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# Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer

TEE-815
Dr. Majid Ali
Assistant Professor
U.S.-Pakistan Center for Advance Studies in Energy
National University of Sciences and Technology
majidali@ces.nust.edu.pk
+92-51-90855085
Conduction Heat Transfer
AHMT-CH-2.1
Heat Conduction Equation
Heat Generation
A medium through which heat is conducted may
involve the conversion of mechanical, electrical,
nuclear, or chemical energy into heat (or thermal
energy).
In heat conduction analysis, such conversion
processes are characterized as heat (or thermal
energy) generation.
Total rate of heat generation in a medium of volume
Heat Conduction in 1-D
Consider a thin element of thickness x in a large plane
wall. Assume the density of the wall is , the specific heat
is C, and the area of the wall normal to the direction of
heat transfer is A.
Energy Balance on this thin element during a small time
interval t can be expressed as
Heat Conduction Equation in 3-D
Consider a small rectangular element of length x, width
y, and height z. Assume the density of the body is and
the specific heat is C.
Consider a small rectangular element of length x, width y, and height z. Assume the
density of the body is and the specific heat is C. An energy balance on this element
during a small time interval t can be expressed as
Fourier-Biot equation
Heat Conduction Equation in a
Long Cylinder for 1-D
Consider a thin cylindrical shell element of thickness r in a
long cylinder. Assume the density of the cylinder is , the
specific heat is C, and the length is L. The area of the cylinder
normal to the direction of heat transfer at any location is
A=2rL where r is the value of the radius at that location.
An energy balance on this thin cylindrical shell element during a
small time interval t can be expressed as
Combined 1-D Heat Conduction Equation

where n=0 for a plane wall, n=1 for a cylinder, and n=2 for a
sphere.
Boundary Condition
The mathematical expressions of the thermal
conditions at the boundaries are called the
boundary conditions.
Such a condition, which is usually specified at
time t =0, is called the initial condition.
Temperature Boundary Condition
The temperature of an exposed surface can
usually be measured directly and easily.
Thermal conditions on on a surface is specified as
the temperature.
Heat Flux Boundary Condition
Case 1: Insulated Boundary

## The temperature function must be perpendicular to an insulated surface

since the slope of temperature at the surface must be zero.
Case 2: Thermal Symmetry
Convection Boundary Condition
surface energy balance
Heat conduction at the surface in a selected
direction= Heat convection at the surface in the
same direction
Heat conduction at the surface in a selected
direction= Radiation exchange at the surface in
the same direction
Interface Boundary Conditions