CONTACT SIZE EFFECTS

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DER PAUW METHOD FOR RESISTIVITY AND

HALL COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENT*

Departments of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California. Los

Angeles, California 90007, U. S. A.

Abstract-Effects on van der Pauws resistivity and Hall coefficient measurement due to finite size

contacts with selected shapes on a square sample were investigated. For the sheet resistivity

measurement, correction factors for the apparent measured values at zero magnetic field were

determined from both electrolytic tank experiments and computerized over-relaxation calculations.

For the Hall coefficient, correction factors for the effect of voltage shorting due to current electrodes

and for the effect of current shorting due to Hall electrodes were calculated (by use of a

fast-convergent over-relaxation technique) through a range of Hall angle from tan fJ = 0.1-0.5. The

current shorting contribution to the correction factor at zero magnetic field was also closely estimated

by use of an electrolytic tank. In the symmetrical structures studied the Hall errors introduced by the

voltage and current electrodes were approximately equal. The study shows that contacts of

appreciable size relative to that of the sample can be a good approximation to van der Pauws

infinitesimal contact. Thus, one can utilize the simplicity and other advantages of finite size ohmic

contacts for these measurements in normal semiconductor materials evaulation and still obtain precise

data by using the appropriate correction factors determined in this paper.

A method of measuring resistivity and Hall sample are required to reduce the influence of finite

coefficient of planar material with an arbitrary contacts on these measurements. Within these

contour was first introduced by van der Pauw[l]. limitations, van der Pauws method still requires

This method enables one to measure these material elaborate sample preparation of fragile samples,

properties on a wafer sample without the classical particularly when the available sample size is small.

bar-or bridge-shaped geometry. However, van der From the point of view of semiconductor materials

Pauws derivation was based on infinitesimal ohmic evaluation, it is of interest to determine the effects

contacts to the sample, a condition which cannot be introduced due to the size and the shape of finite

satisfied in practice. Errors introduced by a single contacts for representative sample configurations

finite contact and three infinitesimal contacts were with reference to the ideal van der Pauw situation.

estimated by van der Pauw for a disc sample for This provides a practical method to measure

three cases. These were for a contact on the material resistivity and Hall coefficient with both

periphery, on the internal surface, and perpendicu- simplicity and accuracy. Several methods have

lar to the circumference but touching the edge of been derived to determine the various effects due to

the disc. Van der Pauw comments that analytical sample shapes and electrode sizes of a Hall probe

results for more than one finite contact are difficult or generator[2-121. Among these, Wick[2] first

to obtain. In general, it has been thought that used Schwartz-Christoffel transformations to solve

the field problem for a rectangular, circular or

*This research was supported by the Advanced octagonal Hall sample with finite electrodes on the

Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense perimeter. Subsequently, based on these conformal

under Grant No. DAHC 15-71-G-6 and by the Joint

transformation techniques, exact or approximate

Services Electronics Program through the Air Force

Office of Scientific Research/AFSC under Contract F- corrections for geometric linear and non-linear

44620-7 1-C-0067. effects were investigated for two-, three- and

tNSF Summer Science Training Student. four-terminal Hall probes and generators [3-S].

1217

121X RONALD CHWANG. B. J. SMITH and C. R. CROWEL~

These results cannot be used directly to give where Vnc. is the voltage measured between the

correction factors for continuously varying finite voltage contacts D and C when current I,,, is

contact sizes in a van der Pauw type measurement. passing through the current contacts A and B as

The conformal transformation approach generally shown in Fig. 1 and d is the thickness of the

involves complicated mathematics and difficult sample. By symmetry, EF is an equipotential line.

computations. Newsome[9] has shown an alterna- Hence, only half of the sample AEFD need be

tive method of solution for the field distribution considered in our problem. The correction factor

inside a Hall plate via a digital computer solution of required when finite contacts are used in such a

Laplaces equation in finite difference form. News- measurement was initially determined through a

ome used a five point relaxation scheme for his simple electrolytic tank experiment. The experi-

calculation. Griitzmann [lo] proposed a nine point ment was carried out in a rectangular tank (4 x 8 in.)

relaxation scheme to obtain improved accuracy with three sides insulated and the remaining side of

with little increase in computational complications. copper plate to simulate the equipotential line at

Mimizuka[ I I] invoked the basic symmetry in many EF. Etched copper electrodes of different size and

Hall plate configurations to reduce the computa- shape were immersed into the tank to represent the

tional difficulty. Recently, White et al. [12] have actual contacts during resistivity measurement. In

applied a matrix approach rather than a relaxation the light of practical applications and to facilitate a

approach to a 16 x 16 grid to determine the effects comparison with the computed solution, triangular

due to finite square-shaped interior electrodes on a and square contacts were selected for our investi-

square Hall plate. This method avoids the repetitive gation.

calculations of the relaxation method, but is limited I AB I AB

in the complexity of the problem that may be

approached. Clearly, as White et al. reported, the

effects introduced by finite size electrodes will

result in a larger deviation from the ideal van der

Pauw case when they are located in the interior

instead of on the periphery of the Hall sample. We

report here the effects of four identical finite size

contacts on the corners of a square sample.

Correction factors with respect to the correspond- I

ing ideal van der Pauw case were derived for

triangular and square shaped electrodes with

varying sizes. Our results are based on the solution

of field distributions via the finite difference

approach. Instead of solving a huge number of

simultaneous equations (cf. White[l2]), for a more

precise answer. we have used an iterative over- D F C

relaxation method to obtain the final solution. It is

Fig. 1. Schematic configurations for van der Puuw\

difficult to obtain precise experimental verification resistivity measurement. Current passes through contacts

on actual semiconductor samples. Accordingly A and B, and voltage is measured between contacts D

some experimental data were obtained through an and C.

electrolytic tank simulation for the resistivity

measurement and for a current correction factor in If we denote la as the current injected from the

the Hall measurement. electrode at A and flowing out through the

equipotential plate at EF and V, as the resulting

2. CORRECTION FACTOR FOR FINITE voltage measured between the electrode at D and

CONTACTS IN VAN DER

PAUWS RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT

the equipotential plate, then the effect of finite

An electrolytic tank experiment contacts can be determined through the measured

From van der Pauws theorem [l], it can be change in the ratio VD/ZA for different pairs of

shown that for a flat homogeneous isotropic square electrodes.

sample, the resistivity p is given by: In our experiment, tap water was selected as the

electrolyte because it has a relatively small a.c.

polarization effect[l3] and the resulting resistance

permits the use of a standard a.c. digital voltmeter

Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method 1219

to measure Vo. An a.c. signal was applied between expect the resulting Vn to be smaller than that in

the electrode A and the plate EF. The optimal the ideal infinitesimal contact case. Thus, the

frequency which minimized both electrolysis correction factor for obtaining the resistivity from

effects and the reactive component due to capaci- the apparent resistivity is expected to be always

tance was found to be 2 kHz. The current IA was greater than 1. This correction factor is the ratio

measured by a high gain operational amplifier in the between V, measured with infinitesimal contacts

current detection mode. In each case (triangular or and with finite contacts when I, is the same.

square contacts) the largest set of electrodes was

used as the reference for all subsequent measure- 3. CALCULATIONS BASED ON A RESISTIVE

ments with smaller electrodes. The point contact NETWORK ANALOGUE

case was simulated by placing two No. 20 wires Generally, due to the a.c. polarization effect,

tightly against the insulated corners of the elec- misalignments and the meniscus problem, the

trolytic tank. Figure 2 shows two sets of data taken accuracy obtained in an electrolytic tank experi-

for the triangular contacts and one set for the ment has been reported to be about l-2 per

square contacts. The values of the ratio S/l (cf. Fig. cent[l3, 141. Because our resistivity corrections

2) were chosen to be l/32, l/16, 3/32, l/8, 3/16 and were rather small, e.g. for the triangular case less

l/4, again to permit an optimal comparison with the than 3 per cent it was felt desirable to determine

subsequently computed results. The effect of a these correction factors through a more accurate

finite size contact is to modify the current and method. One direct method is to solve the Laplace

potential distributions inside the sample and in equation with the given boundary condition

particular to reduce the effective spacing between through finite difference calculations on the compu-

voltage contacts. Thus, for fixed Ia, one would ter. One boundary condition at the voltage contacts

is to require that no net current is drawn by the

contacts. Although this condition can be incorpo-

rated into the interactive calculation, the accuracy

of the final results will be very sensitive to the

degree to which this condition is satisfied. How-

ever, using a resistive network analogue with the

aid of a simple equivalent circuit model, the above

SOUARE CONTACT

difficulty can be avoided completely.

I Expenment

If one considers the flat sample as composed of

6 l.II-

TRIANGULAR CONTACT

elements modeled by a square mesh with each

individual resistor having the value 2R, then a

typical resistive network will be obtained as shown

in Fig. 3(a). All the interior resistors now become R

due to the parallel combination of neighboring

elements, but the resistors along the edge AF, BC

and DE still remain 2R. This simulates a sample in

which

the equipotential line. The shorts along AB and CD

represent the current and voltage contacts respec-

0 0.05 o.08,10.5 0.20 0.25

tively. From the point of view of the contacts, the

entire mesh can be further modeled as three

Fig. 2. Correction factors for finite contact effect on resistors connecting the equipotential lines AB, CD

resistivity measurement shown as a function of S/f and EF as shown in the equivalent circuit diagram

(parameters defined by insert). Result from computer in Fig. 3(b).

calculations based on resistive network analogue is shown

by solid and dashed curves for square and triangular

Consider first the information which can be

contacts, respectively. W. A. A are the data obtained obtained if we know the elements in the equivalent

from the electrolytic tank experiment. circuit of Fig. 3(b). By symmetry, Rz is equal to R1.

KON.AI.D CHW.~NG. B. J. SMITH and C. R. CROWMA

potential was accordingly adjusted by this residue

multiplied by an over-relaxation factor. For faster

convergence, we started the problem with a coarse

grid of 9 x 5 and when the maximum current

residue fell below a specified limit the linear grid

dimension was divided into two and the new nodes

introduced were initialized by linear interpolation

from the last solution of the previous grid. The

process continued until the final grid reached ;I

65 x 33 array and the maximum current residue at a

grid point wa\ less than one part in IO of the total

current. Since the optimal over-relaxation factor

depends on the number of nodes in the problem, a

different optimal over-relaxation factor was used

(0) (b)

for each successive grid size. After the residue had

Fig. 3. (a) Representative resistive network analogue for reached values below IO of the total current. the

resistivity measurement with triangular contacts. (b) over-relaxation factor was slightly reduced if an

Equivalent circuit diagram for the network shown in (a). oscilliation in the maximum residue value wa\

AB and CLJare the edges of the contacts, and EF is an

detected during successive interaction\. Using thih

equipotential line.

scheme. we found that the rate of convergence W;I\

Then. the ratio I,,,-/I,,, in equation (I) is simply much improved over one using a constant over-

given by: relaxation factor. The computed results are shown

in Fig. 2, where the solid line and the dotted line

V,,,-

-= 2 Rz represent the correction factor computed for the

(3)

1 \,I RI +?R; square contacts an d triangular contacts respec-

tively.

The factor 2 in the numerator accounts for the fact

that the entire sample resistance is twice that of the 4. DERIVATION OF THE CORRECTION FACTOR FOR

symmetry element we are considering. Since we FINlTE CONTACTS IN

know that for the ideal infinitesimal contact VAN DER PAUWS HALL .MEASUREMENT

VU, R In2 current density and the electric field I? in a flat

j

(4)

I 1H ?? isotropic homogeneous semiconductor must satisfy

the following relation

the correction factor for finite contacts can then be

- _

determined. J=rrE+mR,,(J, -u B)

- (5)

The problem has thus become one of determining

R, and R?. If a voltage V ic applied at AB and the where (r and RH are the conductivity and Hall

equipotentials at EF and CD are grounded, then coefficient of the sample respectively. When the

the currents I, and I? flowing out from the ground at magnetic field fi is applied perpendicular to the

CD and EF can be found by solving for the voltage plane of the sample as shown in Fig. 4. equation (5)

at every node in the entire mesh. RI and R, are now can be rewritten in the following form

simply given by V/I, and V/I,, respectively. In this

manner, all the boundary potentials are fixed E, = p(J, -tan HJ,) (61

without any of the approximations which have to

be satisfied by repeated interaction where the E, =p(tan BJ, +J,) (7)

potential electrode must be floated. The voltage at

every node in the resistive mesh was solved on the where p is the resistivity and tan H = RHB/p is

computer by a standard successive over-relaxation defined as the Hall angle.

method [IS] using Kirchoffs current equation at The Hall voltage VH one would measure between

each node. This solution is equivalent to that of infinitesimal Hall electrodes A and C when current

Laplaces equation in finite difference form. The I,, is passing between infinitesimal driving elec-

current residue at each grid point was calculated trodes B and D in an ideal van der Pauw case

Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method 1221

IO represents a reduction in measured Hall voltage

due to the loss of a portion of the injected current

which now flows around the edges of the finite Hall

electrodes. The second term in equation (I I)

represents a bulk correction factor due to the

shorting effects or current re-distribution due to the

presence of finite current and voltage contacts.

Equation (I 1) thus provides US with a physical

interpretation of the error induced when the

electrodes in van der Pauw measurement are not

infinitesimally small.

Fig. 4. Schematic configuration for van der Pauws-Hall 5. A PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF THE ERROR DUE

measurement. Current is passing through contacts D and

TO THE CURRENT LOSS TERM

B and voltage is measured between contacts A and C

with magnetic field B applied perpendicular to the plane Calculations of the exact error induced in the van

of the sample. der Pauw Hall measurement with finite contacts

will be discussed in the following sections. Since it

analogous to that shown in Fig. 4 is is most meaningful to compare the ideal van der

Pauw case with contacts which have relatively

v = Iop tan 0 small deviations, some initial analysis of the

d approximate error due to the different shape and

where d is the thickness and lo is the total current size of the contacts can be very informative. The

injected into the sample. If both magnetic field and error contributed by the second term on the right

current are maintained constant, the Hall voltage hand side of equation (11) is a function of Hall

one would measure with finite electrodes in the angle, and certainly, its magnitude depends on the

corresponding situation as shown in Fig. 4 will be size of the electrodes, yet any direct experimental

estimation of its magnitude does not appear to be

simple. However, the error contributed by the term

Vb=j:E,dy=~~~p(tan*J~+J~)dy

(IO- J,)/L in equation (I 1) can be estimated by a

P very simple calculation. The value of this term at

= p(tan0J,+J,)dy+ p(tan0J,+J,)dy zero magnetic field provides us with an upper bound

I0

c for the error attributed to current following around

+ p p (tan 0 J, + J,) dy. (9) the Hall voltage contacts. At zero magnetic field, due

I

to the symmetry of the square sample, the potential

Since the resisitivity in the ohmic contact region is distribution in only one quarter of the sample is

nearly zero, the first and the third integral on the required to solve this problem. This was first

right hand side of equation (9) can be set equal to estimated by a simple electrolytic tank experiment.

zero. Hence. the apparent Hall voltage measured The tank was made proportional to the triangle AQD

with finite contacts is shown in Fig. 4.

An etched copper plate placed at OQ simulated

P P

the equipotential line along AC. Other experimental

VL= p tan 0

I I)

J, dy fp J, dy procedures were similar to the resistivity

ment described previously.

measure-

In the present case, we

I,p tan 0

=d-p p J,dy. monitored the currents I, and L, through the

I

electrode A and the equipotential plate OQ,

Here I, is defined as the total current which passes respectively. To facilitate some comparison be-

through the semiconductor. tween different shapes of contacts, we again used

The resulting error factor thus can be deduced the square and triangular electrodes as examples.

from equations (8) and (10) as Figure 5 shows the experimental data taken for

both cases with varying size contacts.

0

=VH-vii

-=-+

VH

r-I$

lo

I

d PJvdY

.

IOtan 0

(11)

In the absence of the magnetic field, the resitive

mesh model discussed previously is also applicable

for direct calculations. Figure 6(a) shows a rep-

RONALD CHWANG. B. J. SMITH and C. R. CROWHI

1

resentative resistive network for such calculations,

No resistors are required along SQ because SQ is a

line of symmetry which runs diagonally across the

resistive mesh. The equivalent circuit is shown in

Fig. 6(b). Since EO and HQ are always at the same

potential, no current will flow through the resistor

Rx. If II is the current which crosses the plane hlQ

and I2 is the current which crosses the plane EO,

the desired error factor is simply Zz/(ZI + I,). The

solid and dotted lines in Fig. 5 indicate the

SOUARE computed results for the square and triangular

CONTACT contacts respectively. The results for finite Hall

angle will be discussed later. From Fig. 5, it is

evident that the error due to the current flowing

around a pair of square Hall electrodes is nearly

?

d,o twice as much as in the case of triangular

/ /,, I

electrodes. Therefore, from a practical point of

view, triangular shaped electrodes will be a closer

simulation of infinitesimal contacts in an ideal van

der Pauw measurement. In the next section, we

0

u<,_-, c.05 0.10

TRIANGULAR

co\ ITACT

c.15

/

1

0.20

discuss the exact solution for the triangular contact

case.

8/e EQUATIONS

current loss term (I,,- I,)/I,, as a function of S/l. From equations (6) and (7) and referring to Fig.

Estimation at zero magnetic field based on a resistive

7(a), the following set of finite difference equations

network calculation is shown by the solid and dashed

curves for square and triangular contacts respectively.

can be derived for the solution of the potential

n A are data obtained from the electrolytic tank distribution inside the sample [9].

experiment. Results of exact calculations at finite Hall On boundary (I), where J, = 0, we have

angles for triangular contacts are shown by the dotted

curves.

VI.,-,(I +tan 8)+ VI, ,(I -tan 0)

+ 2 v, ,-4v,, =o. (12)

+2V,2-4V,,,=O. (13)

must be satisfied, we have

that

V,, I + v,,, i, I, ,I/ ,J ,I = VB - Vn (15)

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. (a) Representative resistive network analogue used where VB and V, are the potentials applied at the

for estimation of the current loss term (I,, - I,)/&, at zero current electrodes Z3 and D. By virtue of equation

magnetic field in a Hall measurement configuration with

(IS), we only have to solve the potential distribution

triangular contacts. (b) Equivalent circuit diagram for the

network shown in (a). EO and GS are the edges of the for half of the sample with the following additional

--

contact\ and UQ IS an equlpotenflal line. equation for points along the diagonal ST

Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method 1223

electrode as shown in Fig. 7(b) can be approxi-

mated as the average of the y component of the

local fields at points G and H. When written in

finite difference form, this field is

(a) 4 1

2v2

VI_.,- VL.3+ VL -,.z - vL.+,,z+ VI. ~1. - V! I.4

2h 2h 2h

+ VI 2.7 - VI .i

2h I

= & [8 V,, - V, .3- 2 VI +I.?- 2 VI ).A- 2 vf .I]

electrode. Here proper substitution via equation

(14) has been used to obtain equation (18). Thus, the

final form of equation (17) written in finite difference

form for a Hall electrode extending L even number

of sections across the grid is

entire set of finite difference equations required to

solve the potential distribution inside a Hall sample

(cl with finite current and Hall contacts. In actual

computation, convergence to the final solution was

achieved by the successive over-relaxation method

described in the previous resistivity calculation.

Our initial grid size was chosen to be 33 x 33.

Depending on the size of the electrodes, a

maximum number of 561 points entered the

Fig. 7. (a) Grid configuration for finite difference calculation. An initial over-relaxation factor of 1.8

calculation of potential distribution in a square Hall

was found to be optimum in our calculations. Here,

sample with triangular contacts. (b) Grid divisions along

the triangular Hall electrode edge. (c) Additional grid again, after the total residue sum over all the points

relaxation near the Hall electrode to improve calculation had reached a value below IO- of the voltage

accuracy. applied between the current electrodes, the over-

relaxation factor was slightly reduced each time an

VI-,., + v ,,,-I + [v-e- vo - v-m-Ltn-cd oscillation in the value of the total residue sum was

+ [V, - vu - Vm-,l~,).m~,l - 4 VI.1 = 0. (16) detected in successive interactions. The final

solution has a total residue sum less than 10 of the

Along the potential electrode EF, since it is an applied voltage. Since the region near the Hall

equipotential line and no net current is drawn out electrode represents an area of high potential

through the Hall electrode, we require E, = 0 and gradient, and as noted before, the resulting Hall

JEJ, dx = 0. Then from equations (6) and (7), one voltage and potential distribution are highly sensi-

can deduce the condition that tive to the degree to which equation (19) is

satisfied, we further subdivided the grid around the

F

I

E

Ex dx = - (17)

corner of the Hall electrode

Potentials

as shown in Fig. 7(c).

at the new grid points were first

I?24 RONALD CHWANG, B. .I. SMITH and C. R. CROWEI I

zp-

uE, dy

solution obtained in the coarse grid. The calculation E

H

= VH~ VLU= _ I I

(22)

was then continued by interaction through all the V, Ia

dp tan 0

points both in the original and the subdivided

portions of the grid until a new solution was

reached with the total residue of the entire mesh This can be shown to be equivalent to equation (I I).

less than one part in 10 of the applied voltage at the since when U > 6 there is no current loss due to the

driving terminals. Allowing the whole sample presence of finite Hall contacts, and consequently

distribution to relax instead of the usual technique I, = Z,). Figure 8 shows a plot (for several Hall

of relaxing just the subdivided portion yields a angles) of the percentage error (EL or 6,) between

considerable increase in accuracy. the existing Hall voltage and the corresponding

ideal van der Pauw Vbr for each pair of grid points

along the top and right side edge of the sample. The

Results triangular contacts are spread over 6 grid sections

Since a meaningful correction factor must be as shown in the insert in Fig. 8. The flat portions of

based on a constant current injection condition, the the curves indicate the errors at the Hall electrode.

current injected by applying a constant voltage

across the driving electrodes must be calculated.

The amount of current injected can be calculated

from the knowledge of the potential distribution

inside the sample and through the following

inversion of equations (6) and (7).

J, = (19)

0.3-

and

then be determined by integrating the J, component

along a typical line UW as shown in Fig. 7(a).

I

_

p( I + tan? 0)

w

I tan 0 ,W ---

~(1 + tan: 0) I

Ir

E, dy +

p(I +tanO)

VLW.

Fig. 8. Percentage error (EL or I?,,) between rhe existing

Hall voltage and the corresponding ideal van der Pauw V,,

(21) at each pair of grid points along the square wmple edge

for tan 0 = 0~05.0~1, 0.5 and I .O.Dotted line. current lo\\

contribution due to shunting effect of the Hall electrode\.

For any line across the sample the current was Dashed line, total contribution due to the presence of

calculated to be constant to within 0.1 per cent. The finite size electrodes.

integral on the extreme right hand side of equation

is the potential difference between U and W. The In addition, this is shown to be the sum of two

term VImII= ( Vrm- Vu,) is. in fact, the Hall voltage components as described by equation (1 I). The

one would measure with two infiitesimal probes dotted lines indicate the current loss terms (I,) [,)I

between the points U and W. Equation (21) can be I,, and the dashed lines indicate the bulk errorb due to

rearranged as current re-distribution caused by the presence of

Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method 1225

electrodes of finite size. Note that E;I approaches van der Pauw condition to the corresponding

unity when the line U - W approaches the current voltage measured with finite contacts. Such results

contact because the current contact shorts out the are plotted in Fig. 10(a) as a function of contact size

Hall field. Figure 9 shows a similar plot when tan for different values of tan 0. The range of tan 0 was

0 = 0.2 for three different contact sizes extending 2, chosen from 0.1 to 0.5 because in normal semicon-

4, and 6 grid sections. Clearly, both the current loss ductor materials evaluation, magnetic fields within

and the re-distribution terms decrease when the this range will usually yield reasonable Hall

electrode size is smaller. From this plot one can voltages. The ratios S/l [cf. Fig. 10(a)] actually

also observe within the Hall electrode region, how used for the calculations were l/16, l/8 and 3/16. In

the error distribution due to the current flowing Fig. 10(b), the correction factors are plotted vs tan 0

around the contact edge becomes more significant

as the electrode size increases. From the exact

solutions at different finite Hall angles, we have

also plotted in Fig. 5 the current loss in the Hall

electrodes and compare it with the case of zero Hall

angle in our preliminary estimation. The results

indicate that the zero field estimation is an upper

bound.

Our aim has been to find the Hall voltage

correction factor defined as the ratio at constant

current of the Hall voltage expected from an ideal

TAN8 = 0.2

v,,: q-v,

>T

L

:

To oo-

2 0.' ( 5

2%

(a) lb)

for selected values of tan 0 in van der Pauw-Hall

measurements on a square sample with four identical

finite triangular contacts. (b) Hall voltage correction

\ f 0.1250 factors vs tan 0 for fixed contact size (S/l = 1116, l/8 and

j/16).

I I IL,, I I, ii I,, LL

5 IO 15 20 25 30

.W - for contact sizes with these three s/l ratios. In

Fig. 9. Percentage error (EL or EH) between the existing actual measurement for a given contact size one

Hall voltage and the corresponding idea1 van der Pauw V, also needs to know the value of tan 0 to find the

at each pair of grid points along the square sample edge at corresponding precise correction factors. Since

tan 0 = 0.2 for three different sizes of contacts. Dotted

line, current loss contribution due to shunting effect of the

Hall electrode. Dashed line, total contribution due to the

presence of finite size electrodes.

12% RONALD CHWANG. B. J. SMITH and C. R. CKOWEI.I

one can first approximate the value of tan 0 by using contacts located at the corners of a square sample

the measured apparent Hall voltage in the above remain a reasonable approximation to infinitesimal

expression. From the correcrion factor correspond- contacts up to a reasonable size depending on the

ing to the approximate tan 0, we can correct the desired accuracy. For example, with 6 as large as

measured apparent Hall voltage and obtain a better l/8 of the sample edge, the correction factors are

estimation of the tan 0 value. This iterative I.0025 for the resistivity measurement and in the

procedure can be continued until a self-consistent neighborhood of I.1 for the Hall measurement.

solution is obtained. Since the correction factor is a Since the Hall mobility is defined as RH/p, the

rather slow function of the Hall tangent as shown in overall correction factor for the Hall mobility i\

Fig. IO(b). the rate of convergence is very fast. less than IO per cent in this case. The correction

Thus a precise value of tan 0 and the true factors for the sheet resistivity measurement

correction factor can be found with one or two presented here were obtained with zero magnetic

iterations. field.

It would be of interest to determine the effect of a

7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS magnetic field on the corrections for finite Gze

Contact size effects in van der Pauw resistivity electrodes in a van der Pauw resistivity measure-

and Hali coefficient measurements have been ment. The exact calculation for this case is more

studied for the case of a square sample. For complex than that for the Hall voltage due to the

resistivity measurements at zero magnetic field the lower degree of symmetry in the configuration for

correction factors for several sizes of square and the resistivity measurement. However. since the

triangular contacts obtained by an electrolytic tank contact shorting effects are far less serious in the

experiment agrees closely with exact calculations resistivity measurement than the Hall meaaure-

based on a resistive network analogue. For Hall ment. we expect that the sensitivity of the

measurements, the error due to finite size contacts resistivity correction factors for finite electrodes

can be interpreted as the sum of two effects, one with respect to the magnetic field will be much les\

due to the shorting effect of the current electrodes than the order of change of magneto-resistance v\

on the Hall field and the other due to current magnetic field. Therefore to a good approximation,

shunting by the Hall electrodes which cause a one should be able to use the zero field correction

current loss around the edge of the contacts. Simple factor in van der Pauw sheet resistivity measure-

electrolytic tank experimental measurements of the ment in the presence of a magnetic field. From a

second effect at zero Hall angle provide an upper materials evaluation point of view, the relaxation of

bound estimation of the magnitude of such error for the van der Pauw requirements without construct-

different electrode shapes. This should be particu- ing a sample of an exotic shape greatly simplifies

larly useful when one is interested in analyzing sample preparation. In addition, a large size contact

contact effects in more complicated sample offers the advantage of less heat dissipation in the

geometries. The total final correction factor is sample for a given Hall voltage. This is important in

about twice the value of the zero Hall angle current a variety of applications, especially in cryogenic

correction when the current and voltage contacts experiments. One can also see that if the contacts

are identical. Exact correction factors for several inject minority carriers, if the diffusion length is

sizes of triangular contacts were computed by smaller than 6 or is known, the range of effects due

over-relaxation calculation through appropriate to fi can be estimated and the results given here will

finite difference equations. These were done in a still be applicable.

range of tan 0 = 0.1-0.5 to cover the normal range Our results for the correction factor are depen-

for application to semiconductor materials evalua- dent on tan 0. This implies a non-linearity in the

tion. Hall voltage vs magnetic field relationship. Similar

A step by step reduction of the grid size and the results have been reported by Wick[2]. This

implementation of an adjustable over-relaxation nonlinear characteristic of a Hall generator has

factor to reduce oscillation are the main features been investigated extensively by Haeusler and

we have used to improve both the accuracy and the Lippmann 181. They found that a double symmetric

speed of our computation. Convergence to the cross system exhibited far better linearity than a

accuracy described in this paper were normally typical version of the classical rectangular

reached within 2 min of CPU time on an IBM geometry. The physical interpretation of the

360/44 computer for a total of 969 final grid points. contact effects on a Hall sample presented in this

Our results indicate that triangular shaped paper shines some light on the superior linearity of

Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method 1227

to minimize the effects of shorting the Hall voltage 1. L. J. van der Pauw, Phil. Res. Rep. 13, 1 (1958).

2. R. F. Wick, J. appf. Phys. 25, 741 (1954).

at the current contacts and also to minimize current

3. H. J. Lippmann and F. Kuhrt, Z. Naturforsch. A 13,

shunting at the Hall electrodes. The square sample 474 (1958).

with triangular contacts investigated here is an 4. H. J. Lippmann and F. Kuhrt, Z. Naturforsch. A 13,

intermediate case between the two geometries 462 (1958).

investigated by Haeusler et al. As a comparison, if 5. J. Haeusler, Solid-St. Electron. 9, 417 (1966).

6. J. Haeusler, Archs. El&. iibertr. 20, 201 (1966).

we take the S/1 ratio defined in our geometry to be 7. J. Haeusler, Archs. Elektrotech, 52, 11 (1968).

the same as the s/a (width of the Hall 8. J. Haeuslerand H. J. Liopmann.

.. Solid-St. Electron. 11.

electrode/sample length) ratio in the rectangular 173 (1968).

geometry, then for the case s/a = 0.0813 and a/b 9. J. P. Newsome, Proc. IEEE 110, 653 (1963).

10. S. Griitzmann, Solid-St. Electron. 9, 409 (1966).

(length/width) = 2.137 investigated by Haeusler et

11. T. Mimizuka, Solid-St. Electron. 14, 107 (1971).

al. our geometry with 6/l = 0.0813 will yield a Hall 12. D. J. White, M. L. Knotek and M. H. Ritchie. .J. appl.

generator in which the deviation from linearity is Phys. 44, 1870 (1973).

reduced by a factor of 3 or 4. The square geometry 13. P. A. Einstein, BT. J. appl. Phys. 2, 49 (1951).

has, however, about twice the nonlinear error of 14. G. Liebmann, BT. J. appl. Phys. 4, 193 (1953).

15. P. Silvester, Modem Electromagnetic Fields, pp. 62 &

the double symmetric cross with breadth 3.19 times

92, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

the arm width. Thus, for many applications, our (1968).

structure should be useful as a linear Hall plate.

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