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Electronic Fuel Injection Overview

How Electronic Fuel Injection

Electronic Fuel injection works on the some The Electronic Fuel Injection system can be
very basic principles. The following divided into three: basic sub-systems. These
discussion broadly outlines how a basic or are the fuel delivery system, air induction
Convention Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system, and the electronic control system.
system operates.

Page 1 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.

. fuel pressure regulator. The pump is typically located in or near the fuel tank. and fuel return pipe. fuel delivery pipe (fuel rail).A. fuel filter. Any fuel which is not delivered to the intake manifold by the injector is returned to the tank through a fuel return pipe. Inc. fuel pump. • Fuel is delivered from the tank to the injector by means of an electric fuel pump. EFI #1 . All Rights Reserved. U.S.SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Fuel Delivery System • The fuel delivery system consists of the fuel tank. Page 2 © Toyota Motor Sales. Contaminants are filtered out by a high capacity in line fuel filter. fuel injector. . • Fuel is maintained at a constant pressure by means of a fuel pressure regulator.

As the throttle valve is intake chamber. past the throttle EFI system measures air flow directly by valve. EFI #1 . opened further. All Rights Reserved. U. air flows • Toyota engines use two different methods through the air cleaner. system measures air flow indirectly by monitoring the pressure in the intake manifold. throttle valve. and through a well tuned intake using an air flow meter. . Inc. air flow meter. intake manifold runner.SYSTEM OVERVIEW The Air Induction System • The air induction system consists of the air • Air delivered to the engine is a function of cleaner. through the air flow to measure intake air volume. • When the throttle valve is opened. The L type meter (on L type systems).. The D type EFI manifold runner to the intake valve. more air is allowed to enter and intake valve. the engine cylinders. air driver demand.A. Page 3 © Toyota Motor Sales.S.

All Rights Reserved.A. EFI #1 . fuel injector assemblies.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Electronic Control System • The electronic control system consists of various engine sensors. to deliver the proper air/fuel ratio to the engine. • The ECU turns the injectors on for a precise amount of time. referred to as injection pulse width or injection duration. Inc. Page 4 © Toyota Motor Sales. • The ECU determines precisely how much fuel needs to be delivered by the injector by monitoring the engine sensors.. U. and related wiring.S. . Electronic Control Unit (ECU).

The injectors are electrical solenoids which are • The precise amount of fuel delivered to the operated by the ECU. As the air flows into the due to the low pressures in the intake cylinder. injection quantity will vary. • When the injector is turned on. spraying atomized fuel at the back side of • Depending on engine operating conditions. engine is a function of ECU control.A. U. EFI #1 . Inc. quantity based upon measured intake air volume and engine rpm. induction system where it is measured by it mixes with the incoming air and vaporizes the air flow meter. it opens. • The ECU pulses the injector by switching • The ECU determines the basic injection the injector ground circuit on and off. the intake valve. engine speed. . All Rights Reserved. Page 5 © Toyota Motor Sales. fuel is mixed into the air by the fuel manifold.S. The ECU monitors variables such as coolant temperature. often referred to as • Fuel injectors are arranged in the intake stoichiometry.7:1.. deliver just enough fuel to achieve an ideal air/fuel ratio of 14.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Basic System Operation • Air enters the engine through the air • As fuel is sprayed into the intake airstream. The ECU signals the injector to injector. throttle angle. and exhaust oxygen content and makes injection corrections which determine final injection quantity. manifold behind each intake valve.

improving cylinder to engine because fuel puddling in the intake cylinder distribution. . This improves torque and adjustments for cold enrichment or fuel throttle response. improves ability to start and run a cold engine. Throughout All Engine Operating Conditions EFI supplies a continuously accurate air/fuel Improved Cold Engine ratio to the engine no matter what operating Startability and Operation conditions are encountered.A. the intake manifold design can Reduced Adjustment Sensitivity be optimized to improve air velocity at the The EFI system does not rely on any major intake valve.. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Superior Throttle Response and Power By delivering fuel directly at the back of the Simpler Mechanics. and and injection directly at the intake valve emissions control. Because the system is mechanically simple. fuel economy. Page 6 © Toyota Motor Sales.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Advantages of EFI Uniform Air/Fuel Mixture Distribution Excellent Fuel Economy With Each cylinder has its own injector which Improved Emissions Control delivers fuel directly to the intake valve. intake valve.S. This provides The combination of better fuel atomization better driveability. EFI #1 . manifold is not a problem. This Cold engine and wide open throttle eliminates the need for fuel to travel through enrichment can be reduced with an EFI the intake manifold. maintenance requirements are reduced. This results in better overall fuel economy and improved Highly Accurate Air/Fuel Ratio Control emissions control. U. metering.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW Page 7 © Toyota Motor Sales. U.A.. . All Rights Reserved.S. Inc. EFI #1 .

A. Other Engine Related Systems Idle Speed Control (ISC) In addition to the major systems just The EFI/TCCS system regulates engine idle described. The ECU monitors (ECT).S. engine operating conditions to determine the air conditioner compressor clutch. . the EFI system went controls ignition spark angle. from a simple fuel control system to a fully TCCS also regulates an Idle Speed Control integrated engine and emissions device. All Rights Reserved. the Ignition Spark Management (ESA) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) The EFI/'TCCS system regulates spark The EFI/TCCS system regulates the periods advance angle by monitoring engine under which EGR can be introduced to the operating conditions. This control is accomplished through optimum spark timing.SYSTEM OVERVIEW EFI/TCCS System With the introduction of the Toyota Computer TCCS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) also Control System (TCCS). EFI #1 . an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) management system. Page 8 © Toyota Motor Sales. Inc. plug at the appropriate time. depending on delivery system operates the same as application. Additionally. Although the fuel Vacuum Switching Valve and. the TCCS ECU often operates an speed by means of several different types of Electronically Controlled Transmission ECU controlled devices. a Variable Induction System (T-VIS). calculating the engine. the turbocharger/supercharger. Conventional EFI. and which idle speed strategy to use.. and firing the spark the use of an EGR Vacuum Switching Valve. other engine related systems. U.

the EFI system is also capable of flashing a series of mechanically simpler than other fuel diagnosis codes to assist the technician in metering systems and requires very little troubleshooting these faults. All Rights Reserved.A.. 'Me The Electronic Fuel Injection system introduction of EFI/TCCS added control Of consists of three basic subsystems. runners. This important engine electrical circuits. conditions. diagnosis system. • The electronic control system determines basic injection quantity based upon • Most of Toyota's late model EFI systems electrical signals from the air flow meter are equipped with some type of on board and engine rpm. Inc. U. Reprinted with permission from Toyota Motor Sale. and other related engine systems. All TCCS systems are equipped with an advanced self diagnosis • The fuel delivery system maintains a system capable of monitoring many constant fuel pressure on the injector. The check engine light is technologically advanced.S. Although control system. maintenance or periodic adjustment. Summary • The Conventional EFI system only controls fuel delivery and injection quantity. better fuel economy. . Page 9 © Toyota Motor Sales. This diagnostic system uses a check engine warning lamp in the combination meter The EFI system allows for improved engine which is capable of warning the driver when performance.A. Electronic Spark Advance. EFI #1 . A Conventional EFI engine equipped manifold as air moves through the intake with self diagnostics is a P7/EFI system. idle speed. The and into some Conventional EFI system air/fuel mixture is formed in the intake ECUs. EGR.S. Inc. Only allows the ECU to control the fuel injection some of the later production duration and deliver the appropriate Conventional(P7) EFI engines are amount of fuel for engine operating equipped with a self diagnosis system. from #850 EFI Course Book. and specific faults are detected in the engine improved emissions control.SYSTEM OVERVIEW Self Diagnosis System A self diagnosis system is incorporated into • The air induction system delivers air to the all TCCS Electronic Control Units (ECUs) engine based on driver demand.. U.