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Types of bridges

Types of bridges

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INTRODUCTION

1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 DEFINITION

A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way

beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipe

line. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.

Generally, double lane bridges are provided for National highways and Major District

Roads and single lane bridges are provided for other District Road village Road crossings.

Foot bridges are also provided where called for men and cattle to cross over.

Before a bridge can be built at a particular site, it is essential to consider many factors

such as the need for a bridge, the present and future traffic, stream characteristics, sub soil

conditions, alternative sites, aesthetic and cost.

The aim of the investigation is to select a suitable site at which a bridge can be built

economically. At the same time satisfying the demands of traffic, the stream, safety and

aesthetics. The investigation for a major bridge project should result in an investigation

report. The success of the final design will depend on the thoroughness of the information

furnished by the officer in charge of the investigation.

The site for a bridge is usually governed by Engineering, economic, social and

aesthetic considerations. In case of old alignments & canal alignments, the bridge site may be

governed by existing roadway or railway alignments. The bridge site may be governed by

existing roadway railway alignments.

Where there is any choice, select a site

i. Which is situated on a straight reach of the stream ,sufficiently below bends;

ii. Which is far away from the confluence of large tributaries;

iii. Which has well defined banks;

iv. Which is feasible to have straight approach roads;

v. Which offers a square crossing as far as possible.

2

1.4 PRELIMINERY DATA TO BE COLLECTED

The engineer in charge of the investigation for a major bridge should collect the following

information:

1. Name of the stream, road and the identification marks allotted to the crossing and

location in km to Centre of crossing.

2. Location of the nearest GTS (Great Trigonometric Survey) bench mark with its

reduced level.

3. Present and anticipated future volume and nature of traffic on the road at the bridge

site.

4. Hydraulic data pertaining to the river, including the highest flood level (HFL),

ordinary flood level (OFL) and low water level (LWL), size, shape, slope and nature

of the catchment, possibility of subsequent changes in the catchment like

afforestation, deforestation and urban development intensity and frequency of rainfall

in the catchment and probability of large trees or rolling debris floating down the

stream.

5. Soil profile along the probable bridge sites over the length of the bridge and

approaches.

6. Navigation requirements if any for the stream.

7. Need for large scale river training works.

8. Liability of the site to earth quake disturbances.

9. Availability, quality and location of the nearest quarries for stones, for masonry and

for concrete aggregates.

10. Nearest place of availability of cement, steel and timber.

11. Means of transport for materials.

12. Availability of unskilled and skilled labour for different trades required for

construction.

13. Facilities required for housing labour during construction.

14. Important details of the bridge, if any, crossing the same river within a reasonable

distance of the proposed bridge.

15. Availability of electrical power.

16. Details of any utilities and services to be provided for (e.g., telephone cable, power

cables, water supply pipes) along with relevant information on size and arrangement.

3

1.5 THE ESSENTIAL DESIGN DATA REQUIRED (Cl.102 of IRC: 5-1998)

1) General data including maps, plans and topographical features:

i. An index map to a suitable small scale showing the proposed location of the

bridge, the general topography of the country and the important towns etc.

ii. A contour survey plan of the stream showing all topographical features and

extending U/S & D/S of the proposed site (8=1 mile).

iii. A site plan to a suitable scale showing details of the site selected and

extending not less than 100 m U/S & D/S from the centre line of the crossing

and covering the approaches to a sufficient distance indicating the location (in

kilometres) of the centre of crossing, the direction of flow of water, maximum

discharge, the alignment of existing approaches a proposed approaches, the

location of trial pits etc.

iv. Cross section of the channel at the site of the proposed crossing & two other

cross-sections at suitable distances are on U/S of the other on D/S to a

horizontal scale of not less than 1/1000 & a vertical scale of 1/100.

v. A longitudinal section extended U/S & D/S of the proposed site to a suitable

distance generally extending to 100m on either side.

2) Hydraulic data:

i. The catchment design discharge , the linear water way & corresponding

average velocity of flow

ii. The highest flood level

iii. The influence of afflux on areas in the vicinity

iv. The observed maximum depth of scour etc.

3) Geological data:

i. The nature & properties of the existing soil in bed, banks & approaches

with trial pit or bore hole sections showing levels, strata etc.

ii. Liability of the site to earthquake disturbances land its magnitude

data listed above are collected & recorded.

4

CHAPTER-02

CALCULATION OF

DISCHARGE

5

2.0 CALCULATION OF DISCHARGE

Hydraulics is the essential feature of bridge design. Fair assessment of flood levels,

maximum flood discharge expected to occur at bridge site during design life of bridge, and

maximum scour levels are essential aspects of bridge hydraulics. Faulty determination of

these parameters may lead to failure of structures.

Although records of rainfall exists to some extent, the actual record of rainfall is seldom

available in such sufficiency (50 years) as to enable the Engineer to infer precisely the worst

flood conditions for designing bridges.

The current practice generally followed for calculating the discharge at the bridge site is as

follows

i. Empirical formulae applicable to particular region.

ii. Recognised rational methods

iii. By area velocity method with the help of hydraulic characteristics of

the channel

iv. By unit Hydrograph method

i. Empirical Formulae:

(A) Inglis Formula (for Western Ghats and Tapi Valley)

7000

=

( + 4)

Where Q = Discharge in cusecs (ft3/sec)

A = Catchment in area in sq. miles

4000

=

( + 4)

A = Catchment area in sq. miles.

6

(C) Dickens Formula (for Vidarbha & Marathwada Regions)

Q = C[A]3/4

Where Q = Discharge in cusecs (ft3/sec)

A = Catchment area in sq. miles.

C = Constant whose value varies from 800 to 1600

= 800 to 1000 for rainfall 25" to 50"

= 1000 to 1400 generally this value taken in M.P can be

adopted for Vidarbha adjacent to Madhya Pradesh

Q = CAIc

Where Q = Maximum run-off in cumecs

C = Coefficient of run off for the catchment

By this method the discharge is calculated from Mannings formula

V = 1/n R2/3S1/2

Q = AV

Where,V = Velocity in m/sec;

Q = Max. Flood discharge in cumecs;

n = Coefficient of Rugosity;

R = Hydraulic mean depth equal to the ratio

of cross sectional area A to wetted perimeter R = A/P.

S = The bed slope of stream measured over a long distance.

From time discharge curves Unit Hydrograph Method can be used to find out

the max. Flood discharge Q.

7

Fig. 2.1 Unit Hydrograph

The design discharge is taken as the highest of theses provided it does not exceed the next

highest discharge by more than 50% .if it exceeds then 1.5 times second highest is considered

since by experience it is gives an economical & fairly data figure.

The area through which the water flows between nalla bed and bridge superstructure is

known as the waterway of bridge. The linear measurement of this area along the bridge is

known as linear waterway. This linear waterway equal to sum of all the clear spans is called

as effective linear waterway.

a) Non-erodible streams:

The Linear Waterway required for a bridge across a stream having non-erodible

banks and bed is the distance between banks at the water surface elevation at HFL.

b) Alluvium streams:

For natural channels in alluvial beds and having undefined banks, effective linear

waterway can be determined from some accepted rational formula. One such formula as

per I.R.C. for regime conditions is given below:

W = C Q

Q = Design maximum discharge in m3/s

C = A constant usually 4.8 for regime conditions

8

2.3 SCOUR DEPTH

When the velocity of stream exceeds the limiting velocity, which the erodable particles of

bed material can stand, the scour occurs. The normal scour depth is the depth of water in the

middle of stream when it is carrying the peak flood discharge.

K

sf = The silt factor for representative sample of bed material

Obtained up to the level of deepest anticipated scour.

Bed material Grain size in mm Silt factor f

Fine 0.081 0.500

Fine 0.120 0.600

Fine 0.158 0.700

SILT Medium 0.223 0.850

Standard 0.323 1.00

Medium

0.505 1.250

Coarse

0.725 1.500

Mixed with fine

0.988 1.750

SAND Bagri

1.290 2.000

Heary

9

2.4 AFFLUX

Afflux is the rise or heading up of water over the flood level in U/S of a bridge caused

by construction of waterway at a bridge site. When the natural water way of stream /canal is

obstructed by providing less opening, the afflux occurs.

An estimation of afflux is necessary to determine the bottom level of bridge deck after

providing for determining the velocity produced through the obstruction.

The afflux may be calculated using Moles worths formula.

(Clause.8.7.1 of pocket book for Bridge Engineers 2000)

Where v = Average velocity prior to obstruction in m/sec

A = Unobstructed sectional area of stream /canal in m2

a = Sectional area of river /canal at obstruction in m2

Hydraulic particulars for that bridge will be allowed at the site of crossing (as per the

Department practise)

10

2.5 VERTICAL CLEARANCE

Adequate vertical clearances shall be provided in case of all high level bridges

which is usually the height from the designed HFL with afflux to the lowest point of the

bridge super structure.

Discharge Minimum Vertical Clearance

(m3/s) (in mm)

Up to 0.3 150

0.3 to 3.0 450

3.0 to 30 600

30 to 300 900

300 to 3000 1200

Above 3000 1500

Ministry of Inland Transport Department recommendations.

The free board for high level bridges shall not be less than 1750 mm. (vide clause

101.1 of IRC: 5-1998).

11

CHAPTER-03

COMPONENTS OF

A BRIDGE

12

3.0 COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE

1) Super structure

2) Sub structure

3) Foundation

3.1 Superstructure

This bears the load passing over it and transmits the forces caused by the same to the

substructures.

Main components of a super structure are

a) Deck

b) Girders (Main structural system supporting a deck & spanning

between the sub-structure units.

c) Bearings

d) Kerb& Hand railings

e) Expansion joints

f) Drain pipes

a) Deck

It includes a bridge deck which spans between supports. It is the primary component

which receives the load and transfers the same to structures underlying it.

13

b) Girders

It is the main structural system supporting the deck over it and spanning between

the substructures units. They transfer the imposed load to the bearings and piers.

c) Bearings

The bearings transmit the load received from the decking on to the

substructure and are provided for distribution of the load evenly over the substructure

material which may not have sufficient bearing strength to bear the superstructure

load directly.

a. Steel Rocker Bearings

b. R.C Hinge(Rocker Bearing)

Steel Rocker bearings are generally used for longer spans more than 15m. It

consist of a top portion with a curved contact surface rocking over the bottom plate

which has flat contact surface.

They permit large rotations if constructed properly. A narrow throat and a low

height of the hinge with circular curved faces all round is provided for 3-D

confinement of concrete. They rarely require reinforcements crossing throat unless

horizontal shear exceeds one- eighth of the transverse moment on the hinge.

14

2. Expansion Type Bearings

a. Sliding plate Bearings

b. Sliding cum Rocker Bearings

c. Steel Roller cum Rocker Bearing

d. R.C Rocker cum Roller Bearing

e. Elastomeric Bearing

These are meant for spans up to 20m. When the contact surfaces are flat, Teflon

coating should be used to prevent frictional resistance and for smooth movement due

to expansion. Now- a- days a curved shape is provided to the top plate to reduce

contact area and frictional resistance.

They are suitable for bridges with curved alignment. They permit sliding along

with rotation in different directions. It consists of a sliding and tilting plate with a

pressure pad and base plate. The mating surface is coated with Teflon to reduce

frictional resistance.

15

c. Steel Roller cum Rocker bearings

They permit longitudinal movement by rollers and rotational movements by

rocker. For longer spans cast steel roller bearings are used. Single or two large

diameter rollers are preferred to a nest of small rollers.

They consist of R.C.C block with lead sheets at top and at bottom of pedestal. The

length of lead sheet coincides with girder while its breadth should be sufficient to

limit stresses on sheet. Both rotations and longitudinal movements of the girder are

permitted by this bearing for rotation, the girder compresses the lead sheet along the

inside edge and block tilts inside. For longitudinal movement the lower lead sheet is

compressed along outside making the block tilt inside.

e. Elastomeric bearings

Chloroprene rubber termed as neoprene is used as bridge bearing. It occupies a

smaller space and easy to maintain and replace when damaged. It consists of an

unreinforced elastomeric pad fabricated by binding together alternate layers of rubber

and steel plates. It takes direct compressive load, shearing force and moment by

undergoing appropriate deformation.

16

Fig 3.6 Elastomeric bearings

These are meant for pedestrians. These are provided on the either sides of the

roadway. These are provided a little bit higher than the road level for safety of road

users.

g. Expansion Joints

These are designed to take up longitudinal and transverse movements of a bridge

caused by thermal expansion, contraction and certain loading conditions. The type of

joint selected for a deck is generally dependent on type and magnitude of movement

that a joint has to suffer.

h. Drain pipes

They are provided for effective removal of rain water from the bridge deck. They

are provided at regular intervals on either sides of bridge deck.

3.2 Substructure

They structure transmits the total Dead & Live loads and the other forces to the supporting

the rock or soil. This substructure comprises of piers and abutments, wing walls or returns

and their foundation.

Piers

They transmit the self-weight of deck and girders and live loads coming over the bridge to

the foundation. It also includes impact effect of moving loads, wave action of water, etc.

17

Types of Piers:

1. Multi column Piers

2. Hammer Head Piers

3. Wall (or) Solid piers

4. Trestle piers

5. Cellular piers

6. Framed piers

1. Multi - Column Piers

Multi- column piers are typically used where column heights are 30 feet. Column

spacing between 15 and 20 feet is generally cost effective. Cap ends shall not be

rounded, but should be tapered for aesthetic purposes. For piers with more than six

columns and or cap lengths greater than 100 feet, two piers are required.

Hammer head piers are typically used were column lengths on multi-column piers

will require larger column sizes due to slenderness. Hammer head piers are also an option

where stream flow could result in debris buildup between columns of multi-column pier.

Where steam flow is present, hammer head piers shall be oriented parallel to direction of

flow.

18

3. Wall/ Solid Piers

Wall piers are typically used where multi-column piers may be used, but stream flow

will result in debris buildup between columns or where efficient design for collision force is

require. Sloped walls shall not be used. Non reinforced walls are prohibited. Wall piers shall

be oriented parallel to the direction of flow. Caps are required where the width of the wall is

not sufficient for bearing layout.

4. Trestle Piers

The trestle type pier comprises of a number of reinforced concrete columns with a

connecting cap at the top. The trestle type of pier finds wide applicability in the case of

flyovers and elevated roadways generally used for crossings in city roads.

5. Cellular Piers

For the construction of massive piers carrying multilane traffic, it is economical to use

cellular type reinforced concrete piers which results in savings of concrete. Cellular piers

require costly shuttering and additional labour for placing of reinforcements.

19

6. Framed Piers

R.C. framed type piers are aesthetically superior and rigid due to the monolithic joints

between the vertical, or inclined and horizontal members as shown in the figure given below.

These types of piers are ideally suited to reduce the span length of main girders on either side

of the centre line of the pier resulting in saving in the cost of superstructure. This type of

construction requires two expansion joints at close intervals with increase of maintenance

costs.

Abutments

These are vertical structures supporting deck/bearing provided for transmitting the load

down to the bed/earth through foundation.

Types of Abutments:

1. Full Height Abutments

2. Cantilever Abutment

3. Counter fort Abutment

4. Crib Abutment

5. Soldier Pile Abutment

6. Stub Abutment

7. Spill Through Abutment

8. Integral Abutment

9. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Abutment

20

1. Full Height Abutments

This is constructed at the lower level roadway and should support the entire

embankment. These are costly and are generally used in congested urban and metropolitan

areas where structure depth is critical.

2. Cantilever Abutments

They consist of a vertical arm rigidly fixed to a horizontal base. Lateral thrust of earth

pressure is resisted by opposing cantilever action of the stem and footing. The stem transmits

horizontal pressure to the footing, which in turn provides resistance from the dead weight of

the abutment and the embankment material resting on footing.

3. Counterfort Abutments

These are similar to cantilever abutment but with the addition of counterforts which

connect the vertical walls to the base. The counterforts, spaced at regular intervals, provide

resistance to bending moments in the stem.

21

4. Crib Abutments

They consist of individual structural units assembled to form an open cellular

structure. The cells are filled with suitable material that along with the units themselves

provide support for the structure.

`

Fig 3.15 Spill Through Abutment

5. Soldier Pile Abutments

They consist of series of soldier beams supporting horizontal lagging to retain the

embankment. The soldier beam is a steel pile driven into the earth with its projecting

end used as cantilever beam.

6. Stub Abutments

These were set near the top of an embankment or slope, having relatively short

vertical height. They may be supported upon piles or founded on gravel fill, the

embankment, or the natural ground. The pedestals are supported directly on the

footing and there is no stem. The back wall retains the fill by spanning horizontally

between pedestals.

22

Fig 3.17 Stub Abutment

8. Integral Abutments

These are cast monolithically with the bridge deck. They encase the ends of the deck

beams and are supported on a single row of piles. This type of abutment allows rotational

movement.

These abutments are particularly reinforced earth abutments with three principal

components: a face, strips or grids, and a granular backfill. Alternating layers of granular fill

and reinforcing strips are placed in lifts and connected to the facing panels. Horizontal earth

pressure normally on the vertical wall is transferred to the metal strips through friction

developed between the strips and backfill.

23

Fig 3.19 Mechanically Stabilized Abutment

Wing walls

These are provided as extension of the abutments to retain the earth of approach bank

which otherwise has a natural angle of repose.

1. Return or box type wing wall

2. Splayed type wing wall

When the approaches to the bridge are in cutting or small embankments, return type

wing wall is generally provided. The length of the return type wing wall depends upon the

slope of the embankment and side slopes of the streams.

In the case of bridges with heavy approach embankments, it becomes necessary to

provide splayed type wing walls. The thickness of the splayed type wing wall is

maximum at the abutment and gradually reduces to a maximum of 300 to 500 mm

24

towards the bottom of the embankment. The splayed wing walls prevent the flow of soil

towards the vent way under the bridge.

3) Foundations

This is provided to transmit the load from the piers or abutments and wings or returns to

and evenly distribute the load on to the strata. This is to be provided sufficiently deep so that

it is not affected by the scour caused by the flow in the river and does not get undermined.

Types of Foundations

(i) Shallow foundations - Isolated combined and strip foundations

- Raft foundations

(ii) Deep foundations - Pile foundations

- Well foundations

Open foundations are preferred over any other type. These are to be provided when a

good-founding stratum is available at shallow depth and there is not much problem of

dewatering. R.C.C. footings are preferred over P.C.C. footing in case of RCC piers.

A raft or mat is a combined footing that covers the entire area beneath a bridge and

supports all the piers and abutments when the allowable soil pressure is low or the bridge

loads are heavy, the use of spread footings would cover more than one of the area and it may

prove more economical to use raft foundation. Usually when hard soil is not available within

1.5 to 2.5 m, a raft foundation is adopted.

25

(ii) Deep Foundation

In other cases with large score depths, substantial standing water, non-

availability of good founding strata at shallow depth etc., deep foundations are

suitable.

Pile Foundations

This type of foundation is adopted when the soils extends is to a greater depth the

load of the bridge is transmitted by the piles to hard stratum below or it is resisted but the

friction developed on the size of the piles.

Most common types of piles used in the construction of highway bridges are

1. Pre cast driven piles

2. Driven cast in-situ piles

3. Bored cast in-situ piles

4. Bored pre cast piles

5. Driven steel piles

Well Foundations

A well foundation is similar to an open caisson. A strong cutting edge is provided to

facilitate sinking. The tapered portion of the well above the cutting edge is known as well

curb. The wall of the well is known as well steining. Steining is made of brick masonry, stone

masonry, plain or reinforced concrete.

Shapes of wells

(a) Circular shape

(b) Double-D wells

26

(c) Double Octagonal wells

(d) Twin Circular wells

(e) Rectangular well

(a) Circular well

The most commonly used shape is circular, as it has high structural strength and is

convenient in sinking. The shape is suitable for piers of the single line railway bridges and

the double lane road bridges. The maximum diameter of the circular well is generally limited

to 9m.

These wells are generally used for the piers and abutments of bridges which are too

long to be accommodated on a circular well of 9m diameter. They can be easily sunk. Square

corners offer great resistance to sinking. Bending moments gets increased in steining due to

its shape.

These are better than the double-d wells in many respects. The square corners are

eliminated and bending stresses are reduced. This type of construction is very difficult. They

offer great resistance to sinking due to increased surface area.

27

(d) Twin Circular wells

These are two independent wells placed very close to each other and having a

common well cap. The wells are sunk simultaneously. These wells are suitable where the

length of the pier is considerable, which cannot be accommodated on a double-d or double-

octagonal well. These are useful when depth of sinking is small and bearing capacity of wells

is high.

(e) Rectangular wells

These are generally used for bridge foundation having depths up to 7-8 m. For the

large foundations, double rectangular wells are used. Bending stresses are very high in

steining in rectangular wells.

28

CHAPTER-04

CLASSIFICATION

OF BRIDGES

29

4.0 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES

1. According to the flexibility of super structure, the bridges are classified as fixed-span

bridges & movable bridges.

a. Fixed span bridges In case of fixed span bridge, the superstructure remains in a

fixed position. Most of the bridges are of this category.

b. Movable span bridges In movable span superstructure, the superstructure is

lifted and moved with the help of some suitable arrangement.

2. According to position of bridge floor relative to the formation level and the highest

discharge, bridges are classified as a deck bridges, through bridges & semi trough

bridges.

a. Deck bridges In this the road deck is carried on the top flange or on top of the

supporting girders. The deck slab may cantilever out to some extent beyond the

extreme longitudinal girder.

b. Through bridges In this, the decking is supported by the bottom flange of the

main supporting girders provided on either side.

c. Semi through bridges It has its deck midway and deck load is transmitted to the

girder through the web of the girder. The main girders are on either side of deck.

30

3. According to the inter-span relations, the bridges are classified as simple, continuous

& cantilever bridges.

a. Simply supported bridges In this width of bridge is divided into number of

individual spans. For each span, the load carrying member is simply supported at

both ends. The plate girder and truss girders are used as this type of bridges.

b. Continuous bridges In these spans are continuous over two or more supports.

The bending moment anywhere in the span is considerably less than that of simply

supported span. It results in the economic section for the bridge.

c. Cantilever bridges It consists of cantilevers projecting from supporting piers.

The ends of a cantilever bridge are treated as fixed. For long spans and deep

valleys

Cantilever bridges are more suitable.

4. According to the form or type of super structures, the bridges reclassified as arch,

bow-string girder, rigid frame & suspension bridges.

a. Arch bridges They consists of a solid barrel between two face walls that are

mounted on an arch ring. The arch ring is the major load carrying member of the

bridge. The ring resists the load as a compressive thrust.

b. Suspension bridges These are made up of high tensile steel cables strung in form

of catenaries to which the deck is attached by steel suspenders. The decking can

be of timber, concrete or steel spanning across the stiffening girders transmitting

load to the suspenders.

31

Fig 4.6 Suspension Bridge

5. According to the materials of construction used for super structure, the bridges are

cement concrete, masonry, steel bridges & prestressed bridges.

a. Timber bridges In this timber was used for spanning gap and for supporting

beams. These are used for short spans, light loads and for temporary bridges.

b. Masonry bridges These are used for short spans and according to availability of

material and skilled labour. They are mainly of arch type of bridges.

c. Steel bridges These includes steel girders for supporting the beams. These are

used for longer spans, heavy loads.

d. Cement concrete bridges These are built with concrete both in super and sub

structure.

e. Prestressed concrete bridges These are constructed with high strength concrete

and high tensile strength steel which are prestressed for decks and girders.

6. According to the method of clearance for navigation the bridges are bascule bridge,

lift bridge & swing bridge.

a. Movable - bascule bridges In these main girders are lifted together with deck

about the hinge provided on one end of the span. The bascule bridge may either be

single or double.

Fig 4.7 Single Bascule Bridge Fig 4.8 Double Bascule Bridge

b. Movable - lift bridges In these gantries are provided at the piers at either end of

the span and the entire girder and the floor system is lifted up by a hydraulic

arrangement to the extent required for free passage of the ship.

32

Fig 4.9 Lift Bridge

c. Movable - swing bridges In swing bridges, the girders and deck can be swung

about its middle over the middle pier, clearing the span on either side for passage

ship.

7. According to the expected utility period of service, the bridges are classified as

temporary & permanent bridges.

a. Temporary bridges The temporary bridges are constructed to cross a river or a

stream in place of permanent works. These are useful when it is not possible to

construct a permanent bridge due to shortage of money, time, good materials or

skilled labour. These are often constructed on diversions during the reconstruction

of an existing permanent bridge. The useful life of a temporary bridge is estimated

as about 10 years.

b. Permanent bridges The permanent bridges are defined as structures, which are

constructed to cross a river or a stream permanently.

8. According to the function, the bridges are classified as road, railway, road-cum-

railway & pipe line bridges.

9. According to the method of connection adopted, the steel bridges are classified as

riveted, welded & pin-connected bridges.

10. According to the length of span, the bridges are classified as culverts, minor, major &

long span bridges.

33

a. Culverts It is a bridge having a gross length of six meters or less between the

faces of abutments or extreme vent way boundaries and measured at right angles.

b. Minor bridge (6 to 30m)

c. Major bridge (above 30m)

d. Long span bridge (above 120m)

11. According to the degree of redundancy, the bridges are classified as determinate &

indeterminate bridges.

12. According to the level of crossing of highways and railways, the bridges are classified

as over bridge & under bridge.

a. Over bridge When the highway bridge is carried over or under the highway by

means of bridge, the bridge is known as over bridge.

b. Under bridge When the highway is carried under the railway track by means of

bridge is known as the under bridge.

13. According to alignment the bridges are classified as straight & skew bridges.

14. According to the loadings, the road bridges and culverts are classified by the IRC as

Class AA, Class A & Class B bridges.

15. According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below,

bridges are classified as Causeways, High-level bridges & Submersible bridges.

a. Causeways These are provided where high flood in stream are optional.These

are formed between retaining walls on either side, taken deep to withstand scour

action.

b. High-level bridges It is a bridge, which carries the roadway above the highest

flood level of the channel. Where the traffic on the bridge is such that suspension

of traffic for a short duration on the road or railway will not materially affect the

overall traffic, they are provided.

c. Submersible bridges It is a bridge designed to be overtopped in floods. This is

provided in such a way that the bridge openings provided with properly built piers

and slabs can pass ordinary floods and rarely expected high floods spill and pass

over the deck.

34

CHAPTER-05

I.R.C

LOADINGS ON

BRIDGES

35

5.0 I.R.C LOADINGS ON BRIDGES

As per IRC 6-2000 the live loads that are to be adopted for the design of bridges are as

follows

2. IRC Class AA Loading

3. IRC Class A Loading

4. IRC Class B Loading

a. Tracked vehicles of total load 700 KN with two tracks each weighing 350 KN.

b. Wheeled vehicle comprising 4 wheels, each with a load of 100 KN totaling 400KN.

c. Wheeled vehicle with train of vehicles on seven axels with a total load of 1000 KN.

The tracked vehicle is somewhat similar to that of class AA, except that the

contact length of track is 4.87 m, the nose to tail length if the vehicle is 7.92 m and the

specified minimum spacing between successive vehicles is 30 m. the wheeled vehicle is

15.33 m long and has seven axles with the loads totaling to 1000 KN. The bogie axle type

loading with four wheels totaling 400 KN is also specified.

The 700 KN tracked vehicle is common to both the classes, the only difference

being the loaded length which is slightly more for the class 70R. The second category is the

wheeled type compressing 1000 KN train of vehicles on 7 axles for the class 70R and a 40

KN bogie axle type vehicle type for the class AA. The details of IRC class 70R loading

vehicles are shown below.

36

(a) Class 70R Tracked vehicle

Two different types of vehicles are specified under this category grouped as

tracked and wheeled vehicles. All the bridges located on national highways and state

highways have to be designed for this heavy loading. These loadings are also adopted for

bridges located within certain specified municipal localities and along specified highways.

37

(a) Class AA Tracked Vehicle

38

3. IRC Class A loading:

IRC class A type loading consist of a wheel load train comprising a truck with

trailers of specified axle spacing loads as shown below. The heavy duty truck with two

trailers transmits loads from 8 axles varying from minimum of 27 KN to a maximum of

114KN. The class A loading is a 554KN train of wheeled vehicles and 8 axles. Impact has to

be allowed as per the formulae recommended in the IRC 6-2000. The impact factor is

inversely proportional to the length of the span and is different for steel and concrete bridges.

This type of loading is recommended for all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts

are constructed.

39

4. IRC Class B loading:

Class B type of loading is similar to class A loading except that the axle loads

are comparatively of lesser magnitude. The axle loads of class B are a 332KN train of

wheeled vehicles on 8 axles as shown below. This type of loading is adopted for temporary

structures and timber bridges. Combination of different types live loads are recommended for

the design of bridges in clause 207.4 of IRC 6-2000.

40

Table 5.1.1 Carriage way Live Load combinations recommended for design

for

design purposes

considered to occupy 2.3 m.

the remaining width of

carriage way shall be

located with 500 kg/m2.

2 5.3 m and above but less than 2 One lane of Class 70R or

9.6 m two lanes of ClassA

3 9.6 m and above but less than 3 One lane of Class 70R for

13.1 m every two lanes with one

lane of class A on the

remaining lane or three

lanes of Class A

4 13.1 m and above but less than 4 One lane of Class 70R for

16.6 m every two lanes with one

lane of Class A for the

5 16.6 m and above but less than 5

remaining lanes, if any, or

20.1 m

one lane of Class A for each

6 20.1 m and above but less than 6 lane.

23.6 m

41

5.2 IMPACT FACTORS

Impact factors are generally applied to the moving wheel are distributed loads

to enhance their magnitude to include their dynamic effects on the bridge deck. The impact

allowance is generally expressed as a fraction of the applied live load and is expressed as an

empirical expression involving constants and the span length of the bridge deck. The impact

factor is always inversely proportional to the length of span and is different for RCC and steel

bridges.

The impact allowance is expressed as a fraction of the applied load and is computed

by expression.

I = A / (B+ L) where,

A= Constant having the value of 4.5 for RCC bridges and 9.0 for steel bridges.

B= Constant having the value of 6.0 for RCC bridges and 13.5 for steel bridges.

L= Span in meters.

For spans less than 3 m the impact factor is 0.5 for RC bridges and

0.545 for steel bridges. When the span exceeds 45 m, the impact factor is taken as 0.088 for

RC bridges and 0.154 for steel bridges.

42

b.) IRC class AA or 70 R loadings:

For tracked vehicle - 25% of span up to 5 m linearly reduced to 10 % for span of 9 m.

For wheeled vehicle - 25 %

For spans of 9 m and more

For RCC Bridges

For tracked vehicle - 10 % up to a span of 40 m and in accordance with the figure

shown above for span exceeding 40 m.

For wheeled vehicle - 25% for spans up to 12m and in accordance with the curve in

fig . for spans in excess of 12 m.

For wheeled vehicle - 25% for spans up to 23 m and in accordance with the curve

shown below.

Fig 5.5 Impact Percentage Curves for Highway bridges for CLASS A & CLASS B

loading

43

5.3 DEAD LOADS

The dead load carried by a girder or member shall consist of the portion of the

weight of the super structure which is supported wholly or in part by the girder or

member including its own weight.

The wind load shall be assumed to act horizontally on any exposed portion of

the bridge structure .The direction of the wind load may be such as to produce

maximum resultant stresses in the member under consideration.

The wind force shall be assumed to act on the area of the structure as below:

a) For deck structure: The area of the structure as seen in elevation including

the floor system and railing less area of perforations in the hand railing or

parapet walls.

b) For a through or half-through structure: The area of the elevation of the

windward truss as specified at a) above plus half the area of elevation above

the deck level of all other trusses or girders.

H V P H V P

0 80 40 30 147 141

2 91 52 40 155 157

4 100 63 50 162 171

6 107 72 60 168 183

8 113 82 70 173 193

10 118 91 80 177 202

15 128 107 90 180 210

20 136 119 100 183 217

25 142 130 110 186 224

above the mean retarding surface (ground or bed water level).

V = Horizontal velocity of wind in Km at height H

P = Horizontal wind pressure in Kg/m2 at height H

44

5.5 LONGITUDINAL FORCES

The effect of longitudinal forces due to Tractive effort or Braking

effect(Braking effect> Tractive effort)and the frictional resistance offered by the free

bearing to movement due to change of temperature or any other cause shall have to be

considered in the design of bearing , sub structure & the foundation.

The horizontal force due to braking shall be assumed to act along the

roadway and at 1.2m above it.

For simply supported spans up to 10 metres where no bearings (except

bitumen layer) are provided, horizontal force at the bearing level shall be

Fh/2 or Rg whichever is greater (cl.707.22 of IRC: 78-200)

Where Fh = Applied horizontal force

= Coefficient of friction in table

Rg = Reaction due to dead load

The longitudinal force at any free bearing (sliding or roller) for a simply

supported bridge shall be taken as equal to R where is the coefficient of friction &

R is the sum of dead & live load reaction.

Sl.no Type of bearing Value of

1. Steel roller bearing 0.03

3. Sliding bearings

a) Teflon on stainless 0.05

b) Stainless steel 0.15

c) Grey cast iron 0.30

d) Steel on cast iron 0.40

e) Concrete with 0.50

bitumen layer

45

5.6 HORIZONTAL FORCES DUE TO WATER CURRENTS

Any part of a road bridge which may be submerged in running water shall be designed to

sustain safely the horizontal pressure due to the force of the current. On piers parallel to the

direction of the water current, the intensity of pressure shall be calculated from the following

equation:

P = 52 KV2

where

P = Intensity of pressure due to water current, in kg/m2

V = The velocity of the current at the point where the pressure intensity in m/sec

K = Constant having the following values for different shapes of piers

Where a road bridge is situated on a curve, all portions of the structure affected by the

centrifugal action of moving vehicles are to be proportioned to carry safely the stress induced

by this action in addition to all other stress to which they may be subjected.

C = WV2

127R

Where C = Centrifugal force acting normally to the traffic (1) at the point of action of the

Wheel loads or (2) uniformly distributed over every metre length on which a

Uniformly distributed load acts, in tonnes.

W = Live load (1) in case of wheel loads, each wheel load being considered as acting

over the ground contact length in tonnes, and (2) in case of a uniformly

distributed live load, in tonnes per linear metre.

V = The design speed of the vehicles using the bridge in km per hour, and

R =The radius of curvature in metres.

The effect buoyancy shall to be considered in designing the member of

the bridge structure if this consideration produces worst effect in the member. Due to

buoyancy, a reduction in the Weight of the structure is more.

46

In case of shallow pier founded at or near the bed level which displaces water only,

the reduction in Weight shall be equal to that of the displaced water.

In case of deep foundations, which displaces water as soil mass such as sand, silt

etc., the buoyancy causing in reduction in weight shall be considered as made up of two

factors.

The earth for which earth retaining structures are to be designed shall be

calculated in accordance with any rational theory. Coulombs earth pressure theory

may be used subject to the modification that the resultant earth pressure shall be

assumed to act at a height of 0.42h from the base, where h is the height of the

retaining wall. The minimum intensity of horizontal earth pressure shall be assumed

to be not less than the pressure exerted by a fluid weighing 480 kg/m3.

All abutments shall we design for live load surcharged equivalent to 1.2m

height of earth fill for the design of return walls ,the live load surcharge shall we

taken as equivalent to 1.2m height of earth fill.

The fills behind abutments, wing and return walls which exert the earth

pressure shall be composed of granular materials. a filter media of 600mm thickness

smaller size towards the soil and bigger size towards the wall shall be provided over

the entire surface of the abutments ,wing and return walls.

Adequate number of weep holes shall be provided in the abutments, wing and

return walls above the LWL for the drainage of accumulated water behind the walls.

The spacing of the weep holes shall not exceed 1m in both horizontal and vertical

directions.

5.10 AESTHETICS

The engineer may consider it is important to design a bridge using the most

advanced theory and technology. But for public, aesthetic is most important as they

do not bother about the design but about the appearance. The form, line, proportion,

texture and colour of a bridge should be pleasing and beautiful to him. It is therefore

imperative that a bridge should not only be safe and sound or ideal from the

consideration of safety and economy but also it should appear beautifully.

47

CHAPTER-06

DESIGN ASPECTS

OF SUPER

& SUB

STRUCTURES

48

6.0 DESIGN ASPECTS OF SUPER & SUB STRUCTURES

DECK SLAB:

The deck slab should be designed as a one way slab to carry the dead load and

the prescribed live load with impact & still to have stresses within the permissible

limits.

In case of Double Lane Bridges, the bending moments for the deck slab IRC

class AA tracked vehicle or one lane of class AA wheeled loading or two lanes class

A load trains. The sections are also checked for shear & bond.

It has been observed that beams deck is generally found economical for a

carriage way of two lanes the girder spacing in such cases are usually between 2.25 to

2.75m

The cross beams are used in a bridge deck to distribute loads between main

girders, to offer resistance to torsion of main girders & to stiffen the girders laterally.

For proper functioning, at least two cross beams at two ends and one at the centre are

essential. A spacing of about 4.5m to 6.0m is generally found satisfactory.

If no gap between the deck slab & the cross-beams is maintained, the slab

panel becomes a two-way slab continuous in both the direction. In two-way slab

continuous in both the direction, In Two-way slab, the live load moments due to a

concentrated or locally distributed load may be worked out by Pigeauds Method.

For IRC class A loading in case of DL bridges & class AA tracked vehicle

and 70R wheeled vehicle in case of D.L bridges & the max BM the max. Generally

curbons theory or Movies &Littles theory are adopted for estimating load

distribution.

PIERS:

The materials used for the bridges piers are

i) Stone masonry

ii) Mass concrete

49

iii) Reinforced concrete&

iv) Pre stressed concrete

The loads & forces for which the piers are to be designed are:

i) Self-weight of pier

ii) Dead load from adjacent spans and live load reactions either from one

or both spans whichever produces maximum effect.

iii) Buoyancy effect on the piers.

iv) Longitudinal force due to braking acting on the top of pier

v) Longitudinal force due to frictional force (resistance) at bearings acting

on the top of pier.

vi) Horizontal force due to wind acting on the moving loads, super

structure and the pier at the C.G of the respective wind pressure

diagrams.

vii) Centrifugal force acting on the pier when the bridge is on a curve

viii) Horizontal force due to seismic effect on the super structure as well as

on the pier acting at the respective C.G

ix) Force due to wave action, if applicable.

The loads & moments an account of the above forces (which are applicable)

are calculated both at the bottom of the piers & bottom of foundation concrete &

stress in pier masonry / concrete & foundation soil are worked out as

P =(P/A)+=(Mxx/Zxx)+=(Myy/Zyy)

Where p = stress in / concrete or on soil

P = Total Vertical load

A = area of section at the base of pier (considering equivalent length

for cut & ease waters) or foundation concrete base

Mxx = Moment in roadway direction

base.

Foundation soil is to be within the permissible limits of stress to be allowed in

masonry/concrete or a soil .No tension is allowed on foundation soil. But small tension in

pier masonry/concrete is being allowed in some of the projects.

50

The piers are provided with cut & ease waters of equilateral areas of circles / semi

circles to ensure ease, smooth & stream lined flow of water.

ABUTMENTS:

Brick or stone Masonry, mass concrete or reinforced concrete may be used in the

construction of abutments.

The abutments are to be designed for the following loads &forces:

i) Self-Wt. of abutment including the weight of back fill materials

over the abutments.

ii) Dead & live load from super structure.

iii) Longitudinal force due to Braking effect.

iv) Longitudinal force due to frictional force.

v) Active earth pressure from the earth fill including live load

surcharge effect.

vi) Centrifugal force if the bridge is on a curve.

The length of the abutment is kept normally equal to the formation width of the

road. As per the present practice in rogue, T.V.A procedure is adopted for computing

the earth pressures treating the rear face as stepped back. Approach slabs should

invariably be provided where the embankment forming the road approach is over 3m

high.

BED BLOCKS:

R.C.C bed blocks in M25 grade and of required size will be provided over piers

and abutments to distribute the load from the bearings evenly over the top of piers and

abutments .the section of the bed block is checked for shear & bond.

BEARINGS:

No bearings are provided for effective spans up to 10.3m. Only bituminous layer

or Kraft paper is laid between the supporting member and super structure after

rendering the top of bearing surface smooth by plastering.

EXPANSION JOINTS:

12mm expansion joints filled with Asphaltic mastic filler will be used in the deck

slab over piers and abutments.

51

WEARING COAT:

Asphaltic concrete wearing coat of 50mm-110mm-50mm in two layers or

Reinforced concrete wearing coat of M20 grade of 50-100-50 mm will be provided to

protect the structural concrete of the deck slab from the damage caused by the moving

vehicles or by rain water.

DRAINAGE SPOUTS:

100 drainage spouts are provided at where of each span , on both the sides of

road ways to serve as outlet for rain water on the road way .spacing of drainage spout

shall not exceed 10 metres they may be clay or CI or cement pipe.

Substantial railings or parapets along each side of the bridge shall be provided for

the protection of traffic. They are protected by the kerbs of the road way.

Railings or parapets shall have a minimum height above the adjacent road way

or kerb surface, of 1.1m less one half the horizontal width of the top rail or top of the

parapet.(clause.116.1.2 of IRC :5-1998)

Ornamental pilasters in masonry supported on rear face of abutments are

provided on either side of the bridge.

APPROACHES TO BRIDGES:

The approaches on either side shall have a minimum straight length of 15 m

with the same level of the road.(clause.120.1 of IRC :5-1998) .Beyond the level

portion, a ruling gradient of 1 in 30 is adopted fill it meets the natural ground level.

Along the approaches on either side, guide stones 0.23m dia &1.25m high

projecting 0.10 m above road level shall be provided at not more than 3.0m intervals

wherever the height of embankment is more than 1.8m.

52

CHAPTER-07

DESIGN

OF

COMPONENTS

53

7.1 HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

2 Bed width m 6.900

3 Full supply depth m 2.500

4 Side slopes (inner/outer) --- 2.00:1 / 2:1

5 Bed fall --- 1 in 10250

6 Value of Rugosity (n) --- 0.0180

7 Free board m 0.750

8 Velocity m/sec 0.770

9 Top width of banks(Left/Right) m 7.925 / 4.000

10 C.B.L m +450.890 / +450.890

11 F.S.L m +453.390 / +453.390

12 T.B.L m +454.140 / +454.140

13 GROUND LEVEL(proposed) m +448.048

ROAD PARTICULARS

2. Proposed Road Level = + 454.815

3. Width of Road = 4.25 m

4. Type of Road = SLRB

KM 526.775

54

7.3 AFFLUX CALCULATION FOR SINGLE LANE BRIDGE

Designed Discharge of the Canal = 22.910 m3 /sec

Normal Canal Bed Width = 6.90 m

Canal Bed Width at Structure portion = 7.90 m

Normal canal side slopes = 2.0 : 1

Pier bed width @ CBL level = 1.700 m

No or piers = 1 No

Obstructional area due to pier(s) = 2.500 m2

Canal normal water way area = 29.75 m2

Net water way at the structure = 19.75 + 12.50 - 2.50 = 29.75 m2

Normal area of the canal before structure portion,

= [6.90 + 2.00 2.5] 2.5

= 29.75 m2

Normal velocity of the canal = 0.77 m/sec

Afflux as per Moleworths Empirical formula is,

2 2

h = ( + 0.01524) (( ) 1)

17.86

= 0.0484 (1 1)

= 0.000 m or

= 0.000 mm < 5 mm

which is negligible

55

7.4 CALCULATION OF DEAD LOADS ON PIER / ABUTMENT

Width of kerbs = 0.225 m

Width of parapet walls = 0.200 m

Width of slab including kerbs o/o = 4.700 m

Width of slab including parapet o/o = 5.100 m

Length of clear span in between piers = 8.500 m

Bearing of slab ( for road bridge) = 0.490 m

Length of slab in traffic direction from c/c peirs = 9.480 m

Thickness of slab = 0.600 m

Thickness of W.C = 0.075 m

5.10 9.48 0.60 25 = 725.22 kN

2. Dead load of W.C

4.25 9.48 0.075 24 = 72.52 kN

3. Dead load of kerbs

0.425 0.225 9.48 25 = 22.66 kN

4. Dead load hand rails 75 kg/m

9.48 75.00 / 100 = 7.11kN

827.51kN

Total dead load coming on abutment = 827.517 / 2 = 413.735 kN

56

7.5 DESIGN OF DECK SLAB FOR 8.50 m CLEAR SPAN

Grade of concrete = M 25

Grade of steel = Fe 415

Clear span = 8.50 m

Assuming thickness of slab = 0.60 m

Thickness of wearing coat = 0.075 m

Clear cover = 40 mm

Dia of main reinforcement = 20 mm

Dia of dist. reinforcement = 12 mm

Bearing width of slab = 0.490 m

Clear carriage width = 4.25 m

Width of slab = 4.70 m

Density of RCC = 25 kN/m2

Density of PCC = 24 kN/m2

Effective depth

Thickness of slab = 0.5 m = 600 mm

Clear cover = 40 mm

Dia of main bar = 20 mm

Effective cover = 40 + 20 / 2 = 50 mm

Effective depth = 600 - 50 = 550 mm

Effective span

Effective span will least of the following

c/c of support = 8.50 + 0.49 = 8.990 m

Hence effective span = 8.990 m

Impact Factor

Impact factor = 4.5 / ( 6 + L) where L=effective span in mts

4.5 / ( 6 + 7.450 ) = 0.300

57

Impact factor = 0.300

Weight of slab = 1 0.6 25 = 15

Weight of W.C = 1 0.075 24 = 1.80

Total weight = 16.8 kN/m2

Bending moment = wl2 / 8 = 16.8 (8.990)2 / 8 = 169 kN-m

(As per IRC : 21-2000, clause 305.16.2 of section III)

Effective dispersion width bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

Where

= A constant depending up on ratio of b/l0 i.e. width of the

slab / effective span.

l0 = Effective span.

a = The distance of centre of gravity of concentrated load from

nearer support

b1 = The breath of the concentrated area of load.

b/l0 = 4.70 / 8.990 = 0.5528

For simply supported spans

b/l0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

0.631 = 1.775

b/l0

0.50 1.960

0.523 1.775

0.600 1.960

58

For maximum B.M the wheel loads 114 kN should be kept such that the resultant of

the two loads and one of the loads should be kept equi-distance from the centre of the

span.

114kN 114kN 68kN

1.20 m 4.30 m

A B R C

1.726 m

C.G of the loading system from A

Taking moments about A

( 114 1.20 + 68 5.50) / 296 = 1.726 m

Distance of C.L 8.990 / 2 = 4.495 m

Distance of resultant from max. load = 1.726 m

i.e from far 114 kN

Distance of resultant from max load = 0.526 m

i.e fro m near 114 kN

Equi distance of resultant force from C.L = 0.526 m / 2

= 0.263 m

Position of resultant force from support A = 4.495 + 0.263

= 4.758m

Position of max. force from support A = 4.495 - 0.263

= 4.232m

A C D R E B

4.495 m 4.495 m

59

Dispersion width under C (loading = 27 kN )

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 1.775

a = 3.032

l0 = 8.990

b1 = 0.5 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.65 m

bef = 1.775 3.302 (1 3.302/8.990) + 0.35

= 4.216 m

left side dispersion = Distance width / 2 = 4.216/ 2

= 2.108 m

Max. possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width /2

= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2

= 0.625 m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m

The dispersion width (bef) = 4.216 > 1.8 m ( axle width)

Hence the dispersion width over lap

combined dispersion width = left dispersion + disp-width + dispwidth / 2

= 0.625 + 1. 8 + 4.216 / 2 = 4.533 m

Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.533m (combined disp. width)

Hence combined dispersion width is 4.453 m

Intensity of load = ( 114 1.335 ) / 4.453 = 32.69 kN

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 0.5528

b1 = 0.5 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.65 m

bef = 1.775 4.232 ( 1 4.232 / 8.990) + 0.65

= 4.625 m

left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2 = 4.625 / 2 = 2.313 m

Max.possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width/2

= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2 = 0.625 m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m

The dispersion width (bef) = 4.625 > 1.8 m ( axle width)

60

Hence the dispersion width over lap

Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width / 2

= 0.625 + 1.8 + 4.625 / 2

= 4.738 m

Max possible dispersion = 4.70 m < 4.738 m ( combined disp. width)

Hence combined dispersion width is 4.700 m

Intensity of load = (114 1.335 ) / 4.700 = 31.50 kN

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 1.775

a = 0.458

bw = 0.38 + 2 x 0.075 = 0.53 m

bef = 1.775 0.458 ( 1- 0.458/ 8.990) + 0.53

= 1.301 m

left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2 = 1.301 / 2 = 0.651 m

Max possible dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2

= 0.225+0.15+0.38 / 2 = 0.565m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.565 m

The dispersion width (bef) = 1.301 < 1.8 m (axle width)

Hence the dispersion width does not over lap

Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width / 2

= 0.56 5 + 1.301 + 1.301/ 2

= 2.157 m

Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 2.517m (combined disp width )

Hence combined dispersion width is 2.517 m

Intensity of load = ( 68 1.300 ) /2.517 = 35.1 KN

A C D R E B

4.495 m 4.495 m

61

R A + RB = 32.7 + 31.5 + 35.1 = 99.34 kN

Talking moments about A

RB 8.990 = 32.7 x 3.032 + 31.5x 4.232 + 35.1x 8.532

RB 8.990 = 532.21

RB = 532.21/ 8.990 = 59.2 kN

RA = 99.34 - 59.2 = 40.14 kN

Bending moment under C = 40.14 30.032

= 121.71 kNm

Bending moment under D = 40.14 4.232 - 32.7 1.20

= 130.65 kN-m

Bending moment under E = 59.20 0.458

= 27.1 kN-m

Bending moment at mid span = 59.20 4.495- 35.1 4.04

= 124.32 kN-m

Total B.M ( Dead load B.M + live load B.M )

= 169.72 + 130.65

= 300.37 kN-m

m = 10 k = 0.294

Q = 11.045 j = 0.902

MR=Qbd2

= sqrt (3 x 106 /( 11.045 1000))

= 521.49 mm

Effective depth required = 521.49 mm < 550 mm (available )

Hence Safe

62

Main Reinforcement

Area of Steel (Ast) = M/( t j d)

= 3 x 106 ( 200 0.902 550)

= 3027.30 mm2

Provide 20 mm dia bars 100 mm c/c which gives an area of 3141.60 mm2

>3027.3mm2

Distribution Steel

As per clause 305.18.1 of IRC 21-2000, Bending Moment considered for distribution

steel = 0.3 live load Bending Moment+ 0.2 Dead

Load Bending Moment considered for

distribution steel.

= 0.3 130.65 + 0.200 169.72 = 731.39 kN-

m

Area of steel (Ast) = M/(t j d)

= 731.390 x 106 / ( 200 0.902 550 )

= 737.14 mm2

Min.area required = ( 0.12 % 60 1000 / 100 )

= 720 mm2

Hence provide distribution steel is 737.1 mm2

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 150 mm c/c which gives an area of 754.0mm2

Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 200 mm c/c as Main steel and 12 mm dia bars @ 300

mm c/c as Distribution steel.

(Maximum shear due to live load as per clause 305.12.2 of I.R.C: 21-2000)

Maximum shear due to dead load W L/2

= 16.8 8.990 / 2

= 75.51 kN

Longitudinal dispersion = 0.250 + 2 ( 0.600 + 0.075 )

= 1.600 m

63

Therefore load of 114 kN may be kept @ ( 1.600 / 2 ) = 0.800 m

From the support for maximum shear

114 kN 114 kN 68 kN

8.990

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 0.700

b1 = 0.5 + 2 0.075 = 0.65 m

bef = 1.775 0.800 ( 1 - 0.800 / 8.990 ) + 0.65

= 1.943 m

Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2

= 1.943 / 2 = 0.9715 m

Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2

= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2

= 0.625 m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m

The dispersion width ( bef ) 1.943 > 1.8 m ( axle width )

Hence the dispersion width over lap.

= 0.625 + 1.8 + 1.943 / 2 = 3.3965 m

Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 3.3965 m ( combined disp width )

Hence combined dispersion width is 3.40 m

Intensity of Load = ( 114 1.300 ) / 3.40 = 43.63 kN

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 1.900

b1 = 0.5 + 2 0.075 = 0.65 m

64

bef = 1.775 2.000 ( 1- 2.000/ 8.990 ) + 0.65

= 3.410 m

Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2

= 3.410 / 2 = 1.705 m

Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2

= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.5 / 2 = 0.625 m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.625 m

The dispersion width ( bef ) 3.41 > 1.8 ( axle width )

Hence the dispersion width over lap

Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2

= 0.625 + 1.80 + 3.410 / 2 = 4.13 m

Therefore left dispersion = 4.70 m

The dispersion width ( bef ) 4.70 > 4.13 m ( combined dispersion width )

Hence the dispersion width over lap

Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2

= 0.625 + 1.8 + 3.410 / 2 = 4.13 m

Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.13 m ( combined disp width )

Hence combined dispersion width = 4.13 m

Intensity of Load = ( 114 1.300 ) / 4.13 = 35.88 kN

bef = a (1- a/l0) + b1

= 1.250

a = 2.690

b1 = 0.38 + 2 0.075 = 0.53 m

bef = 1.775 2.690 ( 1 - 2.690 / 8.990 ) + 0.53

= 3.876 m

Left side dispersion = Dispersion width / 2

= 3.876 / 2 = 1.938 m

Max.possile dispersion = kerb width + kerb wheel gap + type width / 2

= 0.225 + 0.15 + 0.38 / 2 = 0.565 m

Therefore left dispersion = 0.565 m

The dispersion width ( bef ) 3.876 > 1.8 m ( axle width )

65

Hence the dispersion width over lap

Combined dispersion width = left dispersion + axle width + disp-width/2

= 0.565 + 1.8 + 3.876/ 2 = 4.303 m

Max.possible dispersion = 4.70 m > 4.303 m ( combined disp width )

Hence combined dispersion width is 4.30 m

Intensity of Load = ( 68 1.300 ) / 4.30 = 20.54 kN

From the support for maximum shear

A C D E B

8.990 m

Talking moments about A

RB 8.990 = 43.63 0.800 + 35.88 2.000 + 20.54 6.30

RB 8.990 = 236.1

RB = 236.1 / 8.990 = 26.26 kN

RA = 100.05 - 26.26 = 73.79 kN

Total shear (V) = 75.51 + 73.79 = 149.31 kN

Shear stress = V / bd

= 149.31 x 103 / (1000 550 )

= 0.27 N/mm2

The permissible shear stress in C.C.M25 grade, from table 12B of IRC-21-2000,

100 100 31.41 1

=

100 55.00 1

= 0.571 %

66

Stresses for 0.582 % of steel

%of steel

M 20 M25

Grade of concrete = M 25

Hence tc = 0.326 N/mm2

Shear strength = 0.326 550 100 / 1000

= 178.2 kN > 149.30 kN Hence Safe

67

7.6 LIVE LOAD DESIGN ON PIER

Clear span = 8.500 m

Width of bed block = 1.00 m

Bearing on bed block = 0.49 m

Effective span = 8.990 m

Distance b/w C.L of bearing on pier = 0.51 m

Type of bridge = 1 lane

case : 1

27kN 27kN 114kN 114kN 68 kN 68 kN

3.20

= 34.5 kN

Rb = ( 114 8.990 + 114 7.790 + 68 3.490 + 68 0.490 ) / 8.990

= 242.9 kN

Ra+Rb = 34.5 + 242.9 = 277.4 kN

Ra-Rb = 34.5 - 242.9 = 208.3 kN

Case : 2

27kN 27kN 114kN 114kN 68 kN 68 kN

68

Ra = ( 114 8.300+ 27 5.1 + 27 4.0 ) / 8.990

= 132.6 kN

Rb = ( 114 8.300+ 68 4.690 + 68 1.690 ) / 8.990

= 162.3 kN

Ra+Rb = 132.6 + 162.3 = 294.8 kN

Ra-Rb = 132.6 - 162.3 = 29.7 kN

Case : 3

27 kN 27 kN 114kN 114kN 68kN 68 kN 68 kN

= 119.1 kN

Rb = ( 68 8.990 + 68 5.990 + 68 2.99 ) / 8.990

= 135.90 kN

Ra+Rb = 119.1 + 135.9 = 255.00 kN

Ra-Rb = 119.1 - 135.9 = 16.9 kN

Case : 4

114 kN 114kN 68kN 68kN 68 kN 68 kN

Ra = ( 68 6.50 + 114 2.2 + 114 1.0 ) / 8.990

= 89.7 kN

Rb = ( 68 8.990 + 68 5.990 + 68 2.990) / 8.990

= 135.9 kN

69

Ra+Rb = 89.7 + 135.9 = 225.7 kN

Ra-Rb = 89.7 - 135.9 = 46.2 kN

For single lane

Ra+Rb max = 294.84 1 = 294.84kN

Ra-Rb max = 208.35 1 = 208.35kN

PIER ABUTMENT

Ra+Rb max = 294.84kN Rb = 242.89kN

Ra-Rb max = 208.35kN

Max. Loading on span for breaking force : 364 kN case 1 of class A loading

70

7.7 DESIGN OF PIER

Discharge (req) = 20.98 cu.m

Discharge (des) = 22.910 cu.m

Bed width = 6.900 m

Full supply depth = 2.500 m

Side slope = 1 in 10250

Coefficient of rugosity = 0.0180

Velocity = 0.770 m/sec

Canal bed level = +450.890

Full supply level = +453.390

Top of bank level = +454.140

Existing G.L/road level = +448.048

Proposed road level = +454.815

Top level of wearing coat = +454.815

Top level of slab 454.815 - 0.075 = +454.740

Bottom level of slab 454.740 - 0.600 = +454.140

0.675 m

Top level of bearing = +454.140

Bottom level of pedestal +454.140 - 0.00 = +454.140

Top level of bed block = +454.140

Bottom level of bed block +454.140 - 0.30 = +453.840

Provide depth of pedestal = 0.00

Proposed top level of pedestal 0.00 - 0.00 = +0.00

Proposed top level of foundation 450.890 - 4.390 = +446.500

Proposed bottom level of foundation 446.500 - 0.50 = +446.000

71

CROSS SECTION OF PIER

Dia/width of pier at top = 1.000 m

Dia/width of pier at bottom = 1.700 m

Straight length of pier (the direction of flow) = 5.100m

Radius of cut waters = 0.500 m

Length of clear span in between piers = 8.500 m

Width of expansion joint = 0.020m

Bearing of slab / beam = 0.490 m

Length of slab / beam in traffic -

flow direction from c/c piers = 9.480 m

Effective span = 8.990 m

No. of footing layers = 1

Footing thickness at face of pier = 0.50 m

Footing thickness at end = 0.50 m

SECTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PIER

Grade of concrete = M-15 grade

Modular ratio m = 10

Density of concrete = 24 kN/m2

72

Top dia / width of pier D = 1.000 m

Width of pier at F.S.L = 1.000 m

Width of pier at C.B.L = 1.700 m

Width of pier at base = 1.700 m

Canal flow

y 1.000 y

x 5.100

6.10 m

Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.50) 2 / 2 = 0.785 m2

Total area = 5.885 m2

Total length of pier = 5.10 + 2 0.500 = 6.10 m

Equivalent length of pier = 5.885 / 1.0 = 5.885 m

Area of pier = 5.885 m2

AT F.S.L LEVEL OF PIER

X

6.100

Canal flow

y 1.000 y

5.100

Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.500) 2 / 2 = 0.785 m2

Total area = 5.885m2

73

AT C.B.L LEVEL OF PIER

X

6.800

Canal flow

y 1.700 y

x 5.100

Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.850) 2 / 2 = 2.27 m2

Total area = 10.940 m2

X

6.800

Canal flow

y 1.700 y

x 5.100

Area of cut waters 2(d2) / 2 = 2 ( 0.850) 2 / 2 = 2.27 m2

Total area = 10.94 m2

Total length of pier = 5.10 + 2 0.850 = 6.800 m

Equivalent length of pier = 10.94 / 1.70 = 6.435 m

Area of pier = 10.940 m2

Modulus of section pier at base

Eq,Area of pier at base = 6.278 1.700 = 10.940 m2

Ixx of pier at base = 1/ 12 1.70 ( 6.435)3 = 37.754 m4

Iyy of pier at base = 1/ 12 6.435 ( 1.70)3 = 2.634 m4

Zxx of pier at base = 1/ 6 1.70 ( 6.435)2 = 11.733 m3

Zyy of pier at base = 1/ 6 6.435 ( 1.70)2 = 3.099 m3

74

Modulus of section of foundation concrete

Projection of pedestal on either sides = 0.00 m

Projection of foundation in drain flow direction = 0.40 m

Projection of foundation in road way direction = 0.40 m

x

canal/drain flow 2.500

y y

7.600

x

Total width of footing = 1.700 + 2 (0.00 + 0.4) = 2.500 m

Area of pier at base = 2.500 7.600 = 19.000 m2

Zxx of foundation = 1/6 2.500 (7.60 )2 = 24.0.66 m3

Zyy of foundation = 1/6 7.600 (2.500)2 = 7.916 m3

DEAD LOAD (from dead load calculation sheet)

Dead load from slab = 725.22 kN

Dead load from W.C = 72.52

Dead load of kerbs = 22.66 kN

Dead load of hand rails = 7.11

827.52 kN

2.Dead load from bed block = 5.10 1.00 0.30 2.50 = 38.25 kN

865.77 kN

3.Weight of pier

From +453.840 to +450.890

Above pier base = (5.8852.950) 24 = 416.66kN

From +450.890 to +446.500

= (10.9404.390 ) 24 = 1152.26kN

1569.30kN

75

From +453.390 to +450.890

Below F.S.L = 5.885 x 2.500 x 24 = 353.1 kN

From +450.890 to +446.500

= 10.940 x 4.390 x 24 = 1152.6 kN

1505.74 kN

4.Weight of pier with 15% buoyancy

=1569.3 - ((1505.7/2.4)x(1 x 15/100))= 1475.19kN

5.Weight of foundation = 7.602.50 0.502.4 = 228 kN

6.Weight of foundation with 100% buoyancy

= 228.00 x 1.5 / 25 = 136.8kN

LIVE LOADS

Ra+Rb max = 294.84 kN (from live load calculation ) = 294.84 kN

Ra-Rb max = 208.35 kN (from live load calculation ) = 208.35 kN

Max live load reaction = 294.84 kN

Impact factor = 4.5 / ( 6+7.49 ) = 0.300

As the impact factor reduces to zero at 3.00 m below bed block and 0.5 m times the

factor at the bottom of the bed block the above factor comes down to

= ( 0.334 x 3.49 / 2 x 3.00 ) = 0.175

(on top of concrete)

Impact percentage = 17.45 %

The Impact Live Load = 51.45 kN (the height of pier below bed block is

more than 3m as per clause 2.11.7 of IRC: 6-2000 )

Max live load reaction

(with impact ) = 294.84 + 51.45

= 346.29 kN

HORIZONTAL FORCES

Traction forces or Braking force on pier :

As per clause 214.3 of IRC: 6-2000 the breaking force acts at 1.20 m above the road

level, i.e @ 454.815 + 1.20 = + 456.015

Breaking forces considered at bearing level = + 454.140

76

+ 456.015

Braking force

1.875 1.2

( 0.075 + 0.6 )

8.990 m

As per clause 214.2 of IRC :6-2000 the breaking forces shall be taken as 20% the

train of the load acting on the bridge

Max. loads acting on the span = 364.0 kN

Breaking forces = 364.0 1 20 / 100 (case 1 loading) = 72.80 kN

Breaking forces shared by each support = Fh = 72.80/2 = 36.4kN

Change in vertical reaction due to braking force

= 72.80 ( 1.20+0.675) / 8.90 = 15.18 kN

Lever arm at pier base = 454.140 - 446.500 = 7.640 m

Moment at base of pier = 36.40 3.879 = 278.10kNm

Lever arm at soil base = 454.140 - 446.00 = 8.140

Moment about bottom of foundation = 36.40 8.140 = 296.3 kN-m

a) Eccentricity perpendicular to road way in the canal flow direction

(longitudinal):

Distance of C.G of L.L from the edge of the bridge

= (0.15+0.5/2+1.8/2) = 1.30 m

Eccentricity of load from the centre line of bridge x

= ( 4.25/2 - 1.30) = 0.825 m

( Considered at the point of action of live load ie, centre of bearing)

Max.live load = 346.29 kN

Moment = 346.29 0.825 = 285.70 kN-m

77

b) Transverse eccentricity :-

0.510

Ra Rb

1.000

Ra - Rb = (max) = 208.35 kN

Change in reaction due to breaking force = 15.180 kN

223.53 kN

Distance between centre of baring = pier width - 2 centre of bearings

Moment due to eccentricity of live load in road way direction

( Ra - Rb + change in reaction due to braking force ) x (distance between Ra and

Rb/2 )

(Ra-Rb = 1.00 - 2 0.490 / 2) = 0.510 m

Max. live load = 223.53 = 223.53 kN

Eccentricity = 0.510 / 2 = 0.225 m

Moment force = 223.53 0.255 = 57.00 kN-m

Moment for pier = 57.00 kN-m

Dead load on pier due to single span = 725.2 / 2 = 362.60 kN

Friction coefficient 0.5 (concrete over concrete as per clause 214.5.1.1 of IRC

6:2000)

Friction force = 0.5 362.61 10% /100 = 18.13 kN

Lever arm at pier = 454.140 - 446.500 = 7.640 m

Moment at pier base = 18.130 7.640 = 138.5 kN-m

Lever arm at foundation = 454.140 - 446.000 = 8.140 m

Moment at foundation = 18.13 8.140 = 147.60 kN-m

78

WIND FORCE (para 212.30 of IRC Bridge code )

CASE I

Case A: wind force on deck slab pier and

Exposed height:

Deck+W.C = 0.675

Kerb = 0.225

Railing(0.86/2) = 0.430 ( 50 % for opening )

1.330 m

C.G of the exposed area = 1.330 / 2

= 0.665

Acting at RL = 454.140 + 0.665 = 454.805 m

Height above FSL = 454.805 - 453.390 = 1.415 m

Height above CBL = 454.805 - 450.890 = 3.915 m

Horizontal wind pressure for = 0.00 m height = 40 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 2.00 m height = 52 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 4.00 m height = 63 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 6.00 m height = 73 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 8.00 m height = 82 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 10.0 m height = 91 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for = 15.0 m height = 107 kg/m2

Horizontal wind pressure for 1.415 m height Min 0.00

52 40

= 40 + ( ) (1.415 0.00) = 48.490 kg/m2

2 0.00

Horizontal wind pressure for 3.92 m height Min 2.00

63 52

= 52 + ( ) (3.915 2.00) = 62.533 kg/m2

4 2.00

Wind force at 1.415 m height

= 9.480 1.330 48.49/1000 = 6.11 kN

Acting at 8.305 m height from top of the pier base

Wind force at 3.915 m height

= 9.480 1.330 62.533 /1000= 7.88 kN

Acting at 8.305 m from top of the pier base

79

For canal full condition :

Moment about at top of pier base = 6.114 8.305 = 50.78 kN-m

For canal empty condition :

Moment at top of pier base = 7.88 8.305 = 65.480 kN-m

For canal full condition :

Moment about top of soil = 6.11 8.805 = 53.83 kN-m

For canal empty condition :

Moment about top of soil = 7.88 8.805 = 69.42 kN-m

Max. moment at the base of pier = 65.48 kN-m

(max.of canal full &empty condition)

Max. moment at the base of foundation = 69.42 kN-m

Taking maximum length vehicle permitted in one span joint to joint = 9.480 m

For class A loading

The Max force will be acting in 9.480 m length of truck with 300 kg/m run (vide

clause 212.4 of IRC : 6-2000)

Wind force = 9.480 300/100 = 28.44 kN

acting at a height of 1.50 m above the road level.

total lever arm from the top of pier = 0.675+1.5 = 2.175 m

moment about the base of the pier

= 28.44 (2.175+7.640) = 279.14 kN-m

moment about top of soil = 28.44 (2.175+8.140) = 293.36 kN-m

(a)+(b)total moment due to wind force on super structure and live load.

Moment about base of pier = 65.48 + 279.14 = 344.6 kN-m

Moment about top of soil = 69.42 + 293.36 = 362.8 kN-m

Case (ii) :- But as per clause 212.6 of IRC. bridge code the wind force should not be

less then 450 kg/m ie, acting = 454.140 + 0.90 / 2 = 454.590 kN-m

leveram at pier base = 454.590 - 446.500 = 8.090 m

wind force = 9.480 450 / 1000 = 42.66 kN

moment about the base of the pier

= 42.66 8.090 = 345.12 kN-m

80

moment about top of the soil = 42.66 8.590 = 366.4 kN-m

Case (iii) :- As per clause 212.7 of IRC 6-2000 a wind force of 240 kg/sq m in

considered.

Wind force = 240 1.330 9.480/1000 = 30.30 kN

acting at 8.090 m from the top of pier

moment about the base of the pier = 30.30 8.090 = 244.8 kNm

moment about top of soil = 30.30 8.590 = 259.9 kNm

Max moment due to wind force at base of pier = 345.1 kNm

Max moment due to wind force on top of soil = 366.4 kNm

In the direction of drain flow : (as per 213.2of IRC : 6-2000)

Net area of drain under the bridge = 26.66 m2

Intensity of pressure due to water currents (p) P = 52 Kv2

Where K = 0.66 (for semi- circular)

Velocity in the drain under the bridge = 22.91 / 26.66 = 0.859 m/s

Max velocity (V) = 1.414 moment velocity = 1.414 0.859= 1.215 m/s

Max velocity (V)2 = 1.476 m/s

Water force in the transverse direction

Pressure at FSL @ + 453.390 m p = 52Kv2cos200

Intensity of pressure at FSL

= 52 1.5 1.476 cos20 = 108.19kg/m2

Pressure at CBLis zero

Water contact area = ( 1.00 + 1.700 ) / 2 2.50 = 3.375 m2

2

Lever arm = 2.500 + 4.390 = 6.057 m

3

Total force on pier = ( 0 + 108.19 ) / 2 3.375 = 182.56 kgs

182.56 6.057

Moment about the base of the pier = = 11.06 kNm

1000

182.56 6.557

Moment about top of soil = = 11.97 kNm

1000

81

Force due to cross currents

In the direction of cross canal flow (para 213.2 of IRC:6-2000)

Case(I) as per para 213.5 of IRC Bridge code the pressure p = 52kV2sin20

Where k = 1.5 and V = 1.215 m/s

V2 = 1.476 m/s U2 = 3.375 m/s

Pressure at CBL is zero

Water contact area = (6.100+ 6.800) / 2 2.50 = 16.125 m2

2

Lever arm = ( 2.500 + + 4.390 ) = 6.057 m

3

Total force on pier = ( 0 + 39.394 ) 16.13 = 317.611kgs

317.61 6.057

Moment about the base of the pier = = 19.24 kNm

1000

317.61 6.557

Moment about top of soil = = 20.82 kNm

1000

Case(ii) :- water force in road way direction due to 250 mm difference in water

levels between the opposite force of the pier (para 213.6 of IRC 6-2000 )

Depth of flow in canal = 2.500

Length of pier immersed in water = 6.450

Depth of pier from CBL = 4.390

Length of pier at FSL = 6.100 Avg. length = 6.45 m

Length of pier at CBL = 6.800 m

Moment about pier base:-

M1 = 1 / 2 ( 2.500)2 ( 2.500 / 3 + 4.390 ) 6.45 = 105.283

M2 = 1 / 2 ( 2.750)2 ( 2.750/ 3 + 4.390 ) 6.45 = 129.425

M2-M1 = 129.425 - 105.3 = 241.42 kNm

Moment about foundation base:-

M1 = 1 / 2 ( 2.500)2 ( 2.500 / 3 + 4.890 ) 6.45 = 115.361

M2 = 1 / 2 ( 2.750)2 (2.750 / 3 + 4.890 ) 6.45 = 141.619

M2-M1 = 115.361 - 141.619 = 262.58 kNm

Max. moment at the base of pier = 241.42 kN-m

Max. moment at the base of foundation = 262.58 kN-m

82

Without With 15 %

Direct loads buoyancy buoyancy

Dead load from super structure 865.8 kN 865.8 kN

Live load 346.29 kN 346.3 kN

Weight of pier 1 Nos 1569.3 kN 1475 kN

Change in ver. Reaction due to breaking force 15.18 kN 15.18kN

Total direct load 2796.5 kN 2702.4 kN

Total direct loads on pier 2796.5 kN 2702.4 kN

Weight of foundation 228.0 kN 136.8 kN

3024.5 kN 2839.2 kN

Transverse Longitudinal

Moments :

moment Moments

(road canal

At base of pier

direction) flow direction

Due to breaking force. 278.1

Due to live load eccentricity. 57.00 285.7

Due to temperature. 138.51

Due to wind force. 345.12

Due to water current force . 241.42 11.06

715.0 KN-m 641.9 KN-m

On soil

Due to breaking force 296.30

Due to live load eccentricity. 57.00 285.7

Due to temperature stresses. 147.758

Due to wind force. 366.4

Due to water current force. 262.58 12.00

Due to water level difference . 763.5 KN-m 664.1 KN-m

Eq.Area of pier at base = 10.940 m2

Zxx of pier at base = 11.734 m3

Zyy of pier at base = 3.100 m3

83

Modulus of section of foundation concrete

Area of foundation at base = 19.00 m2

Zxx of foundation at base = 24.067 m3

Zyy of foundation at base = 7.917 m3

Stress in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and on top of soil

without wind effect

CALCULATION OF STRESSES:

Direct BENDING

Canal flow Road way

2796.5 285.7 473.6

= + + = 432.80 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

2796.5 285.7 473.6

= - - = 7.85 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

ii) Stress on soil :-

3024.5 285.7 500.9

= + + = 234.3 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

3024.5 285.7 500.9

= - - = 84.05 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-

i) Stress in pier at base :-

2702.4 296.7 715.0

= + + = 503.00 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

2702.4 296.7 7715.0

= - - = -8.90 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

ii) Stress on soil :-

2839.2 297.7 763.50

= + + = 258.2 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

2839.2 297.7 763.5

= - - = 40.63 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

84

Stress in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and top of soil:-

With wind effect:-

A) When the canal in empty and traffic allowed on the road:-

2796.5 630.8 473.6

= + + = 462.20 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

2796.5 630.8 473.6

= - - = 49.1 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

ii) Stress on soil :-

3024.5 652.10 500.9

= + + = 249.60 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

= - - = 68.82 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-

i) Stress in pier at base:-

2702.4 641.9 715.0

= + + = 532.4 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

2702.4 641.9 715.0

= - - = -38.4 kN/m2

10.940 11.734 3.100

ii) Stress on soil :-

2839.4 664.1 763.50

= + + = 273.50 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

2839.4 664.1 763.50

= - - = 25.40 kN/m2

19.00 24.067 7.917

RESULT :-

Note : (-) sign indicates tention

At base of pier

Max.resultant stress = 532.40 kN/m2 < 5000 kN/m2

(table 21 of IS 456-2000)

Min.resultant stress = -38.36 kN/m2 < 400 kN/m2

(table 11 of IRC:21-2000)

85

At base of foundation

Max.stress on soil = 273.46 kN/m2

Min.stress on soil = 25.40 kN/m2

(vide table-9 of IRC :21-2000)

Direct stress calculated = 255.60 kN/m2

+

Direct stress allowable Bending stress allowable

Hence O.K

86

7.8 LIVE LOAD DESIGN ON ABUTMENT

Bearing on bed block = 0.490 m

Effective span = 8.990 m

Type of bridge = 1 lane

b. live load reactions :- for class A train vehicles

Case : 1

114 kN 114 kN 68 kN 68 kN

Ra Rb

8.990

= 242.90 kN

Rb = 121.10kN

Ra+Rb = 364.0 kN

Ra-Rb = 121.8 kN

Case : 2

114 kN 68 kN 68 kN

Ra Rb

8.990

87

Ra = ( 114.00 8.990 + 68.00 4.69 + 68.00 1.69 ) / 8.990

= 162.3 kN

Rb = 87.7 kN

Ra+Rb = 250.00 kN

Ra-Rb = 74.5 kN

Case : 3

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN

Ra Rb

8.990

= 135.9 kN

Rb = 68.1 kN

Ra+Rb = 204.00 kN

Ra-Rb = 67.8 kN

Case : 4

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN

Ra Rb

8.990

= 135.9 kN

88

Rb = 68.1 kN

Ra+Rb = 204.00 kN

Ra-Rb = 67.8kN

For single lane

Ra+Rb = 364 1 = 364.00 kN

Ra-Rb = 121.78 1 = 121.78 kN

Rb (max) = 242.89 kN (Case -1 of class-A loading )

Max loading on span for breaking force: 364.0 kN case -1 of class-A loading

89

7.9 DESIGN OF ABUTMENT

Front Side Batter = 2.50 m

Rear Side Batter = 2.10 m

Off Set on Earth Side = 0.40 m

Off Set on Front Side = 0.40 m

Depth of Foundation = 0.50 m

Friction Coefficient = 0.50

Live load surcharge = 1.20 m

Ground level = +448.048 m

Proposed road level = +454.815 m

Skew angle = 0.00 deg

Type of bridge = 1 lane

Horizontal coefficient of Soil = 0.1584

Vertical coefficient of Soil = 0.0395

Density of Soil = 21 kN/m3

Density of Concrete = 24 kN/m3

Density of RCC = 25 kN/m3

Angle of repose = 28o

90

1) Reaction on Abutment:

Dead load:

Width of carriage way = 4.250 m

Width of slab at bottom = 5.100 m

Top width of return wall = 0.425 m

Total length of abutment = 5.100 m

Effective length of abutment = 5.100 m

Effective span = 8.900 m

Dead load on pier as calculated in pier design = 413.760 kN

Load on abutment = 413.760 kN

Load coming on to abutment per m length(413.760/5.10)= 81.13 kN/m

Live load: for class-A train of vehicles

Max.LL for class-A loading : (from live load calculation pier and abutment)

live load max = 242.890 kN

live load max. for lanes 1 = 242.890 kN

Max. of Max LL :

Live load max = 242.890 kN

4.5 4.5

Impact factor = = = 0.302

6+ 6+8.900

As the impact factor reduce to zero at 3.00 m below bed block and 0.5 times the factor

at bottom of bed block, the above factor comes down to

0.336 0.00

= = 0.00 on top of concrete

2 3.00

Live load including impact per m length = single lane

242.890

= 1.00 = 47.630 kN/m

5.10

Total load coming on abutment = 81.130 + 47.630 = 128.750 kN/m

For skew increase this load as follows (as per page 106 of Bridge design by Johnson

Victor)

Skew angle in degrees load increase in percentage

0 - 20 0 - 50

20 - 50 50 - 90

For skew of 0.0 degree percentage increase = 0

Load on abutment = 128.750 1 = 128.750 kN/m

91

2) Force due to braking effect:

20% of max train loads an span

The breaking force for this loading is the maximum that is coming on the span

i.e, 364 kN as showing in sketch in case-I while calculated Live load reactions

Braking force = (364 ) 20 / 100 = 72.800 kN

Horizontal force normal at = 72.8 cos 0.0 = 72.800 kN

Acting at 1.20 m above road level i.e.,

Force per running m = 72.800 / 5.10 = 14.270 kN/m

3)Force due to temperature stresses:

Dead load on abutment = 81.13 kN/m

Friction coefficient (concrete over concrete clause 214.5.1.1 of IRC 6:2000)

Friction force = 0.5 81.13 100%100

= 40.56 KN

STRESS ON CONCRETE : (taking moment about A)

KN m KN-m

1. Vertical loads 128.750 2.25 289.68

2. W1 : 0.500 X 0.300 X 25 3.75 2.25 8.43

3. W2 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 1.25 65.85

4. W3 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 1.83 27.450

5. W4 : 0.500 X 4.39 X 24 52.680 1.75 92.19

6. W5 : 0.500 X 7.340 X 24 88.080 2.25 198.18

7. W6 : 0.500 X 8.315 X 24 99.780 2.75 274.395

8. W7 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 24 7.200 3.16 22.75

9. W8 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.25 268.71

10. W9 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.75 310.05

11. W10 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 4.16 62.4

12. W11 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.25 223.89

13. W12 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.75 250.23

14. W13 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.33 280.96

15. W15 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 21 46.09 5.66 260.86

16. W16 : 1.000 X 3.700 X 21 77.700 5.50 427.35

17. W17 : 0.500 X 3.700 X 21 38.850 4.75 184.53

18. W18 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 21 13.12 4.33 56.8

19. W19 : 1.000 X 1.200 X 21 25.200 4.00 100.8

92

20. W20 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 21 6.30 3.33 20.97

21. W21 : 0.500 X 0.225 X 25 2.810 3.25 9.13

22. W22 : 1.000 X 0.255 X 25 5.620 4.00 22.48

23. W23 : 0.500 X 0.255 X 25 2.810 4.75 13.35

24. W24 : 1.000 X 0.225 X 25 5.620 5.50 30.93

25. W26 : 1.00 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 0.66 34.76

26. WL : 1.000 X 3.250 X 1.200 X 21 81.900 4.25 348.070

27. Pv : 0.0395 X ( 9.515 1.200 ) X 21

2 2

73.900 6.00 443.400

28. V 1218.9 KN

29. M 4328.59 KN-m

30. Ph : 0.1584 X ( 9.5152 1.2002 ) X 21 296.360 3.492 1034.880

34. Braking Force 14.270 7.640 109.06

35. Frictional Force 40.560 7.640 309.88

351.200 KN 2874.77 Kn-m

= 2.35 m

Eccentric = 2.35 6.000 / 2

= 0.65 m

B/6 = 6.000 / 6

= 1.00 m > 0.697 m Hence no Tension

Max.stress = (1218.9 / 6.000) {1 + (6 0.65) / 6.000}

= 336.6 kN/sqm (compression)

Max.stress = (1218.9 / 6.000) {1 (6 0.65) / 6.000}

= 69.6 kN/sqm (Tension)

S.no Description Load Lever arm Moment

KN m KN-m

1. Vertical loads 128.750 2.65 341.180

2. W1 : 0.500 X 0.300 X 25 3.75 2.65 9.930

3. W2 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 1.65 86.920

4. W3 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 2.23 33.450

5. W4 : 0.500 X 4.39 X 24 52.680 2.15 113.420

6. W5 : 0.500 X 7.340 X 24 88.080 2.65 233.410

7. W6 : 0.500 X 8.315 X 24 99.780 3.15 314.500

8. W7 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 24 7.200 3.56 25.630

9. W8 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 3.65 301.780

93

10. W9 : 0.500 X 6.890 X 24 82.680 4.15 343.12

11. W10 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 2.500 X 24 15.000 4.56 68.400

12. W11 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 4.65 244.960

13. W12 : 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.15 271.300

14. W13 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 5.73 301.850

15. W14 : 0.400 X 8.09 X 21 67.950 6.60 448.470

16. W15 : 1.000 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 21 46.09 6.06 279.30

17. W16 : 1.000 X 3.700 X 21 77.700 5.90 458.430

18. W17 : 0.500 X 3.700 X 21 38.850 5.15 200.070

19. W18 : 0.500 X 0.500 2.500 X 21 13.12 4.73 62.050

20. W19 : 1.000 X 1.200 X 21 25.200 4.40 110.880

21. W20 : 0.500 X 0.500 X 1.200 X 21 6.830 3.73 25.470

22. W21 : 0.500 X 0.225 X 25 2.810 3.65 10.250

23. W22 : 1.000 X 0.255 X 25 5.620 4.40 24.720

24. W23 : 0.500 X 0.255 X 25 2.810 5.15 14.470

25. W24 : 1.000 X 0.225 X 25 5.620 5.90 33.150

26. W25 : 0.400 X 0.225 X 25 2.250 6.60 14.850

27. W26 : 1.00 X 0.500 X 4.390 X 24 52.680 0.73 38.400

28. W27 : 6.800 X 0.500 X 24 81.600 3.4 277.400

29. WL : 1.000 X 3.250 X 1.200 X 21 91.980 4.65 427.700

30. Pv : 0.0395 X ( 10.0152 1.2002 ) X 21 82.000 6.80 557.600

31. V 1389.430

32. M 5690.280

33. Ph : 0.1584 X ( 10.015 1.200 ) X 21

2 2

328.800 3.492 1286.600

34. Braking Force 14.270 8.040 116.190

35. Frictional Force 40.560 8.140 330.160

383.700 3911.420

= 2.801 m

Eccentric = 2.801 6.800 / 2

= 0.599 m

B/6 = 6.800 / 6

= 1.130 m > 0.599 m Hence no Tension

Max.stress = (1396.020 / 6.800) {1 + (6 0.599) / 6.800}

= 313.800 kN.sqm (compression)

Max.stress = (1396.020 / 6.800) {1 (6 0.599) / 6.800}

= 96.700 kN.sqm (Tension)

94

OVER TURNING MOMENT = 1732.95 KN-m

= 3.28 > 2 (IRC 78:2000.cl.706.3.4)

CHECK FOR SLIDING = (0.5 x 1389.430 ) / 383.70

= 1.81 > 1.5 (IRC 78:2000.cl.706.3.4)

Height of live surcharge = 1.20 m

Top width of parapet = 0.20 m

Height of parapet = 0.60 m

Width of kerb wall = 0.225 m

Height of kerb = 0.225 m

Top width of head wall = 0.425 m

Rear side batter = 1.500 m

Front side batter = - m

Bottom width = 1.93 m

Offset on earth side = 0.30 m

Offset on front side = 0.30 m

Foundation width = 2.525 m

Depth of foundation = 0.50 m

95

Top level of parapet = +455.640

Road level (proposed) = +454.815

Top level of kerb wall = +455.040

Top of foundation level = +452.500

Bottom of foundation level = +452.000

Density of soil = 21.00 kN/m3

Density of concrete = 24.00 kN/m3

Density of RCC = 25.00 kN/m3

Pv = 0.04

Ph = 0.1584

Moment

S.NO Force Description Magnitude(kN) L.A(m) (kN-m)

2 W2 0.5 1.50 2.315 24 41.670 1.000 41.670

3 W3 1 0.20 0.600 24 2.880 1.825 5.260

4 W4 0.5 0.68 1.00 21 36.460 0.500 18.230

5 Pv 0.04 ( 3.5152 1.202) 21 9.050 - -

V 115.97 KN

6 Ph 0.972 35.300

M 144.830

KN-m

Lever arm =M/V = 144.830 / 115.970 = 1.249 m

Eccentricity = 1.249 1.925 / 2 = 0.286 m

B/6 = 1.930 / 6 = 0.321 m >0.268 m

Hence no tension

96

Max.stress = (115.970 / 1.925) {1 + (6 0.286) / 1.925}

= 114.000 kN/m2 (compression)

Min.stress = (115.970 / 1.925) {1 - (6 0.286) / 1.925}

= 6.500 kN/m2 (compression)

Moment

S.NO Description Magnitude(kN) L.A(m) (kN-m)

Force

2 W2 0.5 1.50 2.315 24 41.670 1.300 54.170

3 W3 1 0.20 0.600 24 2.880 2.125 6.120

4 W4 0.5 1.50 2.315 21 36.460 0.800 29.170

5 W5 1 0.30 2.315 21 14.580 0.150 2.190

6 Wf 1 2.53 0.50 24 30.300 1.263 38.250

Pv 0.04 ( 4.0152 1.202) 21 12.180 - -

v 163.980 KN 182.040

KN-m

7 57.730

239.77

KN-m

Lever arm =M/V = 239.77 / 163.980 = 1.462 m

Eccentricity = 1.462 - 2.525 / 2 = 0.200 m

B/6 = 2.530 / 6 = 0.421 m >0.200 m

Hence no tension

Max.stress = (163.980 / 2.525) {1 + (6 0.200) / 2.525}

= 95.80 kN/m2 (compression)

Min.stress = (163.980 / 2.525) {1 - (6 0.200) / 2.525}

= 34.10 kN/m2 (compression)

97

Factor of safety against overturning = Resisting Moment / overturning moment

= 182.040 / 57.730 = 3.15 > 2

Hence safe

v

Factor of safety against sliding = H Assuming = 0

= 0.50 163.980 / 48.80 = 1.679 > 1.5

Hence Safe

STRESS IN SOIL

STRESS IN SOIL

SI.NO PARTICULARS IN

CONCRETE IN kN/m2 STRATA

kN/m2

98

CHAPTER-08

CONCLUSION

99

CONCLUSION

The above Single Lane Road Bridge between katuguttaaplli and goravandlpalli is

prepared based on the related codes like IRC 5, IRC 6, IRC 21, IS 456-2000. The design is

done effectively on safety point of view duly allowing the foundations to rest on Hard Strata

( HDR & F & F), and the stresses on concrete & soil are found to be within the limits. The

above design is also economical because the piers, abutments and box wings were designed

using CC M15 grade concrete instead of RCC. This is because height of the pier is less and

Hard Strata of soil is available in shorter depth from the ground level.

100

CHAPTER-09

REFERENCES &

BIBILIOGRAPHY

101

9.0 REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. IRC: 5-1998, Standard specifications & code of practise for road bridges,

section I general features of design (sixth revision) Indian Road

Congress.

102

16. Civil Engineers handbook by P.N. Khanna.

18. Ministry of shipping & Transport (Roads wing). Standard for High way

bridges, volume II, concrete slab bridges, 1983-IRC.

19. IRC: 89-1985, Guide lines for Design & Construction of River training &

control works for Road bridges IRC.

20. Study material for the workshop and design, construction and maintenance

of modern bridges of engineering staff college of India, Hyderabad.

21. Guide lines for the design of small bridges and culverts-IRC special

publication 13.

22. Design aspects of bridges on N .S. Main canal by Sri K. Rangaih published

by the institution of engineers, NagarjunaSagar sub-centre, annual report

for 1375-76.

103

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