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Types of poem

What is an Acrostic Poem?


An acrostic poem is a type of poetry where the first, last or other letters in a line spell out a
particular word or phrase. The most common and simple form of an acrostic poem is where
the first letters of each line spell out the word or phrase.

Example An acrostic poem using the beginning of lines

A less common and slightly more difficult type of an acrostic poem is where the last letter of
each line spells out the word or phrase.

Example - An acrostic poem using the end of lines

Finally, the more difficult type is where letters in the middle of the acrostic spell out the word
or phrase.

Example - An acrostic poem using the middle of the lines


What is a Ballade?
A ballade is a type of poetry, this type of poetry first became popular in the 14th century.

The Structure of a Ballade

A Ballade poem should have three stanzas and an envoy/ envoi.

The rhyming pattern for the stanzas is ababbcbC.

The rhyming pattern for the envoy is bcbC.

The capital letter in the rhyming patterns shows where the refrain should be.

Example of a Ballade
What is a Cinquain?
A cinquain poem is a verse of five lines that do not rhyme. The cinquain poem was created
by Adelaide Crapsey.

What is the structure of a cinquain?

A cinquain consists of five unrhymed lines.

Each line has a set number of syllables see below:

Line 1: 2 syllables
Line 2: 4 syllables
Line 3: 6 syllables
Line 4: 8 syllables
Line 5: 2 syllables

An example of a Cinquain Poem

My mum (2 syllables)
Is so caring (4 syllables)
She is always helpful (6 syllables)
She is so beautiful and kind (8 syllables)
Love you. (2 syllables)

What is an Echo Verse Poem?


An Echo Verse is when the last word or syllable in a line is repeated or echoed underneath to
form a rhyming line, normally ending as the last line being the title to the poem.

An Example of an Echo Verse

What is this that falls from the sky?


Echo - I
Do you live above the thunder?
Echo - Under
Are you cold white snow?
Echo - No
You dont fall quietly from the cloud
Echo - Loud
You hit the ground with a spatter
Echo - Patter
You journey from the sky to the drain
Echo - Rain

What is an Epigram Poem?


An Epigram is a short satirical and witty poem usually written as a couplet or quatrain but
can also just be a one lined phrase. It is a brief and forceful remark with a funny ending. The
term epigram derives from the Greek word epi-gramma meaning inscription or to inscribe.

An example of an Epigram Poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Sir, I admit your general rule,


That every poet is a fool,
But you yourself may serve to show it,
That every fool is not a poet.

An example of an Epigram by Oscar Wilde

"I can resist everything except temptation"

What is a Haiku Poem?


A Haiku is a Japanese poem which can also be known as a Hokku. A Haiku poem is similar
to a Tanka but has fewer lines. A Haiku is a type of poetry that can be written on many
themes, from love to nature.

What is the Structure of a Haiku Poem?

A Haiku consists of 3 lines and 17 syllables.

Each line has a set number of syllables see below:

Line 1 5 syllables
Line 2 7 syllables
Line 3 5 syllables

An Example of a Haiku Poem

(5) The sky is so blue.


(7) The sun is so warm up high.
(5) I love the summer.

Haiku poems don't need to rhyme, but for more of a challenge some poets try to rhyme lines
1 and 3.

Examples of Rhyming Haiku Poems

Toast
(5) I really like toast.
(7) It is yummy when it's hot.
(5) I like it best cold.
Beans
(5) Beans are kind to hearts.
(7) I like to eat them daily.
(5) And then do big farts!

What is an Irregular Ode Poem?


An Irregular Ode is a poem with meter and rhyme just like all other odes but has no set
pattern. Each line rhymes somewhere throughout.

An example of an Irregular Ode poem

Ode To Spring

(a) Oh ! Glorious Spring, how amazing you are


(b) You are both Truth's beauty and light
(a) You travel far
(b) Yet always remain bright
(c) Baby lambs greet you with a bleat
(d) Birds fly stretching their wings
(c) Lovers on a seat
(d) We are truly thankful for what you bring
(e) Spring never leave
(f) Oh but can I compare
(g) How I feel when you're near?
(g) Spreading your joy to those so dear
(h) Spring we celebrate your birth
(h) And we mourn each year you leave this Earth
Oh Spring!

What is a Kyirelle Poem?


A Kyrielle poem is structured so that all the lines have eight syllables and each stanza of
four lines ends in a refrain. It takes on a rhythmical form very much like a rhyming couplet.

What is the structure of a Kyirelle Poem?

A Kyrielle poem is made up of 4 lined stanzas of eight syllables each. The capital being the
refrain:

aabB
ccbB
ddbB
eebB

An example of a Kyrielle Poem


Pollution
Pollution rising in the sky, a8
People wear masks as they walk by, a8
It's about time to turn the bend, b8
For all this pollution to end.. B8

Animals are losing their homes, c8


To make way for buildings with domes, c8
What message do we have to send, b8
For all this pollution to end. B8

We're all guilty we must confess, d8


Guilty of making such a mess, d8
It's time for action, find a friend, b8
For all this pollution to end. B8

If we don't act the world won't last, e8


Breathing fresh air will have long passed, e8
This is the message that I send, b8
For all this pollution to end. B8

What is a Lyric?
A Lyric is a poem that expresses personal and emotional feelings.

An example of a Lyric poem

It was in June you passed me by


It was in June you caught my eye
Soon we were meeting both day and night
The days suddenly seemed filled with light
It was all so sudden, a short tryst I thought
But your heart and soul it seemed I had caught

No, there are no regrets since you walked my way


No, there are no regrets since we met that day

Those cheesy walks along the beach still fill my mind


Those cheesy lines you always managed to find
Only you could get away with such things
But happiness and joy you seemed to bring
A holiday in the sun went by in a dream
Moving in seemed the logical thing

No, there are no regrets since you walked my way


No, there are no regrets since we met that day

Who would have known what lay behind the door


Who would have thought we would soon be no more
When you departed you left a hole too big to fill
Even after these many years I miss you still
Although I have moved on, I still feel you near
Sending me your best, and filling me with cheer

No, there are no regrets since you walked my way


No, there are no regrets since we met that day

What is an Ottava Rima Poem?


An Ottava Rima is an Italian poem made up of eight lines that rhyme. Each line consists of
eleven syllables.

The structure of an Ottava Rima Poem

An Ottava Rima poem is made up of an octave with the rhyme pattern

ab
ab
ab
cc

An example of an Ottava Rima Poem

Quickly did the tiger begin his fast run


Over hilly ground you see him fly and leap
The passive prey laying grazing in the sun
Suddenly its life that it wanted to keep
Tiger pounces, quickly getting the job done
The prey collapsing in a really big heap
Tiger sleeps as night takes over from the day
Will we ever see the hunter become prey?

What is a Pindaric Ode Poem?


A Pindaric Ode is a poem with set meter and rhyme just like all other odes. It is defined by
three triads: the strophe and the antistrophe being of the same stanza form and an epode as
the final which is different. This form of Ode was named after the writer Pindar.

An example of a Pindaric Ode Poem

Based on an extract from 'The Progress of Poesy' by Thomas Gray

(a) Wake up, you little sleep head, awake


(a) And give great joy to life that's found in dreams
(b) From Nature's most sweet sounding streams

(a) A thousand turns their twisty journeys take


(a) The dancing flowers, that above them blow
(c) Breathe life and music as they flow

(d) Now the vast waves of sound drift along


(d) Deep, beautiful, vast and strong
(e) Through the fields and vales and valleys they glide
(e) And rolling down the mountain side
(f) Daring and carefree the water pours
(f) From the highest edge they jump and falling, they roar.

What is a Riddle?
A Riddle is a type of poem that describes something without actually naming what it is,
leaving the reader to guess. A Riddle is a light hearted type of poetry which involves the
reader.

Riddles can be about anything, from Riddles about animals to Riddles about objects. There
are no rules on how to structure a Riddle poem, a Riddle can be funny or it can rhyme, it
depends on the person writing the Riddle.

Example of a Riddle

Example of a Rhyming Riddle


What is a Shape Poem?
A Shape Poem is a type of poetry that describes an object and is shaped the same as the
object the poem is describing.

You could write your shape poem on anything.

What Shapes Could You Make Your Poetry?

You could have a circle-shaped poem describing a cookie, or a poem about love shaped like a
heart.

An Example of a Shape Poem

What is a Tanka Poem?


A tanka poem is a Japanese poem which can also be known as a waka or uta. A tanka poem is
similar to a haiku but has two additional lines.

What is the Structure of a Tanka Poem?

A tanka consists of 5 lines and 31 syllables.

Each line has a set number of syllables see below:

Line 1 5 syllables
Line 2 7 syllables
Line 3 5 syllables
Line 4 7 syllables
Line 5 7 syllables
An Example of a Tanka Poem<

(5) I love my kitten.


(7) She is so little and cute.
(5) She has a pink tongue,
(7) And lots of long whiskers too.
(7) She purrs when I stroke her back.

What is a Tetractys?
The poetic form of the tetractys is a poem with only five lines. Each line adds another
syllable until the last line which has ten.

What is the Stucture of a Tetractys?

A tetractys consists of 5 lines, each line has a set number of syllables see below:

Line 1 1 syllable
Line 2 2 syllables
Line 3 3 syllables
Line 4 4 syllables
Line 5 10 syllables

An Example of a Tetractys Poem

(1 syllable) I
(2 syllables) Am four
(3 syllables) And I go
(4 syllables) To big school where
(10 syllables) I learn to read and write and spell my name.

Double Tetractys Poem

For a more complex form there is the double tetractys, which is similar but has ten lines and
is structured as shown below:

Line 1 1 syllable
Line 2 2 syllables
Line 3 3 syllables
Line 4 4 syllables
Line 5 10 syllables
Line 6 10 syllables
Line 7 4 syllables
Line 8 3 syllables
Line 9 2 syllables
Line 10 1 syllable

An Example of a Double Tetractys Poem


(1 syllable) I
(2 syllables) Am four
(3 syllables) And I go
(4 syllables) To big school where
(10 syllables) I learn to read and write and spell my name. (10 syllables) It is fun and I play
games with my friends (4 syllables) My best friend is (3 syllables) Called Rosie (2 syllables)
She is (1 syllable) Nice.

What is a Tyburn?
A Tybur Poem is a six line poetic form where the first four lines consist of just a single two
syllabled word each that all rhyme. The last two lines are nine syllables where the fifth to
eighth syllables are the words from the first four lines.

Example of a Tyburn Poem

Crashing
Clashing
Splashing
Thrashing
Crashing, clashing sea
Swims a little splashing, thrashing me.

What is a Ballad?
A Ballad is a poem that tells a story, which are often used in songs because of their rhyme. A
ballad is a poetic story, often a love story.

Example of a Ballad Poem

As I was walking down the street


I saw two people in secret meet
The second one said to the first
'You have some news to quench my thirst?'

'In behind the old, damp shed


There lies a noble man slain, dead
And no one knows he lies in strife
Except his dog and lonely wife

With master gone where no one knocks


His dog has left to chase a fox
His wife has found somebody new
His house is left for all to view

Though it's been empty for a while


We'll be warm and dry in half a mile
For now we can take comfort there
We'll flee the place when it grows bare

Many people knew the noble man


But none do care where he has gone
Over his grave, all do ignore
The wind shall blow forever more.'

What is a Blank Verse Poem?


A blank verse is a poem with no rhyme but does have iambic pentameter. This means it
consists of lines of five feet, each foot being iambic, meaning two syllables long, one stressed
followed by an unstressed.

The Structure of a Blank Verse Poem

Five feet of iambic syllables -

Sounding du DUM du DUM du DUM du DUM du DUM

Each foot making the verse sound like it has heart beat rhythm.

Each line has a set number of syllables see below:

An Example of a Blank Verse Poem

Furball Friend

Sweet pet by day, hunter by night. She sleeps,


she eats, she plays. My feet, caught in white paws.
Shes up the fence, watching her prey - a bird.
Poor thing, better run quick, cause watch, shell pounce!
Shell sweetly beg for fuss, but dont be fooled.
Cause one minute shell purr and smile, then snap!
Shell spit and hiss - and oh - surprise! A mouse.
Hes dead. A gift. Retracts her claws. Miaow!
Figure of eight between my legs, looks up
at me and purrs. The sound pulls my heartstrings.
Her big blue eyes like dinner plates - so cute.
Cunning she is, she knows I cant resist.
Curling up tight, we sleep entwined as one.
Despite her quirks, I would not change a claw
of her. Cheeky Sammy: my snow-white queen.

What is a Diamante Poem?


When a diamante poem is written it takes on the shape of a diamond.

The Structure of a Diamante Poem

A diamante poem is made up of 7 lines using a set structure:

Line 1: Beginning subject


Line 2: Two describing words about line 1
Line 3: Three doing words about line 1
Line 4: A short phrase about line 1, a short phrase about line 7
Line 5: Three doing words about line 7
Line 6: Two describing words about line 7
Line 7: End subject

An example of a diamante poem

Bike
Shiny, quiet,
Pedaling, spinning, weaving
Whizzing round corners, zooming along roads
Racing, roaring, speeding
Fast, loud,
Car

What is an Epic Poem?


An Epic is a serious poem that tells a story; this is at length a narrative piece with heroic
events and deeds

There is no structure to the poem other than it tells a story.

An Example of an Epic Poem

The man awoke upon the morn


To the sunlight streaming down
Down upon the bed through the window pane
The curtains that swathed it having been
Left wide open to the elements
The night before in his haste
To retreat to the land of Nod
He squinted and raised a hand
To shield his vision from the glare
That had so recently disturbed him
From his sojourn in dreamland.
He lay upon the bed awhile
Basking in the morning light
Thinking upon the day before him
He could delay it no longer
The day must be commenced
Despite his reticence and the comfort
To be found amongst the bed sheets.
But then the swirling dust motes caught his eye
As they danced and twirled before him
In the shafts of sunlight streaming down
That had so recently disturbed him
As they performed their ballet
To music beyond his hearing
He admired the twirling journey
Of their dance upon the air
And pondered awhile upon their beauty
And perhaps if it could be used
To aid the work that faced him.
With this reminder he shifted
He really must desist this lazing
Around in bed for half the morn
He had work to be commenced.
He raised his arms above his head
And with a crack stretched out long
Dispelling the vestiges of sleep
From their places in his weary limbs
But as he stretched his gaze lifted
To the roof above him
And upon that roof he happened to spy
A shaft of the mornings light
That had so recently disturbed him
It sliced the roof in half up high
Two halves of shadow ripped asunder
By this line of blazing glory light
Right above his head.
The sight above him brought to mind
Great canyons in the desert
Or rivers cleaving land in two
Or perhaps, a glimpse between two curtains
As the light spilled from within
Offering the unseen observer
A glimpse into a world
Thought private by its occupants
Yes, he thought, that was good
Hed have to note that down
And remember to use it later
Once his work had been commenced.
He sat up and winced once more
At the light that invaded his room
And wished that he had had the foresight
Last night to draw his own curtains across
And then perhaps he would have been saved
From the insistent morning glow
That had so recently disturbed him.
He swung his legs from under the covers
And stretched once more up high
Still he did not feel ready to face
What lay before him, though he must
His toes lighted upon the wooden beams
Of the floor of his bedroom
And he shuddered, for though the light
Was fierce and bright and white
None of its warmth had thought to reach
The floor upon which he trod
At times such as this (so every morn)
He wished he were the type of chap
To own a pair of slippers to put upon his feet
And protect them from the frost of the floor
It was a while before he found himself
Descending the stairs to the rooms below
For though his work must be commenced
He was not eager to make a start
He prepared himself some food
Because he cant work on an empty stomach
He prepared himself a drink
Because the mind needs liquid to function
It was a hot drink, so took longer
Because he couldnt think if he was cold
He returned upstairs for a jumper
Because the hot drink might not be enough
To keep him warm enough
He opened all his letters
And answered every one
Because he would not allow his work
To get in the way of his manners
He washed and dried his dishes
Because the imagination would not be freed
If the shackles of chores lay upon him
And then there was nothing left to do
But work
And so he sat down at his desk
He adjusted his chair just so
He took a fresh sheet of paper
And smoothed it out before him
He took a pencil from the pot
And looking at it, frowned
Then retrieved a sharpener
And would not settle until
It was the perfect sharpness
With no risk of the lead snapping
And interrupting his flow
Such a happening had the potential
To ruin a whole days work
And close off his mind to his task
Until the next morn when he would
Be awoken by the sun once more.
He was ready to begin
The paper was blank and crease free
The pencil was ready to scratch
Its lead across the white surface
Leaving behind its trail
There was nothing left to do
Within the house, it had all been done
There was nothing to distract him
From the hours that lay ahead
And those hours did pass
Slowly, sleepily, sloth-like
They ambled on by
Dragging him through the day
One painful minute by minute
Yet still the paper remained
Blank and crease free
Yet still the pencil remained
Sharp and ready to scratch
Its lead across the white surface
Leaving behind the trail
He racked his brain but nothing
He half remembered fleeting thoughts
From when he had first awoken
From when the sun blazed so fiercely down
Upon his sleeping form
And disturbed him from his slumber
Something about the ceiling
And curtains, yes definitely curtains
He was sure the words had flowed
Easily into his mind
Cascading waterfalls of words
But the symphony that had
Accompanied them when they first
Had emerged fully formed inside his head
Now sounded hollow and dull
And merely a racket, no melody at all
He picked up the pencil
But still did not write
He looked down at the lead
And wood creation in his hand
And threw his pencil to the fire
As if it had been its fault
For failing him
He looked at the paper upon his desk
Its blankness accusing him
Mocking him
He scrunched it up into a ball
And threw it after the pencil
He took a fresh sheet of paper
And smoothed it out before him
He took a pencil from the pot
And looking at it, frowned
Then retrieved a sharpener
And would not settle until
It was the perfect sharpness
With no risk of the lead snapping
And interrupting his flow
(If he ever found his flow)
He closed his eyes in concentration
He meditated for relaxation
He thrashed
He wailed
He begged the powers that be
But all to no avail
The words just would not come
And then, in exhaustion, in submission
He finally admitted defeat
After hours in his seat with nothing achieved
And days and weeks of the same
He set down the pencil
That was the perfect sharpness
Upon the paper
That was smooth and blank
And tried to write no more
I am a lie, a deceit, a fraud
He said to the empty air
For how can I call myself a poet
When not a single word I write

What is a Free Verse Poem?


A Free Verse is poetry written with rhymed or unrhymed verse that has no set meter to it.

An example of a Free Verse poem

In Flight

Wake up to a bright sapphire morning


Cloudless skies
This can only mean one thing
Its a go!

At the launch site


Teeth chit-chattering
And not just from the c-cold

What if a bird confuses my head for a perch?


Will my glasses be fogged up by the clouds?
If I fall out of the basket
And land in a field of cows

Up we go!
Far below
Idyllic fields of patchwork green
Glittering lakes - a treasure trove beneath the surface
Click!

I cant believe Im so high


Feeling like a queen
I stretch my arms out to the sides
Now Im a bird
So high
I close my eyes and take flight
I feel the wind in my wings
Up with the clouds
My hair, now feathers, sweeps behind me
I am as elegant as a swan
Soaring higher than the Earth

Oh
Im not a bird
Im not as elegant as a swan
Im about as elegant as a rhino on roller skates
Im just a schoolgirl
On a balloon flight

And we just crash-landed


In a field
With cows.

What is a Horatian Ode Poem?


A Horatian Ode is a poem with meter and rhyme. It is devoted to praising a person, animal
or object.

The structure of a Horatian Ode Poem

Abab cdecde

An example of a Horatian Ode Poem

Start Of The School Week


(a) Trudging to school on a cold, dreary morning,
(b) It's only Monday, this week is going to be long,
(a) So tired, I'm still yawning,
(b) This feeling hardly makes me break into song,
(c) A week of learning stretches out ahead,
(d) The teacher's at the front, the first lesson's art,
(e) We make it to lunch and I still feel sad,
(c) Really would love to go back to bed,
(d) But Friday rolls around and it's time to depart,
(e) It's then I realise, school isn't that bad.

What is a Kennings Poem?


A Kenning is a two word phrase describing an object often using a metaphor. A Kennings
poem is a riddle made up of several lines of kennings to describe something or someone.

What is the structure of a Kennings poem?

A Kennings poem consists of several stanzas of two describing words. It can be made up of
any number of Kennings.

An example of a Kennings Poem

My Sister

Dummy-sucker
Teddy-thrower
Anything-chewer

Kiss-giver
Slave-employer
Dolly-hugger
Calm-destroyer

Milk-drinker
Nappy-leaker
Peace-breaker
Scream-shrieker

Unlike any other


My sister

What is a Limerick?
A limerick is often a funny poem with a strong beat. Limericks are very light hearted poems
and can sometimes be utter nonsense. They are great for kids to both read and write as they
are short and funny.
The Structure of a Limerick Poem

A Limerick consists of five lines.

The first line of a limerick poem usually begins with 'There was a....' and ends with a name,
person or place.

The last line of a limerick is normally a little farfetched or unusual.

A limerick should have a rhyme scheme of aabba:

This means lines 1,2 and 5 rhyme and lines 3 and 4 rhyme.

Also, lines 1,2 and 5 should have 7 10 syllables and lines 3 and 4 should have 5 7
syllables.

An example of a Limerick Poem by famous poet Edward Lear

'There was an old man with a beard


Who said, 'It is just as I feared,
Two owls and a hen
A lark and a wren
Have all built their nests in my beard!'

What is a Ode?
An Ode is a lyric poem, usually addressing a particular person or thing. It originated in
Ancient Greece.

What is the structure of an Ode?

Odes use similes, metaphors and sometimes a technique called hyperbole.

Example of a Ode

Ode to an Olive

Oh Olive,
You are as precious to me as any gem,
With your beautiful, pure skin as smooth as silk
And as green as the grass in summertime.
I love your taste and the smell of your tender fruit
Which hides beneath your green armour.
Olive, sweet, tasty Olive,
How I love you so and my mealtimes wouldn't be the same
If you weren't in my life.
Oh Olive,
Nothing can compare to you, nothing at all,
You are food of the gods, a king's riches
And, most importantly, you are mine, oh Olive!

What is a Pantoum?
A Pantoum is a type of poem with a verse form consisting of three stanzas. It has a set pattern
within the poem of repetitive lines.

The pattern in each stanza is where the second and fourth line of each verse is repeated as the
first and third of the next. The pattern changes though for the last stanza to the first and third
line are the second and fourth of the stanza above (penultimate). The last line is a repeat of
the first starting line of the poem and the third line of the first is the second of the last.
Confused? Look below at our example.

An example of a Pantoum Poem

Riverside

(1) As I walk by the riverside


(2) Ripples disturb the water
(3) Fish dart upstream
(4) Fighting against the flow

(2) Ripples disturb the water


(5) Struggling to their destination
(4) Fighting against the flow
(6) In their underwater world

(5) Struggling to their destination


(3) Fish dart upstream
(6) Through the fields and vales and valleys they glide
(1) As I walk by the riverside

What is a Renga Poem?


Renga, means 'linked poem'. Poets worked in pairs or small groups, taking turns composing
the alternating three-line and two-line stanzas.

What is the structure of a Renga Poem?

To create a Renga, one poet writes the first stanza, which is three lines long with a total of
seventeen syllables the same structure as a haiku. The next poet adds the second stanza, a
couplet with seven syllables per line. The third stanza repeats the structure of the first
(another haiku) and the fourth repeats the second, alternating in this pattern until the poem is
completed.
Example of a Renga Poem

The final leaf falls (5)


The tree branches are so bare (7)
Autumn has arrived (5)

Remember Summer's warm kiss (7)


So gentle, it will be missed. (7)

What is a Rondeau Poem?


A Rondeau is a short poem consisting of fifteen lines that have two rhymes throughout. The
first few words or phrase from the first line are repeated twice in the poem as a refrain.

Example of a Rondeau Poem

The capital A is the refrain and sentence it is taken from

(a) In Summertime we do not go


(a) To school for weeks and weeks, no no!
(b) We take a day trip to the beach
(b) And buy ourselves an ice cream each
(a) We run into the surf that's low
(a) Get seaweed wrapped around our toes
(a) While others sunbathe on a throw
(b) We build sandcastles tides can't reach
(A) In Summertime.
(a) As the light warm breeze begins to blow
(a) And our hunger begins to grow
(b) From the picnic I grab a peach
(b) 'Let's stay longer' I do beseech
(a) As the sun sets the sky does glow
(A) In Summertime.

What is a Shakespearean Sonnet?


A Shakespearean Sonnet is a poem expressive of thought, emotion or idea. It is usually 14
lines which are formed by three quatrains with a rhyming couplet for the last two lines.

A Shakespearean Sonnet Poem

Sonnet 130

(a) My Mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;


(b) Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
(a) If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
(b) If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
(c) I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
(d) But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
(c) And in some perfumes is there more delight
(d) There in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

(e) I love to hear her speak; yet well I know


(f) That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
(e) I grant I never saw a goddess go;
(f) My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground

(g) Any yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare


(g) As any she belied with false compare.

What is a Sonnet Poem?


A Sonnet is a poem of an expressive thought or idea made up of 14 lines, each being 10
syllables long. Its rhymes are arranged according to one of the schemes Italian, where eight
lines called an octave consisting of two quatrains which normally open the poem as the
question are followed by six lines called a sestet that are the answer, or the more common
English which is three quatrains followed by a rhyming couplet.

The Structure of a Sonnet Poem

ab ab, cdcd, efef, gg - English


abba abba cdecde - Italian

An example of a Sonnet Poem

(a) Scribbler! oh what a joy you can find here


(b) Eric is the one that heads the great team
(a) Full of poems, stories and happy cheer
(b) Hopefully it will make our readers gleam
(c) Bronte's Grammar is full of homework help
(d) Guest authors revealing secrets galore
(c) While the tricky puzzles will make you yelp
(d) There is no way Scribbler! will make you snore
(e) Eric will start a tale needing an end
(f) Fancy a challenge? Puzzle Time is here
(e) Shakespeare picks the great pictures you all send
(f) Ev'ry issue's jam-packed, let's give a cheer
(g) How 'bout finding Eric hidden away
(g) Jump on the Scribbler! wagon, come and play!

What is a Terza Rima Poem?


A terza rima is an Italian form of poetry first used by Dante Alighieri.
A terza rima consists of stanzas of three lines (or tercets) usually in iambic pentameter. It
follows an interlocking rhyming scheme, or chain rhyme. This is where the middle of each
stanza rhymes with the first and last line of the following stanza. There is no set length to this
form, as long as it follows the pattern as follows:

ABA
BCB
CDC
DED

With the last stanza as a couplet rhyming with the middle line of the previous stanza. In this
case, EE.

An example of a Terza Rima Poem

Spring

(A) New life begins to spring to life in spring


(B) Green shoots appear in the April showers
(A) Birds migrate back home and rest tired wings

(B) Summer brings green fields full of bright flowers


(C) Paddling pools and ice creams all around
(B) The sun shines fiercely with all its powers

(C) Autumn sends leaves tumbling to the ground


(D) The sun sinks lower leaving longer nights
(C) Conkers and acorns waiting to be found

(D) Winter is a time for Halloween frights


(E) Snow on the ground and Jack Frost's ache
(D) Celebrations filled with festive delights

(E) As winter ends the new year starts to make


(E) New life begins to spring to life and awake.

What is a Triolet Poem?


A Triolet is a poem of fixed rhythmical form, with repeated lines. It is made up of eight lines
with a set rhyming scheme.

The Structure of a Triolet Poem

A Triolet consists of eight lines, the rhyming scheme is:

AB, aA, abAB

An example of a Triolet Poem


(A) Lots of colours all around, oranges, reds and some brown
(B) Collecting conkers that fall from the tree
(a) Harvest Festival is coming to town
(A) Lots of colours all around, oranges, reds and some brown
(a) Just cos summer's gone; no need to frown
(b) Halloween costumes in the shops for all to see
(A) Lots of colours all around, oranges, reds and some brown
(B) Collecting conkers that fall from the tree.
Types of Poems
By Gary R. Hess. Category: Poetry

This article contains the many different poem types. These include all known (at least to my
research) forms that poems may take.

If you wish to read more about poetry, these articles might interest you: poetry technique and
poetry definition.

ABC
A poem that has five lines and creates a mood, picture, or feeling. Lines 1 through 4
are made up of words, phrases or clauses while the first word of each line is in
alphabetical order. Line 5 is one sentence long and begins with any letter.
Acrostic
Poetry that certain letters, usually the first in each line form a word or message when
read in a sequence. Example: Edgar Allan Poe's "A Valentine".
Ballad
A poem that tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend which often has a repeated
refrain. Read more about ballads.
Ballade
Poetry which has three stanzas of seven, eight or ten lines and a shorter final stanza of
four or five. All stanzas end with the same one line refrain.
Blank verse
A poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameter and is often unobtrusive. The iambic
pentameter form often resembles the rhythms of speech. Example: Alfred Tennyson's
"Ulysses".
Bio
A poem written about one self's life, personality traits, and ambitions. Example: Jean
Ingelow's "One Morning, Oh! So Early".
Burlesque
Poetry that treats a serious subject as humor. Example: E. E. Cummings "O Distinct".
Canzone
Medieval Italian lyric style poetry with five or six stanzas and a shorter ending stanza.
Carpe diem
Latin expression that means 'seize the day.' Carpe diem poems have a theme of living
for today.
Cinquain
Poetry with five lines. Line 1 has one word (the title). Line 2 has two words that
describe the title. Line 3 has three words that tell the action. Line 4 has four words
that express the feeling, and line 5 has one word which recalls the title. Read more
about cinquain poetry.
Classicism
Poetry which holds the principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek
and Roman art, architecture, and literature.
Concrete
Also known as "size poetry". Concrete poetry uses typographical arrangements to
display an element of the poem. This can either be through re-arrangement of letters
of a word or by arranging the words as a shape. Read more about concrete poetry.
Couplet
This type of poem is two lines which may be rhymed or unrhymed. Example: Walt
Whitman's "To You".
Dramatic monologue
A type of poem which is spoken to a listener. The speaker addresses a specific topic
while the listener unwittingly reveals details about him/herself.
Elegy
A sad and thoughtful poem about the death of an individual. Example: Gary R. Hess's
"1983".
Epic
An extensive, serious poem that tells the story about a heroic figure.
Epigram
A very short, ironic and witty poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain. The
term is derived from the Greek epigramma meaning inscription.
Epitaph
A commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument written to praise the
deceased. Example: Ben Jonson's "On My First Sonne".
Epithalamium (Epithalamion)
A poem written in honor of the bride and groom.
Free verse (vers libre)
Poetry written in either rhyme or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical
pattern. Read more: What is Free Verse Poetry?
Found
Poetry created by taking words, phrases, and passages from other sources and re-
framing them by adding spaces, lines, or by altering the text with additions or
subtractions.
Ghazal
A short lyrical poem that arose in Urdu. It is between 5 and 15 couplets long. Each
couplet contains its own poetic thought but is linked in rhyme that is established in the
first couplet and continued in the second line of each pair. The lines of each couplet
are equal in length. Themes are usually connected to love and romance. The closing
signature often includes the poet's name or allusion to it.
Haiku
A Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five morae,
usually containing a season word. Read more about haiku poetry.
Horatian ode
Short lyric poem written in two or four-line stanzas, each with its the same metrical
pattern, often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love and the practice of
poetry. It is named after its creator, Horace.
Iambic pentameter
One short syllable followed by one long one five sets in a row. Example: la-LAH la-
LAH la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH. Used extensively in sonnets.
Idyll (Idyl)
Poetry that either depicts a peaceful, idealized country scene or a long poem telling a
story about heroes of a bye gone age.
Irregular (Pseudo-Pindaric or Cowleyan) ode
Neither the three part form of the pindaric ode nor the two or four-line stanza of the
Horatian ode. It is characterized by irregularity of verse and structure and lack of
correspondence between the parts.
Italian sonnet
A sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba followed by six
lines with a rhyme pattern of cdecde or cdcdcd. Read more about Italian sonnets.
Lay
A long narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels.
Limerick
A short sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines. Lines 1,
2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables, rhyme and have the same verbal rhythm. The 3rd
and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme and have the same rhythm.
List
A poem that is made up of a list of items or events. It can be any length and rhymed
or unrhymed.
Lyric
A poem that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. Many songs are written
using this type of writing. Read more about lyric poetry.
Memoriam stanza
A quatrain in iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of abba -- named after the
pattern used by Lord Tennyson.
Name
Poetry that tells about the word. It uses the letters of the word for the first letter of
each line.
Narrative
A poem that tells a story. Read more about narrative poetry.
Ode
A lengthy lyric poem typically of a serious or meditative nature and having an
elevated style and formal stanza structure. Example: Sappho's "Ode to a Loved One".
Pastoral
A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, romanticized way.
Petrarchan
A 14-line sonnet consisting of an octave rhyming abbaabba followed by a sestet of
cddcee or cdecde
Pindaric ode
A ceremonious poem consisting of a strophe (two or more lines repeated as a unit)
followed by a an antistrophe with the same metrical pattern and concluding with a
summary line (an epode) in a different meter. Named after Pindar, a Greek
professional lyrist of the 5th century B.C.
Quatrain
A stanza or poem consisting of four lines. Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme while having a
similar number of syllables.
Rhyme
A rhyming poem has the repetition of the same or similar sounds of two or more
words, often at the end of the line. Read more about rhyme usage.
Rhyme royal
A type of poetry consisting of stanzas having seven lines in iambic pentameter.
Romanticism
A poem about nature and love while having emphasis on the personal experience.
Rondeau
A lyrical poem of French origin having 10 or 13 lines with two rhymes and with the
opening phrase repeated twice as the refrain.
Senryu
A short Japanese style poem, similar to haiku in structure that treats human beings
rather than nature: Often in a humorous or satiric way.
Sestina
A poem consisting of six six-line stanzas and a three-line envoy. The end words of the
first stanza are repeated in varied order as end words in the other stanzas and also
recur in the envoy.
Shakespearean
A 14-line sonnet consisting of three quatrains of abab cdcd efef followed by a couplet,
gg. Shakespearean sonnets generally use iambic pentameter. Example: Shakespeare's
"Sonnet 2".
Shape
Poetry written in the shape or form of an object. This is a type of concrete poetry.
Sonnet
A lyric poem that consists of 14 lines which usually have one or more conventional
rhyme schemes. Read more about sonnets.
Sound
Intended primarily for performance, sound poetry is sometimes referred to as "verse
without words". This form is seen as the bridging between literary and musical
composition in which the phonetics of human speech are used to create a poem.
Tanka
A Japanese poem of five lines, the first and third composed of five syllables and the
other seven.
Terza Rima
A type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line tercets.
Verse
A single metrical line of poetry.
Villanelle
A 19-line poem consisting of five tercets and a final quatrain on two rhymes. The first
and third lines of the first tercet repeat alternately as a refrain closing the succeeding
stanzas and joined as the final couplet of the quatrain.
Visual
The visual arrangement of text, images, and symbols to help convey the meaning of
the work. Visual poetry is sometimes referred to as a type of concrete poetry.

Read more about 55 Types of Poetry Forms by www.poemofquotes.com

http://www.poemofquotes.com/articles/poetry_forms.php
Types of Poetry
When studying poetry, it is useful first of all to consider the theme and the overall
development of the theme in the poem. Obviously, the sort of development that
takes place depends to a considerable extent on the type of poem one is dealing with.
It is useful to keep two general distinctions in mind (for more detailed definitions
consult Abrams 1999 and Preminger et al 1993): lyric poetry and narrative poetry.

Lyric Poetry

A lyric poem is a comparatively short, non-narrative poem in which a single


speaker presents a state of mind or an emotional state. Lyric poetry retains some of
the elements of song which is said to be its origin: For Greek writers the lyric was a
song accompanied by the lyre.

Subcategories of the lyric are, for example elegy, ode, sonnet and dramatic
monologue and most occasional poetry:

In modern usage, elegy is a formal lament for the death of a particular person (for
example Tennysons In Memoriam A.H.H.). More broadly defined, the term elegy is
also used for solemn meditations, often on questions of death, such as Gray's Elegy
Written in a Country Churchyard.

An ode is a long lyric poem with a serious subject written in an elevated style.
Famous examples are Wordsworths Hymn to Duty or Keats Ode to a Grecian Urn.

The sonnet was originally a love poem which dealt with the lovers sufferings and
hopes. It originated in Italy and became popular in England in the Renaissance,
when Thomas Wyatt and the Earl of Surrey translated and imitated the sonnets
written by Petrarch (Petrarchan sonnet). From the seventeenth century onwards
the sonnet was also used for other topics than love, for instance for religious
experience (by Donne and Milton), reflections on art (by Keats or Shelley) or even
the war experience (by Brooke or Owen). The sonnet uses a single stanza of (usually)
fourteen lines and an intricate rhyme pattern (see stanza forms). Many poets wrote a
series of sonnets linked by the same theme, so-called sonnet cycles (for instance
Petrarch, Spenser, Shakespeare, Drayton, Barret-Browning, Meredith) which depict
the various stages of a love relationship.

In a dramatic monologue a speaker, who is explicitly someone other than the


author, makes a speech to a silent auditor in a specific situation and at a critical
moment. Without intending to do so, the speaker reveals aspects of his temperament
and character. In Browning's My Last Duchess for instance, the Duke shows the
picture of his last wife to the emissary from his prospective new wife and reveals his
excessive pride in his position and his jealous temperament.

Occasional poetry is written for a specific occasion: a wedding (then it is called an


epithalamion, for instance Spensers Epithalamion), the return of a king from exile
(for instance Drydens Annus Mirabilis) or a death (for example Miltons Lycidas),
etc.
Narrative Poetry

Narrative poetry gives a verbal representation, in verse, of a sequence of


connected events, it propels characters through a plot. It is always told by a narrator.
Narrative poems might tell of a love story (like Tennyson's Maud), the story of a
father and son (like Wordsworth's Michael) or the deeds of a hero or heroine (like
Walter Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel).

Sub-categories of narrative poetry:

Epics usually operate on a large scale, both in length and topic, such as the founding
of a nation (Virgils Aeneid) or the beginning of world history (Milton's Paradise
Lost), they tend to use an elevated style of language and supernatural beings take
part in the action.

The mock-epic makes use of epic conventions, like the elevated style and the
assumption that the topic is of great importance, to deal with completely
insignificant occurrences. A famous example is Pope's The Rape of the Lock, which
tells the story of a young beauty whose suitor secretly cuts off a lock of her hair.

A ballad is a song, originally transmitted orally, which tells a story. It is an


important form of folk poetry which was adapted for literary uses from the sixteenth
century onwards. The ballad stanza is usually a four-line stanza, alternating
tetrameter and trimeter.

Descriptive and Didactic Poetry

Both lyric and narrative poetry can contain lengthy and detailed descriptions
(descriptive poetry) or scenes in direct speech (dramatic poetry).

The purpose of a didactic poem is primarily to teach something. This can take the
form of very specific instructions, such as how to catch a fish, as in James Thomsons
The Seasons (Spring 379-442) or how to write good poetry as in Alexander Popes
Essay on Criticism. But it can also be meant as instructive in a general way. Until the
twentieth century all literature was expected to have a didactic purpose in a general
sense, that is, to impart moral, theoretical or even practical knowledge; Horace
famously demanded that poetry should combine prodesse (learning) and
delectare (pleasure). The twentieth century was more reluctant to proclaim
literature openly as a teaching tool.

http://www2.anglistik.uni-freiburg.de/intranet/englishbasics/PoetryTypes01.htm