Electronic Fuel Injection Overview

How Electronic Fuel Injection

Electronic Fuel injection works on the some The Electronic Fuel Injection system can be
very basic principles. The following divided into three: basic sub-systems. These
discussion broadly outlines how a basic or are the fuel delivery system, air induction
Convention Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system, and the electronic control system.
system operates.

Page 1 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.

• Fuel is delivered from the tank to the injector by means of an electric fuel pump. fuel filter. . Inc.. U. Any fuel which is not delivered to the intake manifold by the injector is returned to the tank through a fuel return pipe. fuel pressure regulator. fuel injector.A. All Rights Reserved. and fuel return pipe. Page 2 © Toyota Motor Sales. • Fuel is maintained at a constant pressure by means of a fuel pressure regulator. fuel pump. Contaminants are filtered out by a high capacity in line fuel filter. The pump is typically located in or near the fuel tank. EFI #1 . fuel delivery pipe (fuel rail).SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Fuel Delivery System • The fuel delivery system consists of the fuel tank.S.

Inc..A. the engine cylinders. throttle valve. Page 3 © Toyota Motor Sales. The L type meter (on L type systems). The D type EFI manifold runner to the intake valve. past the throttle EFI system measures air flow directly by valve. EFI #1 . air flow meter. • When the throttle valve is opened. U. intake manifold runner. All Rights Reserved. through the air flow to measure intake air volume. more air is allowed to enter and intake valve. air driver demand. system measures air flow indirectly by monitoring the pressure in the intake manifold. and through a well tuned intake using an air flow meter. air flows • Toyota engines use two different methods through the air cleaner. As the throttle valve is intake chamber. .S.SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Air Induction System • The air induction system consists of the air • Air delivered to the engine is a function of cleaner. opened further.

fuel injector assemblies. Inc. • The ECU turns the injectors on for a precise amount of time. EFI #1 . Page 4 © Toyota Motor Sales.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Electronic Control System • The electronic control system consists of various engine sensors.S. to deliver the proper air/fuel ratio to the engine. • The ECU determines precisely how much fuel needs to be delivered by the injector by monitoring the engine sensors.A. U. Electronic Control Unit (ECU). All Rights Reserved.. . and related wiring. referred to as injection pulse width or injection duration.

quantity based upon measured intake air volume and engine rpm.A. throttle angle. the intake valve.S.. • The ECU pulses the injector by switching • The ECU determines the basic injection the injector ground circuit on and off. . EFI #1 . induction system where it is measured by it mixes with the incoming air and vaporizes the air flow meter. it opens. All Rights Reserved. The injectors are electrical solenoids which are • The precise amount of fuel delivered to the operated by the ECU. fuel is mixed into the air by the fuel manifold. U. engine speed. engine is a function of ECU control. deliver just enough fuel to achieve an ideal air/fuel ratio of 14. Inc. The ECU signals the injector to injector.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Basic System Operation • Air enters the engine through the air • As fuel is sprayed into the intake airstream. • When the injector is turned on. The ECU monitors variables such as coolant temperature. often referred to as • Fuel injectors are arranged in the intake stoichiometry.7:1. and exhaust oxygen content and makes injection corrections which determine final injection quantity. spraying atomized fuel at the back side of • Depending on engine operating conditions. injection quantity will vary. As the air flows into the due to the low pressures in the intake cylinder. manifold behind each intake valve. Page 5 © Toyota Motor Sales.

improves ability to start and run a cold engine. . Page 6 © Toyota Motor Sales. Superior Throttle Response and Power By delivering fuel directly at the back of the Simpler Mechanics. U.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Advantages of EFI Uniform Air/Fuel Mixture Distribution Excellent Fuel Economy With Each cylinder has its own injector which Improved Emissions Control delivers fuel directly to the intake valve. fuel economy. This provides The combination of better fuel atomization better driveability. Inc. All Rights Reserved. EFI #1 . and and injection directly at the intake valve emissions control. the intake manifold design can Reduced Adjustment Sensitivity be optimized to improve air velocity at the The EFI system does not rely on any major intake valve. This Cold engine and wide open throttle eliminates the need for fuel to travel through enrichment can be reduced with an EFI the intake manifold. metering. Throughout All Engine Operating Conditions EFI supplies a continuously accurate air/fuel Improved Cold Engine ratio to the engine no matter what operating Startability and Operation conditions are encountered.. manifold is not a problem. This improves torque and adjustments for cold enrichment or fuel throttle response.S. This results in better overall fuel economy and improved Highly Accurate Air/Fuel Ratio Control emissions control. improving cylinder to engine because fuel puddling in the intake cylinder distribution. intake valve.A. Because the system is mechanically simple. maintenance requirements are reduced.

. EFI #1 .SYSTEM OVERVIEW Page 7 © Toyota Motor Sales. Inc.S. U. All Rights Reserved.A..

Other Engine Related Systems Idle Speed Control (ISC) In addition to the major systems just The EFI/TCCS system regulates engine idle described.SYSTEM OVERVIEW EFI/TCCS System With the introduction of the Toyota Computer TCCS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) also Control System (TCCS). other engine related systems. U. Although the fuel Vacuum Switching Valve and. Inc. Additionally. the TCCS ECU often operates an speed by means of several different types of Electronically Controlled Transmission ECU controlled devices.S. . calculating the engine. an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) management system.. plug at the appropriate time.A. Page 8 © Toyota Motor Sales. This control is accomplished through optimum spark timing. depending on delivery system operates the same as application. The ECU monitors (ECT). All Rights Reserved. engine operating conditions to determine the air conditioner compressor clutch. and which idle speed strategy to use. Conventional EFI. from a simple fuel control system to a fully TCCS also regulates an Idle Speed Control integrated engine and emissions device. EFI #1 . the turbocharger/supercharger. and firing the spark the use of an EGR Vacuum Switching Valve. the Ignition Spark Management (ESA) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) The EFI/'TCCS system regulates spark The EFI/TCCS system regulates the periods advance angle by monitoring engine under which EGR can be introduced to the operating conditions. the EFI system went controls ignition spark angle. a Variable Induction System (T-VIS).

. 'Me The Electronic Fuel Injection system introduction of EFI/TCCS added control Of consists of three basic subsystems.A. All TCCS systems are equipped with an advanced self diagnosis • The fuel delivery system maintains a system capable of monitoring many constant fuel pressure on the injector. A Conventional EFI engine equipped manifold as air moves through the intake with self diagnostics is a P7/EFI system. . diagnosis system. Page 9 © Toyota Motor Sales. and specific faults are detected in the engine improved emissions control. and other related engine systems. Inc. This important engine electrical circuits. Reprinted with permission from Toyota Motor Sale..S. conditions. better fuel economy. Electronic Spark Advance. The and into some Conventional EFI system air/fuel mixture is formed in the intake ECUs. EGR.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Self Diagnosis System A self diagnosis system is incorporated into • The air induction system delivers air to the all TCCS Electronic Control Units (ECUs) engine based on driver demand. Only allows the ECU to control the fuel injection some of the later production duration and deliver the appropriate Conventional(P7) EFI engines are amount of fuel for engine operating equipped with a self diagnosis system. U. U. Inc. from #850 EFI Course Book. Although control system. the EFI system is also capable of flashing a series of mechanically simpler than other fuel diagnosis codes to assist the technician in metering systems and requires very little troubleshooting these faults. This diagnostic system uses a check engine warning lamp in the combination meter The EFI system allows for improved engine which is capable of warning the driver when performance. runners. EFI #1 .S. All Rights Reserved. maintenance or periodic adjustment. • The electronic control system determines basic injection quantity based upon • Most of Toyota's late model EFI systems electrical signals from the air flow meter are equipped with some type of on board and engine rpm. Summary • The Conventional EFI system only controls fuel delivery and injection quantity. idle speed. The check engine light is technologically advanced.A.

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