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Radio Resource Management

and QoS Requirements in

Mobile Networks

-Carlton Dsilva
-Akash Patil
-Sahil Khaire
-Elbin X.
-Davis Dsouza

General Formulation of the RRM Problem
Let us assume a cellular network with M mobiles in the service area and denote
with B = {1, 2, ..., B} the set of all BSs used to provide the necessary coverage.
Denote with C the number of available orthogonal channels in the system (i.e.,
the system capacity).

The numbered set of all available channels is C = {1, 2, ..., C}.

The link (power) gain matrix G characterizes the radio conditions in the system:

Signal-to-interference + noise ratio (SNIR)

SNIRj denotes the SNIR at the receiver; Pj is the transmitter

power used by the end user j;
jm is the normalized cross-correlation between the signal of
interest and the interfering signal from the mobile m (other
than j);
N denotes the thermal noise power at the access port; and while
j is the target SNIR of the service that is being used by the
mobile j

Interworking of different wireless access networks and common RRM

QoS Requirements
In order to guarantee a satisfactory end user quality, the transmission of a data
flow, which is originated by the application, has to satisfy certain requirements
that define the QoS profile for the information data stream of interest.

The QoS attributes for aparticular application/service are:

required throughput
maximum acceptable delay
maximum acceptable delay jitter
maximum acceptable bit error rate

QoS : End user point of view
End users only care about the degree of QoS, and not about how it is
Only the QoS perceived by end usermatters.
The number of user defined/user controlled parameters has to be at a
A derivation/definition of QoS attribute from the applicationrequirements
has to be simple.
End-to-end QoS has to beprovided

Need of QoS in mobile networks
Streaming applications are coming into terminals. These willneed
throughput and delay guarantees.

IP multimedia is partly real-time, which needs low delay.

There will be multiple of simultaneous services, with different QoS


All of these should be supported by cost-efficient manner by using network

resources efficiently.

QoS Challenges in mobile network
- The major challenges when considering QoS in cellular networks are
varying rate channel characteristics, bandwidth allocation, fault
tolerance levels and handoff support among heterogeneous wireless

- efficient usage of the spectrum as its availability is limited.

- data services are less delay sensitive but are very sensitive to loss of
data and also they expect error free packets. So both these factors
have to be considered for providing QoS for voice and data services.

Operator needs for QoS
- Return of infra investments
Costly network resources should be usedefficiently.
No over-provisioning.
- Service and user differentiation
E.g. business vs. consumer.
Real-time vs. best-effort.
- To be more than bitpipe provider.
- Ability to offer SLAs forVNOs.
- Service consolidation,
Most of the services are becoming IP-based, but QoS needs will be
- The need comes from real-time applications and the fact that e.g. GPRS is
- There are two types oftechniques:
3GPP QoS, to control mobile specific QoS.
DiffServ, to optimise IP transmission.
- QoS techniques will have connection into applications, but this takes time.
- QoS gives benefits for operators in sense of network optimisation and
enabling new services. For end-users the benefit comes from support of
real-time services over IP access.