to fight
Ni.: to prophesy
Ni.: to be scattered, go astray; Hi.: to scatter, disperse
Ni.: to hide oneself, be hidden; Hi.: to hide
f'i9 Ni.: to be dispersed, scattered
N?9 Ni.: to be marvelous, extraordinary (fp. ptc: niN?~~ won-
ders). Noun: wonder .
to encounter, meet (= I I Nl~; inf. cs. nN1i?7 to meet)
- T
Ni.: to be exterminated; Hi.: to exterminate
Exercise 26 I 297
Exercise 26
a. Write the following forms in Hebrew:
I. Ni. perf. 3 ms of Y~lp 15. Ni. perf. 1 cs of CIJ?
2. Ni. ptc. ms of Y~lp 16. Ni. perf. 1 cs of Y~lp
3 Ni. perf. 3 fs of ~Q~ 17. Ni. impv. mp of Y~lp
4. Ni. perf. 3 cp of ~Q~ 18. Ni. perf. 3 ms of i1~9
5 Ni. inf. cs. of :JW
19. Ni. inf. cs. of ill~
6. Ni. impv. fs of ~Q~ 20. Ni. impf. 1 cp of i1~9
7. Ni. perf. 3 ms of 7~::, 2I. Ni. perf. 2 ms of N~~
8. Ni. ptc. ms of T~::l 22. Ni. impv. ms of N:Jl
9. Ni. perf. 3 fs of f~9 23. Ni. inf. cs. of N:Jl
IO. Ni. ptc. fs of f~9 24. Ni. impf. 1 cp of N~~
II. Ni. impf. 3 mp of f~9 25. Ni. perf. 3 fs of l71~
12. Ni. impf. 1 cs of f~9 26. Ni. ptc. ms of l71~
13. Ni. perf. 2 mp of f~9 27. Ni. inf. cs. of Yi'
14 Ni. impf. 3 mp of CIJ? 28. Ni. perf. 3 cp of l7~~
b. Translate Genesis 3 2 with the help of a dictionary.
v 5: 1cr~1 < ,o~~J
v 8: i? ,~~f1 and he became anxious.
Lesson XXVII
I. The Hithpael Pattern
The Hithpael verbal pattern is characterized throughout by an
infixed t and the doubling of the second radical: hifqat(el.
2. The Meaning of Hithpael Verbs
a. Reflexive. The Hithpael verb frequently describes action on or
for oneself - that is, the subject of the verb is also its object.
'!\N~IJ~i'.l they hid themselves
'!\'IVli?~i'.l they sanctified themselves
There are some reflexive verbs, however, where the subject is not
the direct object. Indeed, a direct object (something) may be
t,W;>~~1 and he stripped (something) from himself
'!\j'l~~i'.l they tore (something) from themselves
Also subsumed under this category of reflexives are a few verbs
that may be regarded as tolerative, where the subject allows an
action to affect himself or herself.
i;:?~~i'.l he let himself be sold
b. Reciprocal. In some instances, the Hithpael verb implies reci-
'!\ilpj?~i'.l they conspired with one another
they looked at one another
c. Iterative. Often the Hithpael verb suggests repeated activity.
1':?iJ~i'.l he walked about
1P.iJI:li'.l he turned back and forth
Meaning of Hithpael Verbs I 299
d. Estimative. Sometimes a Hithpael verb describes how one
shows oneself or regards oneself, whether in truth or in pretense.
i1?n sick
ni1rtri;,;:i to pretend to be sick
'1~i17 a Jew C'1~~J;l7;l professing to be Jews
3. The Hithpael of the Strong Verb
Apart from the characteristic elements mentioned in section r
(above), there are no surprises in the inflections of the strong verb.
a. Perfect
3 ms ?~j?l'.l;:l 3 cp ~?tpj?Z:,iJ
3 fp i1?tpi?Z:,iJ
2 ms ~7~i?Z:,iJ 2 mp Cl]?tpj?J;iiJ
2 fs r;,7tpj?J;iiJ 2 fp ll:)7tpj?l'.liJ
I CS 'l:17~iZJ;iiJ I cp ~J?~iZJ;iiJ
b. Imperfect
3 ms ?~jZl'.\: 3 mp ~?tpjZl'.\:
3 fs ?~jZJ;il:l 3 fp i1~7~iZZ:,l:I
2 ms ?~jZJ;il:I 2 mp ~?tpjZl'.ll:I
2 fs '7tpiZZ:,l:I 2 fp i1~7~iZZ:,l:l
I CS ?~jZZ:,~ I cp ?~jZm
Metathesis and Assimilation of the Infixed Tiiw I 301
b. Verbs with one of the dentals (1, t,, n) as the first radical show
assimilation of the infixed t into that dental.
*i;ir;,~ > i;i~ (one) conversing
*~,n~r;,D > ~,nfPD they purified themselves
*C~.ljr;,r:, > C~.ljr:, you show yourself blameless
Assimilation also occurs sporadically with other radicals, notably
Nun and Kap.
.. - : . > NW3'
* Nll>'ln' .. -. he shall exalt himself
*~N:p~r;,D > ~N:P~D they prophesied
*i1t:>::>nr-i .-. it will be concealed
.-: . > i1tl>:l>T-I
5. The Hithpael of Weak Verbs
a. I I-Guttural and I I-Res Verbs
Since gutturals and Res cannot take the strong dages, the vowel
preceding the second radical is compensatorily lengthened (X V.3 ).
11iZ:,~ he will bless himself
'l:1t'lZ:,iJ I washed myself
There are also a few instances where one finds virtual doubling
instead of compensatory lengthening.
~lliJfPiJ we cleansed ourselves
b. I-Waw Verbs
Since the first radical of the root is preceded by -r;,D, -r;,~, or -r;,~,
it is retained (IV.2.c.ii), e.g., Y'=!1l;l~ I will make myself known
(Hith. impf. r cs of 111' < original *Y11). On the other hand, the
original w is irregularly changed toy in some instances, e.g., ~::i~~z;,~
they consult with one another (Hith. impf. 3 mp of fY' < *fY1).
302 I Lesson XXVII
6. Synopsis of Verbs in Hithpael
Root Per{. Imp{. fuss. Impv. Inf. Ptc.
w,p W1j?l'.1i:t W1i?I;l'.' W1i?I;l'.' W1j2I;li:t W1i?I;li:t W:U?I;l7;)
11.ltl) ,~J=ltl)i1
.. - : . ,~Zjlp'.' ,~Zjlp'.' ,~T-1tl)i1
.. - : . ,~Zjtpi'.I ,~r-,tl)1,l
.. : .
,,:1 11.;i;,i'.1 11.;i;,~ 11.;i;,~ 11.;i;,i'.I 11.;i;,i'.1 11.;?;17;)
it',) it'9inil
T-: i1i~i;,~ '~t;i'.' i1~~I;li:t ni'9~r;ti'.I i1i~r:t7;)
7. The Hishtaphel Pattern
There is another reflexive verbal pattern in Hebrew known as
Hishtaphel. It is, however, attested only for the root il1n, which
occurs only in this pattern, meaning "to bow down, do obei-
sance, worship." This verb (which occurs 170 times) has been ana-
lyzed in BDB as a reflexive of the root i10W, with the metathesis
of the infixed t and the sibilant (s). From external evidence dis-
covered in this century, however, most scholars have concluded
that this important verb is traced to the root mn. There is, to be
sure, a root i1nW (to bow down) attested once in Qal and once in
Hiphil, but that root appears to have been secondarily derived
from il1nT-IWi1.
T-: - :
The following forms of mn are attested.
a. Perfect
3 ms mnr-1wi1
T-: - : 3 cp :,inr-1wi1
-: - :
2 ms n'inmlii1
T -: - :
Hishtaphel Pattern I 303
b. Imperfect
3 ms mnz:nz,;,
.-: - : . 3 mp '!\inr-iv,;,
-: - : .
2 ms ilJQl.:llpT:I 2mp '!\inz:nvr-i
-: - : .
r cs mnr-nvN
:-: - : ...
I CS ilinmvl
:-: - : .
c. Imperative
fs '1Ql.:llpi'.I
d. Infinitive Construct: ri1Ql.:llpi'.1
e. Participle
ms ilinr-iwi:,
.-: - : .
f. Waw-consecutive
Note: '!\n~ip~ and '!\n~tpl:I are derived from the apocopated forms
*1nl.:)tp' and *1nl.:)tpl:I, respectively. They should not be identified
as plural forms, which would be '!\1Ql.:llp~ and '!\1Ql.:llpf:I.
304 I Lesson XXVII
8. Oaths
a. An oath may be introduced simply by some form of the verb
Y;tp; (i.e., Ni. of the root Y:nzj to swear).
i. If the oath is positive, the substance of the oath is introduced
by '~ (surely).
".;:, iibij?:l 'i11i1" 't1~ l';liDJ My lord YHWH swears by his
i... holiness: "The days are coming
D?' ;.p D"t9 D'9: i1,Ji1
upon you!" (Amos 4:2)
1n.9~'.? '1';:i?~ i1Ji1';i l)l':;liDJ You swore by YHWH your God to
your servant: "Solomon your son
'JO~ 1'?a" lP i19?w--;:, shall reign after me!" ( 1 Kgs 1: 17)
Sometimes instead of ':P one finds Cl~ ':P or N7 Cl~.
'? ii9El~:l nit:9~ i1,li1' l';idJ Y H W H of Hosts swears by
Tr~'?a-o~ himself: "I will fill you"
(]er 51:r4)
-o~ -i9~'? nit:9~ i1,1i1' l';J.Qi: YHWH of Hosts swears, saying:
' ' ' . i.; "As I have intended, so shall it be"
i1t:1:;:J j?. "n"D"1 "1\l]~~ ~ /
(Isa 14:24)
ii. If the oath is negative. Y~tp; is followed by Cl~ instead of ':P
1$~n--o~ ';l' n';J? 'nl';iw: I swear as regards the house of Eli:
"The guilt of the house of Eli will
"7l'-n':i 1W
not be expiated" (1 Sam 3:14)
b. An oath may also be introduced by one of the following oath
formulae, instead of Y;tp;.
;,i:,, 'IJ As YHWH lives
'IJ As I live
C';:i7~ 'IJ As God lives 9lP~~ 'D By your life
?l{ 'IJ As God lives :,i'll) 'D By Pharaoh's life
Oaths I 305
i. If the oath is affirmative, the oath formula is followed by ':;,.
'i1'i1n t:J'10:, ::::i~iry:, ... :i~-n
: : 1 < : T 1 T -
As I live: "Moab shall become
like Sodom" (Zeph 2:9)
Sometimes the oath formula is followed by C~ ':;, or 16 C~, in-
stead of':;,.
1~f;.lt i1]iT'-Cl~ '~ iTjiT~-,0 As YHWH lives: "YHWH will
smite him!" (1 Sam 26:10)
As I live: "What you have spoken
into my ears I will do!"
(Num 14:28)
ii. If the oath is negative, the oath formula is followed by C~,
instead of ':;,.
iT{O 1~~r.,-c:i~ 'illi""];l 'D By the life of Pharaoh, "You
shall not depart from here!"
(Gen 42:15)
c. A maledictory oath (a curse) may be introduced by one of the
following curse formulae.
~'l;)i' il:ll ilP; il\p~~ il::l Thus YHWH will do and add
~ more!
~'l;)i' il:ll C';:i'~ il\p~~ il::l Thus will God do and add more!
J'!\t>'l;)i' il:ll C';:i'~ J'!\tv~~ il::l Thus the gods will do and add
i. If the statement is affirmative, the substance of the curse is
usually preceded by ':;,.
'19i' iT~l Cl'[f'?~ iT(?'~:-iT~ Thus God will do and add
more: "You will surely die!"
(1 Sam 14:44).
306 I Lesson XX VII
Sometimes the substance of the curse is introduced by N, C~,
instead of ''.l).
Thus will God do to me and add more:
"You will certainly become the com-
mander of the army" (2 Sam 19:14)
ii. If the statement is negative, the substance of the curse is intro-
duced by C~, instead of ''.ll or C~. N'
i1'.?l 'cl'ii?~ ;1",-i1ip,P' i1'.? Thus God will do to you and add
,, more: "You shall not hide any
i~l ~oa i!J::;>rro~ =roi' thing from me" (1 Sam 3:17)
iiN (mp: niiiN) treasure, treasury, storehouse
n7,1 nintp door
(fs; fp:
ilt;l'.I (pl. C'tpr:i) wheat
,~ lamp
i'1R harvest. Verb: iJR to harvest.
il?l'.11;1 beginning. Verb: '11J Ni.: to be profaned; Pi.: to profane;
Hi.: to begin
i191J to seek refuge
::11~ Hith.: to position oneself, stand
Ni.: to be hidden, effaced; Pi.: to hide; Hi. to hide
i;i~ Ni.: to be recognized; Hi.: to recognize, acknowledge.
Noun: '"P~ foreigner
::i;~ Ni.: to stand. Noun: i1~~ standing stone
Vocabulary I 3 07
[??j?] (Qal perf. 3 ms ?jZ) to be slight, swift; Pi.: to curse. Noun:
il??P curse
Y~lp to be satisfied, satiated. Adjective: l!~lp full, satisfied
Ni.: to swear
l~~ because, on account of (also ity~ l~~ because [that])
'lJ7t when? (also 'lJ7t-i~ until when? how long?)
Exercise 27
a. Write the following forms in Hebrew:
I. Hith. perf. 3 ms of i~7t 12. Hith. ptc. mp of i11~
2. Hith. impf. 3 mp of i~7t 13. Hith. impf. 1 cs of l.'1~
3. Hith. impf. I cs of ,~w 14. Hith. impf. 1 cp of P1
4. Hith. perf. 3 cp of YjZ~ I 5. Hith. impf. 3 fs of ':J;llp
5 Hith. perf. 1 cs of ?1~ 16. Hith. inf. cs. of il?;J.
6. Hith. ptc. ms of 1~'1 17. Hith. impf. 3 ms of Tl~
Hith. ptc. ms of 11~
7. Hith. perf. 3 ms of i11~ 18.
8. Hith. perf. 3 cp of 1iJt_.? 19. Hisht. perf. 3 ms of il)O
9. Hith. impf. 3 mp of 1iJf..? 20. Hisht. impf. 3 ms of il)O
IO. Hith. ptc. ms of 1iJ~ 21. Hith. juss. 3 ms of il?~
I I. Hith. impv. mp of 1iJf..? 22. Hisht. impv. ms of i11n
b. Translate 1 Samuel 3 with the help of a dictionary.
v 2: ~?f.1i1 began.
V II: i1r/~rl (subject) will tingle.
v 12: '?r,i) the beginning.
1. Geminate Verbs in Qal
Like geminate nouns (V. I), geminate verbs have identical second
and third radicals. There are generally two types of geminate
verbs in Qal: one corresponding to the qa(al-yiq(ol (dynamic verb)
type in strong roots, and another corresponding to the qa(el-
yiq(al (stative verb) type (XVIII.2). The following are some im-
portant examples of the two types.
Type A Type B
to surround ce to be complete
to curse no to be shattered
to mix ,~ to be bitter
to measure 'iZ to be small, be swift
,,J to wander :::21 to be numerous
to devastate Yi to be bad
a. Perfect
In Type A (e.g., :::2~9 to surround) the geminate radical is repeated
in the third person forms, whereas the other forms indicate gemi-
nation only by means of the dages. Type B verbs (e.g., the root
con to be complete, Qal perfect 3 ms Ce) indicate gemination in
all forms by the dages. The 3 ms form of this type shows the loss
of gemination in a manner similar to the noun C~ (see V.1.a):
thus, *tamm >tam.The Qal perfect of the geminate roots :::2~9 (to
surround) and ce (to be complete), representing Types A and B,
respectively, are as follows.
Geminate Verbs in Qal I 3 09
Type A TypeB
3 ms ::::i::::io
-T ce
3 fs i1:::2:::20
i1ar-tT -
2 ms n1::llQ
T -
2 fs ni::llQ niae
r cs
'1:,1::llQ ,z:,,al.:)
3 cp ~::::i::::io
2 mp CQi::llQ cniar-i
... -
2 fp TQi::llQ TQial.:)
< <
I cp ~l1::llQ ~liae
1. Besides forms like ~::::i~~' we also get~,,~ (with the simple
vocal sew,f>).
11. Before the consonantal suffix, one again finds the additional
i (see, although it may occasionally be omitted,
e.g., ~l7?~ (from earlier *mp~, see VI.7) for ~li~ti (we are
111. If the second radical cannot be doubled by a diiges, one gets
compensatory lengthening (e.g., 'Z:,ii~ I cursed).
1v. There are inconsistencies in the representation of gemina-
tion: sometimes the geminate radical is repeated, but some-
times gemination is indicated only by a diiges. For example,
one finds '~~:99 and '~~i!Q as alternate forms without any
difference in meaning. Moreover, for the 3 ms, we get the
form no, but the forms with suffixes show gemination by
the diiges (e.g., '~).1::1 he has been gracious to me).
b. Imperfect
The proper inflections of the imperfect of ::::i::::io and Ct.ln are pro-
vided below. Many geminate verbs, however, form all or some of
310 I Lesson XXVIII
their imperfect forms so that they end up looking like I-Nun verbs,
e.g., :it>~ (like 79~; XIX.4.a) instead of :::io:; ~~~~ instead of ~~5~.
Most grammars, therefore, present the alternate forms (those that
look like I-Nun imperfects) alongside the regular forms, and one
is expected to learn two possible inflections of the imperfect for
each verb. It is easier, however, for the student not to memorize a
second set of imperfect forms for each of the types. Rather, one
should simply assume the following inflections as paradigmatic for
geminate verbs, and take the alternate forms as secondary. Should
a form like cl:r~ be encountered in reading, one who does not rec-
ognize the verb may assume a I-Nun root C1l; but failing to locate
such a root in the dictionary, one may then conjecture that the
root is actually c~, (to be silent, with the imperfect formed as
if the root were C1l). The Qal imperfect of the verbs :::i:::ic (to sur-
round) and c~n (to be complete) are inflected as follows:
Type A TypeB
3 ms :::10' T
3 fs :::ibr-, T
2 ms :::ibr-, T
2 fs ':;ior-i T '7P5e
3 mp ~:::20' T
3 fp ilJ':::lCr-1
T . -.. :
T . -
2 mp ~:::ior-i T
2 fp ill':::20.r-l
T . .._ :
T : -
I cp ::lb] T
Note: Gemination (indicated by adages) is evident only in the
forms with afformatives; forms without any endings do not show
gemination at all. Not surprisingly, too, when an object suffix
Geminate Verbs in Qal I 3 I I
is added to a form without the afformative, the gemination is,
again, indicated by adages. Thus, :lb~ he will surround (Qal
impf. 3 ms) but'~~!?.; he will surround me (Qal impf. 3 ms+
1 cs object suffix).
c. Imperative
The imperative forms are, as one would expect (X XI. 3 ), like the
corresponding imperfect forms without the preformative: thus,
:lbl.;) (imperfect) but :lb (imperative); ClJ.!:) (imperfect) but Cl.:)
Type A Type B
ms :lb Cl.:)
fs ' .;20 '7Pl3
mp ~::26 ~~1.:1
fp :1J:lb
T : -
1. Some forms that are normally stressed on the penultima are
anomalously stressed on the ultima. Hence, we get the 2 fs
forms '~IJ l;oggi (celebrate!), 'n
ronni (shout!),,~~ gozzi
(shear!), etc.
11. When a suffix is appended to the imperative, we get forms
like '~)IJ l;onneni (be gracious to me!), :.;:r~~9 sollziha (pile
It up ')
d. Infinitive
Type A Type B
Abs. :li:lOT
Cs. :lb
Cs. with sfx. '::20
. ' '~r-1
. ,,
Note: Infinitive construct forms that repeat the geminate radi-
312 I Lesson XXVIII
cal - that is, the qelol type (like ii~ "to wander, wandering") -
are also attested.
e. Waw-consecutive
The accent is consistently retracted (from the ultima to the penult)
on the Waw-consecutive form of Type A, but not of Type B (see
XX.4). In Type A, the retraction of accent causes the long o-
vowel in the ultima to shorten too, e.g., :Jb~ yasob (jussive) but
:J9~1 wayyasob (Waw-consecutive). The Waw-consecutive form
of Type B does not typically retract the accent, but forms like
1~1 (from 111 "to be pressed") are attested.
Type A TypeB
f. Participle
The participles of Type A geminates are regular (VIII.3.a). Those
of Type B, however, are irregular.
Type A TypeB
Act. :J~b 0':J:Jb
. -: Cl.:) 0'7Pl.:!
...... ni:J~b ;,~r-i
T -
Pass. :J'!\:JOT C':J'!\:JO
. :
T :
2. Geminate Verbs in Niphal
The Niphal forms of geminate verbs show the expected prefixed
or infixed and assimilated Nun (see XXVI.1): prefixed in the Per-
fect and Participle; infixed and assimilated in the Imperfect, Im-
perative, and Infinitive.
Geminate Verbs in Niphal I 3 I 3
a. Perfect
3 ms 3 cp
3 fs
2 ms niilOJ
T -:
2 mp cni::IOJ
. - :
2 fs ni::ir;_,~ 2 fp H)i:.:ir;_,;
1 cs 'l'.liilr;_,~ 1 cp ~Jiilr;_,~
1. Besides the regular forms (with the a-vowel in the second
syllable), there are a few verbs with e in the second syllable,
e.g., O~t (it melted), ili~~ (it has turned itself). There are also
isolated examples of 3 cp forms with o in the second syllable
(e.g., ~~3.t they were rolled together; ~f5t they were
11. A few geminate verbs have Niphal perfect forms with the
*niqtal pattern, such as *nin~at > nm (it was shattered) and
*nin~alta > ~?ti~(you were profaned), both with virtual
b. Imperfect
3 ms :z~~ 3 mp ~::!~~
3 fs :z~r:i 3 fp ill'::11:>T-I
T "" -
2 ms :z~r:i 2 mp ~::i~r:,
2 fs ':;l~T:I 2 fp ill'::11:>T-I
T t -
1 cs :z~~ I cp :z~~
314 I Lesson XXVIII
1. Besides the regular forms (with a as the thematic vowel),
variants with o as the thematic vowel (like Ti::Jr:,) are also
11. When the first radical is a guttural or Res, there is compen-
satory lengthening, e.g., *yinbat > ntr~ (it shall be shattered);
~~~~ (they shall rise), lli~ (he is ill-treated).
c. Imperative
mp t:l!;1;:t
fp ill'fa:)il
T . - '
d. Infinitive
Absolute: :Jit:l;:t Construct: :J~;:t
Notes: When the first radical is a guttural or Res, there is com-
pensatory lengthening, e.g., *hinbill > ?tJiJ (to be profaned, pro-
e. Participle
ms :JOl
mp C'~Q~
fp ni::iQ~
Note: We also find the type ?j?.~ (with the vowel e in the second
syllable), but the fs form is still il?iZ~, not * il?i?.~.
3. Geminate Verbs in Hiphil
The Hiphil forms of geminate verbs show the expected h prefixed
in the Perfect, Imperative, and Infinitive forms, but not in the Im-
perfect and Participle.
Geminate Verbs in Hiphil I 3 r 5
a. Perfect
3 ms :l~?tl 3 cp ~:::lg!J
3 fs il:::lOil
2 ms ni::lOil
T . -: 2 mp oni:::ioil
... . -:
2 fs ni:::lOil
. -: 2 fp H)i:::ii;,q
< <
I CS 'J'.11:::ll;)q I cp ~)1::lOil
. -:
1. An a-vowel is sometimes found instead of e in the second
syllable, particularly when the geminate radical is a guttural:
Y1D (he acted wickedly).
11. When the geminate radical is a guttural or Res, the preced-
ing vowel in the second and first person forms is lengthened
from i toe: QiY1q (you acted wickedly).
b. Imperfect
3 ms ::20' ""T
3 mp ~:::20' T
3 fs ::20.r-,
.. T
3 fs il)':::20r-'l
T "" :
2 ms ::20.r-,
2 mp ~:::io.r-,
2 fs '::!Or-'l
2 fp il)'::!Or-'l
T , :
I cp ::20) T
1. An a-vowel is sometimes found instead of e in the second
syllable, particularly when the geminate radical is a guttural:
Y1~ (he will act wickedly).
11. Besides the :Jg~ type, a variant imperfect like ::2~~ is also
3 1 6 I Lesson XX VI II
c. Imperative
ms :JCi1 T
mp t:lCi1 T
fp i1l'::2Ci1
T : -:
d. Infinitive
Absolute: :JCi1 T
Construct: :JCi1 T
With Suffixes: ':;ll;>t!
Note: An a-vowel is sometimes found instead of e in the second
syllable, particularly when the geminate radical is a guttural: Y1D
(to act wickedly, acting wickedly).
e. Participle
ms :JP.~ mp C':;!1;)7?
fs i1::IC~
T :
fp ni::11;>7?
Note: An a-vowel is sometimes found instead of e when the
second radical is a guttural: l.'1~ (one who acts wickedly).
f. Waw-consecutive
The Waw-consecutive forms of geminate roots are sometimes
confused with the Hiphil Waw-consecutive of 11-Waw /Yog
verbs, e.g., Y1!J (and) he acted wickedly (root Yl.'1) or (and) he
shouted (root l.'11).
4. Geminate Roots and Other Roots
It is clear that geminate verbs are frequently confused with other
weak verb types, especially I-Nun and 11-Waw/Yog. Consider
the following examples.
Geminate Roots and Other Roots I 3 I7
:it>: Qal impf. 3 ms of JJO, not JOl
7~1: Qal impf. 3 ms of Jl1, not J11
fi1~ Ni. perf. 3 ms of f'.ll1, not f11
,~w: Qal impf. 3 ms of ,,w, ,,w
1,D.rJ Ni. impf. 3 fs of 1,1,n, not 1,n,
: -
Qal Waw-consecutive 3 ms of 11'.ll, not 1'.ll'
1>"1 Hi. Waw-consecutive 3 ms of 11>, not 11>
: T -
~~tr Qal impf. 3 mp of c~n, not ;mn
It is simplest at this stage in the study of Hebrew not to memorize
the exceptional or mixed forms. Rather, when an unknown form
is encountered, the root should be reconstructed according to the
regular paradigms. But when one is unable to locate the root in
the dictionary, one should consider a geminate root. Thus, for ex-
ample, ,~w~ is assumed first to be a Qal impf. form of ,,w,
when it is learned that no such root is attested, one may then try
11W. By the same token, one may assume that fi1~ is a Niphal
form of f11; but when one learns that f11 never occurs in Niphal,
one may try f'.ll1. Many geminate verbs, it should be noted, have
genuine alternate roots (with the same semantic range) that are
11-Waw/Yog or III-He. Examples include the following.
O~;_;.t, C~i1 to be in turmoil
11, 1~'.ll to tie, be in distress
J~l, ;,;l to be numerous
.:qtp, ;,aw to err, go astray, sin inadvertently
318 I Lesson XX VIII
7inl$ (fs; fp: ni)in~) (she-)ass
i'H' herd, flock
to curse
77::l to mix, confound
[C~1] (Qal perf. 3 ms C1) to be silent
[noo] (Qal perf. 3 ms ntl) to be shattered, be dismayed
11~ to measure. Noun: ;"11,? measure, measurement
:::i;i9 to surround, go around, turn
t,1z' to escape; Pi., Hi.: to bring to safety. Nouns: t,'7' fugitive;
:it;'?~ escape, what has escaped/survived
Hi.: to break, frustrate
n1 to jubilate, shout for joy
[Y~l] (Qal perf. 3 ms Y1) to be bad, be evil; Hi. to act wickedly,
do mischief
11W to destroy, devastate
c~w to be desolate, be appalled
:iRw Hi.: give drink, irrigate
[C~~] (Qal perf. 3 ms C.(:\) to be complete, be whole, be finished.
Adjectives: C~, C',?~ complete, blameless. Noun: CT-I in-
tegrity, completeness
'?~N perhaps
Exercise 28 I 319
Exercise 28
a. Write the following forms:
I. Qal perf. 2 mp of ::i;9 I I. Hi. impf. 1 cs of??!;!
2. Qal impf. 3 mp of ::i;9 12. Hi. ptc. ms of ??!;!
3. Qal perf. 1 cs of ??j? 13. Qal perf. 1 cs of i11$
4. Qal perf. 3 cp of ??j? 14 Hi. perf. 2 ms of ??!;!
5. Hi. perf. 2 ms of :1;9 15. Hi. inf. cs of ??n
6. Ni. impf. 3 mp of ??j? 16. Hi. impf. 3 ms of??!;!
7. Qal perf. 3 ms of C~~ 17. Qal impv. mp of i11$
8. Ni. ptc. fs of ??j? 18. Qal impf. 3 ms of Yi1
9. Hi. perf. 3 ms of ??!;! 19. Ni. impf. 3 ms of Yi1
IO. Hi. perf. 2 ms of Y~1 20. Hi. impf. 3 ms of Yi1
b. Translate Ruth 1 with the help of a dictionary.
Lesson XXIX
1. The Pual Pattern
The Pual verbal pattern is the passive counterpart of the Piel.
Piel Pua/
i~r:t he joined ,~n
- , it was joined
i~:p he expiated ,~~ he was expiated
Like the Piel, the Pual verbal pattern is characterized by the dou-
bling of the second radical, but verbs in the Pual pattern are also
marked by an u-class vowel with first radical. The u-class vowel
in the verb, in fact, may be seen as an indicator of the passive -
as we have already seen in the Qal passive participle, ?'!lt,j? qatul.
a. Perfect
3 ms '~i?. 3 cp '!l?tpj?
3 fs ;i?tpi?.
2 ms ~?~i?. 2 mp C~?~i?.
2 fs l;l?~i?. 2 fp T~?~i?.
I CS 'T:l?~i?. I cp '!ll?~i?.
1. Before gutturals and ,, we get compensatory lengthening of
u > 6 (e.g., 11::2 he was blessed; '!llVll they were driven out)
or virtual doubling (ft11. he was washed; ;,~01. she was
u. Occasionally, o (T ) may be found in the first syllable instead
of u: as in '!1~~ they were covered (from ;-re:,), instead of *'!1~~-
Pua/ Pattern I 32r
b. Imperfect
3 ms 1,~j?7 3 mp ,1,tpj?7
J fs 1,~Rr;, J tp i1~7~Rr;,
2 ms 1,~RT;l 2 mp ,1,tpRT;l
2 fs '7tpRT;l 2 fp i1~7~Rr;,
I cs 1,tpR~ r cp 1,tpR~
Note: Before gutturals and,, we get compensatory lengthening
of u > o (e.g., 11:l~ he will be blessed), or virtual doubling
(e.g., CIJ't he will be pitied).
c. Participle
ms ?~R1? mp C'7~R1?
fs i1?~R1? fp ni,~R1?
1. The fs participle of the n'.?WR1? pattern is also attested.
11.Before gutturals and , , we get compensatory lengthening
of u > o (e.g., n~i!J7?).
Synopsis of Verbs in Pual
Root Per{. Imp(. Inf. abs. Inf. cs. Ptc.
::Jll ::J~l
-, ::J~l'
-.. :

T "

T "-.:
,,, ,,,

,,,~ :
322 I Lesson XXIX
2. The Hophal Pattern
The Hophal verbal pattern is the passive counterpart of the
Hiphil Hophal
1'~::i he told 1;l:1 he was told
:i::>:, he struck
:i::>:, he was stricken
T ,,
Like the Hiphil, the Hophal verbal pattern is characterized by the
prefixed h in the perfect and infinitives, but Hophal verbs are also
marked by an u-class vowel with first radical. This u-class vowel
may be o ( T ), u (. ), or u (~), depending on its environment.
i. Before a strong radical it is usually o.
177?v (Ho. Perf. 3 ms of 1?~) he was made king
Not infrequently, however, it is u instead of o.
17lt'D (Ho. Perf. 3 ms of 1?1Zl) he was cast out
ii. Before I-Guttural or I-Res it is o.
N#T;IV (Ho. Perf. 3 ms of N::Jn) he was hidden
T '' : T
(Ho. Perf. 2 ms of :"INi) you were shown
iii. Before I-Nun it is u.
1~D (Perf. 3 ms of 1ll) he was told
When the Nun is unassimilated, however, we find o instead of u.
'T-l?lil:i (Perf.
: - : T
I cs of ?nl) I was alloted
iv. For I-Waw/Yog, II-Waw/Yog, and Geminate verbs it is u.
1Q~:1 (Perf. 3 ms of 10') it was founded
n~~:, (Perf. 3 ms of n,~) it was killed
1tp~:, (Perf. 3 ms of 111Zl) he was destroyed
Hophal Pattern I 323
Synopsis of Hophal Verbs
Root Perf Impf Inf. abs. Inf. cs. Ptc.
,ow ,ow:,
- : T
- : T
: T
T : T
,:a, ,:nm -T: T
T: T
:,',:i :,',:i:, :,',:i, :,',):, :,',:ir.,
T:T .: T : T .: T
,o, ,g~:, ,g~, ,g~:, ,o~o T
1lJ ,rm
-,. ,1,
-, ,1:,
..... ,1:,
-.. 1.:\0 T',
c,p Cj?~:, Cj?~' Cj?.~:, c~~o
3. The Qal Passive
A few verbs which are frequently confused with Pua! and Hophal
are, in fact, vestiges of an old Qal Passive verbal pattern. In gen-
eral, we know that these verbs are Qal Passives because they cor-
respond to verbs in Qal, not Piel or Hiphil. If a form occurs in
Qal, but not in Piel or Hiphil, and seems to be the passive of the
verb in Qal, then the verb is probably a Qal passive. For example,
since we know from context that '7:::.iN - ' means "it was consumed"
(not "it was fed;' or the like), and the root does not appear in Piel,
forms like ',~~ are almost certainly Qal passives.
As another example, we note that the verb JnJ does not occur at
all in Piel or Hiphil, but Jlj~ (he I it was given) occurs several times.
If the verb were Hophal, one would expect to find at least some
examples of JnJ in Hiphil. Moreover, the meaning of Jtl~ (derived
from contexts) suggests that y.r,:r is the passive of Qal, not Hiphil.
Analogous to Jtl~, we have a form like nre~
(he was taken).
Again, the verb does not appear in Piel or Hiphil. The correspond-
ing perfect is nre?, a form apparently pointed as a Pual, although
there is no evidence that the root np? was formed like the I-Nun
group outside the Qal verbal pattern (so the Niphal 3 ms is nj??~,
not *nre~). nre~
If is a Pua! imperfect, one would expect i it *nre?~;
324 I Lesson XXIX
were Hophal, the perfect of the nre?. type (i.e., without the pre-
fixed h-) is problematic. Finally, it should be noted that the partici-
ple nre?. is attested - without the -~ prefix that one would expect
for the Pual or Hophal participles. Thus, it must be concluded that
forms like nre?. and nre?. are Qal passives, not Pual or Hophal.
The following are examples of Qal passive forms.:
Root Perf lmpf Ptc.
1?:,N 1?:llN
- ... 1?:ilN' 1?::iN
,,, ,,,-..

- :

T .,
"v' nre?. nre?. nre?.
7rn rn~.
4. Conditional Sentences
A conditional sentence consists of two clauses: a first that states
the condition or supposition (the "if-clause" or protasis), and a
second that states the consequence (the "then-clause" or apodosis).
a. Real Conditions
Conditions that are real, realized, or realizable are typically intro-
duced by C~ in the first clause. The second clause may be intro-
duced by ,, but sometimes , is left out.
1ry1 9i, -~',n-ci~
-citr1 n:, If you will go with me, (then) I will
go; but if not, (then) I will not go
17~ ~~ '9l' -~'?r.i ~~
(Judg 4:8)
If you detain me, (then) I will not
eat your food (Judg 13:16)
Less frequently, a real condition may be introduced by ':P or liJ or,
rarely, ,w~-
Conditional Sentences I 3 2 5
1J:n::m ~'? rv~ ~~Dn-:,
,. :T. .J IT; . I'
If you meet someone, do not salute
him; and if any one salutes you, do
not answer him (2 Kgs 4:29)
=i~ CJxtp r-i~:;i p-:r~. m If the righteous on earth be recom-
~~im ~w-r~ pensed, how much more the wicked
sinner? (Prov 11:31)
... CJ?.":J:l 11?~tv 1ili~ If your children should ask ... (then)
CJ::i:i:1-n~ CJn~iii11 you shall let them know
r; .. . .. ,:. - .
(Josh 4:21-22)
b. Hypothetical Conditions
Conditions that are not real, realized or realizable are introduced
by ~7 (also N?.) "if" or '?~7 (also N?~7) "if not" in the first clause.
-~7 ':,jri"D;:17 i1Ji1~ fE:l!J ':,', If YHWH had desired to kill us,
(then) he would not have taken an
i1!J:lD1 i1?:P ':,j,:D n[?-; offering and a gift from our hand
(Judg 13:23)
n~! 1'?;,rv~ 19::ir:r 1'? If they were wise, (then) they would
understand this (Deut 3 2:29)
n;J~:l ClfltDl1J '~',:,', If you had not plowed with my
'DTn CJD~~D ~'? heifer, (then) you would not have
found my riddle (Judg 14:18)
Sometimes a conditional clause may be introduced without any
of the particles mentioned above. In such cases, the "if-clause"
and the "then-clause" may each be introduced simply by l-
i1p.'tv~ ~'?1 TJ::n If he blesses, (then) I cannot reverse
it (Num 23:20)
np1 1;:i~-n~ :i,r.;,1 If he leaves his father, (then) he will
die (Gen 44:22)
326 I Lesson XXIX
?1i!l (mp. ni?1ill) lot
?~ wave, heap (of stone). Verb:??! to roll
(also i1l':J) fish
?~t) idol, futility
;,;rr (with suff. -n~,~; du.: c~5~1~) rear, hindmost part
C'~~ (always pl.) bowels, entrails
r1i?. end
i~t reward, wages. Verb: i~t to hire
?iNtp Sheol, the underworld
Cii1T;l (fs or ms; fp: ni7:lii1l;l) deep, ocean, abyss
to drive out
'IV~IJ to bind, gird
t,~~ Hi.: to gaze, look
i1~~ to be free, innocent. Adjective: 'j?~ or N'j?~ innocent
','z, Hith.: to pray. Noun: i1'f~r;, prayer
flJ1 to wash
l.'1lf Pi.: to cry out for help
T -:
Ah! (Also N3N = Nl rlN, and i13N)
,~~ (cs. i~:p; with suffix. -1~~) through, around, on behalf of
Exercise 29 I 327
Exercise 29
a. Write the following forms:
I. Pu. perf. 3 cp of 1V1~ II. Ho. ptc. mp of :mv
2. Pu. impf. 3 mp of 'IV1~ 12. Pu. perf. 2 mp of 12~
3 Pu. perf. 3 cp of il~~ 13. Pu. perf. 3 ms of i1~1
4. Pu. impf. 3 ms of i10:ll TT
14. Ho. ptc. ms of me, T T
5 Ho. perf. 3 ms of il?~ 15. Ho. juss. 3 ms of ii~
6. Ho. perf. 3 ms of il~~ 16. .Ho. perf. 3 cp of N~O
7. Ho. impf. 2 mp of il~~ 17. Pu. perf. 3 cp of N~O
8. Ho. perf. 3 cp of il~~ 18. Pu. perf. r cs of n'2'*7
9. Ho. perf. 3 ms of ::ll!'IV 19. Pu. ptc. ms of M?'*7
IO. Ho. impf. 3 ms of m~ 20. Ho. perf. 3 fs of l2'*7
b. Translate Jonah r-2 with the help of a dictionary.
1:7: 'p',tz,;~ = ' l;J7 itp~~ (see dictionary under -tp).
2:4, 6: 'P=;lb' (subject) enveloped me.
Lesson XXX
r. Polel, Polal, Hithpolel
These verbal patterns are characterized by the presence of a long
vowel (o) after the first radical, the absence of the second radical,
and the duplication of the third: qolel, qolal, hitqolel. For I 1-Waw/
Yoc_i roots, these patterns tend to replace Piel, Pua!, and Hithpael,
respectively. Hence, although I 1-Waw/Yoc_i verbs are attested in
Piel, Pua! and Hithpael, they are relatively rare; the functions nor-
mally met by those verbal patterns are assumed by Pole!, Pola!,
and Hithpolel forms. Geminate verbs, too, are sometimes found
in the Pole!, Pola!, and Hithpolel patterns, rather than Piel, Pua!,
and Hithpael.
The various forms of the verb C~v (to arise) are as follows.
a. Perfect
Pole/ Pola/ Hithpolel
3 ms c~iv C~iv c~ivl'.li'.l
3 fs :i7t7?iv :i7t7?iv :i7t7?ivZ:,i'.l
2 ms ~??~iv ~??~iv ~7?~ivZ:,i'.l
2 fs l;l7?~iv 1:1?;,~iv 1:17;,~ivl'
. .'.l
I CS 'l:17.'~iv 'l:17;,~iv 'l:17.'~ivZ:,i'.l
3 cp ~1J7?iv ~1J7?iv ~1J7?ivZ:,i'.l
2 mp cry7?~iv cry7?~iv C~?;,~ivZ:,i'.1
.. .
2 fp 7ry7?~iv Jry7?~iv rn7;,~;vz:iD
.. .
I cp ~J7?~ii' ~J7?~1i' ~J7?~ii'Z:,i'.l
1. Except for the 3 ms, Pole! and Pola! forms cannot be distin-
guished from one another (compare XIII.2.i).
Pole!, Pola!, Hithpolel I 3 29
11. We also get forms like ~lJ~::> (they established) instead of ~l~i::,
and :i77,n (it has been pierced) instead of :it?h.
b. Imperfect
Pole/ Pola/ Hithpolel
3 ms c~iv'.' C~iv; c~ivlJ'.'
3 fs c~ipr:i C~ivl:I C~ivZ:,l:I
2 ms c~ivl;I C~ivl;I c~ipnr:i
2 fs '~T?ivr;i ,~~;pr-, '~7?ipnr:i
I CS c~ip~ c~ip~ C~ipl:,~
3 mp ~~~iv: ~~T?iv; ~~T?ivz;,:
<. <.
3 fp :"1~7?~ipr;i :,~,;,~ipr;i :,~,;,~ipz;,r:i
2 mp ~~~ivr:i ~~~ivr:i ~~T?ivz;,r:i
<. <. <
2 fp :,~,;,~ipr;, :,~7?~ipr;, :,~,;,~ipz;,r:i
1 cp C~ip~ c~ip~ c~iPJ;l~
1. Due to the reduction of the full vowel to sewa~ we cannot
distinguish between the active (Polel) and passive (Pola))
forms in the 2 fs, 3 mp, and 2 mp.
I 11. The frequently attested verb T~::, (to establish) may show the
assimilation of r, in some of the Hithpolel forms (see
XXVII.4), e.g., pi::>J:1 for pi::>Z:,l:\.
c. Other Inflections
Pole! Pola! Hithpolel
Impv. c~ip c~ip1:,;:i
Inf. cs. c~ip C~ipl:,;:t
Ptc. c~ip~ c~ip1:,~
330 I Lesson XXX
2. Pilpel, Polpal, Hithpalpel
These verbal patterns are characterized by the repetition of the
first and last radicals. Again, they correspond in function roughly
to Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, respectively. Verbs in these patterns
are mostly geminates, with a few that are 11-Waw/Yocj.
Root Pilpel Pol pal Hithpalpel
??l ,~7~ ?.:l?.U1il
,,p ?j?.?j?
.. : - : . to roll
to shake swiftly
,,:i 1,::,1,::,
.. : . to sustain
3. Minor Patterns
There are a few uncommon patterns.
a. Poel, Poal, Hithpoel
These verbal patterns are similar to the Polel, Polal, Hithpolel se-
ries, but they are built on triliteral roots: qotel, qotal, hitqotel.
Poel perf. 3 ms iD"JtD it has taken root (Isa 40:24)
Poal perf. 3 cp :itvjtv they have taken root (Jer 12:2)
Hithpoel impf. 3 mp '.ltv.P,tl' they surge (Jer 46:8)
b. Palal, Pulal
These verbal patterns retain all three radicals but also repeat the
third: qatfal, qutfal.
Pal al perf. 3 ms lj~~ it has been at ease (Jer 48:11)
Pulal perf. 3 ms '?;~~ it has failed (Joel 1:10)
Minor Patterns I 3 3 1
c. Pealal
This verbal pattern retains all three radicals but also repeat the
last two: qetaftal.
Pealal perf. 3 ms i!Ji!JO, it palpitates (Ps 38:II)
Finally, there are isolated and sometimes disputed examples of
other patterns, including patterns based on four radicals and
mixed forms. One should consult a reference grammar when
such forms are encountered.
4. Uses of':;>
The particle'~ is used a variety of ways.
a. It may introduce a causal clause, and so should be translated as
"because" or "for."
'i1t;1~ iY'J~ m~r D"W.;.i -~ because you have done this, you
are cursed (Gen 3 :14)
":l~ '?'?o~ "?. 'i1Ji1' ":l,~1) Be gracious to me, YHWH, for
I am languishing (Ps 6:3)
b. It may introduce an object clause after verbs of perception (to
see, hear, know, understand, etc.). In such cases,'~ may be trans-
lated as "that" or it may not be translated at all.
i1!;1~ bii'?~ ~:,.-:;:, 'rll'i: i1!;1~ now I know (that) you are a
I fearer of God (Gen 22:12)
c. It may introduce a clause stating the result of an action, and so
should be translated as "(so) that."
What were you thinking that
you were doing this thing?
(Gen 20:10)
332 I Lesson XXX
d. After a negative, it may be a strong adversative meaning "but."
i19~-n~ ~'Jpr:n~'? You shall not call her "Sarai;' but
(rather) "Sarah" shall be her name
i10W iiitv ,:, 'itv
1T: \TT ,. ATT
(Gen 17:15)
No, but you did laugh! (Gen 18:15)
This usage is related to C~ ':P (but rather, except):
'ii.V iP,~'. '::2p.P,~ ~'? Your name will no longer be called
"Jacob;' but rather "Israel"
'?~1~,-0~ '?. ~9w (Gen 32:29)
e.In temporal clauses (see XX.5), ':P may be translated as "when:
ptj~f li?.r'? ',iJ~J When Isaac was old ... (Gen 27:1)
f. In conditional clauses (see XXIX.4), it states a real condition,
and is translated as "if."
If you meet someone, do not salute
him; and if any one salutes you, do not
answer him (2 Kgs 4:29)
g. In some cases, it has an asseverative (emphatic) force, and may
be translated as "indeed;' "surely," "truly;' or the like.
W.P?.-JlQ~ '?'1~~t'? Indeed, vexation kills the fool! (Job 5:2)
Thus, too, ':P introduces affirmative statements in oaths (see
h. Sometimes it has a concessive force, meaning "though?'
"r:J9i?, 'r:J'?;l~ '?. though I have fallen, I will rise again
(Mic 7:8)
i. Sometimes it introduces direct speech and is, therefore, not
1.V ii,'.ii~-;, 'iO~\J He said: "I will be with you"
(Exod 3:12)
Vocabulary I 3 3 3
i1;;r (also il11L!) splendor, grandeur, adornment
,,~! (pl. ni,~T) song. Also ibJ~ psalm. Verb: i~! Pi. to make
ii~ forest
~il.' bird, fowl. Verb: ~~l.' to fly
,~:ll rock (mountain)
ii adversary
,;m world
iiN to become bright; Hi.: to illumine, shine
TIJi to test, try
iwi Pi.: to make known, bring news
?'~ to be joyful, rejoice
-T to bend the knee
ll~l to shake, tremble
Pi.: to test
ll~, Hi.: to shout. Noun: ilf~ir;i alarm, shout
TT to wander about, be confused
?~ not. Also '?.::Z without
Exercise 30
a. Translate Isaiah 6.
b. Translate Num 6:24-26.
r. Strong Verbs ""
Qal Niphal Piel Pua/ Hithpael Hip hi/ Hop ha/ ).
Perf. 3 ms 1,~R 1,~p~ 17Wj? 1,~p 17wi?i;i::t 1,,~j?;:t i,~po 3 ms "'t::...
3 fs i1?9i?. i1?9P~ i1?tpi? :-r?tpP i1?tpi?i;i::t i1?'~p;:t i1?9PO 3 fs ~
2 ms ~7~R ~7~P~ ~7~i? ~7~P ~7~i?i;i::t ~7~p;:t ~7~PO 2 ms
2 fs 1;17~R r;,7~p~ l:17~i? r;,7~p l:17~j?Z:,;:t r;,7~p;:t r;,7~po 2 fs
1 cs 'l:17~R 'l:17~P~ 'l:17~i? 'l:17~i? 'l:17~i?i;i;:t 'l:17~j?;:t 'l:17~PO I CS
3 cp :i179j?. :i1,9p~ :i17tpj? :i1,tpp :i1,tpj?Z:,;:t :i1,,~p;:t :i1,9p;:r 3 cp
2 mp cry7~p cry7~p~ C~7~j? cry7~p cry7~j?i;,;:t cry7~p;:t cry7~po 2 mp
2 fp rn7~P rn7~P~ 7ry7~j? 7ry7~p 7ry7~j?i;,;:t rn1?~i?::t 1ry7~po 2 fp
I cp :tJ?~R :tJ7~p~ ~J7~i? ~J7~i? ~J7~i?i;i::t :tJ7~p;:t ~J7~PO I cp
Impf. 3 ms 1,bp: 17re: 17Wj?; 1,~p; 17wi?i;i: 1,,~p~ 1,~p~ 3 ms
3 fs 1,t,pr:i 17rer:i 17Wj?T;l 1,~pr;, 17Wi?1:1l:I i,,~Pl:I 1,~p~ 3 fs
2 ms 17bj?J:I 17rer:i 17w~r:i 1,~pr:i 17Wj?l'.ll:I i,,~Pl:I 1,~p~ 2 ms
2 fs '79Pl:I '79i?.l:I '7tpj?T;l '7tppr;, '7tpj?i;,l:I '7'~i?l:I '79P~ 2 fs
I CS 17bj?~ 17re~ 17Wj?~ 1,~p~ 17wi?i;i~ 1,,~j?~ 1,~p~ I CS
3 mp ~1,9p: ~1,t?i?.: ~1,tpj?; ~1,tpp; ~1,tpj?i;,: ~1,'~j?~ ~1,9p~ 3 mp
3 fp n~76pr:i n~7~rer:i n~?~i?T;l n~7~pr;, n~7~i?Z:,T:I n~7~pe n~7~p~ 3 fp
2 mp ,,9pr:i ~'9W.T:I ''fPi?T;l ,,tppr;, ' fPi?Z:,T:I ,,,~pe ~,r,,p~ 2 mp
2 fp n~76pr:i n~'?~rer:i n~'?~i?T;I n~7tppr;, n~'?~i2l;IT:I n~7~pe n~7~p~ 2 fp
I cp ?bp~ ,re~ ?~j?~ ,~p~ ?~j?r;,~ ''~P~ '~P~ I cp
Impv. 2 ms ?b~ ,reD ?~j? '~i?Z:,iJ ,p;J 2 ms
2 fs '79~ '79W.iJ '?tpj? '?tpi?Z:,iJ '?'~~D 2 fs
2 mp
''9~ ''9W.iJ ''fPiZ ''fPiZZ:,iJ ,,,~~D 2 mp
2 fp n~76p n~7~reD n~'?~i? n~'?~i?J;li'.1 n~'?~i?D 2 fp
Inf. Abs. ?it,R ?breD ?bj? ?bp '~iZZ:,iJ ,p;J ,p;:i Abs.
?bp~ ?~j?
Cs. ?bp ,reD ?~j? ?~j?l:,iJ ''~PD Cs.
Ptc. Act. ?p '~i?1? ?~j?J;l~ ''~P~ Act.
Pass. ''t,R '9P~ '~Pl? '9P?? Pass. ;:i:..
wyq# ?bp~J ,re~1 ?~j?;J '~P;J ?~j?Z:,~J ?p!J '~P!J ;:::
Juss. ?bp: ,re:i '~i?; '~i?: '~i?Z:,: ?p~ '~i?: .......
2. I-Guttural Verbs ~
Qal Nip ha/ Hiphil Hophal '::i:..
Perf. 3 ms ,~Y- T i'IO ?:>N
. :: .... ,~Yil- T:IT
3 ms (I:>
3 fs ili~Y
T: IT il~rn il?:>N
T : IT
T: .1.
3 fs ><"
2 ms r-i,~Y
T :- T J!!i?IO T-l?SN
T: - T
T: -.-:r:
T :-::r:
T : - T:IT
2 ms
2 fs r-i,~Y
: :- T T;li?IO T-l?:>N
: : - T
: : -::,:
: :-.-:1:
: : - T:IT
2 fs
< <
I CS ,z:,,~y 'T:li?IO 'T-l?SN ,z:,:::irYl ,z:,,~yil ,z:,,~Yil CS
:- T : -T . : -::,: : - ."11: : - TIIT
3 cp 'ii~.Y
: IT 'ii'm 'i?:>N : IT
: .......
'ii~Yil : TIT
3 cp
2 mp cr-i,~Y
... :- -: C~j?ItJ CT-l?:>N
.: - -: CT-1::JTYl
.. -.. ,. cr-i,~Yil
... : - ::,: cr-i,~Yil
: : - TIIT
2 fp T~17'~ T~i?It! T~7~~ T~1I.J T~17'.w T~17'~~ 2 fp
I cp 'ili73Y
:- T 'ili?IO 'il?SN: - T
: -::r:
:-.-:,.- 'il,~Yil
: - TIIT
I cp
Impf. 3 ms ibY' ?~N; :JTY' ,,~y, ,~Y' 3 ms
-:,- i'IO.~ 00
Tr" . -:,- - TUT
3 fs ibYT-l ?~Nt-1 :JT.YT-l ,,~yr-,
. -:,- ,~yr-, 3 fs
-:,- i'IO~ ""Tl"" - T:IT
2 ms ibYT-l ?~Nt-1 :JTYT-l ,,~yr-,
. -:,- ,~yr-, 2 ms
-:,- i'IP.~ 00
Tl 00 - T:IT
,,~yr-, ,,,?3yr-, ,,~yr-,
2 fs . : -,- 'i?Ttm '?~Nt-1 ':JT.YT-l
:1Tt . -:,- 0
2 fs
.-:,. i'I0'5 ?~N :JT.YN
.. Tr
. -: ,- i~YN
- T!IT
3 mp 'ii~Y' 'i?:JN; 'i:JTY' 'i,,73y, 'ii~Y' 3 mp
: -,- 'ii'HJ.~ : :1Tr -u- : TIT
3 fp i1l1bl11-i
T : -:,- il~i?!t:!f! i1l75Nt-1
T: -Tr
T : -:1-
T ! - T! IT
3 fp
2 mp ~11'Jl11-i
: - ,- ~vrrf! ~7:;>Nt-1 ~:JTl11-i
: ITI""
. -:,- ~11'Jl11-i
2 mp
2 fp i1l1bl11-i
T : -:,- i11P!P~ :il75Nt-1
T: -
T: -TI""
T : -:1-
T : - T:IT
2 fp
I cp 1bl1J
-:,- vmJ 7;;lNj :JTYl
- T:IT
I cp
Impv. 2 ms 1bl1
-: P!D, 7:lN... :JTYil
.. -:,- 2 ms
2 fs .: .
'11'Jl1 'i?T'J '?:;,t:t ':JTl1i1
. -:,- 2 (s
2 mp ~,~~ ~PTIJ ~7:>N
: .
: !Tl ..
. -:,- 2 mp
2 fp i1l1bl1
T : -: il1PIO ilJ75N
T: .. ill:JTYil
T: -TI""
T : -:1-
2 fp
Inf. Abs. 1il'Jl1T
-:1- 11'Jl1il
.. -:1-
7:lNil Tl""
Cs. ib~ ',!)~ :JTl1il
"'T 1
. -:1-
Ptc. Act. ,~i? 7;?N 1'1'Jl11'J
Pass. ,~l'Jl1 ',~:>N :JTYJ 11'Jl11'J Pass. ~
T T T'."!1'.' TT: IT ~
wyqt/ 1b11,
-:,-- P!O.~J ',;;,N'J :JTl1'1
.. -:,-- ;::!
Juss. 1bl1'
-:,- vm.;. 7;;lN; :JTY'
.. -:,-
3. II-Guttural Verbs
Perf. 3 ms


Nip ha/
,r9~ l~~

ittl? ,~
Pua/ Hithpael
3 ms
3 fs ilin::i
T : T :IT:
3 fs
2 ms r-tin::i
T :- T
T :- :
T :-
T ! -
T: -T :
2 ms
2 fs r-tin::i
: :-T T;l1t9~ T-IJN?J
: : - .. T;l1D1? T;l~1~ r-t:ii::inil
: ! -T ! '
2 fs
I CS 'r-tin::i
:- T 'l:11t9~ 'l:I~~~ 'T.-11i17J
:- . 'l:1~1::2 'r-t:>i::inil
: -T :
3 cp ,,n::i
,,q~~ 'l~~ ,,~1? ,:i,~ ,:i,::inil
!IT: '
3 cp
2 mp cr-tin::i
. :- : cr-i,n:ll
... : .
:- C~H~~ cr-tiil?J
. :- . cr-i:,,~
... : - cr-t:i,::inil
:: -T :
2 mp
2 fp 1~nrq1 l~1t9~ l~~~~ l~:DI? l~~,~ l~~1~J;li'.I 2 fp
I cp ,Jin::i
:- T 'l1t9~ ,~N?J
- 'l1D1? 'l~1::l ,J:ii::inil
: -T:
I cp
Impf. 3 ms 11J~: ,n::i'
T l~~; ,m~; 11:l; 11~J;I: 3 ms
3 fs 11J~l:I ,n::ir-,
T l~~T;l 1i17JT-1
.. - : 11:lT;l 11~J;ll:I 3 fs
2 ms 11J~l:I ,n::ir-t
T l~~T;l 1tt1'T;l 11:lT;l 11~J;ll:I 2 ms
2 fs ',q~r:, ,,n::ir-t
-:1T: '1~1'T;l ,:,,!lr-t
.: : ,:;,,::inr-t
2 fs
I CS in:JN
- : ... in::JN
T '/ l~~~ itti,~ 11:l~ 11~J;I~ I CS
3 mp ,,q~: ,,n::i'
,,~i,; ,:i,:l; ,:i,::in'
3 mp
3 fp illin:::ir-i
T :- :
T :- T
T T :
T : - :
T: - :
T: T:
00 0
3 fp
2mp ~iq~r:i ~in::llr-t
-:1T O
-: IT:
-:- : ~::,1:ir;i ~::,i::llnr-t
2 mp
2 fp illin:::ir-i
T :- :
T :- T"
T .. T :
T : - :
T: - :
T: .. T: "
2 fp
I cp ii]~~ in::llJ
T" 1~~~ iil~J
.. - : 11:i~ 11.~z;i~ I cp
lmpv. 2 ms iti:p in::llil
T 1~~ im, 11~?;\i'.l 2 ms
2 fs "in::ll
-:,- "in::llil
-:,- .,~i::llnil
:IT: 0
2 fs
2mp ~in::ll
-:,- ~in::llil
~JN~ -:IT
-:,- ~::,i::llnil
:tT: 0
2 fp illin::ll
T :- :
T :- T O
T -
T : -
T: ""T : 0
2 fp
Inf. Abs. iin::llT iin1~ 1~~ iv~ 11~?;\i'.l Abs.
Cs. in:p in::llil
T 1~~ iv~ 11~?;\i'.l Cs.
Ptc. Act. io::i 1~~1? iil~~
.. - : 11~J;l7;, Act.
Pass. i~n::llT in:::iJ
T: 11:27? Pass. ),.
wyq# in:::i, in::lli l~?tJ iil~.,,
.. - :- 11~J;l~J ;:t
- : - T - ~
Juss. -: .
in:::i" in::ll"
T" 1~~~ .. - :
iil~" 11~J;l~ ........
4. II I-Guttural Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pua/ Hithpael Hiphil Hophal
Perf. 3 ms n,w -T n?tp~ n'pw n'petpi'.1 l}'?tpi'.1 3 ms
3 fs ;,n','(zj
T: :
;,n,wT: .._
T: - :
T :
T: : T
3 fs
2 ms r-m5w
T: - T
T: - :
T: - ,,
T: - - :
T ! - :
T: - : T
2 ms
2 fs r-m5w
:--T l;IIJ?tp~ l;lt11lP r-in,w
: - - ... r-in,r-,w;,
:-- - . : l;ltl?tpi'.1 r-in5w;,
: - - : T
2 fs
I CS ,z:,n5w
: - T
. - .
: : 'l:l~1lP ,z:,n,w
. - : ,, 'l:l~?tpi'.1 ,z:,n5w;,
' : - ; T
3 cp :in,w : IT
m7tp~ ~n?w ~n,w : ,, ~"?l3tpi'.1 ~"'7tpi'.1 ~n,w;, ! : T
3 cp
2 mp c~~?tp cr-in,wl
... - .
: :
.: - . cr-in,w
... -: ',
: : - - : . c~~?tpi'.1 cr-in,w;,
,: - : T
2 mp
2 fp rn~?tp 7~~?tp~ 1~~1lP rn~i~ 7~~113tpi'.1 7~~?tpi'.1 7~~?lpiJ 2 fp
I cp :im5w: - T
:tl~?tp~ :im,w
: -. ~m,w - ...
: ~l~113tpi'.1 ~l~?tpi'.1 ~m5w;,
! - : T
I cp
Impf. 3 ms n?tp: n,w, -T n1w; n,w,
- ... : n'petp: l}'?tp~ n,w, - : T
3 ms
3 fs n?tpT:1 n,wr-i - T
n'pwr;, n,wr-i
- ... : n'petpr:, 1}'7tpl3 n',wr-,- : T
3 fs
2 ms n,wr-i
- . :
n,wr-i -T n1wr;, n,wr-i
- ... : n'petpr:i 1}'7tpl3 n,wr-i - : T
2 ms
2 fs ,n,wr-i
. .: :
: IT O
.: - : ,n,wr-i
. ...: :
. - .
: : 'l:t'7tpl3 ,n,wr-i
: : T
2 fs
I CS n,wN
- . :
n,wN - T :
n'pw~ n,wN
- ... -:
- - ... : l}'?tp~ n,wN - : T
:tn?W; ~"'7tp~
3 fp :im,wr-i
T: - :
T: - T
T: - - :
T: - ', :
T; - : T
3 fp
2 mp ~n7tpr:, ~n,wr-i
: IT ' ~n~W~ m,wr-i
: : m~etpr:, m'7tpe ~n,wr-i: : T
2 mp
2 fp :im5wr-i
T: - :
T: - T
T: - - :
T: - ', :
T: - - :
T: - : -
T: - : T
2 fp
I cp n'?tp~ n?WJ - T
n1ptp~ n,wJ
- . :
n1petp~ 1J'?tp~ n?tVJ - : T
I cp
lmpv. 2 ms n'?tp n1ptp n1peip::i n'?tpti 2 ms
2 fs 'r:t7lP ,n,w;,
' : IT ' 'r:t~W ,n,r-iw:i
. - .
: : 'r:t'?tpD 2 fs
2 mp m7t ~n,w:i : IT '
~n~w m~eip::i m'?tpD 2 mp
2 fp :im5w
T: - :
T: - -
mn, r-iw:i
T: - - :
T: - : -
2 fp
Inf. Abs. ni?tV
- T
l]i?tp~ Abs.
- T
Cs. l}?tp n,w:i
- T
n1pip n1peip::i Cs.
Ptc. Act. 1J?W 1J~W7? 1J~etpi? Act.
Pass. m,w
- T
T ,, :
T : T
wyq# n'?tp~J n1pW;J n,w,,
- ', :- n1petp~J n'?tp~J
Juss. n'?tp: n?W'- T
n1pW; n,w,
- ,, : n1petp: n'?tp~ n,w, - ! T
5. 111-:>Alep Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pua/ Hithpael Hiphil Hophal
Perf. 3 ms Nl7J
N,~ N?:l7J
T . N,~Z:,iJ N'l7?iJ Nl1.lil
T : ,._ 3 ms
3 fs ilNl7J
T: :
T: - :
T :
T: : -., 3 fs
2 ms riNl7J
T :
T T -..
r, N?:l 7J r, il
T - :
T :
T T : ',
2 ms
2 fs riNl7J TT .. : .
riNl7Jl riN,~ riN,~Z:,iJ riN~7?iJ riNl7Jil T : -..
2 fs
I CS . .. : .
'riNl7Jl 'DN.~ 'DN.~Z:,iJ ... : .
'riNl1.lil 'riNl7Jil
T: ._,
3 cp '!\Nl7J
: IT
'!\N~ '!\N?:l1.l
: ...
: - : .
.: . '!\Nl7Jil
: : ... 3 cp
2 mp CriNl7J
: T:
..... : . ... .. .
CriN?:l7J CriN?:l7J
... .. - : . CriNl7Jil
. .. : . cr,NJ7Jil
'." T : .._
2 mp
2 fp H)N7? H)N~7?~ 1UN.~ HJN~ JON.~DiJ H)N~7?iJ HJN7?D 2 fp
I cp '!\lNl7J
TT .. : .
'!\lNl7Jl '!\lN,~ '!\lN?:l1.l
T-., .. - : .
'!\lN?:l7Jriil .. : .
'!\lNl7Jil '!\lN:i1.lil
T : ...
I cp
Impf. 3 ms Nl1.l'
Nl7:,' T .. - :
N?:l7J' N?:l7J'
T ._,: N,~Z:,~ N'l1.l'
.:- Nl7J' T : -.
3 ms
3 fs Nl7JT-l
.. - : N,~Z:,J':1 N'l7JT-l
.: - Nl7Jz:l
T: .._
3 fs
2 ms
T :
N,~J;l .. - : .
N?:l7Jrir-l N'l7Jz:l
.: - NJ1.)Z:,
T: .._
2 ms
2 fs .: : .
'Nl7JT-l 'Nl1:,T-l
: IT"
.: - : '~~Z:,J':1 'Nl7JT-l
. : : ... 2 fs
I CS Nl7JNT : ""
Nl1:,N u T . N,~~ N?:l7JN
T .._ -: .. - : ...
N?:l7JriN .: -
'!\Nl1:,' : IT" '!\N~~ '!\N?:l7J'
: ... :
3 fp i1JNY?:)z:I
T . :
T "" IT O
T , - :
T '." ,, :
T , : -
T , : ',
3 fp
2 mp ~N7,)T:1 'N~l;I ~N:ll?:)z:I
: ',:
~N'7,)l} ~N:!l?:)z:I
: : ',
2 mp
2 fp i1JNY?:)z:I
T : :
T '" T
T '.' - :
T '." ', :
T , : -
T '." : ',
2 fp
I cp NY7:,J
T ',:
T : ,,
I cp
Impv. 2 ms N:!l7:,i1
T '
N~ N~Z:,;:t N7,):J 2 ms
2 fs '~~ 'N:!l7:,i1
' : IT' '~~ 'N:ll?:)ni1
.:-: . 'N'Y?:)i1
. .:- 2 fs
2 mp ~N~ ~N~ ~N'7?:J 2 mp
2 fp i1JNY?:)
T . :
T '." T
T , -
T , : -
Inf. Abs. N5'7,)~ N~J;l;:t N7?:J Abs.
Cs. N:!l7:,i1
N~J;l;:t N'Y?:)i1
.: - Cs.
Ptc. Act. Act.
Pass. Pass.
wyq# N:!l7:,'1
T -
N~;J N7?!J
Juss. N:!l7:,'
T N~; N7?~
6. III-He Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pua/ Hithpael Hiphil Hophal
Perf. 3 ms il?.:\
;,,.;\ il?lil
3 ms
3 fs ;,n',iT :IT
T: ...
T: :
Tt tT
3 fs
2 ms n,,i
T 'T
T '
T !
T : T
2 ms
2 fs .. :
n'?ll n''?~ n''?~Z:,i'.I n,,,.;,
. . :
: T
2 fs
I CS 'n'?ll
. : '?'.\'1?~ '?'.\'1?~z;,i'.I 'n'?lil
: T
3 cp
2mp ....
' ~~
. .. :
. ..

-: .
.... - . :

: .
: : T
2 mp
2 fp TO'?~ H)'?~~ H)''?~ H)'i~ Hr'?~?'.\i'.I TO'?~i'.I HJ'?~v 2 fp
I cp 'l'?.:\
'T 'l'?ll
: 'l'1?~ .. ,
'l''i3 .- : .
'l''i3ni1 .: .
'l'5li1 'l'?lil
: T
I cp
lmpf. 3 ms il?t i1?3'
.T' i11~7
... ,: i11~1:'~ il?l'
... :- il?l'
: tT
3 ms
3 fs ;,',n,
... : . il?.:\T-1
... ,: ;,,3nr-,
:-: . il?lT-1
:: -
:: T
3 fs
2 ms ... : .
il?lT-1 il?.:\T-1

.-: il~lT-1
... : - il?lT-1
:: T
2 ms
2 fs '?~r:i '?.:\T-1
T ' ?~r;, ,,,.r-,
.- . : '?~~ '?lT-1
: T
2 fs
I CS il?lN
... : .... il?.:\N
. --: il,.:\N
.,-: il,.:\nN
.... - : ... il?lN
.: - il?lN:: T
' ~~
3 fp i1l'5lr-l
T .:
i1l'l.f lr-l
T ,T O
T , - :
T '." -., :
T '." - :
i1l'l.f lz:i
T ,: -
T '.": T
3 fp
2 mp ~?lZ:,
: .
~,~r;, ~,1z:i
... : ~,lnz:i
-: . ~,.p~ ~?lZ:,: T
2 fp i1l'5lz:i
T ,:
T ','T'
T :-:
T ,,.._:
T :-:
T '." : -
T '.": T
2 fp
I cp i1?ll
. : i1?:ll
.-: i1;ll
...... : n,lm
:-:. i1?ll
. :- i1?ll
: : T
I cp
Impv. 2 ms i17.~ i1?:li1
''T i1!~ n,inn
-: . i1?li1
.. : - 2 ms
2 fs '7~ '?li1
T ''r~ ,,lnn
.-: . '?li1
.:- 2 fs
2 mp ~,~ ~?li1
~,~ ~,lnn
-: . ~?1D 2mp
2 fp i1l'?l
T '." :
T : T '
T ,-
T :-:
T ".': -
2 fp
Inf. Abs. i1i?l T
i ,~
i1!~ i1?li1
.. : T
Cs. ni'ii: ni?li1 T
ni,~ ni,1... ni,inn
-: . ni'i1v Cs.
Ptc. Act. i1?i
... n,11')
.-: . i1?ll')
... : - Act.
Pass. ,~,1 T
...... : i1?ll')
:: T
Pass. ;:i..
wyqfl ,1,
. - 'ii,
T"- '~~J ?l'1
,:- ,~r;,~J ?1,
Juss. ?l'
. ?l'T"
,r ?l'
,~r;,~ ?l'
7. 1-Niin Verbs
Qal Niphal Hiphil Hop ha/
Perf. 3 ms
3 fs il?~lT : IT


ill')) !IT
T : IT

T: '


- .
T: ',

3 ms
3 fs
2 ms r-i?i>l r-1?:il
T: -
r-,1,j;, 2 ms
T: - T T: - ',
2 fs r-,1,~)
: : - T T;l7~ T;l7:J r-1?:!lil
: : - ',
2 fs
3 cp ~,~l
: -T
: IT
~Yll : IT
~lm : IT

. : - .

3 cp
2 mp cry7;,~ cr-iYll
... : -: cr-im
. - : Cr-1?:!ll
.: - . cry7::i Cr-1?:!lil
.: - .. 2 mp
2 fp m1?;i~ TN'~~ mm m7~ m1?::i 7ry7~ 2 fp
1 cp ~l?Dl: -T
: -,
mn -T ~l7~ ~l7:J ~l?:iil
: - ',
I cp
Impf. 3 ms ?b: ?:i3' T
1;,,~ ?:!l'
- ',
3 ms
3 fs ?br:, 1,:irm
T ''?J ?:!l.r-1
- ,,
3 fs
2 ms l;,t,r:, Y~r:, n=,r:, 1;,:irm
T l;,'?J 2 ms
2 fs '7~r:i '~~r:, '~T;lr:i ,l;,:ir3.r-,
' : IT ' '7'?J '?:!l.r-1
. : ... 2 fs
I CS ?bN... i,~~ rn~ ?:i3N T : ''~ ?:!lN
- ',
3 mp ~l'f ~lT;l: ~''~ ~?:!l'
: ',
3 (p ;"ll79T-I ;"lll.'.:lT-1 ;,l',im m,ir-i ;"ll?ir-1 3 (p
2 mp ~,~r:i
T: T: -
T: - T

T: .. -
T; -
: ...

2 mp
2 (p m',er-,
T: - '
T: - T '
T: " -
T: - ._
2 (p
I cp ',g~ l.'~~ TN ?'::l3l
T ''~J ??ll
-.. I cp
Impv. 2 ms ?b1 l.'~ m ?'::lm
,~rn 2 ms
2 (s '7~~ '~~ '~~ '7'::l3;"1
' : IT' '7'iJ 2 fs
2 mp ~,~~ ~l.'~ ~l~ ~,'::lm : IT' ~''iJ 2 mp
2 (p m',fo:
T : -
T: - T '
T: " -
2 fp
Inf. Abs. ?i!>lT
~ill T
Tin~ 7'::l3;"1
,~rn ??l;"I
.. ',
Cs. ?b1 r,~~ r,~ ?'::l3;"1
T ''~iJ ??l;"I
- ',
~;.~ Th1
Ptc. Act. ?P.j ~~j rnj , ~~ Act.
Pass. ',~!))
~~ll T
T~n~ ??ll
T .._
Pass. ::i,.
wyqt/ ',i:,~J l.'~~J ?'::l3'1
T' -
,~~J ??l'1
- ... - ;::t
Juss. ?b: l.'~: rn: ?'::l3'
8. I-Waw/Yo4 Verbs
Qal Niphal Hiphil Hophal Qal Hiphil
Perf. 3 ms ::JlV'
- T
::JtpiJ ::J'tpi:, ::Jtp~:, ::J'~'D 3 ms
3 fs :'1::JlV'
T : IT
3 fs
2 ms r-i::J'iviJ
T: -
T: -
ivi:, T-1::Jtl':'1
T: -
2 ms
2 fs r;,:;iWil r;,:;iw;:i r;,:;iw~:i T-1::Jtl'
: : - :'..1 2 fs
I CS 't1::J'iviJ
.: - 'r:9wi:i 'T:l:;iw~:i I CS
3 cp ~::Jtv' : IT
~::JtpiJ ~::J'Wi:i ~::Jtp~:i ~::J'~'D
2 mp CT-1::JtviJ
.: - CT-1::Jtvi:,
... : - CT-1::Jtv~:,
.: - CT-1::Jtl'
.: - :'..1 2 mp
2 fp Tlj:;ilP~ Tlj:;iWil rn:;iw;:i Tlj:;iw~:i 11:):;J~'D 2 fp
I cp ~J::JW'
: - T
~l:;iWiJ ~J:;iwi:i ~J:;iw~:i ~J::26,:,
: - ..
I cp
Impf. 3 ms ::JW~ ::JlV~'
::J'tpi' ::Jtp~' ::J~': ::J'~'~ 3 ms
3 fs ::J'W?:) ::Jtv~T-1
::J'tpiT-1 ::Jtp~T-1 ::J~'T:l ::J'~'?:) 3 fs
2 ms ::J'W?:) ::Jtv~T-1
::J'tpiT-1 ::Jtp~T-1 ::J~'T:l ::J'~'?:) 2 ms
2 fs '::JlVT-1
. : ... ':;i'wir-i ':;llp~T-1 '::Jtl'T-1
.: . ':;!'~'?:) 2 fs
I CS ::JW~ ::Jtv~N
::J'tpiN ::Jtp~N ::J'~'~ I CS
: r ~::J'Wi' ~::JlV~'
: ~::J'~'~
.... <,
ill::iu,r-, ill::Jt,'T-1
3 fp ill::iwr-i
T: - T: - T O
T: - T : - T: .. 3 fp
< ..
2 mp ,::iwr-i
: ,..
: tT O
,::i,tpir-, ,:::iip~r-, ,::it,,r-,
: . ,::i,~',tl 2 mp
<, <,. <,
2 fp ill::iwr-i
T: - u
T: - T O
T: -
T: -
2 fp
I cp :::iw~ ::itv,l T"
::J'tpil ::itp,l :It)'~ ::i,~,~ I cp
Impv. 2 ms :::iw ::iw,il
::i'iil ::JP.'iJ 2 ms
2 fs ':;Jlp '::JlV~il
: IT"
':;J'V)iil ':;J'~'iJ 2 fs
2mp ~::itv:
: IT"
,::i,tpiil ,::i,~'iJ 2 mp
2 fp ill:ZtV
T: ..
T: - T
T: T: ..
ill:ZU'il 2 fp
Inf. Abs. ::JilV' T
.. T
:i'iil ::JP.'iJ Abs.
Cs. n:iw :ZlV~il :Z'tpiil ::itp,il :z,~,iJ Cs.
... . T
Ptc. Act. :zw; :Z'tpi1.l :z~; :Z'~'~ Act.
Pass. :i~tv' T
::JtVil T
Pass. ::i,..
,< .. < (I>
wyq# ::iw, ::iw,, ::iw,,
... - ::iw,1 :Zf:?'~J :zt,ni
... -
. - .. T" - ~
Juss. :Ztv'
..... :iw,, T"
:i'i' :Zf:?'~ :ZP.'~ .......
9. 11-Waw Verbs
Qal Niphal Pole/ Pola/ Hiphil Hophal
Perf. 3 ms yi::i~ c~ip C~ip C'j?D CjZ!)il 3 ms
3 fs il~i? illiSl
T T il~7tip il~7?ip il~'i?D il~j?!!il 3 fs
2 ms ~7?iZ nil!):ll
T :
~7,)~ip ~7,)~ip ?Ji~'i?n 1!)7,)jZ!)il 2 ms
2 fs 1;17,)iZ nil!):l~ T:l~~ip 1;17,)~ip ni~'i?r! 1;17,)jZ!)il 2 fs
I CS 'T:17,)jZ ,n;l,::il
. : 'T:17,)~ip 'T:17,)~ip 'l'.li~'i?r! 'T:17,)jZ!)il r cs
3 cp !)~j? !)~7,)ip !)~~ip '~'i?D !)~j?!)il 3 cp
2 mp 01'7,)iZ c~~~ip ci,7t~ip coi~'i?r! ci,7tjZ!)il 2 mp
2 fp T1'7?iZ nJin::i~ m~~;p T1'7?~ip H)i~'i?n rn~iZ'il 2 fp
r cp !!l7?jZ !)lil!):l~ !)l7?~ip !)l~~ip !)li~'i?r! !)l7,)jZ!)il I cp
Impf. 3 ms C!!p: yi::i: c~iP; c~iP; C'j?: CjZ!)' 3 ms
3 fs C!!p~ yi::ir:, c~ipr;, c~ipr;, C'j?l!) CjZ!)T-1 3 fs
2 ms C!!p~ yi::ir:, c~ipr;, c~ipr;, C'j?l!) CjZ!)T-1 2 ms
2 fs '~!!p~ ,~;ir:, '~7,)ipr;, '~7,)ipr;, '~'i?l!! '~j?!)T-1 2 fs
I CS C!!p~ yi::i~ c~ip~ c~ip~ C'j?~ CjZ!)N I CS
!!~!)P: !)lii: !)~7?iv; '~??iv? !)~'i?: !!~i?''
3 fp :ir~~pr;i :,~7?~ipr;i :,~7?~ipr;i :it~i?l;l :,~7?~~r-t 3 fp
2 mp ~7J~PZ!' ~Jiir:, ~7J7?ipr;i ~7J7?ipr;i ~7.)'j?l!' ~7.)j?~r-1 2 mp
2 fp :ir~~pr;i :,3iir-t
:,~7?~ipr;i :,~7?~ipr;i :it~i?l;l :,~7?jZ~r-t 2 fp
I cp c~p~ yi::i~ c~ip~ C~ip~ C'j?~ CjZ~J I cp
lmpv. 2 ms c~p yi::i;:i c~ip Cj?.v 2 ms
2 fs '?;,~p '~ii;:i '1;'7?ip '~'i?v 2 fs
2 mp ~7.)~p ~Jii;:i ~7J7?ip ~7.)'i?v 2 mp
2 fp :i~??P mii:,
T :,~7?~ip :i~??i?.v 2 fp
Inf. Abs. yi::i;:i Cj?.v Abs.
Cs. yi::i;:i C'i?V Cs.
Ptc. Act. Act.
Pass. Pass.
wyq# yi::i~J C~ip7J c~ip~J C~!J
Juss. yi::i~ c~ip7 C~ip7 Cj?.~
10. Geminate Verbs
Qal Niphal Hiphil Hophal
Perf. 3 ms :J~~ Clj :JOJ
-T :JPD :Jg,;, 3 ms
3 fs ;'l:J:JO
T -
T ..
3 fs
2 ms ni~O
T -
T -
T -:
T '-:
T -
2 ms
ni:llg ni~JJ ni:llg~ ni:lli;>tJ ni:llg,;, 2 fs
I CS '?:,i~g '?:,i~lj '?:,iig~ '?:,iii;>tj '?:,i~g,;, I CS
,~e ,:lloJ-T ':llPD ':!::lg,;, 3 cp
2 mp cni:llo
... - CQi~lj cni:lloJ
... - : cni:llo;,
. -: cni::20,;,
. - 2 mp
2 fp rni:llg TQi~JJ H}i:llg~ rni:lll;>tJ TQi:llg,;, 2 fp
I cp ,Ji~g ,Ji~lj ,Jiig~ ,Jiii;>n ,Jiig,;, I cp
lmpf. 3 ms :JO'
C]J~ :J~~ :JO' ""T
:Jg,, 3 ms
3 fs :JOT-I
C]J~ :J~r:, :JOr-1
:Jg,r-i 3 fs
2 ms :JOr-1
C]J~ :J~r:, :JOr-1
:Jg,r-1 2 ms
2 fs '7PlJ~ '~~r:, ':llOr-1
,~g,r-i 2 fs
C]J~ :Jl:JN
- ... :JON T
:Jg,N I CS
,~o~ ,::lo' T
,::lg,, 3 mp
3 fp i1J'ilor-,
T . ...._ :
T : - :
T t -
T : :
T : -
3 fp
;< < <
2 mp ~::JOT-IT ~~5~ ~::i~r:, ~::JOT-I
~::i~~r-, 2 mp
2 fp i1J'iJOT-1
T . ..._:
T : - :
T "" -
T . :
T "" -
2 fp
I cp :JblT cm :J~~ :JOJ
.. T
:JQ~l I cp
Impv. 2 ms :lb c~ :J~D :JOi1
2 ms
2 fs ,:;i6 '7P~ ':;Ji;:i '::!Ci1
2 fs
;< <
2mp ~::IC ~~~ ~::i~;:i ~::10i1
.. T
2 mp
2 fp i1J:JO
T : -
T . -
T "" -:
2 fp
Inf. Abs. :Ji:JOT :2t:,;:i :JOi1
Cs. :lb ch :J~D :JQv Cs.
Ptc. Act. :J~b c~ :JQ~ Act.
Pass. :J~:JOT :JOJ
Pass. )..
wyq# ::20,
CZJ~J :J~~J ::20,
:JQ~J ;:!
Juss. :JO'T co~ :J~: :JO'
.. T
:JQ~' .......
English-Hebrew Glossary):
be able 7::l'T (XIX) complete (verb) il'f~ (XV)
be afraid N1' (XIII)
consecrate W1j? (XV)
after 11]~ ,'1~~ (VI) consume 7~l$ (VIII)
angel 11$7~ (IV) count 1!)0 (XV)
announce 1'~0 (XVI) covenant n''1:P (II)
anoint nlV~
- T
(XIII) criminal (adj.) 3.'V?1 (VII)
another 11J~ (VII)
Daniel 7~r! (IX)
answer ilJY (XVII)
darkness 1WrJ (II)
be ashamed Wi::l (XIV)
daughter n~ (V)
ask 7~lp (VIII)
David 111 (VI)
battle il~n,~ (IV)
day Ci' (V)
be il'il (XIV)
deed ilf!,'~~ (V)
bear (beget) 1?~ (VIII) die m~ (XIV)
bless 11~ (XV) do ilWY (V)
brother Ml$ (V) drink ;,r,tzj
build ilJ::l (VIII)
ear J!N (III)
burnt offering il?iY (IV)
earth fl~ (III)
camp il~O (XII) eat 7~2$ (VIII)
cast out 1'?WD (XVI) enter Ni::! (VIII)
city 1'+7 (V) evil Y1 (VII)
charge il~~ (XV) eye t~ (III)
choose 1n::i (XIV)
face C'~~ (III)
cloud H (XII)
famine :JY1 (VII)
come Ni::! (VIII)
fast c~~ (XX)
command il~~ (XV) T
father :JNT (V)
This glossary is intended to assist students in doing the English-Hebrew exercises and
does not represent a complete list of words in the book. The verbs are given according to
the pertinent verbal pattern, and the lesson in which the word appears in the Vocabulary
is given in parentheses.
Glossary / 35 5
field il"!lp (IX) judge (noun) t,~trJ (III)
fill Ni7;) (XIV) judgment t,~tp7;) (III)
fire 'IV~ (IX)
keep ,~'U (VIII)
flee O~l (XIX)
kill l1iJ (XVI)
food CIJ~ (IV)
kingdom i1~?7?~ (II)
forget n~'U (XVII) know Y1~ (VIII)
forsake ::J! (XIII)
from 11;) (VI) lad