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CHAPTER-01

INTRODUCTION

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 DEFINITION

A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way
beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipe
line. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.

Generally, double lane bridges are provided for National highways and Major District
Roads and single lane bridges are provided for other District Road village Road crossings.
Foot bridges are also provided where called for men and cattle to cross over.

1.2 NEED FOR INVESTIGATION FOR BRIDGE

Before a bridge can be built at a particular site, it is essential to consider many factors
such as the need for a bridge, the present and future traffic, stream characteristics, sub soil
conditions, alternative sites, aesthetic and cost.

The aim of the investigation is to select a suitable site at which a bridge can be built
economically. At the same time satisfying the demands of traffic, the stream, safety and
aesthetics. The investigation for a major bridge project should result in an investigation
report. The success of the final design will depend on the thoroughness of the information
furnished by the officer in charge of the investigation.

1.3 SELECTION OF BRIDGE SITE (Clause. 1.1 of IRC special publication13)


The site for a bridge is usually governed by Engineering, economic, social and
aesthetic considerations. In case of old alignments & canal alignments, the bridge site may be
governed by existing roadway or railway alignments. The bridge site may be governed by
existing roadway railway alignments.
Where there is any choice, select a site
i. Which is situated on a straight reach of the stream ,sufficiently below bends;
ii. Which is far away from the confluence of large tributaries;
iii. Which has well defined banks;
iv. Which is feasible to have straight approach roads;
v. Which offers a square crossing as far as possible.

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1.4 PRELIMINERY DATA TO BE COLLECTED

The engineer in charge of the investigation for a major bridge should collect the following
information:

1. Name of the stream, road and the identification marks allotted to the crossing and
location in km to Centre of crossing.
2. Location of the nearest GTS (Great Trigonometric Survey) bench mark with its
reduced level.
3. Present and anticipated future volume and nature of traffic on the road at the bridge
site.
4. Hydraulic data pertaining to the river, including the highest flood level (HFL),
ordinary flood level (OFL) and low water level (LWL), size, shape, slope and nature
of the catchment, possibility of subsequent changes in the catchment like
afforestation, deforestation and urban development intensity and frequency of rainfall
in the catchment and probability of large trees or rolling debris floating down the
stream.
5. Soil profile along the probable bridge sites over the length of the bridge and
approaches.
6. Navigation requirements if any for the stream.
7. Need for large scale river training works.
8. Liability of the site to earth quake disturbances.
9. Availability, quality and location of the nearest quarries for stones, for masonry and
for concrete aggregates.
10. Nearest place of availability of cement, steel and timber.
11. Means of transport for materials.
12. Availability of unskilled and skilled labour for different trades required for
construction.
13. Facilities required for housing labour during construction.
14. Important details of the bridge, if any, crossing the same river within a reasonable
distance of the proposed bridge.
15. Availability of electrical power.
16. Details of any utilities and services to be provided for (e.g., telephone cable, power
cables, water supply pipes) along with relevant information on size and arrangement.

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1.5 THE ESSENTIAL DESIGN DATA REQUIRED (Cl.102 of IRC: 5-1998)
1) General data including maps, plans and topographical features:
i. An index map to a suitable small scale showing the proposed location of the
bridge, the general topography of the country and the important towns etc.
ii. A contour survey plan of the stream showing all topographical features and
extending U/S & D/S of the proposed site (8=1 mile).
iii. A site plan to a suitable scale showing details of the site selected and
extending not less than 100 m U/S & D/S from the centre line of the crossing
and covering the approaches to a sufficient distance indicating the location (in
kilometres) of the centre of crossing, the direction of flow of water, maximum
discharge, the alignment of existing approaches a proposed approaches, the
location of trial pits etc.
iv. Cross section of the channel at the site of the proposed crossing & two other
cross-sections at suitable distances are on U/S of the other on D/S to a
horizontal scale of not less than 1/1000 & a vertical scale of 1/100.
v. A longitudinal section extended U/S & D/S of the proposed site to a suitable
distance generally extending to 100m on either side.

2) Hydraulic data:
i. The catchment design discharge , the linear water way & corresponding
average velocity of flow
ii. The highest flood level
iii. The influence of afflux on areas in the vicinity
iv. The observed maximum depth of scour etc.

3) Geological data:
i. The nature & properties of the existing soil in bed, banks & approaches
with trial pit or bore hole sections showing levels, strata etc.
ii. Liability of the site to earthquake disturbances land its magnitude

No Satisfactory designing can be done unless the minimum essential design


data listed above are collected & recorded.

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CHAPTER-02
CALCULATION OF
DISCHARGE

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2.0 CALCULATION OF DISCHARGE
Hydraulics is the essential feature of bridge design. Fair assessment of flood levels,
maximum flood discharge expected to occur at bridge site during design life of bridge, and
maximum scour levels are essential aspects of bridge hydraulics. Faulty determination of
these parameters may lead to failure of structures.

2.1 ESTIMATION OF FLOOD DISCHARGE


Although records of rainfall exists to some extent, the actual record of rainfall is seldom
available in such sufficiency (50 years) as to enable the Engineer to infer precisely the worst
flood conditions for designing bridges.
The current practice generally followed for calculating the discharge at the bridge site is as
follows
i. Empirical formulae applicable to particular region.
ii. Recognised rational methods
iii. By area velocity method with the help of hydraulic characteristics of
the channel
iv. By unit Hydrograph method

i. Empirical Formulae:
(A) Inglis Formula (for Western Ghats and Tapi Valley)
7000
=
( + 4)
Where Q = Discharge in cusecs (ft3/sec)
A = Catchment in area in sq. miles

(B) Modified Ingis Formula: (Upper parts of Western Ghats)


4000
=
( + 4)

Where Q = Discharge in cusecs (ft3/sec)


A = Catchment area in sq. miles.

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(C) Dickens Formula (for Vidarbha & Marathwada Regions)

Q = C[A]3/4
Where Q = Discharge in cusecs (ft3/sec)
A = Catchment area in sq. miles.
C = Constant whose value varies from 800 to 1600
= 800 to 1000 for rainfall 25" to 50"
= 1000 to 1400 generally this value taken in M.P can be
adopted for Vidarbha adjacent to Madhya Pradesh

ii. Rational formula:


Q = CAIc
Where Q = Maximum run-off in cumecs
C = Coefficient of run off for the catchment

iii. Area Velocity Method:


By this method the discharge is calculated from Mannings formula
V = 1/n R2/3S1/2
Q = AV
Where,V = Velocity in m/sec;
Q = Max. Flood discharge in cumecs;
n = Coefficient of Rugosity;
R = Hydraulic mean depth equal to the ratio
of cross sectional area A to wetted perimeter R = A/P.
S = The bed slope of stream measured over a long distance.

iv. Unit Hydrograph Method:


From time discharge curves Unit Hydrograph Method can be used to find out
the max. Flood discharge Q.

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Fig. 2.1 Unit Hydrograph

The design discharge is taken as the highest of theses provided it does not exceed the next
highest discharge by more than 50% .if it exceeds then 1.5 times second highest is considered
since by experience it is gives an economical & fairly data figure.

2.2 DETERMINATION OF LINEAR WATERWAY


The area through which the water flows between nalla bed and bridge superstructure is
known as the waterway of bridge. The linear measurement of this area along the bridge is
known as linear waterway. This linear waterway equal to sum of all the clear spans is called
as effective linear waterway.

a) Non-erodible streams:
The Linear Waterway required for a bridge across a stream having non-erodible
banks and bed is the distance between banks at the water surface elevation at HFL.

b) Alluvium streams:
For natural channels in alluvial beds and having undefined banks, effective linear
waterway can be determined from some accepted rational formula. One such formula as
per I.R.C. for regime conditions is given below:
W = C Q
Q = Design maximum discharge in m3/s
C = A constant usually 4.8 for regime conditions

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2.3 SCOUR DEPTH
When the velocity of stream exceeds the limiting velocity, which the erodable particles of
bed material can stand, the scour occurs. The normal scour depth is the depth of water in the
middle of stream when it is carrying the peak flood discharge.

The mean depth of scour is calculated by using below formula

Qb = Discharge in cumecs per width.


K
sf = The silt factor for representative sample of bed material
Obtained up to the level of deepest anticipated scour.

dm = Weighted mean diameter of bed material in mm.

Table 2.3.1 Values of Ksf for various grades of bed material


Bed material Grain size in mm Silt factor f
Fine 0.081 0.500
Fine 0.120 0.600
Fine 0.158 0.700
SILT Medium 0.223 0.850
Standard 0.323 1.00
Medium
0.505 1.250
Coarse
0.725 1.500
Mixed with fine
0.988 1.750
SAND Bagri
1.290 2.000
Heary

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2.4 AFFLUX
Afflux is the rise or heading up of water over the flood level in U/S of a bridge caused
by construction of waterway at a bridge site. When the natural water way of stream /canal is
obstructed by providing less opening, the afflux occurs.

Fig 2.2 Afflux at a Bridge

An estimation of afflux is necessary to determine the bottom level of bridge deck after
providing for determining the velocity produced through the obstruction.
The afflux may be calculated using Moles worths formula.

Afflux h (in metres) = {(v2/17.88) +0.015}{(A/a)2-1}


(Clause.8.7.1 of pocket book for Bridge Engineers 2000)
Where v = Average velocity prior to obstruction in m/sec
A = Unobstructed sectional area of stream /canal in m2
a = Sectional area of river /canal at obstruction in m2

Generally a maximum afflux of 5 cms or loss of head proposed in the approved


Hydraulic particulars for that bridge will be allowed at the site of crossing (as per the
Department practise)

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2.5 VERTICAL CLEARANCE
Adequate vertical clearances shall be provided in case of all high level bridges
which is usually the height from the designed HFL with afflux to the lowest point of the
bridge super structure.

Table 2.5.1 Vertical clearance in case of high-level bridges


Discharge Minimum Vertical Clearance
(m3/s) (in mm)

Up to 0.3 150
0.3 to 3.0 450
3.0 to 30 600
30 to 300 900
300 to 3000 1200
Above 3000 1500

A minimum vertical clearance of 3.5 m is needed in case of navigational canals as per


Ministry of Inland Transport Department recommendations.

2.6 FREE BOARD


The free board for high level bridges shall not be less than 1750 mm. (vide clause
101.1 of IRC: 5-1998).

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CHAPTER-03
COMPONENTS OF
A BRIDGE

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3.0 COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE

Fig 3.1 Layout of bridge

The bridge structure comprises of the following parts


1) Super structure
2) Sub structure
3) Foundation

3.1 Superstructure
This bears the load passing over it and transmits the forces caused by the same to the
substructures.
Main components of a super structure are
a) Deck
b) Girders (Main structural system supporting a deck & spanning
between the sub-structure units.
c) Bearings
d) Kerb& Hand railings
e) Expansion joints
f) Drain pipes
a) Deck
It includes a bridge deck which spans between supports. It is the primary component
which receives the load and transfers the same to structures underlying it.

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b) Girders
It is the main structural system supporting the deck over it and spanning between
the substructures units. They transfer the imposed load to the bearings and piers.
c) Bearings
The bearings transmit the load received from the decking on to the
substructure and are provided for distribution of the load evenly over the substructure
material which may not have sufficient bearing strength to bear the superstructure
load directly.

1. Fixed Type Bearings


a. Steel Rocker Bearings
b. R.C Hinge(Rocker Bearing)

a. Steel rocker bearings


Steel Rocker bearings are generally used for longer spans more than 15m. It
consist of a top portion with a curved contact surface rocking over the bottom plate
which has flat contact surface.

Fig 3.2 Steel rocker bearings

b. R.C Rocker bearings


They permit large rotations if constructed properly. A narrow throat and a low
height of the hinge with circular curved faces all round is provided for 3-D
confinement of concrete. They rarely require reinforcements crossing throat unless
horizontal shear exceeds one- eighth of the transverse moment on the hinge.

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2. Expansion Type Bearings
a. Sliding plate Bearings
b. Sliding cum Rocker Bearings
c. Steel Roller cum Rocker Bearing
d. R.C Rocker cum Roller Bearing
e. Elastomeric Bearing

a. Sliding Plate bearings


These are meant for spans up to 20m. When the contact surfaces are flat, Teflon
coating should be used to prevent frictional resistance and for smooth movement due
to expansion. Now- a- days a curved shape is provided to the top plate to reduce
contact area and frictional resistance.

Fig 3.3 Sliding Plate bearings

b. Sliding cum Rocker bearings


They are suitable for bridges with curved alignment. They permit sliding along
with rotation in different directions. It consists of a sliding and tilting plate with a
pressure pad and base plate. The mating surface is coated with Teflon to reduce
frictional resistance.

Fig 3.4 Sliding cum Rocker bearings

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c. Steel Roller cum Rocker bearings
They permit longitudinal movement by rollers and rotational movements by
rocker. For longer spans cast steel roller bearings are used. Single or two large
diameter rollers are preferred to a nest of small rollers.

Fig 3.5 Steel Roller cum Rocker bearings

d. R.C Rocker cum Roller bearings


They consist of R.C.C block with lead sheets at top and at bottom of pedestal. The
length of lead sheet coincides with girder while its breadth should be sufficient to
limit stresses on sheet. Both rotations and longitudinal movements of the girder are
permitted by this bearing for rotation, the girder compresses the lead sheet along the
inside edge and block tilts inside. For longitudinal movement the lower lead sheet is
compressed along outside making the block tilt inside.

e. Elastomeric bearings
Chloroprene rubber termed as neoprene is used as bridge bearing. It occupies a
smaller space and easy to maintain and replace when damaged. It consists of an
unreinforced elastomeric pad fabricated by binding together alternate layers of rubber
and steel plates. It takes direct compressive load, shearing force and moment by
undergoing appropriate deformation.

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Fig 3.6 Elastomeric bearings

f. Kerbs and hand railings


These are meant for pedestrians. These are provided on the either sides of the
roadway. These are provided a little bit higher than the road level for safety of road
users.

g. Expansion Joints
These are designed to take up longitudinal and transverse movements of a bridge
caused by thermal expansion, contraction and certain loading conditions. The type of
joint selected for a deck is generally dependent on type and magnitude of movement
that a joint has to suffer.

h. Drain pipes
They are provided for effective removal of rain water from the bridge deck. They
are provided at regular intervals on either sides of bridge deck.

3.2 Substructure
They structure transmits the total Dead & Live loads and the other forces to the supporting
the rock or soil. This substructure comprises of piers and abutments, wing walls or returns
and their foundation.

Piers
They transmit the self-weight of deck and girders and live loads coming over the bridge to
the foundation. It also includes impact effect of moving loads, wave action of water, etc.

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Types of Piers:
1. Multi column Piers
2. Hammer Head Piers
3. Wall (or) Solid piers
4. Trestle piers
5. Cellular piers
6. Framed piers
1. Multi - Column Piers
Multi- column piers are typically used where column heights are 30 feet. Column
spacing between 15 and 20 feet is generally cost effective. Cap ends shall not be
rounded, but should be tapered for aesthetic purposes. For piers with more than six
columns and or cap lengths greater than 100 feet, two piers are required.

Fig 3.7 Multi-column pier

2. Hammer Head Piers


Hammer head piers are typically used were column lengths on multi-column piers
will require larger column sizes due to slenderness. Hammer head piers are also an option
where stream flow could result in debris buildup between columns of multi-column pier.
Where steam flow is present, hammer head piers shall be oriented parallel to direction of
flow.

Fig 3.8 Hammer Head Pier

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3. Wall/ Solid Piers

Wall piers are typically used where multi-column piers may be used, but stream flow
will result in debris buildup between columns or where efficient design for collision force is
require. Sloped walls shall not be used. Non reinforced walls are prohibited. Wall piers shall
be oriented parallel to the direction of flow. Caps are required where the width of the wall is
not sufficient for bearing layout.

Fig 3.9 Wall/Solid Pier

4. Trestle Piers
The trestle type pier comprises of a number of reinforced concrete columns with a
connecting cap at the top. The trestle type of pier finds wide applicability in the case of
flyovers and elevated roadways generally used for crossings in city roads.

Fig 3.10 Trestle pier


5. Cellular Piers
For the construction of massive piers carrying multilane traffic, it is economical to use
cellular type reinforced concrete piers which results in savings of concrete. Cellular piers
require costly shuttering and additional labour for placing of reinforcements.

Fig 3.11 Cellular pier

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6. Framed Piers

R.C. framed type piers are aesthetically superior and rigid due to the monolithic joints
between the vertical, or inclined and horizontal members as shown in the figure given below.
These types of piers are ideally suited to reduce the span length of main girders on either side
of the centre line of the pier resulting in saving in the cost of superstructure. This type of
construction requires two expansion joints at close intervals with increase of maintenance
costs.

Fig 3.12 Framed pier

Abutments
These are vertical structures supporting deck/bearing provided for transmitting the load
down to the bed/earth through foundation.

Types of Abutments:
1. Full Height Abutments
2. Cantilever Abutment
3. Counter fort Abutment
4. Crib Abutment
5. Soldier Pile Abutment
6. Stub Abutment
7. Spill Through Abutment
8. Integral Abutment
9. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Abutment

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1. Full Height Abutments
This is constructed at the lower level roadway and should support the entire
embankment. These are costly and are generally used in congested urban and metropolitan
areas where structure depth is critical.

Fig 3.13 Full Height Abutment

2. Cantilever Abutments
They consist of a vertical arm rigidly fixed to a horizontal base. Lateral thrust of earth
pressure is resisted by opposing cantilever action of the stem and footing. The stem transmits
horizontal pressure to the footing, which in turn provides resistance from the dead weight of
the abutment and the embankment material resting on footing.

3. Counterfort Abutments
These are similar to cantilever abutment but with the addition of counterforts which
connect the vertical walls to the base. The counterforts, spaced at regular intervals, provide
resistance to bending moments in the stem.

Fig 3.14 Counterfort Abutment

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4. Crib Abutments
They consist of individual structural units assembled to form an open cellular
structure. The cells are filled with suitable material that along with the units themselves
provide support for the structure.

`
Fig 3.15 Spill Through Abutment
5. Soldier Pile Abutments
They consist of series of soldier beams supporting horizontal lagging to retain the
embankment. The soldier beam is a steel pile driven into the earth with its projecting
end used as cantilever beam.

Fig 3.16 Soldier pile Abutment

6. Stub Abutments
These were set near the top of an embankment or slope, having relatively short
vertical height. They may be supported upon piles or founded on gravel fill, the
embankment, or the natural ground. The pedestals are supported directly on the
footing and there is no stem. The back wall retains the fill by spanning horizontally
between pedestals.

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Fig 3.17 Stub Abutment

8. Integral Abutments
These are cast monolithically with the bridge deck. They encase the ends of the deck
beams and are supported on a single row of piles. This type of abutment allows rotational
movement.

Fig 3.18 Integral Abutment

9. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Abutment


These abutments are particularly reinforced earth abutments with three principal
components: a face, strips or grids, and a granular backfill. Alternating layers of granular fill
and reinforcing strips are placed in lifts and connected to the facing panels. Horizontal earth
pressure normally on the vertical wall is transferred to the metal strips through friction
developed between the strips and backfill.

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Fig 3.19 Mechanically Stabilized Abutment

Wing walls
These are provided as extension of the abutments to retain the earth of approach bank
which otherwise has a natural angle of repose.

Types of Wing Walls:


1. Return or box type wing wall
2. Splayed type wing wall

1. Return or box type wing wall


When the approaches to the bridge are in cutting or small embankments, return type
wing wall is generally provided. The length of the return type wing wall depends upon the
slope of the embankment and side slopes of the streams.

Fig 3.20 Return or box type wing wall

2. Splayed type wing wall


In the case of bridges with heavy approach embankments, it becomes necessary to
provide splayed type wing walls. The thickness of the splayed type wing wall is
maximum at the abutment and gradually reduces to a maximum of 300 to 500 mm

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towards the bottom of the embankment. The splayed wing walls prevent the flow of soil
towards the vent way under the bridge.

Fig 3.21 Splayed type wing wall

3) Foundations
This is provided to transmit the load from the piers or abutments and wings or returns to
and evenly distribute the load on to the strata. This is to be provided sufficiently deep so that
it is not affected by the scour caused by the flow in the river and does not get undermined.

Types of Foundations
(i) Shallow foundations - Isolated combined and strip foundations
- Raft foundations
(ii) Deep foundations - Pile foundations
- Well foundations

(i) Shallow Foundations


Open foundations are preferred over any other type. These are to be provided when a
good-founding stratum is available at shallow depth and there is not much problem of
dewatering. R.C.C. footings are preferred over P.C.C. footing in case of RCC piers.

Raft or Mat Foundations


A raft or mat is a combined footing that covers the entire area beneath a bridge and
supports all the piers and abutments when the allowable soil pressure is low or the bridge
loads are heavy, the use of spread footings would cover more than one of the area and it may
prove more economical to use raft foundation. Usually when hard soil is not available within
1.5 to 2.5 m, a raft foundation is adopted.

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(ii) Deep Foundation
In other cases with large score depths, substantial standing water, non-
availability of good founding strata at shallow depth etc., deep foundations are
suitable.

Pile Foundations
This type of foundation is adopted when the soils extends is to a greater depth the
load of the bridge is transmitted by the piles to hard stratum below or it is resisted but the
friction developed on the size of the piles.
Most common types of piles used in the construction of highway bridges are
1. Pre cast driven piles
2. Driven cast in-situ piles
3. Bored cast in-situ piles
4. Bored pre cast piles
5. Driven steel piles

Well Foundations
A well foundation is similar to an open caisson. A strong cutting edge is provided to
facilitate sinking. The tapered portion of the well above the cutting edge is known as well
curb. The wall of the well is known as well steining. Steining is made of brick masonry, stone
masonry, plain or reinforced concrete.

Fig 3.22 Layout of an Well Foundation


Shapes of wells
(a) Circular shape
(b) Double-D wells

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(c) Double Octagonal wells
(d) Twin Circular wells
(e) Rectangular well
(a) Circular well
The most commonly used shape is circular, as it has high structural strength and is
convenient in sinking. The shape is suitable for piers of the single line railway bridges and
the double lane road bridges. The maximum diameter of the circular well is generally limited
to 9m.

Fig 3.23 Circular Well

(b) Double D wells


These wells are generally used for the piers and abutments of bridges which are too
long to be accommodated on a circular well of 9m diameter. They can be easily sunk. Square
corners offer great resistance to sinking. Bending moments gets increased in steining due to
its shape.

Fig 3.24 Double D Well

(c) Double Octagonal wells


These are better than the double-d wells in many respects. The square corners are
eliminated and bending stresses are reduced. This type of construction is very difficult. They
offer great resistance to sinking due to increased surface area.

Fig 3.25 Double Octogonal Well

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(d) Twin Circular wells
These are two independent wells placed very close to each other and having a
common well cap. The wells are sunk simultaneously. These wells are suitable where the
length of the pier is considerable, which cannot be accommodated on a double-d or double-
octagonal well. These are useful when depth of sinking is small and bearing capacity of wells
is high.

Fig 3.26 Twin Circular Well


(e) Rectangular wells
These are generally used for bridge foundation having depths up to 7-8 m. For the
large foundations, double rectangular wells are used. Bending stresses are very high in
steining in rectangular wells.

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CHAPTER-04
CLASSIFICATION
OF BRIDGES

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4.0 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES

1. According to the flexibility of super structure, the bridges are classified as fixed-span
bridges & movable bridges.
a. Fixed span bridges In case of fixed span bridge, the superstructure remains in a
fixed position. Most of the bridges are of this category.
b. Movable span bridges In movable span superstructure, the superstructure is
lifted and moved with the help of some suitable arrangement.
2. According to position of bridge floor relative to the formation level and the highest
discharge, bridges are classified as a deck bridges, through bridges & semi trough
bridges.
a. Deck bridges In this the road deck is carried on the top flange or on top of the
supporting girders. The deck slab may cantilever out to some extent beyond the
extreme longitudinal girder.

Fig 4.1 Deck Bridge


b. Through bridges In this, the decking is supported by the bottom flange of the
main supporting girders provided on either side.

Fig4.2 Through Bridge

c. Semi through bridges It has its deck midway and deck load is transmitted to the
girder through the web of the girder. The main girders are on either side of deck.

Fig 4.3 Semi Through Bridge

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3. According to the inter-span relations, the bridges are classified as simple, continuous
& cantilever bridges.
a. Simply supported bridges In this width of bridge is divided into number of
individual spans. For each span, the load carrying member is simply supported at
both ends. The plate girder and truss girders are used as this type of bridges.
b. Continuous bridges In these spans are continuous over two or more supports.
The bending moment anywhere in the span is considerably less than that of simply
supported span. It results in the economic section for the bridge.
c. Cantilever bridges It consists of cantilevers projecting from supporting piers.
The ends of a cantilever bridge are treated as fixed. For long spans and deep
valleys
Cantilever bridges are more suitable.

Fig 4.4 Cantilever Bridge


4. According to the form or type of super structures, the bridges reclassified as arch,
bow-string girder, rigid frame & suspension bridges.
a. Arch bridges They consists of a solid barrel between two face walls that are
mounted on an arch ring. The arch ring is the major load carrying member of the
bridge. The ring resists the load as a compressive thrust.

Fig 4.5 Arch Bridge (Barrel Type)


b. Suspension bridges These are made up of high tensile steel cables strung in form
of catenaries to which the deck is attached by steel suspenders. The decking can
be of timber, concrete or steel spanning across the stiffening girders transmitting
load to the suspenders.

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Fig 4.6 Suspension Bridge
5. According to the materials of construction used for super structure, the bridges are
cement concrete, masonry, steel bridges & prestressed bridges.
a. Timber bridges In this timber was used for spanning gap and for supporting
beams. These are used for short spans, light loads and for temporary bridges.
b. Masonry bridges These are used for short spans and according to availability of
material and skilled labour. They are mainly of arch type of bridges.
c. Steel bridges These includes steel girders for supporting the beams. These are
used for longer spans, heavy loads.
d. Cement concrete bridges These are built with concrete both in super and sub
structure.
e. Prestressed concrete bridges These are constructed with high strength concrete
and high tensile strength steel which are prestressed for decks and girders.
6. According to the method of clearance for navigation the bridges are bascule bridge,
lift bridge & swing bridge.
a. Movable - bascule bridges In these main girders are lifted together with deck
about the hinge provided on one end of the span. The bascule bridge may either be
single or double.

Fig 4.7 Single Bascule Bridge Fig 4.8 Double Bascule Bridge
b. Movable - lift bridges In these gantries are provided at the piers at either end of
the span and the entire girder and the floor system is lifted up by a hydraulic
arrangement to the extent required for free passage of the ship.

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Fig 4.9 Lift Bridge
c. Movable - swing bridges In swing bridges, the girders and deck can be swung
about its middle over the middle pier, clearing the span on either side for passage
ship.

Fig 4.10 Swing Bridge


7. According to the expected utility period of service, the bridges are classified as
temporary & permanent bridges.
a. Temporary bridges The temporary bridges are constructed to cross a river or a
stream in place of permanent works. These are useful when it is not possible to
construct a permanent bridge due to shortage of money, time, good materials or
skilled labour. These are often constructed on diversions during the reconstruction
of an existing permanent bridge. The useful life of a temporary bridge is estimated
as about 10 years.
b. Permanent bridges The permanent bridges are defined as structures, which are
constructed to cross a river or a stream permanently.
8. According to the function, the bridges are classified as road, railway, road-cum-
railway & pipe line bridges.
9. According to the method of connection adopted, the steel bridges are classified as
riveted, welded & pin-connected bridges.
10. According to the length of span, the bridges are classified as culverts, minor, major &
long span bridges.

33
a. Culverts It is a bridge having a gross length of six meters or less between the
faces of abutments or extreme vent way boundaries and measured at right angles.
b. Minor bridge (6 to 30m)
c. Major bridge (above 30m)
d. Long span bridge (above 120m)
11. According to the degree of redundancy, the bridges are classified as determinate &
indeterminate bridges.
12. According to the level of crossing of highways and railways, the bridges are classified
as over bridge & under bridge.
a. Over bridge When the highway bridge is carried over or under the highway by
means of bridge, the bridge is known as over bridge.
b. Under bridge When the highway is carried under the railway track by means of
bridge is known as the under bridge.
13. According to alignment the bridges are classified as straight & skew bridges.
14. According to the loadings, the road bridges and culverts are classified by the IRC as
Class AA, Class A & Class B bridges.
15. According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below,
bridges are classified as Causeways, High-level bridges & Submersible bridges.
a. Causeways These are provided where high flood in stream are optional.These
are formed between retaining walls on either side, taken deep to withstand scour
action.
b. High-level bridges It is a bridge, which carries the roadway above the highest
flood level of the channel. Where the traffic on the bridge is such that suspension
of traffic for a short duration on the road or railway will not materially affect the
overall traffic, they are provided.
c. Submersible bridges It is a bridge designed to be overtopped in floods. This is
provided in such a way that the bridge openings provided with properly built piers
and slabs can pass ordinary floods and rarely expected high floods spill and pass
over the deck.

34
CHAPTER-05
I.R.C
LOADINGS ON
BRIDGES

35
5.0 I.R.C LOADINGS ON BRIDGES

5.1 LIVE LOADS

As per IRC 6-2000 the live loads that are to be adopted for the design of bridges are as
follows

1. IRC Class 70R Loading


2. IRC Class AA Loading
3. IRC Class A Loading
4. IRC Class B Loading

1. IRC Class 70R loading:

IRC 70 consists of following three types of vehicles.

a. Tracked vehicles of total load 700 KN with two tracks each weighing 350 KN.
b. Wheeled vehicle comprising 4 wheels, each with a load of 100 KN totaling 400KN.
c. Wheeled vehicle with train of vehicles on seven axels with a total load of 1000 KN.
The tracked vehicle is somewhat similar to that of class AA, except that the
contact length of track is 4.87 m, the nose to tail length if the vehicle is 7.92 m and the
specified minimum spacing between successive vehicles is 30 m. the wheeled vehicle is
15.33 m long and has seven axles with the loads totaling to 1000 KN. The bogie axle type
loading with four wheels totaling 400 KN is also specified.

The 700 KN tracked vehicle is common to both the classes, the only difference
being the loaded length which is slightly more for the class 70R. The second category is the
wheeled type compressing 1000 KN train of vehicles on 7 axles for the class 70R and a 40
KN bogie axle type vehicle type for the class AA. The details of IRC class 70R loading
vehicles are shown below.

36
(a) Class 70R Tracked vehicle

(b) Class 70R Bogie Axle Type vehicle

(c) Class 70R wheeled vehicle

Fig 5.1 IRC Class 70R Tracked and Wheeled Vehicle

2. IRC Class AA loading:

Two different types of vehicles are specified under this category grouped as
tracked and wheeled vehicles. All the bridges located on national highways and state
highways have to be designed for this heavy loading. These loadings are also adopted for
bridges located within certain specified municipal localities and along specified highways.

37
(a) Class AA Tracked Vehicle

(b) Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Fig 5.2 IRC Class AA Tracked and Wheeled vehicle

38
3. IRC Class A loading:

IRC class A type loading consist of a wheel load train comprising a truck with
trailers of specified axle spacing loads as shown below. The heavy duty truck with two
trailers transmits loads from 8 axles varying from minimum of 27 KN to a maximum of
114KN. The class A loading is a 554KN train of wheeled vehicles and 8 axles. Impact has to
be allowed as per the formulae recommended in the IRC 6-2000. The impact factor is
inversely proportional to the length of the span and is different for steel and concrete bridges.
This type of loading is recommended for all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts
are constructed.

(a) Class A Loading

(b) Class A Train of Vehicle

Fig 5.3 IRC Class A Loading

39
4. IRC Class B loading:

Class B type of loading is similar to class A loading except that the axle loads
are comparatively of lesser magnitude. The axle loads of class B are a 332KN train of
wheeled vehicles on 8 axles as shown below. This type of loading is adopted for temporary
structures and timber bridges. Combination of different types live loads are recommended for
the design of bridges in clause 207.4 of IRC 6-2000.

(a) Class B Loading

(b) Class B Train of Vehicle

Fig 5.4 IRC Class B Loading


40
Table 5.1.1 Carriage way Live Load combinations recommended for design

SI.No. Carriageway width Number of lanes Load combination


for

design purposes

1 Less than 5.3 m 1 One lane of Class A


considered to occupy 2.3 m.
the remaining width of
carriage way shall be
located with 500 kg/m2.

2 5.3 m and above but less than 2 One lane of Class 70R or
9.6 m two lanes of ClassA

3 9.6 m and above but less than 3 One lane of Class 70R for
13.1 m every two lanes with one
lane of class A on the
remaining lane or three
lanes of Class A

4 13.1 m and above but less than 4 One lane of Class 70R for
16.6 m every two lanes with one
lane of Class A for the
5 16.6 m and above but less than 5
remaining lanes, if any, or
20.1 m
one lane of Class A for each
6 20.1 m and above but less than 6 lane.
23.6 m

41
5.2 IMPACT FACTORS

Impact factors are generally applied to the moving wheel are distributed loads
to enhance their magnitude to include their dynamic effects on the bridge deck. The impact
allowance is generally expressed as a fraction of the applied live load and is expressed as an
empirical expression involving constants and the span length of the bridge deck. The impact
factor is always inversely proportional to the length of span and is different for RCC and steel
bridges.

For Indian Standard Loadings

a.) IRC class A loading:

The impact allowance is expressed as a fraction of the applied load and is computed
by expression.

I = A / (B+ L) where,

I = impact factor fraction

A= Constant having the value of 4.5 for RCC bridges and 9.0 for steel bridges.

B= Constant having the value of 6.0 for RCC bridges and 13.5 for steel bridges.

L= Span in meters.

For spans less than 3 m the impact factor is 0.5 for RC bridges and
0.545 for steel bridges. When the span exceeds 45 m, the impact factor is taken as 0.088 for
RC bridges and 0.154 for steel bridges.

42
b.) IRC class AA or 70 R loadings:

For span less than 9 m


For tracked vehicle - 25% of span up to 5 m linearly reduced to 10 % for span of 9 m.
For wheeled vehicle - 25 %
For spans of 9 m and more
For RCC Bridges
For tracked vehicle - 10 % up to a span of 40 m and in accordance with the figure
shown above for span exceeding 40 m.
For wheeled vehicle - 25% for spans up to 12m and in accordance with the curve in
fig . for spans in excess of 12 m.

For Steel bridges

For Tracked vehicle - 10% for all spans


For wheeled vehicle - 25% for spans up to 23 m and in accordance with the curve
shown below.

Fig 5.5 Impact Percentage Curves for Highway bridges for CLASS A & CLASS B
loading

43
5.3 DEAD LOADS
The dead load carried by a girder or member shall consist of the portion of the
weight of the super structure which is supported wholly or in part by the girder or
member including its own weight.

5.4 WIND LOADS


The wind load shall be assumed to act horizontally on any exposed portion of
the bridge structure .The direction of the wind load may be such as to produce
maximum resultant stresses in the member under consideration.
The wind force shall be assumed to act on the area of the structure as below:
a) For deck structure: The area of the structure as seen in elevation including
the floor system and railing less area of perforations in the hand railing or
parapet walls.
b) For a through or half-through structure: The area of the elevation of the
windward truss as specified at a) above plus half the area of elevation above
the deck level of all other trusses or girders.

Table 5.4.1 Wind pressures &Wind velocities (cl.212.3 of IRC: 6-2000)


H V P H V P
0 80 40 30 147 141
2 91 52 40 155 157
4 100 63 50 162 171
6 107 72 60 168 183
8 113 82 70 173 193
10 118 91 80 177 202
15 128 107 90 180 210
20 136 119 100 183 217
25 142 130 110 186 224

Where H = The average height in metres of the exposed surface


above the mean retarding surface (ground or bed water level).
V = Horizontal velocity of wind in Km at height H
P = Horizontal wind pressure in Kg/m2 at height H

44
5.5 LONGITUDINAL FORCES
The effect of longitudinal forces due to Tractive effort or Braking
effect(Braking effect> Tractive effort)and the frictional resistance offered by the free
bearing to movement due to change of temperature or any other cause shall have to be
considered in the design of bearing , sub structure & the foundation.
The horizontal force due to braking shall be assumed to act along the
roadway and at 1.2m above it.
For simply supported spans up to 10 metres where no bearings (except
bitumen layer) are provided, horizontal force at the bearing level shall be
Fh/2 or Rg whichever is greater (cl.707.22 of IRC: 78-200)
Where Fh = Applied horizontal force
= Coefficient of friction in table
Rg = Reaction due to dead load
The longitudinal force at any free bearing (sliding or roller) for a simply
supported bridge shall be taken as equal to R where is the coefficient of friction &
R is the sum of dead & live load reaction.

Table 5.5.1 Values of (cl.706.21 of IRC: 78)


Sl.no Type of bearing Value of
1. Steel roller bearing 0.03

2. Concrete roller bearing 0.05

3. Sliding bearings
a) Teflon on stainless 0.05
b) Stainless steel 0.15
c) Grey cast iron 0.30
d) Steel on cast iron 0.40
e) Concrete with 0.50
bitumen layer

45
5.6 HORIZONTAL FORCES DUE TO WATER CURRENTS
Any part of a road bridge which may be submerged in running water shall be designed to
sustain safely the horizontal pressure due to the force of the current. On piers parallel to the
direction of the water current, the intensity of pressure shall be calculated from the following
equation:
P = 52 KV2
where
P = Intensity of pressure due to water current, in kg/m2
V = The velocity of the current at the point where the pressure intensity in m/sec
K = Constant having the following values for different shapes of piers

5.7 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES


Where a road bridge is situated on a curve, all portions of the structure affected by the
centrifugal action of moving vehicles are to be proportioned to carry safely the stress induced
by this action in addition to all other stress to which they may be subjected.

The centrifugal force shall be determined from the following equation:


C = WV2
127R
Where C = Centrifugal force acting normally to the traffic (1) at the point of action of the
Wheel loads or (2) uniformly distributed over every metre length on which a
Uniformly distributed load acts, in tonnes.
W = Live load (1) in case of wheel loads, each wheel load being considered as acting
over the ground contact length in tonnes, and (2) in case of a uniformly
distributed live load, in tonnes per linear metre.
V = The design speed of the vehicles using the bridge in km per hour, and
R =The radius of curvature in metres.

5.8 BUOYANCY (cl. 216 of IRC 6-2000)


The effect buoyancy shall to be considered in designing the member of
the bridge structure if this consideration produces worst effect in the member. Due to
buoyancy, a reduction in the Weight of the structure is more.

46
In case of shallow pier founded at or near the bed level which displaces water only,
the reduction in Weight shall be equal to that of the displaced water.
In case of deep foundations, which displaces water as soil mass such as sand, silt
etc., the buoyancy causing in reduction in weight shall be considered as made up of two
factors.

5.9 EARTH PRESSURE


The earth for which earth retaining structures are to be designed shall be
calculated in accordance with any rational theory. Coulombs earth pressure theory
may be used subject to the modification that the resultant earth pressure shall be
assumed to act at a height of 0.42h from the base, where h is the height of the
retaining wall. The minimum intensity of horizontal earth pressure shall be assumed
to be not less than the pressure exerted by a fluid weighing 480 kg/m3.
All abutments shall we design for live load surcharged equivalent to 1.2m
height of earth fill for the design of return walls ,the live load surcharge shall we
taken as equivalent to 1.2m height of earth fill.
The fills behind abutments, wing and return walls which exert the earth
pressure shall be composed of granular materials. a filter media of 600mm thickness
smaller size towards the soil and bigger size towards the wall shall be provided over
the entire surface of the abutments ,wing and return walls.
Adequate number of weep holes shall be provided in the abutments, wing and
return walls above the LWL for the drainage of accumulated water behind the walls.
The spacing of the weep holes shall not exceed 1m in both horizontal and vertical
directions.

5.10 AESTHETICS
The engineer may consider it is important to design a bridge using the most
advanced theory and technology. But for public, aesthetic is most important as they
do not bother about the design but about the appearance. The form, line, proportion,
texture and colour of a bridge should be pleasing and beautiful to him. It is therefore
imperative that a bridge should not only be safe and sound or ideal from the
consideration of safety and economy but also it should appear beautifully.

47
CHAPTER-06
DESIGN ASPECTS
OF SUPER
& SUB
STRUCTURES

48
6.0 DESIGN ASPECTS OF SUPER & SUB STRUCTURES

6.1 SUPER STRUCTURE


DECK SLAB:
The deck slab should be designed as a one way slab to carry the dead load and
the prescribed live load with impact & still to have stresses within the permissible
limits.
In case of Double Lane Bridges, the bending moments for the deck slab IRC
class AA tracked vehicle or one lane of class AA wheeled loading or two lanes class
A load trains. The sections are also checked for shear & bond.

SLAB & GIRDER BRIDGES:


It has been observed that beams deck is generally found economical for a
carriage way of two lanes the girder spacing in such cases are usually between 2.25 to
2.75m
The cross beams are used in a bridge deck to distribute loads between main
girders, to offer resistance to torsion of main girders & to stiffen the girders laterally.
For proper functioning, at least two cross beams at two ends and one at the centre are
essential. A spacing of about 4.5m to 6.0m is generally found satisfactory.
If no gap between the deck slab & the cross-beams is maintained, the slab
panel becomes a two-way slab continuous in both the direction. In two-way slab
continuous in both the direction, In Two-way slab, the live load moments due to a
concentrated or locally distributed load may be worked out by Pigeauds Method.
For IRC class A loading in case of DL bridges & class AA tracked vehicle
and 70R wheeled vehicle in case of D.L bridges & the max BM the max. Generally
curbons theory or Movies &Littles theory are adopted for estimating load
distribution.

6.2 SUB STRUCTURE


PIERS:
The materials used for the bridges piers are
i) Stone masonry
ii) Mass concrete

49
iii) Reinforced concrete&
iv) Pre stressed concrete
The loads & forces for which the piers are to be designed are:
i) Self-weight of pier
ii) Dead load from adjacent spans and live load reactions either from one
or both spans whichever produces maximum effect.
iii) Buoyancy effect on the piers.
iv) Longitudinal force due to braking acting on the top of pier
v) Longitudinal force due to frictional force (resistance) at bearings acting
on the top of pier.
vi) Horizontal force due to wind acting on the moving loads, super
structure and the pier at the C.G of the respective wind pressure
diagrams.
vii) Centrifugal force acting on the pier when the bridge is on a curve
viii) Horizontal force due to seismic effect on the super structure as well as
on the pier acting at the respective C.G
ix) Force due to wave action, if applicable.
The loads & moments an account of the above forces (which are applicable)
are calculated both at the bottom of the piers & bottom of foundation concrete &
stress in pier masonry / concrete & foundation soil are worked out as
P =(P/A)+=(Mxx/Zxx)+=(Myy/Zyy)
Where p = stress in / concrete or on soil
P = Total Vertical load
A = area of section at the base of pier (considering equivalent length
for cut & ease waters) or foundation concrete base
Mxx = Moment in roadway direction

Myy = Moment in canal flow direction

Zxx/Zyy = Module of the section of pier at bottom or foundation concrete


base.
Foundation soil is to be within the permissible limits of stress to be allowed in
masonry/concrete or a soil .No tension is allowed on foundation soil. But small tension in
pier masonry/concrete is being allowed in some of the projects.

50
The piers are provided with cut & ease waters of equilateral areas of circles / semi
circles to ensure ease, smooth & stream lined flow of water.

ABUTMENTS:
Brick or stone Masonry, mass concrete or reinforced concrete may be used in the
construction of abutments.
The abutments are to be designed for the following loads &forces:
i) Self-Wt. of abutment including the weight of back fill materials
over the abutments.
ii) Dead & live load from super structure.
iii) Longitudinal force due to Braking effect.
iv) Longitudinal force due to frictional force.
v) Active earth pressure from the earth fill including live load
surcharge effect.
vi) Centrifugal force if the bridge is on a curve.
The length of the abutment is kept normally equal to the formation width of the
road. As per the present practice in rogue, T.V.A procedure is adopted for computing
the earth pressures treating the rear face as stepped back. Approach slabs should
invariably be provided where the embankment forming the road approach is over 3m
high.

BED BLOCKS:
R.C.C bed blocks in M25 grade and of required size will be provided over piers
and abutments to distribute the load from the bearings evenly over the top of piers and
abutments .the section of the bed block is checked for shear & bond.

BEARINGS:
No bearings are provided for effective spans up to 10.3m. Only bituminous layer
or Kraft paper is laid between the supporting member and super structure after
rendering the top of bearing surface smooth by plastering.

EXPANSION JOINTS:
12mm expansion joints filled with Asphaltic mastic filler will be used in the deck
slab over piers and abutments.

51
WEARING COAT:
Asphaltic concrete wearing coat of 50mm-110mm-50mm in two layers or
Reinforced concrete wearing coat of M20 grade of 50-100-50 mm will be provided to
protect the structural concrete of the deck slab from the damage caused by the moving
vehicles or by rain water.

DRAINAGE SPOUTS:
100 drainage spouts are provided at where of each span , on both the sides of
road ways to serve as outlet for rain water on the road way .spacing of drainage spout
shall not exceed 10 metres they may be clay or CI or cement pipe.

HAND RAILING& ORNAMENTAL PILASTERS:


Substantial railings or parapets along each side of the bridge shall be provided for
the protection of traffic. They are protected by the kerbs of the road way.
Railings or parapets shall have a minimum height above the adjacent road way
or kerb surface, of 1.1m less one half the horizontal width of the top rail or top of the
parapet.(clause.116.1.2 of IRC :5-1998)
Ornamental pilasters in masonry supported on rear face of abutments are
provided on either side of the bridge.

APPROACHES TO BRIDGES:
The approaches on either side shall have a minimum straight length of 15 m
with the same level of the road.(clause.120.1 of IRC :5-1998) .Beyond the level
portion, a ruling gradient of 1 in 30 is adopted fill it meets the natural ground level.
Along the approaches on either side, guide stones 0.23m dia &1.25m high
projecting 0.10 m above road level shall be provided at not more than 3.0m intervals
wherever the height of embankment is more than 1.8m.

52
CHAPTER-07
DESIGN
OF
COMPONENTS

53
7.1 HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

S.NO DESCRIPTION UNITS PARTICULARS

1 Discharge(Required/Designed) Cumecs 20.980 / 22.9104


2 Bed width m 6.900
3 Full supply depth m 2.500
4 Side slopes (inner/outer) --- 2.00:1 / 2:1
5 Bed fall --- 1 in 10250
6 Value of Rugosity (n) --- 0.0180
7 Free board m 0.750
8 Velocity m/sec 0.770
9 Top width of banks(Left/Right) m 7.925 / 4.000
10 C.B.L m +450.890 / +450.890
11 F.S.L m +453.390 / +453.390
12 T.B.L m +454.140 / +454.140
13 GROUND LEVEL(proposed) m +448.048

ROAD PARTICULARS

1. Ground level at Road crossing = + 448.048(proposed)


2. Proposed Road Level = + 454.815
3. Width of Road = 4.25 m
4. Type of Road = SLRB

7.2 TRAIL PARTICULARS FOR SINGLE LANE ROAD BRIDGE AT


KM 526.775

54
7.3 AFFLUX CALCULATION FOR SINGLE LANE BRIDGE
Designed Discharge of the Canal = 22.910 m3 /sec
Normal Canal Bed Width = 6.90 m
Canal Bed Width at Structure portion = 7.90 m
Normal canal side slopes = 2.0 : 1

Pier bed width @FSL level = 1.000 m


Pier bed width @ CBL level = 1.700 m
No or piers = 1 No
Obstructional area due to pier(s) = 2.500 m2
Canal normal water way area = 29.75 m2
Net water way at the structure = 19.75 + 12.50 - 2.50 = 29.75 m2
Normal area of the canal before structure portion,
= [6.90 + 2.00 2.5] 2.5
= 29.75 m2
Normal velocity of the canal = 0.77 m/sec
Afflux as per Moleworths Empirical formula is,
2 2
h = ( + 0.01524) (( ) 1)
17.86

= 0.0484 (1 1)
= 0.000 m or
= 0.000 mm < 5 mm
which is negligible

55
7.4 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOADS ON PIER / ABUTMENT

Carriage Width = 4.250 m


Width of kerbs = 0.225 m
Width of parapet walls = 0.200 m
Width of slab including kerbs o/o = 4.700 m
Width of slab including parapet o/o = 5.100 m
Length of clear span in between piers = 8.500 m
Bearing of slab ( for road bridge) = 0.490 m
Length of slab in traffic direction from c/c peirs = 9.480 m
Thickness of slab = 0.600 m
Thickness of W.C = 0.075 m

Dead load: (ROAD BRIDGE)

1. Dead load from deck slab (for 8.50 m clear span)


5.10 9.48 0.60 25 = 725.22 kN
2. Dead load of W.C
4.25 9.48 0.075 24 = 72.52 kN
3. Dead load of kerbs
0.425 0.225 9.48 25 = 22.66 kN
4. Dead load hand rails 75 kg/m
9.48 75.00 / 100 = 7.11kN
827.51kN
Total dead load coming on abutment = 827.517 / 2 = 413.735 kN

56
7.5 DESIGN OF DECK SLAB FOR 8.50 m CLEAR SPAN

Loading = IRC Class A


Grade of concrete = M 25
Grade of steel = Fe 415
Clear span = 8.50 m
Assuming thickness of slab = 0.60 m
Thickness of wearing coat = 0.075 m
Clear cover = 40 mm
Dia of main reinforcement = 20 mm
Dia of dist. reinforcement = 12 mm
Bearing width of slab = 0.490 m
Clear carriage width = 4.25 m
Width of slab = 4.70 m
Density of RCC = 25 kN/m2
Density of PCC = 24 kN/m2

Effective depth
Thickness of slab = 0.5 m = 600 mm
Clear cover = 40 mm
Dia of main bar = 20 mm
Effective cover = 40 + 20 / 2 = 50 mm
Effective depth = 600 - 50 = 550 mm

Effective span
Effective span will least of the following
c/c of support = 8.50 + 0.49 = 8.990 m

clear span + effective depth = 8.50 + 0.55 = 9.050 m


Hence effective span = 8.990 m

Impact Factor
Impact factor = 4.5 / ( 6 + L) where L=effective span in mts
4.5 / ( 6 + 7.450 ) = 0.300

57
Impact factor = 0.300

Bending moment due to dead load ( Considering out dimension)


Weight of slab = 1 0.6 25 = 15
Weight of W.C = 1 0.075 24 = 1.80
Total weight = 16.8 kN/m2
Bending moment = wl2 / 8 = 16.8 (8.990)2 / 8 = 169 kN-m

Bending moment due to live load


(As per IRC : 21-2000, clause 305.16.2 of section III)
Effective dispersion width bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
Where
= A constant depending up on ratio of b/l0 i.e. width of the
slab / effective span.
l0 = Effective span.
a = The distance of centre of gravity of concentrated load from
nearer support
b1 = The breath of the concentrated area of load.
b/l0 = 4.70 / 8.990 = 0.5528
For simply supported spans

b/l0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

0.40 0.80 1.16 1.48 1.72 1.96 2.12 2.24 2.36

0.631 = 1.775

b/l0

0.50 1.960
0.523 1.775
0.600 1.960

58
For maximum B.M the wheel loads 114 kN should be kept such that the resultant of
the two loads and one of the loads should be kept equi-distance from the centre of the
span.
114kN 114kN 68kN

1.20 m 4.30 m
A B R C
1.726 m
C.G of the loading system from A
Taking moments about A
( 114 1.20 + 68 5.50) / 296 = 1.726 m
Distance of C.L 8.990 / 2 = 4.495 m
Distance of resultant from max. load = 1.726 m
i.e from far 114 kN
Distance of resultant from max load = 0.526 m
i.e fro m near 114 kN
Equi distance of resultant force from C.L = 0.526 m / 2
= 0.263 m
Position of resultant force from support A = 4.495 + 0.263
= 4.758m
Position of max. force from support A = 4.495 - 0.263
= 4.232m

114kN 114kN 68kN

3.032 1.20 0.263 0.263 3.774 0.458


A C D R E B
4.495 m 4.495 m

59
Dispersion width under C (loading = 27 kN )
bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 1.775
a = 3.032
l0 = 8.990
b1 = 0.5 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.65 m
bef = 1.775 3.302 (1 3.302/8.990) + 0.35
= 4.216 m
left side dispersion = Distance width / 2 = 4.216/ 2
= 2.108 m
Max. possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width /2
= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2
= 0.625 m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m
The dispersion width (bef) = 4.216 > 1.8 m ( axle width)
Hence the dispersion width over lap
combined dispersion width = left dispersion + disp-width + dispwidth / 2
= 0.625 + 1. 8 + 4.216 / 2 = 4.533 m
Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.533m (combined disp. width)
Hence combined dispersion width is 4.453 m
Intensity of load = ( 114 1.335 ) / 4.453 = 32.69 kN

Dispersion width under D (loading = 114 kN)


bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 0.5528
b1 = 0.5 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.65 m
bef = 1.775 4.232 ( 1 4.232 / 8.990) + 0.65
= 4.625 m
left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2 = 4.625 / 2 = 2.313 m
Max.possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width/2
= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2 = 0.625 m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m
The dispersion width (bef) = 4.625 > 1.8 m ( axle width)

60
Hence the dispersion width over lap
Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width / 2
= 0.625 + 1.8 + 4.625 / 2
= 4.738 m
Max possible dispersion = 4.70 m < 4.738 m ( combined disp. width)
Hence combined dispersion width is 4.700 m
Intensity of load = (114 1.335 ) / 4.700 = 31.50 kN

Dispersion width under E ( loading = 68 kN)


bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 1.775
a = 0.458
bw = 0.38 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.53 m
bef = 1.775 0.458 ( 1- 0.458/ 8.990) + 0.53
= 1.301 m
left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2 = 1.301 / 2 = 0.651 m
Max possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2
= 0.225+0.15+0.38 / 2 = 0.565m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.565 m
The dispersion width (bef) = 1.301 < 1.8 m (axle width)
Hence the dispersion width does not over lap
Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width / 2
= 0.56 5 + 1.301 + 1.301/ 2
= 2.157 m
Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 2.517m (combined disp width )
Hence combined dispersion width is 2.517 m
Intensity of load = ( 68 1.300 ) /2.517 = 35.1 KN

32.7kN 31.5kN 35.1kN

3.032 1.200 0.263 0.263 3.774 0.458


A C D R E B
4.495 m 4.495 m

61
R A + RB = 32.7 + 31.5 + 35.1 = 99.34 kN
Talking moments about A
RB 8.990 = 32.7 x 3.032 + 31.5x 4.232 + 35.1x 8.532
RB 8.990 = 532.21
RB = 532.21/ 8.990 = 59.2 kN
RA = 99.34 - 59.2 = 40.14 kN
Bending moment under C = 40.14 30.032
= 121.71 kNm
Bending moment under D = 40.14 4.232 - 32.7 1.20
= 130.65 kN-m
Bending moment under E = 59.20 0.458
= 27.1 kN-m
Bending moment at mid span = 59.20 4.495- 35.1 4.04
= 124.32 kN-m
Total B.M ( Dead load B.M + live load B.M )
= 169.72 + 130.65
= 300.37 kN-m

Mix proposed is of M 25 Grade

C = 8.33 t = 200 N/mm2

m = 10 k = 0.294

Q = 11.045 j = 0.902

MR=Qbd2

Effective depth required sqrt (M.R / Q b)


= sqrt (3 x 106 /( 11.045 1000))
= 521.49 mm
Effective depth required = 521.49 mm < 550 mm (available )
Hence Safe

62
Main Reinforcement
Area of Steel (Ast) = M/( t j d)
= 3 x 106 ( 200 0.902 550)
= 3027.30 mm2
Provide 20 mm dia bars 100 mm c/c which gives an area of 3141.60 mm2
>3027.3mm2

Distribution Steel
As per clause 305.18.1 of IRC 21-2000, Bending Moment considered for distribution
steel = 0.3 live load Bending Moment+ 0.2 Dead
Load Bending Moment considered for
distribution steel.
= 0.3 130.65 + 0.200 169.72 = 731.39 kN-
m
Area of steel (Ast) = M/(t j d)
= 731.390 x 106 / ( 200 0.902 550 )
= 737.14 mm2
Min.area required = ( 0.12 % 60 1000 / 100 )
= 720 mm2
Hence provide distribution steel is 737.1 mm2
Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 150 mm c/c which gives an area of 754.0mm2

Top Reinforcement (Secondary reinforcement)


Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 mm c/c as Main steel and 12 mm dia bars @ 300
mm c/c as Distribution steel.

Check for shear


(Maximum shear due to live load as per clause 305.12.2 of I.R.C: 21-2000)
Maximum shear due to dead load W L/2
= 16.8 8.990 / 2
= 75.51 kN
Longitudinal dispersion = 0.250 + 2 ( 0.600 + 0.075 )
= 1.600 m

63
Therefore load of 114 kN may be kept @ ( 1.600 / 2 ) = 0.800 m
From the support for maximum shear
114 kN 114 kN 68 kN

0.80 1.20 4.30 2.69


8.990

Dispersion width under C (loading = 114 kN )


bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 0.700
b1 = 0.5 + 2 0.075 = 0.65 m
bef = 1.775 0.800 ( 1 - 0.800 / 8.990 ) + 0.65
= 1.943 m
Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2
= 1.943 / 2 = 0.9715 m
Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2
= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2
= 0.625 m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m
The dispersion width ( bef ) 1.943 > 1.8 m ( axle width )
Hence the dispersion width over lap.

Combined the dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2


= 0.625 + 1.8 + 1.943 / 2 = 3.3965 m
Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 3.3965 m ( combined disp width )
Hence combined dispersion width is 3.40 m
Intensity of Load = ( 114 1.300 ) / 3.40 = 43.63 kN

Dispersion width under D ( loading = 114 kN)


bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 1.900
b1 = 0.5 + 2 0.075 = 0.65 m

64
bef = 1.775 2.000 ( 1- 2.000/ 8.990 ) + 0.65
= 3.410 m
Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2
= 3.410 / 2 = 1.705 m
Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2
= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2 = 0.625 m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m
The dispersion width ( bef ) 3.41 > 1.8 ( axle width )
Hence the dispersion width over lap
Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2
= 0.625 + 1.80 + 3.410 / 2 = 4.13 m
Therefore left dispersion = 4.70 m
The dispersion width ( bef ) 4.70 > 4.13 m ( combined dispersion width )
Hence the dispersion width over lap
Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2
= 0.625 + 1.8 + 3.410 / 2 = 4.13 m
Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.13 m ( combined disp width )
Hence combined dispersion width = 4.13 m
Intensity of Load = ( 114 1.300 ) / 4.13 = 35.88 kN

Dispersion width under E (loading = 68 kN )


bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1
= 1.250
a = 2.690
b1 = 0.38 + 2 0.075 = 0.53 m
bef = 1.775 2.690 ( 1 - 2.690 / 8.990 ) + 0.53
= 3.876 m
Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2
= 3.876 / 2 = 1.938 m
Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2
= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.38 / 2 = 0.565 m
Therefore left dispersion = 0.565 m
The dispersion width ( bef ) 3.876 > 1.8 m ( axle width )

65
Hence the dispersion width over lap
Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2
= 0.565 + 1.8 + 3.876/ 2 = 4.303 m
Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.303 m ( combined disp width )
Hence combined dispersion width is 4.30 m
Intensity of Load = ( 68 1.300 ) / 4.30 = 20.54 kN
From the support for maximum shear

43.63 kN 35.88 kN 20.54 kN

0.80 1.20 4.30 2.69


A C D E B
8.990 m

RA + RB = 43.63+ 35.88 + 20.54 = 100.1 kN


Talking moments about A
RB 8.990 = 43.63 0.800 + 35.88 2.000 + 20.54 6.30
RB 8.990 = 236.1
RB = 236.1 / 8.990 = 26.26 kN
RA = 100.05 - 26.26 = 73.79 kN
Total shear (V) = 75.51 + 73.79 = 149.31 kN
Shear stress = V / bd
= 149.31 x 103 / (1000 550 )
= 0.27 N/mm2
The permissible shear stress in C.C.M25 grade, from table 12B of IRC-21-2000,
100 100 31.41 1
=
100 55.00 1
= 0.571 %

66
Stresses for 0.582 % of steel

Stress for Stress


%of steel
M 20 M25

0.500 0.300 0.310

0.571 0.314 0.324

0.750 0.350 0.360

Grade of concrete = M 25
Hence tc = 0.326 N/mm2
Shear strength = 0.326 550 100 / 1000
= 178.2 kN > 149.30 kN Hence Safe

67
7.6 LIVE LOAD DESIGN ON PIER
Clear span = 8.500 m
Width of bed block = 1.00 m
Bearing on bed block = 0.49 m
Effective span = 8.990 m
Distance b/w C.L of bearing on pier = 0.51 m
Type of bridge = 1 lane

Live Load Reaction : for class A train of vehicles


case : 1
27kN 27kN 114kN 114kN 68 kN 68 kN
3.20

5.2 1.1 1.2 4.3 3.00 0.490

8.990 Ra 0.510 Rb 8.990

Ra = ( 27 6.30 + 27 5.20 ) / 8.990


= 34.5 kN
Rb = ( 114 8.990 + 114 7.790 + 68 3.490 + 68 0.490 ) / 8.990

= 242.9 kN
Ra+Rb = 34.5 + 242.9 = 277.4 kN
Ra-Rb = 34.5 - 242.9 = 208.3 kN

Case : 2
27kN 27kN 114kN 114kN 68 kN 68 kN

4.0 1.1 3.20 4.3 3.00 1.690

8.990 Ra 0.510 Rb 8.990

68
Ra = ( 114 8.300+ 27 5.1 + 27 4.0 ) / 8.990
= 132.6 kN
Rb = ( 114 8.300+ 68 4.690 + 68 1.690 ) / 8.990
= 162.3 kN
Ra+Rb = 132.6 + 162.3 = 294.8 kN
Ra-Rb = 132.6 - 162.3 = 29.7 kN

Case : 3
27 kN 27 kN 114kN 114kN 68kN 68 kN 68 kN

0.8 3.2 1.2 4.3 3.00 3.00 2.99

8.990 Ra 0.510 Rb 8.990

Ra = ( 114 5.20 + 114 4.0 + 27 0.80 ) / 8.990


= 119.1 kN
Rb = ( 68 8.990 + 68 5.990 + 68 2.99 ) / 8.990
= 135.90 kN
Ra+Rb = 119.1 + 135.9 = 255.00 kN
Ra-Rb = 119.1 - 135.9 = 16.9 kN
Case : 4
114 kN 114kN 68kN 68kN 68 kN 68 kN

1.0 1.2 4.30 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.99

8.990 Ra 0.510 Rb 8.990


Ra = ( 68 6.50 + 114 2.2 + 114 1.0 ) / 8.990
= 89.7 kN
Rb = ( 68 8.990 + 68 5.990 + 68 2.990) / 8.990
= 135.9 kN

69
Ra+Rb = 89.7 + 135.9 = 225.7 kN
Ra-Rb = 89.7 - 135.9 = 46.2 kN

Max . of class-A loading


For single lane
Ra+Rb max = 294.84 1 = 294.84kN
Ra-Rb max = 208.35 1 = 208.35kN

Max. of Max. of Loading for design consideration on :


PIER ABUTMENT
Ra+Rb max = 294.84kN Rb = 242.89kN
Ra-Rb max = 208.35kN
Max. Loading on span for breaking force : 364 kN case 1 of class A loading

70
7.7 DESIGN OF PIER

HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS OF CANAL


Discharge (req) = 20.98 cu.m
Discharge (des) = 22.910 cu.m
Bed width = 6.900 m
Full supply depth = 2.500 m
Side slope = 1 in 10250
Coefficient of rugosity = 0.0180
Velocity = 0.770 m/sec
Canal bed level = +450.890
Full supply level = +453.390
Top of bank level = +454.140
Existing G.L/road level = +448.048
Proposed road level = +454.815
Top level of wearing coat = +454.815
Top level of slab 454.815 - 0.075 = +454.740
Bottom level of slab 454.740 - 0.600 = +454.140
0.675 m
Top level of bearing = +454.140
Bottom level of pedestal +454.140 - 0.00 = +454.140
Top level of bed block = +454.140
Bottom level of bed block +454.140 - 0.30 = +453.840
Provide depth of pedestal = 0.00
Proposed top level of pedestal 0.00 - 0.00 = +0.00
Proposed top level of foundation 450.890 - 4.390 = +446.500
Proposed bottom level of foundation 446.500 - 0.50 = +446.000

71
CROSS SECTION OF PIER

Clear width of carriage way = 4.250 m


Dia/width of pier at top = 1.000 m
Dia/width of pier at bottom = 1.700 m
Straight length of pier (the direction of flow) = 5.100m
Radius of cut waters = 0.500 m
Length of clear span in between piers = 8.500 m
Width of expansion joint = 0.020m
Bearing of slab / beam = 0.490 m
Length of slab / beam in traffic -
flow direction from c/c piers = 9.480 m
Effective span = 8.990 m
No. of footing layers = 1
Footing thickness at face of pier = 0.50 m
Footing thickness at end = 0.50 m
SECTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PIER
Grade of concrete = M-15 grade
Modular ratio m = 10
Density of concrete = 24 kN/m2

72
Top dia / width of pier D = 1.000 m
Width of pier at F.S.L = 1.000 m
Width of pier at C.B.L = 1.700 m
Width of pier at base = 1.700 m

AT TOP LEVEL OF PIER +453.840

Canal flow
y 1.000 y

x 5.100
6.10 m

Area of rectangle portion 5.10 1.0 = 5.10 m2


Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.50) 2 / 2 = 0.785 m2
Total area = 5.885 m2
Total length of pier = 5.10 + 2 0.500 = 6.10 m
Equivalent length of pier = 5.885 / 1.0 = 5.885 m
Area of pier = 5.885 m2
AT F.S.L LEVEL OF PIER

X
6.100
Canal flow
y 1.000 y

5.100

Area of rectangle portion 5.10 1.000 = 5.100 m2


Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.500) 2 / 2 = 0.785 m2
Total area = 5.885m2

73
AT C.B.L LEVEL OF PIER
X
6.800
Canal flow
y 1.700 y

x 5.100

Area of rectangle portion 5.10 1.700 = 8.670 m2


Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.850) 2 / 2 = 2.27 m2
Total area = 10.940 m2

AT BOTTOM LEVEL OF PIER

X
6.800
Canal flow
y 1.700 y

x 5.100

Area of rectangle portion 5.10 1.700 = 8.670 m2


Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.850) 2 / 2 = 2.27 m2
Total area = 10.94 m2
Total length of pier = 5.10 + 2 0.850 = 6.800 m
Equivalent length of pier = 10.94 / 1.70 = 6.435 m
Area of pier = 10.940 m2

EQUIVALENT SECTION MODULUS:-


Modulus of section pier at base
Eq,Area of pier at base = 6.278 1.700 = 10.940 m2
Ixx of pier at base = 1/ 12 1.70 ( 6.435)3 = 37.754 m4
Iyy of pier at base = 1/ 12 6.435 ( 1.70)3 = 2.634 m4
Zxx of pier at base = 1/ 6 1.70 ( 6.435)2 = 11.733 m3
Zyy of pier at base = 1/ 6 6.435 ( 1.70)2 = 3.099 m3

74
Modulus of section of foundation concrete
Projection of pedestal on either sides = 0.00 m
Projection of foundation in drain flow direction = 0.40 m
Projection of foundation in road way direction = 0.40 m

x
canal/drain flow 2.500

y y

7.600
x

Total length of footing = 6.800 + 2 (0.00 + 0.4) = 7.600 m


Total width of footing = 1.700 + 2 (0.00 + 0.4) = 2.500 m
Area of pier at base = 2.500 7.600 = 19.000 m2
Zxx of foundation = 1/6 2.500 (7.60 )2 = 24.0.66 m3
Zyy of foundation = 1/6 7.600 (2.500)2 = 7.916 m3

LOADS COMING ON TO PIER


DEAD LOAD (from dead load calculation sheet)
Dead load from slab = 725.22 kN
Dead load from W.C = 72.52
Dead load of kerbs = 22.66 kN
Dead load of hand rails = 7.11
827.52 kN
2.Dead load from bed block = 5.10 1.00 0.30 2.50 = 38.25 kN
865.77 kN
3.Weight of pier
From +453.840 to +450.890
Above pier base = (5.8852.950) 24 = 416.66kN
From +450.890 to +446.500
= (10.9404.390 ) 24 = 1152.26kN
1569.30kN

75
From +453.390 to +450.890
Below F.S.L = 5.885 x 2.500 x 24 = 353.1 kN
From +450.890 to +446.500
= 10.940 x 4.390 x 24 = 1152.6 kN
1505.74 kN
4.Weight of pier with 15% buoyancy
=1569.3 - ((1505.7/2.4)x(1 x 15/100))= 1475.19kN
5.Weight of foundation = 7.602.50 0.502.4 = 228 kN
6.Weight of foundation with 100% buoyancy
= 228.00 x 1.5 / 25 = 136.8kN

LIVE LOADS
Ra+Rb max = 294.84 kN (from live load calculation ) = 294.84 kN
Ra-Rb max = 208.35 kN (from live load calculation ) = 208.35 kN
Max live load reaction = 294.84 kN
Impact factor = 4.5 / ( 6+7.49 ) = 0.300
As the impact factor reduces to zero at 3.00 m below bed block and 0.5 m times the
factor at the bottom of the bed block the above factor comes down to
= ( 0.334 x 3.49 / 2 x 3.00 ) = 0.175
(on top of concrete)
Impact percentage = 17.45 %
The Impact Live Load = 51.45 kN (the height of pier below bed block is
more than 3m as per clause 2.11.7 of IRC: 6-2000 )
Max live load reaction
(with impact ) = 294.84 + 51.45
= 346.29 kN

HORIZONTAL FORCES
Traction forces or Braking force on pier :
As per clause 214.3 of IRC: 6-2000 the breaking force acts at 1.20 m above the road
level, i.e @ 454.815 + 1.20 = + 456.015
Breaking forces considered at bearing level = + 454.140

76
+ 456.015

Braking force
1.875 1.2

( 0.075 + 0.6 )

8.990 m

As per clause 214.2 of IRC :6-2000 the breaking forces shall be taken as 20% the
train of the load acting on the bridge
Max. loads acting on the span = 364.0 kN
Breaking forces = 364.0 1 20 / 100 (case 1 loading) = 72.80 kN
Breaking forces shared by each support = Fh = 72.80/2 = 36.4kN
Change in vertical reaction due to braking force
= 72.80 ( 1.20+0.675) / 8.90 = 15.18 kN
Lever arm at pier base = 454.140 - 446.500 = 7.640 m
Moment at base of pier = 36.40 3.879 = 278.10kNm
Lever arm at soil base = 454.140 - 446.00 = 8.140
Moment about bottom of foundation = 36.40 8.140 = 296.3 kN-m

Moment due to live load eccentricity:-


a) Eccentricity perpendicular to road way in the canal flow direction
(longitudinal):
Distance of C.G of L.L from the edge of the bridge
= (0.15+0.5/2+1.8/2) = 1.30 m
Eccentricity of load from the centre line of bridge x
= ( 4.25/2 - 1.30) = 0.825 m
( Considered at the point of action of live load ie, centre of bearing)
Max.live load = 346.29 kN
Moment = 346.29 0.825 = 285.70 kN-m

77
b) Transverse eccentricity :-

0.510
Ra Rb

1.000

Ra - Rb = (max) = 208.35 kN
Change in reaction due to breaking force = 15.180 kN
223.53 kN
Distance between centre of baring = pier width - 2 centre of bearings
Moment due to eccentricity of live load in road way direction
( Ra - Rb + change in reaction due to braking force ) x (distance between Ra and
Rb/2 )
(Ra-Rb = 1.00 - 2 0.490 / 2) = 0.510 m
Max. live load = 223.53 = 223.53 kN
Eccentricity = 0.510 / 2 = 0.225 m
Moment force = 223.53 0.255 = 57.00 kN-m
Moment for pier = 57.00 kN-m

Moment due to temperature variations & frictional resistance to bearing


Dead load on pier due to single span = 725.2 / 2 = 362.60 kN
Friction coefficient 0.5 (concrete over concrete as per clause 214.5.1.1 of IRC
6:2000)
Friction force = 0.5 362.61 10% /100 = 18.13 kN
Lever arm at pier = 454.140 - 446.500 = 7.640 m
Moment at pier base = 18.130 7.640 = 138.5 kN-m
Lever arm at foundation = 454.140 - 446.000 = 8.140 m
Moment at foundation = 18.13 8.140 = 147.60 kN-m

78
WIND FORCE (para 212.30 of IRC Bridge code )
CASE I
Case A: wind force on deck slab pier and
Exposed height:
Deck+W.C = 0.675
Kerb = 0.225
Railing(0.86/2) = 0.430 ( 50 % for opening )
1.330 m
C.G of the exposed area = 1.330 / 2
= 0.665
Acting at RL = 454.140 + 0.665 = 454.805 m
Height above FSL = 454.805 - 453.390 = 1.415 m
Height above CBL = 454.805 - 450.890 = 3.915 m

TABLE -4 OF IRC : 6-2000


Horizontal wind pressure for = 0.00 m height = 40 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 2.00 m height = 52 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 4.00 m height = 63 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 6.00 m height = 73 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 8.00 m height = 82 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 10.0 m height = 91 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for = 15.0 m height = 107 kg/m2
Horizontal wind pressure for 1.415 m height Min 0.00
52 40
= 40 + ( ) (1.415 0.00) = 48.490 kg/m2
2 0.00
Horizontal wind pressure for 3.92 m height Min 2.00
63 52
= 52 + ( ) (3.915 2.00) = 62.533 kg/m2
4 2.00
Wind force at 1.415 m height
= 9.480 1.330 48.49/1000 = 6.11 kN
Acting at 8.305 m height from top of the pier base
Wind force at 3.915 m height
= 9.480 1.330 62.533 /1000= 7.88 kN
Acting at 8.305 m from top of the pier base

79
For canal full condition :
Moment about at top of pier base = 6.114 8.305 = 50.78 kN-m
For canal empty condition :
Moment at top of pier base = 7.88 8.305 = 65.480 kN-m
For canal full condition :
Moment about top of soil = 6.11 8.805 = 53.83 kN-m
For canal empty condition :
Moment about top of soil = 7.88 8.805 = 69.42 kN-m
Max. moment at the base of pier = 65.48 kN-m
(max.of canal full &empty condition)
Max. moment at the base of foundation = 69.42 kN-m

CASE B wind force on live load


Taking maximum length vehicle permitted in one span joint to joint = 9.480 m
For class A loading
The Max force will be acting in 9.480 m length of truck with 300 kg/m run (vide
clause 212.4 of IRC : 6-2000)
Wind force = 9.480 300/100 = 28.44 kN
acting at a height of 1.50 m above the road level.
total lever arm from the top of pier = 0.675+1.5 = 2.175 m
moment about the base of the pier
= 28.44 (2.175+7.640) = 279.14 kN-m
moment about top of soil = 28.44 (2.175+8.140) = 293.36 kN-m

(a)+(b)total moment due to wind force on super structure and live load.
Moment about base of pier = 65.48 + 279.14 = 344.6 kN-m
Moment about top of soil = 69.42 + 293.36 = 362.8 kN-m

Case (ii) :- But as per clause 212.6 of IRC. bridge code the wind force should not be
less then 450 kg/m ie, acting = 454.140 + 0.90 / 2 = 454.590 kN-m
leveram at pier base = 454.590 - 446.500 = 8.090 m
wind force = 9.480 450 / 1000 = 42.66 kN
moment about the base of the pier
= 42.66 8.090 = 345.12 kN-m

80
moment about top of the soil = 42.66 8.590 = 366.4 kN-m

Case (iii) :- As per clause 212.7 of IRC 6-2000 a wind force of 240 kg/sq m in
considered.
Wind force = 240 1.330 9.480/1000 = 30.30 kN
acting at 8.090 m from the top of pier

moment about the base of the pier = 30.30 8.090 = 244.8 kNm
moment about top of soil = 30.30 8.590 = 259.9 kNm
Max moment due to wind force at base of pier = 345.1 kNm
Max moment due to wind force on top of soil = 366.4 kNm

Force due to water currents


In the direction of drain flow : (as per 213.2of IRC : 6-2000)
Net area of drain under the bridge = 26.66 m2
Intensity of pressure due to water currents (p) P = 52 Kv2
Where K = 0.66 (for semi- circular)
Velocity in the drain under the bridge = 22.91 / 26.66 = 0.859 m/s
Max velocity (V) = 1.414 moment velocity = 1.414 0.859= 1.215 m/s
Max velocity (V)2 = 1.476 m/s
Water force in the transverse direction
Pressure at FSL @ + 453.390 m p = 52Kv2cos200
Intensity of pressure at FSL
= 52 1.5 1.476 cos20 = 108.19kg/m2
Pressure at CBLis zero
Water contact area = ( 1.00 + 1.700 ) / 2 2.50 = 3.375 m2
2
Lever arm = 2.500 + 4.390 = 6.057 m
3
Total force on pier = ( 0 + 108.19 ) / 2 3.375 = 182.56 kgs
182.56 6.057
Moment about the base of the pier = = 11.06 kNm
1000
182.56 6.557
Moment about top of soil = = 11.97 kNm
1000

81
Force due to cross currents
In the direction of cross canal flow (para 213.2 of IRC:6-2000)
Case(I) as per para 213.5 of IRC Bridge code the pressure p = 52kV2sin20
Where k = 1.5 and V = 1.215 m/s
V2 = 1.476 m/s U2 = 3.375 m/s

Pressure at FSL = 52 1.5 1.476 sin 20 = 39.394kg/m2


Pressure at CBL is zero
Water contact area = (6.100+ 6.800) / 2 2.50 = 16.125 m2
2
Lever arm = ( 2.500 + + 4.390 ) = 6.057 m
3
Total force on pier = ( 0 + 39.394 ) 16.13 = 317.611kgs
317.61 6.057
Moment about the base of the pier = = 19.24 kNm
1000
317.61 6.557
Moment about top of soil = = 20.82 kNm
1000

Case(ii) :- water force in road way direction due to 250 mm difference in water
levels between the opposite force of the pier (para 213.6 of IRC 6-2000 )
Depth of flow in canal = 2.500
Length of pier immersed in water = 6.450
Depth of pier from CBL = 4.390
Length of pier at FSL = 6.100 Avg. length = 6.45 m
Length of pier at CBL = 6.800 m
Moment about pier base:-
M1 = 1 / 2 ( 2.500)2 ( 2.500 / 3 + 4.390 ) 6.45 = 105.283
M2 = 1 / 2 ( 2.750)2 ( 2.750/ 3 + 4.390 ) 6.45 = 129.425
M2-M1 = 129.425 - 105.3 = 241.42 kNm
Moment about foundation base:-
M1 = 1 / 2 ( 2.500)2 ( 2.500 / 3 + 4.890 ) 6.45 = 115.361
M2 = 1 / 2 ( 2.750)2 (2.750 / 3 + 4.890 ) 6.45 = 141.619
M2-M1 = 115.361 - 141.619 = 262.58 kNm
Max. moment at the base of pier = 241.42 kN-m
Max. moment at the base of foundation = 262.58 kN-m

82
Without With 15 %
Direct loads buoyancy buoyancy
Dead load from super structure 865.8 kN 865.8 kN
Live load 346.29 kN 346.3 kN
Weight of pier 1 Nos 1569.3 kN 1475 kN
Change in ver. Reaction due to breaking force 15.18 kN 15.18kN
Total direct load 2796.5 kN 2702.4 kN
Total direct loads on pier 2796.5 kN 2702.4 kN
Weight of foundation 228.0 kN 136.8 kN
3024.5 kN 2839.2 kN

Transverse Longitudinal
Moments :
moment Moments
(road canal
At base of pier
direction) flow direction
Due to breaking force. 278.1
Due to live load eccentricity. 57.00 285.7
Due to temperature. 138.51
Due to wind force. 345.12
Due to water current force . 241.42 11.06
715.0 KN-m 641.9 KN-m
On soil
Due to breaking force 296.30
Due to live load eccentricity. 57.00 285.7
Due to temperature stresses. 147.758
Due to wind force. 366.4
Due to water current force. 262.58 12.00
Due to water level difference . 763.5 KN-m 664.1 KN-m

Modulus of section pier at base


Eq.Area of pier at base = 10.940 m2
Zxx of pier at base = 11.734 m3
Zyy of pier at base = 3.100 m3

83
Modulus of section of foundation concrete
Area of foundation at base = 19.00 m2
Zxx of foundation at base = 24.067 m3
Zyy of foundation at base = 7.917 m3
Stress in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and on top of soil
without wind effect

A) When the canal is empty and traffic allowed on the road :-


CALCULATION OF STRESSES:

Direct BENDING
Canal flow Road way

i) Stress in pier at base:-


2796.5 285.7 473.6
= + + = 432.80 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
2796.5 285.7 473.6
= - - = 7.85 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
ii) Stress on soil :-
3024.5 285.7 500.9
= + + = 234.3 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917
3024.5 285.7 500.9
= - - = 84.05 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-
i) Stress in pier at base :-
2702.4 296.7 715.0
= + + = 503.00 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
2702.4 296.7 7715.0
= - - = -8.90 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
ii) Stress on soil :-
2839.2 297.7 763.50
= + + = 258.2 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917
2839.2 297.7 763.5
= - - = 40.63 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917

84
Stress in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and top of soil:-
With wind effect:-
A) When the canal in empty and traffic allowed on the road:-

i) Stress in pier at base:-


2796.5 630.8 473.6
= + + = 462.20 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
2796.5 630.8 473.6
= - - = 49.1 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
ii) Stress on soil :-
3024.5 652.10 500.9
= + + = 249.60 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917

3024.5 652.10 500.9


= - - = 68.82 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-
i) Stress in pier at base:-
2702.4 641.9 715.0
= + + = 532.4 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
2702.4 641.9 715.0
= - - = -38.4 kN/m2
10.940 11.734 3.100
ii) Stress on soil :-
2839.4 664.1 763.50
= + + = 273.50 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917
2839.4 664.1 763.50
= - - = 25.40 kN/m2
19.00 24.067 7.917

RESULT :-
Note : (-) sign indicates tention
At base of pier
Max.resultant stress = 532.40 kN/m2 < 5000 kN/m2
(table 21 of IS 456-2000)
Min.resultant stress = -38.36 kN/m2 < 400 kN/m2
(table 11 of IRC:21-2000)

85
At base of foundation
Max.stress on soil = 273.46 kN/m2
Min.stress on soil = 25.40 kN/m2

The allowable direct and bending stresses for M 15 grade of concrete


(vide table-9 of IRC :21-2000)
Direct stress calculated = 255.60 kN/m2

Direct stress allowable = 3750.00 kN/m2

Bending stress calculated = 285.40 kN/m2

Bending stress allowable = 5000.00 kN/m2

Direct stress calculated Bending stress calculated = 0.125 < 1


+
Direct stress allowable Bending stress allowable

Hence O.K

86
7.8 LIVE LOAD DESIGN ON ABUTMENT

Clear span = 8.500 m


Bearing on bed block = 0.490 m
Effective span = 8.990 m
Type of bridge = 1 lane
b. live load reactions :- for class A train vehicles
Case : 1

114 kN 114 kN 68 kN 68 kN

1.20 4.30 3.0 0.490

Ra Rb
8.990

Ra = ( 114 8.990 + 114 7.790 + 68 3.490 + 68 0.490) / 8.990


= 242.90 kN
Rb = 121.10kN
Ra+Rb = 364.0 kN
Ra-Rb = 121.8 kN

Case : 2

114 kN 68 kN 68 kN

4.30 3.00 1.690

Ra Rb
8.990

87
Ra = ( 114.00 8.990 + 68.00 4.69 + 68.00 1.69 ) / 8.990
= 162.3 kN
Rb = 87.7 kN
Ra+Rb = 250.00 kN
Ra-Rb = 74.5 kN

Case : 3

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN

3.00 3.00 2.9

Ra Rb
8.990

Ra = ( 68.00 8.990 + 68.00 5.990 + 68.00 2.990 ) / 8.990


= 135.9 kN
Rb = 68.1 kN
Ra+Rb = 204.00 kN
Ra-Rb = 67.8 kN

Case : 4

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN

3.00 3.00 2.99

Ra Rb
8.990

Ra = ( 68.00 8.990 + 68.00 5.990+ 68.00 2.990 ) / 8.990


= 135.9 kN

88
Rb = 68.1 kN
Ra+Rb = 204.00 kN
Ra-Rb = 67.8kN

Max. of class-A loading:


For single lane
Ra+Rb = 364 1 = 364.00 kN
Ra-Rb = 121.78 1 = 121.78 kN

Max.of Max. of loading on abutment :


Rb (max) = 242.89 kN (Case -1 of class-A loading )

Max loading on span for breaking force: 364.0 kN case -1 of class-A loading

89
7.9 DESIGN OF ABUTMENT

Top Width = 1.00 m


Front Side Batter = 2.50 m
Rear Side Batter = 2.10 m
Off Set on Earth Side = 0.40 m
Off Set on Front Side = 0.40 m
Depth of Foundation = 0.50 m
Friction Coefficient = 0.50
Live load surcharge = 1.20 m
Ground level = +448.048 m
Proposed road level = +454.815 m
Skew angle = 0.00 deg
Type of bridge = 1 lane
Horizontal coefficient of Soil = 0.1584
Vertical coefficient of Soil = 0.0395
Density of Soil = 21 kN/m3
Density of Concrete = 24 kN/m3
Density of RCC = 25 kN/m3
Angle of repose = 28o

90
1) Reaction on Abutment:
Dead load:
Width of carriage way = 4.250 m
Width of slab at bottom = 5.100 m
Top width of return wall = 0.425 m
Total length of abutment = 5.100 m
Effective length of abutment = 5.100 m
Effective span = 8.900 m
Dead load on pier as calculated in pier design = 413.760 kN
Load on abutment = 413.760 kN
Load coming on to abutment per m length(413.760/5.10)= 81.13 kN/m
Live load: for class-A train of vehicles
Max.LL for class-A loading : (from live load calculation pier and abutment)
live load max = 242.890 kN
live load max. for lanes 1 = 242.890 kN
Max. of Max LL :
Live load max = 242.890 kN
4.5 4.5
Impact factor = = = 0.302
6+ 6+8.900
As the impact factor reduce to zero at 3.00 m below bed block and 0.5 times the factor
at bottom of bed block, the above factor comes down to
0.336 0.00
= = 0.00 on top of concrete
2 3.00
Live load including impact per m length = single lane
242.890
= 1.00 = 47.630 kN/m
5.10
Total load coming on abutment = 81.130 + 47.630 = 128.750 kN/m
For skew increase this load as follows (as per page 106 of Bridge design by Johnson
Victor)
Skew angle in degrees load increase in percentage
0 - 20 0 - 50
20 - 50 50 - 90
For skew of 0.0 degree percentage increase = 0
Load on abutment = 128.750 1 = 128.750 kN/m

91
2) Force due to braking effect:
20% of max train loads an span
The breaking force for this loading is the maximum that is coming on the span
i.e, 364 kN as showing in sketch in case-I while calculated Live load reactions
Braking force = (364 ) 20 / 100 = 72.800 kN
Horizontal force normal at = 72.8 cos 0.0 = 72.800 kN
Acting at 1.20 m above road level i.e.,
Force per running m = 72.800 / 5.10 = 14.270 kN/m
3)Force due to temperature stresses:
Dead load on abutment = 81.13 kN/m
Friction coefficient (concrete over concrete clause 214.5.1.1 of IRC 6:2000)
Friction force = 0.5 81.13 100%100
= 40.56 KN
STRESS ON CONCRETE : (taking moment about A)

S.no Description Load Lever arm Moment


KN m KN-m
1. Vertical loads 128.750 2.25 289.68
2. W1 : 0.500 X 0.300 X 25 3.75 2.25 8.43
3. W2 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 1.25 65.85
4. W3 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 1.83 27.450
5. W4 : 0.500 X 4.39 X 24 52.680 1.75 92.19
6. W5 : 0.500 X 7.340 X 24 88.080 2.25 198.18
7. W6 : 0.500 X 8.315 X 24 99.780 2.75 274.395
8. W7 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 24 7.200 3.16 22.75
9. W8 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.25 268.71
10. W9 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.75 310.05
11. W10 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 4.16 62.4
12. W11 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.25 223.89
13. W12 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.75 250.23
14. W13 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.33 280.96
15. W15 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 21 46.09 5.66 260.86
16. W16 : 1.000 X 3.700 X 21 77.700 5.50 427.35
17. W17 : 0.500 X 3.700 X 21 38.850 4.75 184.53
18. W18 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 21 13.12 4.33 56.8
19. W19 : 1.000 X 1.200 X 21 25.200 4.00 100.8

92
20. W20 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 21 6.30 3.33 20.97
21. W21 : 0.500 X 0.225 X 25 2.810 3.25 9.13
22. W22 : 1.000 X 0.255 X 25 5.620 4.00 22.48
23. W23 : 0.500 X 0.255 X 25 2.810 4.75 13.35
24. W24 : 1.000 X 0.225 X 25 5.620 5.50 30.93
25. W26 : 1.00 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 0.66 34.76
26. WL : 1.000 X 3.250 X 1.200 X 21 81.900 4.25 348.070
27. Pv : 0.0395 X ( 9.515 1.200 ) X 21
2 2
73.900 6.00 443.400
28. V 1218.9 KN
29. M 4328.59 KN-m
30. Ph : 0.1584 X ( 9.5152 1.2002 ) X 21 296.360 3.492 1034.880
34. Braking Force 14.270 7.640 109.06
35. Frictional Force 40.560 7.640 309.88
351.200 KN 2874.77 Kn-m

Lever arm = M/V = 2874.77 / 1218.9


= 2.35 m
Eccentric = 2.35 6.000 / 2
= 0.65 m
B/6 = 6.000 / 6
= 1.00 m > 0.697 m Hence no Tension
Max.stress = (1218.9 / 6.000) {1 + (6 0.65) / 6.000}
= 336.6 kN/sqm (compression)
Max.stress = (1218.9 / 6.000) {1 (6 0.65) / 6.000}
= 69.6 kN/sqm (Tension)

STRESS ON SOIL : (taking moment about A)


S.no Description Load Lever arm Moment
KN m KN-m
1. Vertical loads 128.750 2.65 341.180
2. W1 : 0.500 X 0.300 X 25 3.75 2.65 9.930
3. W2 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 1.65 86.920
4. W3 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 2.23 33.450
5. W4 : 0.500 X 4.39 X 24 52.680 2.15 113.420
6. W5 : 0.500 X 7.340 X 24 88.080 2.65 233.410
7. W6 : 0.500 X 8.315 X 24 99.780 3.15 314.500
8. W7 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 24 7.200 3.56 25.630
9. W8 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.65 301.780

93
10. W9 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 4.15 343.12
11. W10 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 4.56 68.400
12. W11 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.65 244.960
13. W12 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.15 271.300
14. W13 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.73 301.850
15. W14 : 0.400 X 8.09 X 21 67.950 6.60 448.470
16. W15 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 21 46.09 6.06 279.30
17. W16 : 1.000 X 3.700 X 21 77.700 5.90 458.430
18. W17 : 0.500 X 3.700 X 21 38.850 5.15 200.070
19. W18 : 0.500 X 0.500 2.500 X 21 13.12 4.73 62.050
20. W19 : 1.000 X 1.200 X 21 25.200 4.40 110.880
21. W20 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 21 6.830 3.73 25.470
22. W21 : 0.500 X 0.225 X 25 2.810 3.65 10.250
23. W22 : 1.000 X 0.255 X 25 5.620 4.40 24.720
24. W23 : 0.500 X 0.255 X 25 2.810 5.15 14.470
25. W24 : 1.000 X 0.225 X 25 5.620 5.90 33.150
26. W25 : 0.400 X 0.225 X 25 2.250 6.60 14.850
27. W26 : 1.00 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 0.73 38.400
28. W27 : 6.800 X 0.500 X 24 81.600 3.4 277.400
29. WL : 1.000 X 3.250 X 1.200 X 21 91.980 4.65 427.700
30. Pv : 0.0395 X ( 10.0152 1.2002 ) X 21 82.000 6.80 557.600
31. V 1389.430
32. M 5690.280
33. Ph : 0.1584 X ( 10.015 1.200 ) X 21
2 2
328.800 3.492 1286.600
34. Braking Force 14.270 8.040 116.190
35. Frictional Force 40.560 8.140 330.160
383.700 3911.420

Lever arm = M/V = 3911.420 / 1396.20


= 2.801 m
Eccentric = 2.801 6.800 / 2
= 0.599 m
B/6 = 6.800 / 6
= 1.130 m > 0.599 m Hence no Tension
Max.stress = (1396.020 / 6.800) {1 + (6 0.599) / 6.800}
= 313.800 kN.sqm (compression)
Max.stress = (1396.020 / 6.800) {1 (6 0.599) / 6.800}
= 96.700 kN.sqm (Tension)

94
OVER TURNING MOMENT = 1732.95 KN-m

CHECK FOR OVER TURNING = 5690.280 / 1732.95


= 3.28 > 2 (IRC 78:2000.cl.706.3.4)
CHECK FOR SLIDING = (0.5 x 1389.430 ) / 383.70
= 1.81 > 1.5 (IRC 78:2000.cl.706.3.4)

7.10 DESIGN OF RETURN WALL


Height of live surcharge = 1.20 m
Top width of parapet = 0.20 m
Height of parapet = 0.60 m
Width of kerb wall = 0.225 m
Height of kerb = 0.225 m
Top width of head wall = 0.425 m
Rear side batter = 1.500 m
Front side batter = - m
Bottom width = 1.93 m
Offset on earth side = 0.30 m
Offset on front side = 0.30 m
Foundation width = 2.525 m
Depth of foundation = 0.50 m

95
Top level of parapet = +455.640
Road level (proposed) = +454.815
Top level of kerb wall = +455.040
Top of foundation level = +452.500
Bottom of foundation level = +452.000
Density of soil = 21.00 kN/m3
Density of concrete = 24.00 kN/m3
Density of RCC = 25.00 kN/m3
Pv = 0.04
Ph = 0.1584

TAKING MOMENT ABOUT A

Moment
S.NO Force Description Magnitude(kN) L.A(m) (kN-m)

1 W1 1 0.43 2.540 24 25.910 1.713 44.370


2 W2 0.5 1.50 2.315 24 41.670 1.000 41.670
3 W3 1 0.20 0.600 24 2.880 1.825 5.260
4 W4 0.5 0.68 1.00 21 36.460 0.500 18.230
5 Pv 0.04 ( 3.5152 1.202) 21 9.050 - -
V 115.97 KN

0.1584 ( 3.515 2 - 1.202) 21 36.310


6 Ph 0.972 35.300

M 144.830

KN-m

Base width (B) = 1.930 m


Lever arm =M/V = 144.830 / 115.970 = 1.249 m
Eccentricity = 1.249 1.925 / 2 = 0.286 m
B/6 = 1.930 / 6 = 0.321 m >0.268 m
Hence no tension

96
Max.stress = (115.970 / 1.925) {1 + (6 0.286) / 1.925}
= 114.000 kN/m2 (compression)
Min.stress = (115.970 / 1.925) {1 - (6 0.286) / 1.925}
= 6.500 kN/m2 (compression)

TAKING MOMENT ABOUT B


Moment
S.NO Description Magnitude(kN) L.A(m) (kN-m)
Force

1 W1 1 0.43 2.540 24 25.910 2.013 52.140


2 W2 0.5 1.50 2.315 24 41.670 1.300 54.170
3 W3 1 0.20 0.600 24 2.880 2.125 6.120
4 W4 0.5 1.50 2.315 21 36.460 0.800 29.170
5 W5 1 0.30 2.315 21 14.580 0.150 2.190
6 Wf 1 2.53 0.50 24 30.300 1.263 38.250
Pv 0.04 ( 4.0152 1.202) 21 12.180 - -
v 163.980 KN 182.040
KN-m

Ph 0.1584 ( 4.015 2 - 1.202) 21 48.830 1.182


7 57.730

239.77
KN-m

Base width (B) = 2.53 m


Lever arm =M/V = 239.77 / 163.980 = 1.462 m
Eccentricity = 1.462 - 2.525 / 2 = 0.200 m
B/6 = 2.530 / 6 = 0.421 m >0.200 m
Hence no tension
Max.stress = (163.980 / 2.525) {1 + (6 0.200) / 2.525}
= 95.80 kN/m2 (compression)
Min.stress = (163.980 / 2.525) {1 - (6 0.200) / 2.525}
= 34.10 kN/m2 (compression)

97
Factor of safety against overturning = Resisting Moment / overturning moment
= 182.040 / 57.730 = 3.15 > 2
Hence safe
v
Factor of safety against sliding = H Assuming = 0

(For concrete on soil vide clause.706.3.4 of IRC: 78-2000)


= 0.50 163.980 / 48.80 = 1.679 > 1.5
Hence Safe

7.11 STRESS TABLE

STRESS IN SOIL
STRESS IN SOIL
SI.NO PARTICULARS IN
CONCRETE IN kN/m2 STRATA
kN/m2

1 ABUTMENT 336.600 69.60 313.800 96.70 F&F

2 PIER 532.400 -28.36 273.460 25.400 F&F

3 BOX WINGS 114.00 6.50 95.800 34.100 HDR

98
CHAPTER-08
CONCLUSION

99
CONCLUSION

The above Single Lane Road Bridge between katuguttaaplli and goravandlpalli is
prepared based on the related codes like IRC 5, IRC 6, IRC 21, IS 456-2000. The design is
done effectively on safety point of view duly allowing the foundations to rest on Hard Strata
( HDR & F & F), and the stresses on concrete & soil are found to be within the limits. The
above design is also economical because the piers, abutments and box wings were designed
using CC M15 grade concrete instead of RCC. This is because height of the pier is less and
Hard Strata of soil is available in shorter depth from the ground level.

100
CHAPTER-09
REFERENCES &
BIBILIOGRAPHY

101
9.0 REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. IRC: 5-1998, Standard specifications & code of practise for road bridges,
section I general features of design (sixth revision) Indian Road
Congress.

2. IRC: 6-2010, -do-, section II-loads &stresses-IRC.

3. IRC: 21-2000,-do-, section III-cement concrete (plain &reinforced)-IRC.

4. IRC: 78-2000,-do-, section VII foundations & substructures.

5. Pocket book for Bridge Engineers-IRC-2000.

6. IRC: 24-2000-section V steel Road bridges IRC.

7. IRC: 18-2000-Design criteria for pre stressed concrete Road bridges.

8. Bridge Engineering by Ponnu Swamy S.

9. Essentials of Bridge Engineering by victor D.J.

10. Bridge Engineering by N. Krishna Raju.

11. Design of Bridge Structures by T.R. Jagadeesh & M.A. Jayaram.

12. Design & Construction of High way Bridges by Rakshit K.S.

13. Design of Irrigation structures by R. Satya Narayana Murthy.

14. Water Resource Engineering by Satya Narayana Murty Challa.

15. Principles and Properties of Bridge Engineering by S.P. Bindra.

102
16. Civil Engineers handbook by P.N. Khanna.

17. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering by Dr.K.R.Arora.

18. Ministry of shipping & Transport (Roads wing). Standard for High way
bridges, volume II, concrete slab bridges, 1983-IRC.

19. IRC: 89-1985, Guide lines for Design & Construction of River training &
control works for Road bridges IRC.

20. Study material for the workshop and design, construction and maintenance
of modern bridges of engineering staff college of India, Hyderabad.

21. Guide lines for the design of small bridges and culverts-IRC special
publication 13.

22. Design aspects of bridges on N .S. Main canal by Sri K. Rangaih published
by the institution of engineers, NagarjunaSagar sub-centre, annual report
for 1375-76.

23. IRC 45-1972.

103