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# MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

SEMESTER 2,2017

GROUP MEMBERS:

## SUDIPTA DAS 100065601

TUTORIAL GROUP:

TUESDAY 3:30PM

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

1. INTRODUCTION

In todays time, thick-walled cylinders are being used in many industries such as
steam power plants for fluids transmission and the pressure vessels in a nuclear power
plant. Since these applications are being done under high temperature and pressure by
the fluid work, it can lead to cracking by stress corrosion. It is recommended to apply
the analysis of strain and stresses distribution in thick-walled cylinders from solid
mechanics to minimize such effects.
In this experiment we will measure strain values at different location in a thick-walled
aluminum cylinder. Figures 1 and 2 show the apparatus used in this experiment. The
cross section of the cylinder illustrates the location of pressure sensors in their
respective positions. Our aim is to convert these strains to experimental stresses and
compare these with theoretical stresses.

B Figure 1
E

Parts Name
A Cylinder
B Strain gauge measuring point
C Pressure gauge
D . Hydraulic cylinder with hydraulic pump
E Connection for measurement amplifier FL 151

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

## Measuring Radius in mm Direction

Channel
1 20 Tangential
2 30 Tangential
3 40 Tangential
4 50 Tangential
5 60 Tangential
6 70 Tangential
11 70 Axial

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

2. THEORY
The fluids contained by the pressure vessels are under internal pressure. These vessels
have the analysis of the variation and distribution of stress in a significant weightage
of practical applications. This thick cylinder is subjected to a uniform internal
pressure, the longitudinal stresses are deemed negligible and the only considered
stresses in this analysis are the bi-axial stresses.
Given this, the principal stresses that are effectively acting on this element are
calculated from the principal strains as listed below.

= ( + )

= ( + )

= ( + )

## Given that the elementary Lame equations are:

=
2

= +
2
A and B are both constants which can be calculated using boundary conditions.
At = , = At = , =

- = 2 - = 2

( )2 02 2 02
= =
2 2 2 2

2 2 ( )2 2
= 2 2
2 2 ( 2 )
1 2 2
= [ (1 2 ) 2 (1 2 )]
2 1

2 2 ( )2 2
= + 2 2
2 2 ( 2 )
1 2 2
= 2 1 [ (1 + 2 ) 2 (1 + 2 )]

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

Where
= ()
= ()
= () = /
= ()
Internal pressure only, where = 0
2 2 2
= 2 2 (1 2 ) = 2
(1 2 )
1

2 2 2
= 2 2 (1 + 2 ) = (1 + 2 )
2 1

, =
2 +1
, = 2 1

, = 0
2
, =
2 1

## The principal stresses are as given below

1
= ( )

1
= ( )

= ( + )

Given:
Young modulus for Aluminum, E = 72 GPa
Poisson ratio, v = 0.33
Cylinder diameter = 140mm
Outer radius of the cylinder, = 70mm
Inner radius of the cylinder, = 20mm
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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

3. METHODOLOGY

## 1) The FL151 is started.

2) The strain gauge is tarred within the program.
3) The relief valve is then tightened.

## 6) Steps 1 to 5 are repeated with an increment of 10 bars until 50 bars.

7) The experimental readings are recorded and tabulated to calculate the theoretical
strain values.

8) The radial and hoop strain graphs are plotted against the radial values of the
pressure cylinder.

4. RESULTS
Experimental

(mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50

Strain 1 20 0 0 0 0 0 0

Gauge 2 30 0 11 20 30 41 50

3 40 0 6 11 16 22 28

4 50 0 4 7 11 15 18

5 60 0 3 5 8 11 13

6 70 0 2 4 6 9 11

## 10 60 0 -4 -5 -10 -12 -17

11 70 1 -2 -2 -3 -2 -4

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

Theoretical

(mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50

Strain 1 20 0 0 0 0 0 0

## 10 60 0 -1.45 -2.90 -4.38 -5.79 -7.24

11 70 0 1 0 -1 -3 -2

## 5. EXPERIMENTAL VALUE CALCULATIONS

Experimental Hoop Strain (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

20 0 0 0 0 0 0

30 0 11 20 30 41 50

40 0 6 11 16 22 28

50 0 4 7 11 15 18

60 0 3 5 8 11 13

70 0 2 4 6 9 11

## Experimental Radial Strain (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

## 60 0 -4 -5 -10 -12 -17

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

## Experimental Hoop Stress (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

20 ...

## Experimental Radial Stress (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

## Theoretical Hoop Strain (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

20 0 0 0 0 0 0

## 70 0 2.54 5.08 7.62 10.16 12.70

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

## Theoretical Radial Strain (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

## Theoretical Hoop Stress (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

## Theoretical Radial Stress (x103 mm/m)

Radius 0 10 20 30 40 50
(mm)

## 60 0 -0.03 -0.06 -0.10 -0.13 -0.16

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

## Hoop Strain vs Radius at 10 bar Pressure

12

10
Hoop Strain (mm/m)

6
Experimental
4 Theoretical

0
0 20 40 60 80

## Hoop Strain vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

35

30
Hoop Strain (mm/m

25

20

15 Experimental

10 Theoretcial

0
0 20 40 60 80

## Figure 2: Graph of Hoop Strain vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-2

-4

-6
Experimental
-8 Theoretcial

-10

-12

-14

## Figure 3: Graph of Radial Strain vs Radius at 10 bar Pressure

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-5

-10

-15

-20 Experimental

-25 Theoretcial

-30

-35

-40

## Figure 4: Graph of Radial Strain vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

## Hoop Stress vs Radius at 10 bar Pressure

1.4

1.2
Hoop Stress (MPa)

0.8

0.6 Experimental

0.4 Theoretcial

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80

## Hoop Stress vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

4
3.5
Hoop Stress (MPa)

3
2.5
2
Experimental
1.5
Theoretcial
1
0.5
0
0 20 40 60 80

## Figure 6: Graph of Hoop Stress vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

0.2

0.1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-0.1

-0.2 Experimental

-0.3 Theoretcial

-0.4

-0.5

-0.6

## Figure 7: Graph of Radial Stress vs Radius at 10 bar Pressure

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8 Experimental

-1 Theoretcial

-1.2

-1.4

-1.6

## Figure 8: Graph of Radial Stress vs Radius at 30 bar Pressure

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MEE30004 Solid Mechanics 4309227-100065601-100063155

9. DISCUSSION
Hoop and radial strain at different location along the cylinder with thick walls were
the data collected in this experiment. After calculating the stresses in the cylinder, we
aimed to see the differences between the theoretical and experimental values and put
forward any explanations for the differences between them.
The results were calculated as shown earlier and tabulated. Radial stress acts parallel
to the cylinders perimeter while hoop stress acts tangent to it. Looking at the graphs,
hoop stress decreases from the inner to outer radii as the internal pressure rises. On
the other hand, radial stress increases going outward from the center.
Comparing both the experimental and theoretical values we can see that they are not
far apart and are quite similar. For example, the discrepancy in theoretical and
experimental radial stress at 30bar pressure at a radius of 30mm is 0.2MPa.
The errors could have been due to sources such as:
Temperature fluctuations can cause micro-fluctuations in the sensor readings
by causing thermal expansion and contraction of the cylinder.
Calibration errors caused from continual use of the equipment. As the
equipment is used, wear and tear will have caused the sensors to drift off
center.
The non-homogeneity of the cylinder material. The cylinder is not a perfect
crystal therefore stress concentrations may occur at undesirable locations.

10. CONCLUSION
This experiment would be said to be successful as both the experimental and
theoretical results followed closely. Hoop stress does indeed decrease from the center
of the cylinder and radial stress increases accordingly. Even though, there were some
variations in the answers the experimental results showed a high degree of precision
when compared to theoretical results. This experiment shows that strain is
proportional to stress as radial strain and radial stress are inversely exponentially