Electronic Fuel Injection Overview

How Electronic Fuel Injection

Electronic Fuel injection works on the some The Electronic Fuel Injection system can be
very basic principles. The following divided into three: basic sub-systems. These
discussion broadly outlines how a basic or are the fuel delivery system, air induction
Convention Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system, and the electronic control system.
system operates.

Page 1 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.

S. • Fuel is maintained at a constant pressure by means of a fuel pressure regulator. fuel pump.. fuel injector. All Rights Reserved.A. fuel pressure regulator. • Fuel is delivered from the tank to the injector by means of an electric fuel pump.SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Fuel Delivery System • The fuel delivery system consists of the fuel tank. and fuel return pipe. Any fuel which is not delivered to the intake manifold by the injector is returned to the tank through a fuel return pipe. Contaminants are filtered out by a high capacity in line fuel filter. EFI #1 . . Inc. Page 2 © Toyota Motor Sales. fuel delivery pipe (fuel rail). fuel filter. U. The pump is typically located in or near the fuel tank.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Air Induction System • The air induction system consists of the air • Air delivered to the engine is a function of cleaner. The D type EFI manifold runner to the intake valve. system measures air flow indirectly by monitoring the pressure in the intake manifold. U. air flows • Toyota engines use two different methods through the air cleaner. air flow meter. air driver demand. Page 3 © Toyota Motor Sales. • When the throttle valve is opened. the engine cylinders.. past the throttle EFI system measures air flow directly by valve. As the throttle valve is intake chamber. intake manifold runner. Inc. throttle valve. EFI #1 . The L type meter (on L type systems). more air is allowed to enter and intake valve. and through a well tuned intake using an air flow meter.A. .S. through the air flow to measure intake air volume. All Rights Reserved. opened further.

• The ECU turns the injectors on for a precise amount of time. EFI #1 . U.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Electronic Control System • The electronic control system consists of various engine sensors.S. All Rights Reserved. referred to as injection pulse width or injection duration.. • The ECU determines precisely how much fuel needs to be delivered by the injector by monitoring the engine sensors. Electronic Control Unit (ECU).A. . Page 4 © Toyota Motor Sales. to deliver the proper air/fuel ratio to the engine. and related wiring. Inc. fuel injector assemblies.

7:1. The ECU signals the injector to injector. throttle angle. induction system where it is measured by it mixes with the incoming air and vaporizes the air flow meter. • When the injector is turned on. injection quantity will vary. The ECU monitors variables such as coolant temperature. the intake valve.. EFI #1 . Inc. and exhaust oxygen content and makes injection corrections which determine final injection quantity. engine speed. fuel is mixed into the air by the fuel manifold. All Rights Reserved. deliver just enough fuel to achieve an ideal air/fuel ratio of 14. often referred to as • Fuel injectors are arranged in the intake stoichiometry.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Basic System Operation • Air enters the engine through the air • As fuel is sprayed into the intake airstream. quantity based upon measured intake air volume and engine rpm.A. engine is a function of ECU control. • The ECU pulses the injector by switching • The ECU determines the basic injection the injector ground circuit on and off. The injectors are electrical solenoids which are • The precise amount of fuel delivered to the operated by the ECU. spraying atomized fuel at the back side of • Depending on engine operating conditions. U. Page 5 © Toyota Motor Sales. it opens. manifold behind each intake valve.S. As the air flows into the due to the low pressures in the intake cylinder. .

This improves torque and adjustments for cold enrichment or fuel throttle response. Because the system is mechanically simple. U. manifold is not a problem. the intake manifold design can Reduced Adjustment Sensitivity be optimized to improve air velocity at the The EFI system does not rely on any major intake valve. . intake valve. All Rights Reserved. and and injection directly at the intake valve emissions control. metering. Throughout All Engine Operating Conditions EFI supplies a continuously accurate air/fuel Improved Cold Engine ratio to the engine no matter what operating Startability and Operation conditions are encountered. maintenance requirements are reduced. EFI #1 . Inc. Superior Throttle Response and Power By delivering fuel directly at the back of the Simpler Mechanics. improving cylinder to engine because fuel puddling in the intake cylinder distribution. This Cold engine and wide open throttle eliminates the need for fuel to travel through enrichment can be reduced with an EFI the intake manifold. fuel economy. This results in better overall fuel economy and improved Highly Accurate Air/Fuel Ratio Control emissions control. Page 6 © Toyota Motor Sales.. This provides The combination of better fuel atomization better driveability. improves ability to start and run a cold engine.A.S.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Advantages of EFI Uniform Air/Fuel Mixture Distribution Excellent Fuel Economy With Each cylinder has its own injector which Improved Emissions Control delivers fuel directly to the intake valve.

U. EFI #1 ..SYSTEM OVERVIEW Page 7 © Toyota Motor Sales. .A.S. All Rights Reserved. Inc.

Inc. a Variable Induction System (T-VIS). This control is accomplished through optimum spark timing. U. Although the fuel Vacuum Switching Valve and. the turbocharger/supercharger. engine operating conditions to determine the air conditioner compressor clutch..S. plug at the appropriate time. the TCCS ECU often operates an speed by means of several different types of Electronically Controlled Transmission ECU controlled devices. The ECU monitors (ECT). calculating the engine. from a simple fuel control system to a fully TCCS also regulates an Idle Speed Control integrated engine and emissions device. the EFI system went controls ignition spark angle.A. other engine related systems. and which idle speed strategy to use. Conventional EFI. depending on delivery system operates the same as application. and firing the spark the use of an EGR Vacuum Switching Valve. All Rights Reserved. Additionally. an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) management system. . Page 8 © Toyota Motor Sales. the Ignition Spark Management (ESA) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) The EFI/'TCCS system regulates spark The EFI/TCCS system regulates the periods advance angle by monitoring engine under which EGR can be introduced to the operating conditions. Other Engine Related Systems Idle Speed Control (ISC) In addition to the major systems just The EFI/TCCS system regulates engine idle described. EFI #1 .SYSTEM OVERVIEW EFI/TCCS System With the introduction of the Toyota Computer TCCS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) also Control System (TCCS).

diagnosis system. All Rights Reserved. conditions. All TCCS systems are equipped with an advanced self diagnosis • The fuel delivery system maintains a system capable of monitoring many constant fuel pressure on the injector. and specific faults are detected in the engine improved emissions control. and other related engine systems. The and into some Conventional EFI system air/fuel mixture is formed in the intake ECUs. Summary • The Conventional EFI system only controls fuel delivery and injection quantity. Inc. This important engine electrical circuits. Page 9 © Toyota Motor Sales. . 'Me The Electronic Fuel Injection system introduction of EFI/TCCS added control Of consists of three basic subsystems. EFI #1 .. Electronic Spark Advance. U. This diagnostic system uses a check engine warning lamp in the combination meter The EFI system allows for improved engine which is capable of warning the driver when performance. Although control system.. runners.A. maintenance or periodic adjustment. idle speed. • The electronic control system determines basic injection quantity based upon • Most of Toyota's late model EFI systems electrical signals from the air flow meter are equipped with some type of on board and engine rpm. Reprinted with permission from Toyota Motor Sale. the EFI system is also capable of flashing a series of mechanically simpler than other fuel diagnosis codes to assist the technician in metering systems and requires very little troubleshooting these faults.S. Inc. The check engine light is technologically advanced. better fuel economy. U.A. A Conventional EFI engine equipped manifold as air moves through the intake with self diagnostics is a P7/EFI system. from #850 EFI Course Book.S.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Self Diagnosis System A self diagnosis system is incorporated into • The air induction system delivers air to the all TCCS Electronic Control Units (ECUs) engine based on driver demand. Only allows the ECU to control the fuel injection some of the later production duration and deliver the appropriate Conventional(P7) EFI engines are amount of fuel for engine operating equipped with a self diagnosis system. EGR.

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