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WCDMA Power

Control Algorithm
and Parameters
www.huawei.com

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Foreword
Power control types:
Open loop power control

Closed loop power control


Inner loop power control

Outer loop power control

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References
3GPP TS 25.211
Physical Channels and Mapping of Transport Channels onto Physical
Channels (FDD)

3GPP TS 25.214
Physical Layer Procedures (FDD)

3GPP TS 25.331
RRC Protocol Specification

3GPP TS 25.433
UTRAN Iub Interface NodeB Application Part (NBAP) Signaling

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Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Describe the purpose and function of power control

Perform parameters modification of open loop power


control

Perform parameters modification of inner loop power


control

Perform parameters modification of outer loop power


control

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Contents
1. Power Control Overview

2. Open Loop Power Control

3. Closed Loop Power Control

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Purpose of Uplink Power Control

Uplink transmission character Uplink power control function

Self-interference system Ensure uplink quality with minimum


Uplink capacity is limited by transmission power
interference level Decrease interference to other UE,
Near-far effect and increase capacity
Fading Solve the near-far effect
Save UE transmission power

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Purpose of Downlink Power Control

Downlink transmission character Downlink power control function

Interference among different Ensure downlink quality with


subscribers minimum transmission power
Interference from other adjacent Decrease interference to other
cells cells, and increase capacity
Downlink capacity is limited by Save NodeB transmission power
NodeB transmission power
Fading

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Effect of Power Control
20

Channel Fading
15
Transmitting power
Receiving power
10
Relative power (dB)

-5

-10

-15

-20
0 200 400 600 800
Time (ms)

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Power Control Classification

Open Loop Power


Control Closed Loop
Power Control

Uplink/Downlink open Uplink/Downlink inner


loop power control loop power control

Uplink/Downlink outer
loop power control

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Power Control for Physical Channels
Power control methods are adopted for these physical
channels:
" : can be applied; : can not be applied
Open Loop Closed Loop Power Control
Physical
Power Inner Loop Power Outer Loop
Channel
Control Control Power Control
DPDCH
DPCCH
SCH
PCCPCH
SCCPCH
PRACH
AICH
PICH

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Common Physical Channel Power
Parameters
MaxTxPower
Parameter name: Max transmit power of cell [0.1dBm]

Recommended value: 430, namely 43dBm

PCPICHPower
Parameter name: PCPICH transmit power [0.1dBm]

Recommended value: 330, namely 33dBm

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Common Physical Channel Power
Parameters (Cont.)
PSCHPower and SSCHPower
Parameter name: PSCH / SSCH transmit power [0.1dB]

Recommended value: -50, namely -5dB

BCHPower
Parameter name: BCH transmit power [0.1dB]

Recommended value: -20, namely -2dB

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Common Physical Channel Power
Parameters (Cont.)
MaxFachPower
Parameter name: Max transmit power of FACH [0.1dB]

Recommended value: 10, namely 1dB

PCHPower
Parameter name: PCH transmit power [0.1dB]

Recommended value: -20, namely -2dB

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Common Physical Channel Power
Parameters (Cont.)
AICHPowerOffset
Parameter name: AICH power offset

Recommended value: -6, namely -6dB

PICHPowerOffset
Parameter name: PICH power offset

Recommended value: -7, namely -7dB

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Contents
1. Power Control Overview

2. Open Loop Power Control

3. Closed Loop Power Control

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Contents
2. Open Loop Power Control
2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview

2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control

2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

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Open Loop Power Control Overview

Purpose Principle Application

Calculate the initial Estimates the Open loop power


transmission power downlink signal control is applied only
of uplink/downlink power loss on at the beginning of
channels propagation path connection setup to set
Path loss of the the initial power value
uplink channel is
related to the
downlink channel

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17
Contents
2. Open Loop Power Control
2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview

2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control

2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
UE NodeB SRNC

1. CCCH: RRC Connection Request


RRC RRC

Allocate RNTI
Select L1 and L2
Open loop power parameters
2. Radio Link Setup Request
control of PRACH NBAP NBAP

Start RX
description
3. Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP NBAP

4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup

5. Downlink Synchronization
DCH - FP DCH - FP
6. Uplink Synchronization
DCH - FP DCH - FP

Start TX
description

7. CCCH: RRC Connection Setup


RRC RRC
8. Radio Link Restore Indication
NBAP NBAP

9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete


RRC RRC

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Power ramping for preamble retransmission:

Power Ramp Step


Power Offset Pp-m

Pre-
amblen
Pre-
amble3
Preamble_Initial
Pre-
amble2
Message
Pre-
_Power 10ms or20ms
amble1

PRACH
t p-p t p-m
Timing offset AI

AICH
t p-a

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
When UE needs to set up a RRC connection, the initial
power of uplink PRACH preamble can be calculated
according to the following formula:

Preamble_Initial_Power = PCPICHPower - CPICH_RSCP +


UL interference + Constantvalue

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters
Constantvalue
Parameter name: Constant value for calculating initial TX
power

Recommended value: -20, namely -20dB

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
AICHTxTiming
Parameter name: AICH transmission timing

Content:
When AICHTXTIMING = 0,

tp-p,min = 15360 chips, tp-a = 7680 chips, tp-m = 15360 chips


When AICHTXTIMING = 1,

tp-p,min = 20480 chips, tp-a = 12800 chips, tp-m = 20480 chips

Recommended value: 1

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
PowerRampStep
Parameter name: Power increase step

Recommended value: 2, namely 2dB

PreambleRetransMax
Parameter name: Max preamble retransmission

Recommended value: 20

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
Mmax
Parameter name: Max preamble loop

Recommended value: 8

NB01min / NB01max
Parameter name: Random back-off lower / upper limit

Recommended value: 0 for both NB01min / NB01max

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
PowerOffsetPpm
Parameter name: Power offset

Recommended value:

Message Data Part PowerOffsetPpm GainFactorBetaC GainFactorBetaD

Signaling -3 13 15

Service -2 10 15

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
Parameters diagrammatic presentation
Power Ramp Step Message Power Offset

Message
Initial
Power

Preamble Ramping Cycle

Preamble Ramping Procedure

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PRACH Open Loop Power Control
Parameters (Cont.)
The transmit power on the PRACH cannot be greater
than the maximum allowed uplink transmit power:

MaxAllowedUlTxPower
Parameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX power

Recommended value: 24, namely 24dBm

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29
Contents
2. Open Loop Power Control
2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview

2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control

2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

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DL DPCH Open Loop Power Control
UE NodeB SRNC

1. CCCH: RRC Connection Request


RRC RRC

Allocate RNTI
Select L1 and L2
parameters
2. Radio Link Setup Request
NBAP NBAP

Start RX
description
3. Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP NBAP

4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup

DL DPCH open loop DCH - FP


5. Downlink Synchronization
DCH - FP
power control 6. Uplink Synchronization
DCH - FP DCH - FP

Start TX
description

7. CCCH: RRC Connection Setup


RRC RRC
8. Radio Link Restore Indication
NBAP NBAP

9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete


RRC RRC

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DL DPDCH Open Loop Power Control
When a dedicated channel is set up, the initial power of
downlink DPDCH can be calculated according to the
following formula:

R Eb PCPICH
Pinit ( ) DL PTotal
W No ( Ec / No)CPICH

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DL DPCCH Open Loop Power Control

1 timeslot

Downlink
Transmit
Power PO2
PO1
PO3

Data1 TPC TFCI Data2 Pilot

DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH

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Downlink Power Control Restriction
The power of downlink dedicated channel is limited by
an upper and lower limit for each radio link

RlMaxDlPwr/RlMinDlPwr
Parameter name: RL Max/Min DL TX power

Recommended value is shown in the next page

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Downlink Power Restriction Parameters
Recommended configurations for typical services:
RL Min Downlink
RL Max Downlink
Service Transmit Power Downlink SF
Transmit Power (dB)
(dB)
CS Domain
12.2 kbps AMR -3 -18 128
28 kbps -2 -17 64
32 kbps -2 -17 64
56 kbps 0 -15 32
64 kbps 0 -15 32
PS Domain
8 kbps -8 -23 128
32 kbps -4 -19 64
64 kbps -2 -17 32
144 kbps 0 -15 16
256 kbps 2 -13 8
384 kbps 4 -11 8

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Contents
2. Open Loop Power Control
2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview

2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control

2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control

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UL DPCH Open Loop Power Control
UE NodeB SRNC

1. CCCH: RRC Connection Request


RRC RRC

Allocate RNTI
Select L1 and L2
parameters
2. Radio Link Setup Request
NBAP NBAP

Start RX
description
3. Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP NBAP

4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup

5. Downlink Synchronization
DCH - FP DCH - FP
6. Uplink Synchronization
DCH - FP DCH - FP

Start TX
description

7. CCCH: RRC Connection Setup


RRC RRC
UL DPCH open loop NBAP
8. Radio Link Restore Indication
NBAP
power control
9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete
RRC RRC

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UL DPCCH Open Loop Power Control
The initial power of the uplink DPCCH can be calculated
according to the following formula:

DPCCH_Initial_Power = DPCCH_Power_Offset - CPICH_RSCP

Where:

DPCCH_Power_Offset is provided by the RNC to the UE via RRC


signaling

CPICH_RSCP is the received signal code power of the PCPICH

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UL DPCCH Open Loop Power
Control Parameter
DefaultConstantValue
Parameter name: Constant value configured by default

Recommended value: -22, namely -22dB

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Uplink Power Control Restriction
There are four parameters which correspond to the
maximum allowed transmit power of four classes of
services:
MaxUlTxPowerforConv
MaxUlTxPowerforStr
MaxUlTxPowerforInt
MaxUlTxPowerforBac
Parameter name: Max UL TX power of
conversational/streaming/interactive/background service

Recommended value: 24, namely 24dBm

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page40
Contents
1. Power Control Overview

2. Open Loop Power Control

3. Closed Loop Power Control

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Contents
3. Closed Loop Power Control
3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview

3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control

3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control

3.4 Outer Loop Power Control

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Closed Loop Power Control Overview
Why closed loop power control is needed?
Open loop power control is not accurate enough, it can only
estimate the initial transmission power
Closed loop power control can guarantee the QoS with
minimum power. By decreasing the interference, the system
capacity will be increased

Outer Loop Inner Loop


BLERmea>BLERtarSIRtar SIRmea>SIRtar TPC=0
SIRtar TPC
BLERtar BLERmea<BLERtarSIRtar SIRmeaSIRtar TPC=1 TPC=1 Power
TPC=0 Power
Until Until
BLERmea=BLERtar SIRmea=SIRtar

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page43
Contents
3. Closed Loop Power Control
3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview

3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control

3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control

3.4 Outer Loop Power Control

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Uplink Inner Loop Power Control
NodeB compares the measured SIR to the target SIR,
then derives TPC and sends the TPC Decision to UE

TPC Decision
Compare SIRmea with SIRtar ( 0, 1 )
SIRmea SIRtar TPC = 0 Single RL / Soft HO
SIRmea SIRtar TPC = 1 PCA1 / PCA2

Inner Loop Generate TPC_cmd


( -1, 0, 1 )

Set SIRtar Adjust DPCCH Tx


Transmit TPC DPCCH =TPCTPC_cmd
NodeB UE

Adjust DPDCH Tx
( c , d )

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Uplink Inner Loop PCA1 with
Single Radio Link
For single radio link and PCA1, UE derives one TPC_cmd
in each time slot as follows:

TPC 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

TPC_cmd -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1

This control is performed in each time slot, so


the power control frequency is 1500Hz

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Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with
Single Radio Link
For single radio link and PCA2, UE derives one TPC_cmd
in each 5-slot group as follows:
10ms radio frame

TPC Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS10 TS11 TS12 TS13 TS14

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1


0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

TPC_cmd

This control is performed in each 5-slot group,


so the power control frequency is 300Hz

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Uplink Inner Loop Power Control with Soft
Handover
When UE enters soft handover state, on the NodeB side,
there are two phases :
Uplink synchronization phase

Multi-radio link phase

On UE side, UE will receive different TPCs from different


RLS in one time slot. Therefore, the UE should combine
all the TPCs to get a unique TPC_CMD

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Uplink Inner Loop PCA1 with Soft Handover
CELL1 CELL2
For each slot, combine TPC from
the same RLS, then get Wi RL1-1 RL1-2

RLS1

Get TPC_cmd based on RLS2 RLS3


TPC_cmd = (W1, W2, WN)
CELL3 CELL4

RLS1-TPC (W1) 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

RLS2-TPC (W2) 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

RLS3-TPC (W3) 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

TPC_cmd -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1

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Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with Soft Handover

Combine TPC from same RLS


in each time slot
CELL1 CELL2

RL1-1 RL1-2
Calculate TPC_tempi for each RLSi RLS1

Calculate TPC_cmd RLS2 RLS3


If any TPC_tempi = -1, TPC_cmd = -1
N CELL3 CELL4
1
If
N
TPC _ temp
i 1
i 0.5 , TPC_cmd = 1

Otherwise, TPC_cmd = 0

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Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with Soft
Handover (Cont.)
10ms/frame
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
TPC
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS10 TS11 TS12 TS13 TS14

RLS1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

RLS2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1

RLS3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

TPC_tempi
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS10 TS11 TS12 TS13 TS14

RLS1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0

RLS2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0

RLS3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1

TPC_cmd
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS9 TS10 TS11 TS12 TS13 TS14

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0

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Uplink Inner Loop Power Control
Parameters
PwrCtrlAlg
Parameter name: Power control algorithm selection

Recommended value: ALGORITHM1

UlTpcStepSize
Parameter name: UL closed loop power control step size

Recommended value: 1, namely 1dB

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page52
Contents
3. Closed Loop Power Control
3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview

3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control

3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control

3.4 Outer Loop Power Control

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
UE L1 compares the measured SIR to the target SIR, then
derives TPC and sends the TPC Decision to NodeB

Derive TPCest(k)
L3 set SIRtar
(0, 1)
DPC_MODE

Inner Loop
Generate PTPC(k)
L1 compare
SIRmea with
SIRtar
Calculate P(k)
Derive and transmit
NodeB TPC based on UE
DPC_MODE

Adjust DPCH Tx Power

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control Mode
Two DPC_MODE (Downlink Power Control Mode) could
be used:
If DPC_MODE = 0, UE sends a unique TPC in each slot,
UTRAN shall derive TPCest to be 0 or 1, and update the
power every slot

If DPC_MODE = 1, UE repeats the same TPC over 3 slots,


UTRAN shall derive TPCest over three slots to be 0 or 1, and
update the power every three slots

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
Mode Parameters
DpcMode
Parameter name: Downlink power control mode

Recommended value: SINGLE_TPC, namely DPC_MODE = 0

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
(Cont.)
After estimating the TPC, NodeB shall set the new downlink
power P(k) according to the following formula:

P( k ) P( k 1 ) PTPC ( k ) Pbal( k )

Where:
P(k-1) is (k-1):th downlink transmission power

PTPC(k) is the power adjustment due to TPCest(k)

Pbal (k) is correction value according to the downlink power balance


procedure. For a single radio link, Pbal (k) equals 0

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
(Cont.)
PTPC(k) is calculated according to the following:
If the value of Limited Power Increase Used parameter is
Not Used, then:

TPC if TPCest ( k ) 1
PTPC ( k )
TPC if TPCest ( k ) 0

Where:
TPCest (k) is the estimated TPC

TPC is downlink power adjustment step size, its determined by


the parameter FddTpcDlStepSize

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
(Cont.)
If the value of Limited Power Increase Used parameter is
Used, then:

TPC if TPCest ( k ) 1 and sum( k ) TPC Power _ Raise _ Limit



PTPC ( k ) 0 if TPCest ( k ) 1 and sum( k ) TPC Power _ Raise _ Limit
if TPCest ( k ) 0
TPC

Where: k 1
sum( k ) P TPC ( i )
i k DL _ Power _ Average_ Window_ Size

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Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
Parameters
PC_INNER_LOOP_LMTED_PWR_INC_SWITCH
This is one switch in PcSwitch (Power control switch)
parameter

Recommended value: 0, namely OFF

FddTpcDlStepSize
Parameter name: FDD DL power control step size

Recommended value: STEPSIZE_1DB, namely 1dB

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Downlink Power Balance
Purpose
Monitor the
The purpose of this procedure is to Tx power of
NodeBs and
reduce power drift between radio start the DPB
links in macro diversity system process

The start and stop of DPB when the


DPB switch is on
For the UEs in softer handover, the
NodeB
RNC evaluate the power difference NodeB

of the radio links and decide whether


to start or stop DPB
For the UEs in soft handover, DPB is DPB process
always active

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Downlink Power Balance Parameters
PC_DOWNLINK_POWER_BALANCE_SWITCH
This is one switch in PcSwitch (Power control switch)
parameter

Recommended value: 1, namely ON

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Contents
3. Closed Loop Power Control
3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview

3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control

3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control

3.4 Outer Loop Power Control

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Outer Loop Power Control
Why we need outer loop power control?

Different curves
correspond to
different multi-path
environment
BLER

SIR

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Uplink Outer Loop Power Control

Measure BLER of received Measure SIR and


data and compare with the compare with SIRtar
BLERtar
Out loop Inner loop

Set BLERtar
Set SIRtar Transmit TPC
RNC NodeB UE

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Initial SIR Setting
The initial SIR target value (Init_SIR_target) is service-
dependent and is provided by the RNC to the NodeB

For the SRB and TRB, the values of SIR target,


Max_SIR_target, and Min_SIR_target must fulfill the
following requirement: Min_SIR_target SIR target
Max_SIR_target

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Adjusting the SIR Target
SIRtar adjustment formula:

BLERmeas,i ( n 1 ) BLERtar ,i
SIRtar ( n ) MAX SIRtar ( n 1 ) Stepi Factor
BLERtar ,i

Where:
i is the ith transport channel

n is the nth adjustment period

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SIR Target Adjustment Limitation
The parameters Max_SIR_increase_step and
Max_SIR_decrease_step limit the adjustment range of the
SIRtar, and the algorithm is:
If SIRtar 0 and SIRtar Max_SIR_increase_step,
then SIRtar (n+1) = SIRtar (n) + Max_SIR_increase_step
If SIRtar 0 and ABS (SIRtar) Max_SIR_decrease_step,
then SIRtar (n+1) = SIRtar (n) - Max_SIR_decrease_step

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Parameters Example of BLER-based
Uplink Outer Loop Power Control
BLER Init_SIR Max_SIR Min_SIR OLPC SIR_adjust Max_SIR_inc Max_SIR_dec
Service
target _target _target _target period ment_step rease_step rease_step
SRB 3.4K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 40 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB
SRB 13.6K 0.01 4 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.01 dB 0.5 dB 0.2 dB
AMR 12.2K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.005 dB 0.5 dB 0.2 dB
CSD 64K 0.002 4 dB 7 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.002 dB 1 dB 0.1 dB
PS I/B 8K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 40 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB
PS I/B 16K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB
PS I/B 32K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB
PS I/B 64K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB

PS I/B 128K 0.01 2 dB 5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB

PS I/B 144K 0.01 2.5 dB 5.5 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB

PS I/B 256K 0.01 4 dB 7 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB

PS I/B 384K 0.01 6 dB 9 dB 2 dB 20 ms 0.004 dB 0.4 dB 0.2 dB

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Uplink Outer Loop Power Control
Parameters
PC_OLPC_SWITCH
This is one switch in PcSwitch (Power control switch)
parameter

Recommended value: 1, namely ON

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Uplink Outer-Loop Power Control
Based on BER
The OLPC based on the BER is similar to the OLPC based
on the BLER, but the BER is used as the control object.

When the UE is in discontinuous transmission (DTX) mode,


the RNC cannot receive data or update the BLER.
Therefore, the BER is used to solve this problem.

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Downlink Outer Loop Power Control

Measure BLER of
L3 received data and
compare with the
BLERtar

Outer loop
Set
Inner loop SIRtar

L1 Measure SIR and


compare with SIRtar

Transmit TPC
NodeB UE

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